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					  Health New Zealand Ltd

    tobacco and nicotine researchers
             founded 1995

               Dr Murray Laugesen
             Public health physician
             Health New Zealand Ltd
                  Lyttelton 8082.
Member, Society for Research on Nicotine & Tobacco
           03 3288688, 0274 884 375
    Independent of government and industry.
    What the industry knew (how to reduce cyanide in its products),
     when they knew it (1965) and what they did about it (nothing)

• Charcoal, as in WW2 gas masks, absorbs toxic gases.

• 45 years ago BAT cigarette company scientists reported that
  charcoal can reduce toxic aldehydes and hydrogen cyanide
  emissions in cigarette smoke by 75%-80%.

• Hydogen cyanide is still found in regular quantities in (the smoke
  of) all BAT cigarettes tested. Charcoal is not found in BAT or other
  cigarette filters in NZ, except for Japan Tobacco’s Mild Seven brand.

•    Murray Laugesen, Jefferson Fowles. Scope for regulation of cigarette smoke toxicity: the case for including
     charcoal filters. NZMedJ 2005;118: no.1213.

•    British American Tobacco Company. 54 page document, circa 1965. Guildford miscellaneous collection. Available
     online. URL: Accessed April 2005.

  NZ cigarettes are irredeemably toxic:
                    Health New Zealand Ltd research
2005 NZ Med J Mild Sevens Has carbon filter, but token only.
     Toxic emissions no less.

2005 NZ Med J Same toxicants in much the same rank order are found in the
     smoke of the common cigarette brands we studied in NZ.

2006 Tobacco Control Marlboro UltraSmooth, state of the art
     carbon filter.
     Toxicity no less than Holiday brand after allowing for nicotine.

2008 Commerce Commission. Comparison of light and mild cigarette brands
     with regular brands sold in New Zealand .2008.
     Milds no less dangerous.

2009 BMC Public Health       Clinical testing of RYO smokers.
     RYOs just as toxic as factory made cigarettes.

     Cigarettes highly addictive for
     adolescents, particularly girls
• Diminished autonomy over tobacco can
  appear with the first cigarettes
• Robert Scragg, Robert J. Wellman, Murray
  Laugesen, Joseph R. DiFranza, DiFranza J,
  Scragg R, Laugesen M, Wellman R.
  Addictive Behaviors 2008.

based on ASH NZ surveys of 96,000 year 10

          As lost autonomy (%) increases (striped columns),
           the proportion who report they now never smoke,
                   falls to near zero (black columns)

25% autonomy
lost with first

 Scragg et al. 2008 ASH NZ surveys, 96,000 year 10 students, 2002-4
    Policies are needed to reduce exposure of
     current and future smokers to the highly
    addictive tobacco products currently sold
• The under-18s law does not prevent young
  people taking up smoking. They obtain instead
  from older siblings, friends.* The law is not
  protecting the younger generation.
• Banning sales to adults will protect the young.
• Meantime, nicotine in cigarettes is excessive**
  and needs to be lowered (by nicotine tax, or by
  sinking lid on all brands).
 *Laugesen & Scragg ASH surveys NZMedJ.
**Laugesen, Blakely et al. NZ Public Health Report 1997.

                 Nicotine E-cigarette:
          Classified as a medicine: sale banned.
•   Nicotine inhaled, not smoke.*
•   Preferred to nicotine inhaler**
•   Relieves cravings**
•   Puts nicotine into blood**

• Toxic emissions 100 times
  less than for cigarettes.*

• No deaths reported. Sales
  over 1 million.                                              Photo: NZ Herald

               ** Health NZ and University of Auckland, funded by Ruyan.
               * Health New Zealand and 8 laboratories, funded by Ruyan,
    Nicotine Pyruvate Aerosol vaporiser system
    Delivers nicotine to lung like a cigarette

Tested by Health New Zealand Ltd at Christchurch Clinical Studies Trust
laboratories Tuam St, Christchurch, in 2009, for Duke University, USA 8