Mitigating Risk and Coping with Uncertainty Global Water Crisis by RobbiePaul

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									Mitigating Risk and Coping
with Uncertainty: Global
Water Crisis and Our Future

       Yoshiyuki IMAMURA
  World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)
1. Global Water Crisis
2. World’s Progress? Since 1992
3. World Water Assessment Programme
4. International Hydrological Programme
   (IHP) and Tsukuba Centre
Global Water Crisis
Global Water Crisis
   During the past decade, 665,000 people were
   killed by natural disasters.
   Over 90% lost their lives in floods and
   The scale and number of the water-related
   events (droughts and floods) has more than
   doubled since 1996.
   A World population is not fully aware of the
   scale of the problem.
Global Water Crisis
 Approximately 66 million people suffered
   flood damage from 1973 to 1997.
 Between 1987 and 1997, 44% of all flood
   disasters affected Asia, claiming 228,000 lives
   (roughly 93% of all flood-related deaths
   worldwide). Economic losses for the region
   totalled US$136 million.
 From 1992 to 2001, developing countries
   accounted for 20% of the total number of
   disasters, and over 50% of all disaster
 Approximately 13 times more people die per
   reported disaster in developing countries than
   in developed countries.
Number of Fatalities in 2002 (people)

                                Africa:                661
18%   25%                       America:               825
                                Asia:                8,570
             Earthquake,        Australia/ Oceania:     61
       15%   Volcano Eruption
42%          Windstorm          Europe:                459
             Flood              Worldwide:          10,576
                                     (Source: Munich Re)
 Economic Losses

            2%              Earthquake,
    13%                     Volcano



(Source: Munich Re)
Economic and Insured Losses (US $ m)

             Economic Losses            Insured Losses
  Africa:                  307                    158
  America:              13,933                   6,259
  Asia:                 13,965                     385
  Australia/ Oceania:    2,192                      11
  Europe:               24,246                   5,897
  Worldwide:            54,643                  12,710
                                 (Source: Munich Re)
Type of water-related    Distribution of water-
natural disasters        related natural disasters

                (Source: CRED)
Uneven Distribution: Spatial and Temporal
    Relation between water availability and population

                  (Source: UNESCO)
                  MANMADE FACTORS
                       Water and Cities
Proportion of the population living in urban settlements:
  • World:
  • 38% in 1975
  • 47% in 2000
  • 54% in 2015
  • 60% in 2030 (almost 5 billion people)

(Source: WHO/UNICEF)
SINCE 1992
 ICWE (Dublin)
   Four Dublin Principles
 UNCED (Rio de Janeiro)
   Agenda 21, Chapter 18
   No convention nor binding agreement on
   UN CSD cycle, including floods and droughts, which in some
   regions have become more extreme and dramatic in their

   set up
Agenda 21 Chapter 18
 The freshwater environment is characterized by the hydrological All
   States, including the United Nations, could implement the
   following activities to improve integrated water resources
 Establishment of national databases is vital to water resources
    assessment and to mitigation of the effects of floods,
   droughts, desertification and pollution.
 Broad-based education programmes, with particular
   emphasis on hygiene, local management and risk reduction.
 Increase in incidence of extremes, such as floods and droughts,
    would cause increased frequency and severity of
  UN GA Special Session 19 (Rio
  1st World Water Forum
   “…water will become a major
   limiting factor in socio-economic
 WWC launches a global project
  Vision for Water for the 21st Century
 UN ACC/Sub-Committee on Water
  Proposes the regular production of the World
  Water Development Report (WWDR)
  2nd World Water Forum, The Hague
 1.   Ministerial Declaration of the Hague on Water Security
      in the 21st Century
      The Main Challenges (7 Challenge Areas)
          Managing Risks: to provide security from
         floods, droughts, pollution and other
         water-related hazards
 2. UNESCO launching the UN system-wide World Water
     Assessment Programme (WWAP)
 3. Presentation of the World Water Vision
UNGA : Millenium
Development Goals

 To intesify cooperation to reduce the
  number and effects of natural and
  manmade disasters.
International Conference on
Freshwater (Bonn 2001)
  Ministerial Declaration
    Resources also need to be made available to assist
    developing countries to mitigate the effects of
    natural disasters and to assist in adapting to the
    impacts of climate change
  Bonn Recommendations for Action
    Manage risks to cope with variability and climate
        ・Water management arrangements should take
        account of climate variability and expand the
        capacity to identify trends, manage risks and
        adapt to hazards such as floods and droughts.
        ・Organisations that deal with disaster
        preparedness and management should be
2002 World Summit on Sustainable
Development (WSSD)
   Develop integrated water resources management and water
   efficiency plans by 2005, with support to developing countries,
   through actions at all levels...
      Develop programmes for mitigating the effects of
      extreme water-related events
   An integrated, multi-hazard, inclusive approach to address
   vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management, including
   prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, is an
   essential element of a safer world in the twenty-first century
   Reduce the risks of flooding and drought in vulnerable countries by,
   interalia, promoting wetland and watershed protection and restoration,
   improved land-use planning, improving and applying more widely
   techniques and methodologies for assessing the potential adverse
   effects of climate change on wetlands and, as appropriate, assisting
   countries that are particularly vulnerable to those effects
   All countries, particularly developing countries, including the least
   developed countries and small island developing States, face increased
   risks of negative impacts of climate change
International Year of Fresh
Water (2003)
   The UN Resolution
   - Encourages all Member States, the United
   Nations system and all other actors to take
   advantage of the Year to increase awareness
   of the importance of freshwater and to
   promote action at the local, national, regional
   and international levels
   2003 : 3rd World Water Forum
  Ministerial Declaration
“Disaster Mitigation and Risk Management”
   The growing severity of the impacts floods and
   droughts highlights the need for a comprehensive
   approach that includes strengthened structural
   measures such as reservoirs and dikes and also non-
   structural measures such as land-use regulation and
   guidance, disaster forecasting and warning systems
   and national risk management systems... minimize damage caused by disasters through
   enhancing the sharing and exchange of data,
   information, knowledge and experiences at the
   international level… collaboration between scientists,
   water managers, and relevant stakeholders to reduce
2003 : 3rd World Water Forum
   Forum Commitment:
 Establishment of a UNESCO Centre in
   WWDR released
     Make WWAP a global water monitoring facility
   UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water
   Education opens
     Establish water education programmes at all levels
2003 May
Commission on Sustainable
Development, 11th Session (CSD-11)
 Two-year “Implementation Cycles”
      For the first two-year cycle (2004-2005),
      the CSD will focus on water, sanitation and
      human settlements
 Multi-Year Programme of Work for CSD:
   (2004/2005 - 2016/2017)
     2004/2005 Water
     2006/2007 Climate Change
     2008/2009 Drought
     2012/2015 Disaster Management and
2003 June
Evian G8 Summit
 Water - A G8 Action Plan
 Reinforcing engagement of international organisations.
        We underline the need for the UN to take a key
        role in the water sector. We stress the
        importance of reinforcing co-ordination within
        the UN system.
 Chair’s Summary
   WATER: Following on from the Kyoto World Water
   Forum, we adopted an Action Plan to help meet the
   Millennium and Johannesburg goals of halving
        the number of people without access to clean
   water and sanitation by 2015.
2003 August
Dushanbe International Fresh
Water Forum
 We appeal to the United Nations to
  follow up the findings and
  recommendations of the
  Commission on Sustainable
  Development dealing with water,
  sanitation and human settlements
  by declaring the period of 2005
  through 2015 as the International
  Decade of “Water for Life”.
UN International Decade for Action,
“Water for Life” (2005 – 2015)
    The World Water Development Report 2003, a joint
    project of twenty-three United Nations specialized
    agencies and other entities, and other water-related
    collaborative mechanisms and initiatives
    The Ministerial Declaration entitled “Message from
    the Lake Biwa and Yodo River Basin”
    The Further Implementation of Agenda 21,
    Millennium Declaration and the Johannesburg plan of
    The results of the International Year of Freshwater
    The relevant UN bodies, specialized agencies,
    regional commissions and other organizations of the
    UN system to deliver a coordinated response
                (58th Session of UN General Assembly)
  CSD invitation to the UN system
  to produce a periodic WWDR

  Ministerial Declaration (The
  Hague in March 2000)
Influencing International Agenda
  •The Ministerial Declaration held at the
  International Conference on Freshwater held
  in Bonn in December 2001 stressed

     “… the United Nations to strengthen the co-
 ordination and coherence of activities within the UN
 system on water issues in an inclusive manner.”

 •Bonn Recommendations for Action recognized the
 need for
 “developing internationally-accepted indicators on different
 aspects of water management and urged that WWAP should
 take a lead role in the development of these indicators”.
World Attention
• March 2001, Mr. Kofi Annan
announced that “as a system-
wide programme, the WWAP
brings worldwide attention to
the critical, but often
overlooked, role of water within
human development.”
• March 2002, Mr. Annan assured the world that
“The organizations of the United Nations system
are preparing the first edition of the World Water
Development Report.”
World Attention
Inaugurating WWAP in March 2000, Mr.
Matsuura, the DG of UNESCO ensured
“that through the rapid enactment of
WWAP, not only UNESCO, but also the
UN System as a whole, [will] respond to

Mr. Matsuura reassured the world in
March 2001 “WWAP has been adopted by
the entire UN system …with UNESCO
taking a leading role…”
Mandate of WWAP
By co-ordinating the concerns and activities of 24 UN
agencies to:
  Identify and describe the nature of water crises.
  Assess the coping capacity of societies.
  Assess the effectiveness of policies.
  Develop indicators to monitor and report progress
  against targets.
  Enhance capacities of the participating countries to
  perform in-country assessments.
            World Water Assessment Programme
                                      UN Commission on Sustainable Development

STRATEGIC OVERSIGHT                                         UN-Water                                   TAC

    ADMINSTRATION                            WWAP Secretariat at UNESCO

                                  World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)
                                                                                                                     UN Agencies/
                                                                                      Water For Peace                  Regional
                                                                                       Conflict Resoulution
                                                                                        Water Cooperation
                                                                                      Transboundary Water
                  Indicators and                  WORLD WATER                         Resource Data Sharing          UNESCO-IHE,
                   Information                    DEVELOPMENT                                                            IWE
                     Network                         REPORT                                                         UN Water Centers

              Monitoring Progress                    (Triennial Report)
                                                                                     Capacity Building
             Global Georeferenced                         Assessment
                Metadatabase                                                           Education & Training         NGO and Private
                                                 National/Regional Water                                               Sectors
              Information Systems                 Development Reports                 Monitoring & Database
                   Water Portal                            Indicators
                                                                                    Institutional, Legal & Policy
                  Dissemination                           Case Studies                      Development

                    Data      Information   Information          Advice          Feedback            Knowledge

    FOUNDATIONS                                           National Governments
The Challenge Areas
   Ensuring the Knowledge Base
                                            • Together these offer a
                                              compelling policy
  Sharing Water                               agenda for countries to
Managing Risks                                adopt
  Valuing Water                             • Puts governance in the
                       Water and Industry

            Meeting Basic Needs
            Securing food Supply
            Water for Ecosystems
   Water and Energy         Cities
Unity within the UN System
   Brought UN Agencies together in assessing water
   UN Water has recognized
     WWDR as the flagship product
     WWAP as the flagship programme
   WWDR recognized as the principle output of the
   UN system for the IYF- 2003
   WWDR reaffirmed as a prime product of the UN
   system for International Decade 2005-2015
Working with Countries
In the production of the First Edition of
   Direct Contribution in the form of Case studies
   from 12 countries
   Concrete contribution in the form of written text
   from 47 countries
   Examples from 193 countries of the world.
Over 100 countries have responded to call for
WWDR was covered by 700+ media in 80 countries
of the world
   Case Studies

Pilot Case Studies in the First Edition of WWDR
    Ruhunu Basin, Sri Lanka
    Chao Phrya River Basin (Bangkok), Thailand
    Seine-Normandy River Basin, France
    Tokyo Area, Japan
    Estonia/Russia (International)
    Senegal River (International)
    Lake Titicaca (International)
  Unity through Working with
Call to be inclusive has significantly increased after
the Bonn Conference.
WWAP has been able to muster cooperation of
  Global Water Partnership
  Green Cross International
  Several professional associations including the IAHS and
  the IAH
  World Water Council
Over 120 Universities and research institutions have
contributed to the preparation of the WWDR.
WWAP expects cooperation
 To produce the second edition of WWDR for
 publication in 2006;
   Case Studies
   Contribution in Challenge areas: Managing     Risks
 To convert the first edition of the WWDR to a
 ‘living document’;
   New information
   Review and support in verifying information
 To continue development of ‘Conflict Resolution’
   Coupling with Transboundary initiatives
New Partnership through
International Representation
ICFWR-Bonn, WSSD-J’burg, WWF3-Kyoto,
CSD11-New York, G8-Evian
50 international conferences and meetings
10 on-going international activities and
programmes (in the steering, scientific
  Millennium Development Goal Task Force
  Dialogue on Water and Climate,
  Monitoring Tailor Made
United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO)

   International Hydrological Programme
        Water Interactions :
     Systems at Risk and Social

Plan for the International Hydrological Programme
               of UNESCO - Phase VI
IHP VI (2002-2007)
   Examples of Interactions
     Surface water and groundwater
     Atmospheric and terrestrial part of hydrologic
     Freshwater and salt water
     Global watershed and river reach scales
     Water bodies, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
     Water and society
     Science and policy
     Water and civilization
IHP VI (2002-2007)
 Theme 1 (T1)            Global Changes and Water
 Theme 2 (T2)            Integrated Watershed and
Aquifer Dynamics
 Theme 3 (T3)            Land Habitat Hydrology
 Theme 4 (T4)            Water and Society
 Theme 5 (T5)            Water Education and

Two cross-cutting programme components (CCPCs):
FRIEND (Flow Regimes from International
Experimental and Network Data) and HELP (Hydrology
for the Environment, Life and Policy) have been
identified which, through their operational concept,
interact with all themes.
                 Interlinkages of IHP-VI,
                 HELP and FRIEND

UNESCO Chairs           T5
                                             Institutes /
   in Water            T1                     Centers
                                            UNESCO -IHE
                                             Institute for
                                            Water Education

         JIIHP         ISI            IFP
                         RESOLUTION XV-14
               Joint UNESCO/WMO Programme on Floods

The Intergovernmental Council of the International Hydrological Programme of

Recalling the ever-increasing damages caused by flooding both in terms of
human life loss and economic capacities,

Recognizing the respective roles UNESCO and WMO play in mitigating the
consequences of natural disasters, particularly those of floods,

Emphasizing the importance of close co-operation between the hydrology
programmes of UNESCO and WMO in the spirit of IHP Intergovernmental Council
Resolution XI-4 in order to further minimize overlaps and enhance co-operation
between the two organizations,
                          RESOLUTION XV-14
              Joint UNESCO/WMO Programme on Floods (2)

a) the launching of a Joint UNESCO/WMO Programme on Floods that should be
   implemented in a holistic interdisciplinary fashion, contribute to flood
   damage mitigation by integrating the scientific, operational, formal and
   public educational aspects of flood management, including the social
   response and communication dimensions of flooding and related disaster
b) that an appropriate intergovernmental framework by established to govern
   the joint programme, such as a Joint UNESCO/WMO Committee on Floods;
c) to the relevant governing organs of the two organizations to endorse the
   initiative and to provide additional means to implement such a programme,

a) the IHP National Committees to contribute to the planning and
    implementation of the Joint Programme;
b) also other intergovernmental initiatives such as UN ISDR and non-
    governmental organizations such as IAHS to collaborate with the Joint
 GroundWater in Emergency
 Situations (GWES Project)
Identification and Management of Strategic
  Groundwater Bodies to be used for
  Emergency Situations as a Result of Extreme
  Hydrological Events (or in case of Conflicts)

- Approved on 15th session of the IHP
  Intergovernmental Council

Dr. Jaroslav VRBA, Chairman of IAH
  Commission on Groundwater Protection
Existing Institutes / Centres
  UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education (Delft, The Netherlands)
  RCUWM - Regional Center on Urban Water Management (Tehran,
  I.R. of Iran)
  Regional Center for Training and Water Studies of Arid and Semiarid
  Zones (Cairo, Egypt)
  CATHALAC - Center for the Humid Tropics of LAC (Panama City,
  Humid Tropics Hydrology Center for SE Asia and the Pacific (Kuala
  Lumpur, Malaysia)
  IRTCUD - International Research and Training Center on Urban
  Drainage (Belgrade, Serbia & Montenegro)
  IRTCES - International Research and Training Center on Erosion and
  Sedimentation (Beijing, China)
  IGRAC - International Groundwater Resources Assessment Center
  (Utrecht, The Netherlands)
  ICQHHS - International Center on Qanats and Historic Hydraulic
  Structures (Yazd, I.R. of Iran)
Future Centers in the Pipeline
  Regional Center for the Management of Shared Groundwater
  Resources (Tripoli, Libya)
  Regional Center on Urban Water Management for LAC (Bogota,
  Regional Center for Ecohydrology (Warsaw, Poland)
  Water Center for Arid and Semi-arid Regions of LAC - CAZALAC
  (La Serena, Chile)
  Center on the Global Water Cycle (UNH, New Hampshire, USA)
  Regional Center on Drought for Sub-Saharan Africa (site to be
  International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk
  Management under the auspices of UNESCO (PWRI,
  Tsukuba, Japan)
International Centre for Water
Hazard and Risk Management under
the auspices of UNESCO (UNESCO-
     - in the pipeline towards 2005

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