WP2 report Ostrava13637

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					    shrink smart

 Goverrnance off Shrriinkage
 Gove nance o Sh nkage
Wiitthiin a Eurropean Conttextt
W h n a Eu opean Con ex




Work package 2


Urban shrinkage in Ostrava, Czech Republic
Research report




D4 Comparable research report




30 March 2010



Petr Rumpel ()
Ondřej Slach
Iva Tichá
Pavel Bednář


The views expressed are the authors’ alone and do not necessarily correspond to
those of other Shrink Smart partners or the European Commission. Comments and
enquiries should be addressed to: RNDr. Petr Rumpel, Department of Human
Geography and Regional Development, Centre for City and Regional Management,
University of Ostrava, 71000 Ostrava – Slezská Ostrava, Chittussiho 10. Tel: +420
731 505 360. E-mail: petr.rumpel@osu.cz
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                5

2. PATTERNS OF URBAN SHRINKAGE                                      8
     2.1. Reasons and premises                                      8
              Introduction                                          8
              Demographics (population development and migration)   17
              Economic development                                  19
              Settlement system                                     24
     2.2 Trajectories of urban shrinkage                            29
              Spatial-temporal patterns                             30
              Dynamics                                              37

3. IMPACTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN SHRINKAGE                      38
     3.1. Patterns of segregation and social cohesion               38
     3.2. Business and employment                                   40
     3.3. Social infrastructure and education                       41
     3.4. Housing                                                   42
     3.5. Technical infrastructure                                  45
     3.6. Land use and environmental quality                        46
     3.7. Municipal finances and budget                             48

4. REFERENCES                                                       51

5. ANNEX: Database                                                  53




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                             SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


List of figures

Figure 1 23 municipalities/city districts of Ostrava ..................................................... 10
Figure 2 Trajectory of GDP 1996-2008 ......................................................................... 16
Figure 3 Ostrava population development 1961 - 2008 .............................................. 17
Figure 4 Ostrava population 1991 – 2008 ................................................................... 17
Figure 5 Ostrava population 65+ ................................................................................. 18
Figure 6 Rates of Population Change – Ostrava and the Czech Republic .................... 18
Figure 7 In- and out-migration in Ostrava 1990-2007 ................................................. 18
Figure 8 Prediction of population trend in Ostrava ..................................................... 19
Figure 9 Economic activity rate .................................................................................... 20
Figure 10 New steel mill / Arcelor Mittal ..................................................................... 21
Figure 11 Unemployment rates 1993 - 2009 ............................................................... 22
Figure 12 Masná street renovated buildings ............................................................... 23
Figure 13 Building on Stodolní street before reconstruction ....................................... 23
Figure 14 Aerial view of Ostrava-South ....................................................................... 25
Figure 15 Prefabs housing estates in Ostrava-South ................................................... 26
Figure 16 Aerial view of Moravian Ostrava ................................................................ 26
Figure 17 Ostrava consists of the following morphogenetic urban
 macrostructures (according to Bednář, P., 2008 and 2010) ....................................... 27
Figure 18 View to Silesian Ostrava............................................................................... 28
Figure 19 New suburb in Krásné Pole .......................................................................... 28
Figure 20 Prefabs housing reconstruction in Bělský les housing estate ...................... 29
Figure 21 Moravian Ostrava mixture of residential and industrial areas .................... 31
Figure 22 Dilapidated building in Hrušov - north eastern part .................................... 33
Figure 23 Hrušov building in process of renovation ..................................................... 34
Figure 24 Vítkovice: privatized and partly reconstructed
 houses in Štítová settlement ....................................................................................... 36
Figure 25 Map of the social differentiation of the Ostrava city ................................... 39
Figure 26 Flats and permanently inhabited flats in total ............................................ 43
Figure 27 Total number of households in Ostrava and MSK........................................ 43
Figure 28 Average household size in Ostrava and MSK ............................................... 44
Figure 29 Lower Vítkovice blast furnaces in the background ...................................... 46
Figure 30 Coke plant Jan Šverma in Přívoz with dump                          47




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                              SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



List of tables

Table 1 Land use of Ostrava (as of December 31, 2007) in
comparison with comparable Czech cities ................................................................... 47
Table 2 Budget of the city of Ostrava (corporate town) .............................................. 48
Table 3 Rating of municipal finances of the city of Ostrava ........................................ 49
Table 4 Population development in city districts ......................................................... 53
Table 5 Population development in Ostrava ................................................................ 53
Table 6 Migration balance in Ostrava ......................................................................... 54
Table 7 Indicators of population change since 1990 ................................................... 54
Table 8 Population ....................................................................................................... 55
Table 9 Prediction of age structure of Ostrava in 2050 ............................................... 55
Table 10 Population rates of change ........................................................................... 56
Table 11 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ...................................................................... 56
Table 12 Total number of households .......................................................................... 56
Table 13 Average household size ................................................................................. 56
Table 14 In and out migration ..................................................................................... 57
Table 15 Age percentage of population ....................................................................... 57
Table 16 Dependency rate ........................................................................................... 58
Table 17 One person households ................................................................................. 58
Table 18 Number of persons employed ....................................................................... 58
Table 19 Unemployment rate ...................................................................................... 59
Table 20 Proportion long term unemployed ................................................................ 60
Table 21 Economic activity rate ................................................................................... 60
Table 22 Vacancy rate .................................................................................................. 60
Table 23 Population density (population per sq. km) .................................................. 61
Table 24 Population density (population per sq. km)                                                                        61




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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



                               1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The city of Ostrava and its urban agglomeration within the Moravian-Silesian Region
grew on the economic base of coal mining, coke production, iron and steel
production and related industries in different political contexts over the period 1828
– 1989. Year 1828 marks the establishment of a first important plant on Ostrava´s
territory - Vitkovice ironworks. Year 1989 signposts the “velvet” democratic
revolution, which enabled launching of the necessary economic and political
transformation process in the Czech Republic, resulting between 1990 and 2009 in
remarkable social, economic, and structural changes which affected the city, the old
industrial region, and the whole Czech Republic.

Ostrava and its metropolitan polycentric region with regional sub centres such as
Karviná, Havířov, Frýdek-Místek, Třinec, Český Těšín, Orlová, Bohumín, has been
traditionally industrial, miners´ city with all the negative characteristics such as
environmental damages and pollution, with bad image as city of workers and city
without culture and quality education.

Shrinkage is characterised by the population losses and deterioration of building
stock, which was the reality during the communist era in 1950s-1980s, and then
during the post-communist transformation period since 1989 until now as well. In
the period from 1950s to 1980s, on one hand new housing estates were established
and developed such as Poruba or Ostrava-Jih (Zábřeh, Hrabůvka, Výškovice). On the
other hand, the communist party decided in second half of 1940s and 1950s that the
older building stock was to be left to decay. After this decision, large parts of the city,
such as Vítkovice, Přívoz, Mariánské Hory, or for example in Moravská Ostrava its
parts along Masná and Stodolní streets, started their decline due to disinvestment.
In 1990, at the beginning of transformation, vast parts of the city were deteriorated
and settled by people with the lowest social status and worst living conditions,
especially Roma ethnic group. In the course of 1990s and 2000s the run-down parts
of the city have been partly renewed. This process was based on the privatization of
houses, finding out other dwellings for the people to be displaced (displacement), on
the renewal of privatized houses by new owners, retrofitting and conversion oh
houses for new functions such as services. Very good examples of successful renewal
are the revitalization of the area in Moravská Ostrava around the Stodolní street
with more than a hundred of clubs, pubs (culture-driven regeneration) or
regeneration of houses at Masná street through advanced producer services or
health care services. The tertiarisation of economy, establishment of micro- and
small enterprises was important impetus for the city regeneration. This services-
driven regeneration contributed to the revival of Přívoz, Mariánské Hory, Vítkovice
and surprisingly partially Hrušov as well.

After the “velvet” democratic revolution in November 1989, the transformation of
the political and economic system of the former Czechoslovakia brought the
liberalization and opening of the economy to the external global competition. The
new stage of the history of Ostrava began. The competition pressures revealed the


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


very complex weaknesses of the regional big companies in old or traditional
industrial branches and launched their adaptation process to conditions of global
market. The restructuring process had different intensity with regards to the Czech,
European and global economic development context, but brought high
unemployment. The deindustrialization started at the beginning of 1990s – in June
1994 all the collieries and most of coke plants on the territory of Ostrava were closed
down and the decay of production in related industries caused the increase of
unemployment. The peak of unemployment rate of 18% was reached in 2003 (???),
but in 2004 began the economy revival (after restructuring and modernization of
companies in 1990-2003). The deindustrialization process and high unemployment
has been dampened by tertiarisation and re-industrialization of the regional and
national economy.

Ostrava has been slightly shrinking city in the period 1990-2009 in the context of
transitional post-communist country in Middle Europe. The trajectory of shrinkage
and its causes are generally similar to the causes in all bigger cities (like Brno, Plzeň),
but are modified by specific situation of Ostrava as old industrial city affected by
deindustrialization. The population decline as the most significant indicator of
shrinkage was approximately 7% (331,000 in 1988 and 307,000 in 2009), which is
evidently a slight shrinkage. The causes of shrinkage of some parts of Ostrava are
the rapid plunge of birth rate in the whole Czech Republic as a natural adaptation to
the demographic situation in developed countries, the outward migration of young,
well educated people (“brain drain”) and the suburbanization (the move of people
from the inner city or neglected and unattractive neighbourhoods to the periphery
of Ostrava or beyond the administrative borders of Ostrava city.

The most affected neighbourhoods of Ostrava by the shrinkage process, measured as
population decline/loss, in the last 20 years (1990-2009) are Poruba, then central
“historical” parts of the city as Moravská Ostrava, Přívoz, Slezská Ostrava and its
parts such as Hrušov or Kunčičky. The process of shrinkage has been rather slight and
has been dampened by many factors such as the elimination of commuting to
collieries from distant regions (North-western Slovakia – Kysuce), affecting the
unemployment rather in these distant regions than directly in Ostrava, not well
working or not well developed housing market (shortage of dwellings in all Czech
cities, which eliminates mobility), low mobility inclination of population (Czechs have
more strong social and family ties and lower mobility), the growing home and
dwelling ownership in the Ostrava region (privatization of dwellings even in
prefabricated housing estates). However, according to the Solansky demographic
projection, Ostrava will have 280,000 inhabitants in 2050, which shows the necessity
of being aware of the existing shrinkage trajectory and importance of political
initiatives dealing with the shrinkage.

Ostrava has been shrinking, however with low intensity and the future development
of Ostrava can/will be different according to many factors such as: the economic
situation in the EU (EU competitiveness in comparison with competitiveness of USA
and/or China), and the economic situation in the Czech Republic – its high
dependence on external structures / framework conditions, and according to the


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


success of Ostrava´s       (or Moravian-Silesian Region´s) shift from low road
development strategy based on industrial mass production at lower prices of inputs
to the high road strategy based on innovation and quality improvements of
production (i.e. flexible provision of quality goods and services with higher added
value at higher prices).

The success of implementation of the high road strategy in the city of Ostrava
depends on the quality of education and R&D institutions; on urban planning and
institutions supporting the development, which have to create innovative milieu
through the improvement of soft development factors such as attractive housing;
quality environment – clean air, water, green areas and parks; recreational and
cultural facilities; architectural flag ships; better image; safety; existing events; etc.
There are many projects in the pipeline to be carried out such as New Karolina
development project, New Vitkovice, Cultural cluster on Černá Louka, IT4Innovations
(Information Technology for Innovations is a project of development of research
capacities at Technical University of Ostrava via Supercomputing Centre to be
supported by EU structural funds).

Within the Moravian-Silesian Region, the city of Ostrava has pro-active economic
and urban development policy, good working governance system based on
cooperation of many actors such as local and regional government, central
government and EU (e.g. attempts of JESSICA implementation), active universities,
local businessmen (such as owner and general director of Vitkovice Mr. Světlík) and
NGOs. The slight process of shrinkage will continue in some parts of the city, despite
the pro-active local governance, and due to the analogical shrinkage reasons such as
lower birth rates, selective out-migration and weak in-migration, ageing,
suburbanization, social exclusion, and environmental situation.

The most remarkable problems and challenges in the future development of the
slightly shrinking city of Ostrava will be:
     Diversification of the regional economy through support of higher added
         value economic activities and creation of more (quality) jobs;
     Maintenance and upgrading of prefabricated housing estates;
     Roma/gypsy exclusion/inclusion
     Solution of bad environmental situation - especially in the Eastern parts of
         the city.




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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



                         2. PATTERNS OF URBAN SHRINKAGE

       2.1. Reasons and premises

Introduction
        Context – short characteristic of Ostrava
The city of Ostrava is located in Eastern Central Europe, in the Czech Republic in its
North Eastern part, approximately 10 km from the borders with Poland and 50 km
from Slovakia. It has an area of 214.22km2 and is the third largest city of the Czech
Republic (after Prague and Brno) with 308,374 inhabitants (as of December 31,
2007), and the second largest urban agglomeration after Prague. City of Ostrava
consists of 34 historically independent villages and towns, which had been growing
together in the course of the last 150 years. Since the reform of local administration
in 1990, Ostrava is the so-called corporate town (statutární město) divided into 23
municipalities or city districts (městské obvody s vlastními správními úřady tzv. Úřady
městského obvodu), which have its own councils, administrations and budgets.
Ostrava is the capital of Moravian-Silesian Region (Moravskoslezský kraj, 5,427km2
and 1,266,500 inhabitants) and administrative centre of county Ostrava – City (okres
Ostrava město). County Ostrava – City has been in existence since January 1, 2007.
Its size is 331.53km2 and has 344,054 inhabitants and population density 1017
inhabitants/per 1km2.

In our research project, the case study of Ostrava´s particular shrinkage trajectory
belongs among the East European case studies – together with case studies of
Sosnowiec / Bytom, Donetsk / Makiïvka and Timisoara. The cases cover the most
important variants of both pathways and drivers of shrinkage: ongoing
transformation, restructuring and deindustrialization, economic underdevelopment
and out-migration, demographic changes and suburbanization. As a result of
socialistic politically stimulated industrialization, these cities witnessed the increase
in population until the end of 1980s. The East European cases form different
pathways of shrinkage, presumably depending on their regional economy. For
example Ostrava and Sosnowiec have managed in 2000s to attract considerable
amount of foreign direct investments, and as a consequence could slow down the
out- migration and population losses. Rather slight shrinkage of the city of Ostrava as
a whole began particularly after the political changes and has been a steady
condition of urban and regional development since then. The entry of these East
European cities into EU on May 1, 2004 has not yet resulted in changing this image
significantly and the cities belong to Convergence objective of the EU cohesion
policy, which means to the most lagging behind urban regions in the EU 27, despite
many successful efforts in the field of economic development and urban
regeneration.

       Historical background
Ostrava has been an industrial city based on hard coal mining, coal processing, coke
production, chemical production, iron and steel production, and heavy machinery.
Moravian Ostrava - as the main part of Ostrava - obtained the statute of a city in


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


1267, but was only an unimportant city until the discovery of coal in 1763 and its
utilization in 1787. Three main factors played key role in the history of economic and
urban growth of Ostrava. Firstly, it was the discovery and utilization of black/hard
coal, which caused the dynamic industrialization of the region. Second factor was the
foundation of the puddling works (later iron works) in Vitkovice by the Archbishop of
Olomouc Rudolf Jan Habsburg in 1828, and its development by Salomon Meyer
Rothschild, who gave rise to the first blast furnace. The third factor was
improvement of accessibility of Ostrava through the Ferdinand Northern Railway,
which led in 1847 to Ostrava, later joining Vienna and Bochnia near Krakow. The
railway connection stimulated the industrialization and facilitated the immigration of
workforce from Prussian Silesia and Galicia (now South Eastern Poland), and
subsequent urbanization. At new collieries and factories (coke plants, chemical
works) were built mining and smelting colonies. Ostrava became a diverse
multicultural city with Czech, German, Polish and Jewish population. Ostrava was
united in several waves, which were important for its territorial growth and
effectiveness of city administration/government.

In 1924, the Greater Moravian Ostrava was established by unification and
incorporation of originally independent municipalities Přívoz, Vitkovice, Marianské
Hory a Hulváky, Zábřeh, Hrabůvka, and Nová Ves, so that Ostrava reached the
number of 130,000 inhabitants on the territory of 40.28km2. In 1941, under Nazi
occupation, Moravská Ostrava, and Slezská Ostrava (with Hrušov, Heřmanice,
Muglinov), Michálkovice, Radvanice, Kunčice, Kunčičky, Výškovice and Hrabová were
integrated. Then in the period of 1957-1976 came the big territorial growth of
Ostrava. Many former villages with new developments – such as new housing
estates in Poruba, Pustkovec, Martinov, Svinov, Třebovice, Bartovice, Hrabová,
Výškovice, Nová Bělá, Stará Bělá, Proskovice, Antošovice, Hošťálkovice, Koblov,
Krásné Pole, Lhotka, Petřkovice, Plesná and Polanka nad Odrou, etc. were
incorporated. Ostrava grew up to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and the
territory of 214km2.

After the WW2 in 1945 Ostrava´s importance grew, especially after 1948, when
communist party came to power and pushed through its economic and political
doctrine of the necessary strengthening of heavy industry for the general success of
communism. In 1949-1951 the Nová Huť “New steel mill” was built, and in 1953
began the construction of two new parts of Ostrava: Poruba in the West, and
Ostrava – South (Stalingrad – nowadays Zábřeh), which both separately reached in
the 1980s more than 100,000 inhabitants.

In 1990 (December 31, 1990), Ostrava had 331,466 inhabitants, but on December 31,
2007 it was 308,374 inhabitants (without foreign residents). Ostrava shrank in this
period by 23,092 inhabitants (Solanský, O., 2008, Socio-demographic analysis of
Ostrava p. 6). According to Solansky´s forecast, Ostrava will significantly shrink after
2030 and by 2050 it will have 280,319 inhabitants, supposing the unchanged linear
socio-demographic trends.




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                       SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                   Figure 1 23 municipalities/city districts of Ostrava




See tables for the further details on population development in city districts.




 Reasons and premises
According to the census, Ostrava had in the year 1991 327,000 inhabitants and has
been the third largest city in the Czech Republic – after Prague and Brno. Since then,
the population declined to 317,000 inhabitants in 2001 and to 307,000 in 2006. In
the number of inhabitants are not included foreigners, who live in the city
temporarily but are registered. Nevertheless, the city also gains unregistered
temporary population through the inflow of students from other regions, and from
Slovakia. The city lost more than 20.000 inhabitants in the course of the last 15
years, and until 2009 it has been losing population together with the whole
Moravian-Silesian Region. It is necessary to point out, that shrinkage is cyclical and
some parts of Ostrava have been shrinking (depopulation, disinvestment and
deterioration of building stock) since 1960s from several reasons e.g. Přívoz,


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Moravská Ostrava, Vítkovice, Mariánské Hory. On the other hand, some parts of the
city of Ostrava have been slightly improving since 2000s thanks to privatization of
building stock and to the dislocation of business premises in as areas like Přívoz,
Moravská Ostrava – around Poděbradova street (with Masná and Stodolní streets),
parts of Vitkovice, Mariánské Hory.

The major reasons for this process of “slight shrinkage” have been the following:
    Lower birth rates and socio-demographic changes in the context of the
      second demographic transition
    Job related out-migration of young well educated people, mainly to Prague,
      but to Western Europe or to the USA as well
    Suburbanization and outflow of inhabitants both to the peripheral parts of
      the city of Ostrava (Krásné Pole) and to the hinterland of Ostrava (e.g.
      Vřesina, Čeladná, Ostravice, Malenovice, etc.)
    Flood in 1997 as environmental disaster having affected especially northern
      part of Hrušov in Slezská Ostrava
    Political decisions, especially in the 2nd half of 1940s and in 1950s

The main reason of shrinkage in the central parts of Ostrava with rather old building
stock, such as Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz, Mariánské Hory a Hulváky, Slezská Ostrava
are lower birth rates and socio-demographic changes. These parts of Ostrava have
been losing population since 1960s due to the ageing of population and lower birth
rate. Then, over the period 1991-2008, all the inner city parts of Ostrava and Poruba
lost population on the grounds of lower birth-rate (because of ageing) and out-
migration of young people. We can simplify and state, that the young age group of
20-35 year old, who came to Ostrava in 1950s-1970s, became older and then in
1980-2000s their children have been leaving their households. The four person
family households became gradually two person households (so called “empty
nesters”) and then after the death of the men, which is statistically more probable,
even single person households of women. Especially the very strong age cohort born
in 1970s (called Husák´s children – named after the communist president in 1970s-
1980s), particularly in the context of the second demographic transition and post-
transformation socio-demographic circumstances, will be the reason for shrinkage
(in the form of population decline) even in the future (2030s-2050s) due to its ageing
and demise in combination with the so far rather low in-migration to Ostrava from
the beginning of 1990s and low fertility rates in 1990s (Solanský, 2008).

Job related out-migration of young well educated people from the Moravian Silesian
region and from Ostrava, mainly to Prague, but to Western Europe or to the USA as
well, is a reason of population shrinkage caused: Firstly by the lack of quality jobs for
graduates/yuppies, secondly by the bad environmental situation, and thirdly by the
lack of cultural attractiveness in its broad sense (in comparison to Prague, London).
According to the students at Ostrava universities play certain role in out-migration
process the simple desire to travel and get acquainted with the life in Prague or
abroad, get experienced and return to the region after maybe a decade. The
problem is that we are missing precise data and our statements are based only on
estimations. The statistics can capture only the data on permanently residing


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


persons, who are registered. The estimations of job related out-migration from
Ostrava amount to approximately 600 persons. On the other hand, some graduates
from other regions stay after the graduation in Ostrava.

Suburbanization and outflow of inhabitants both to the peripheral parts of the city of
Ostrava (Krásné Pole) and to the hinterland of Ostrava (e.g. Vřesina, Čeladná,
Ostravice, Malenovice, etc.) is a reason of shrinkage in some parts of the city, but a
reason of population growth and residential development as well. According to data
and our qualified estimations, the losers – shrinking districts - will be the
prefabricated housing estates with low quality of available amenities and with low
social quality such as Dubina. On the other hand the winners will be rural parts,
“villages” at the outskirts of Ostrava with better environmental quality. Surprisingly,
even Radvanice and Bartovice have been growing notwithstanding the worst
environmental situation in the whole Czech Republic - with exceeded air pollution
limits of airborne dust and carcinogenic benzopyrene causing allergies, cancer and
early deaths. For the less wealthy families who want to live in their own house plays
a certain role in this “unnatural development” the lower prices of land and
favourable zoning for residential development. According to Vondroušová (2009) the
simplified social structure is as follows: in the eastern rural part of Ostrava, with
more air pollution, stays dominantly (of course with exceptions) population with low
socio-economic status and in the western rural part of Ostrava stays the population
with high socio-economic status in good addresses such as Krásné Pole, Lhotka,
Pustkovec. However, in general, the peripheral rural parts of Ostrava have been
growing in terms of population and new building stock since 1990s.

Political decisions in 1940s-1950s affected Ostrava´s population and its structure in
many ways. Firstly, the Jewish population was deported and killed in the 1 st half of
1940s. As the matter of fact the first Jewish transport organised by Nazis departed
from Ostrava to Nisko (October 18, 1939 - 2 years before the Wansee conference).
Then in 1945-1946 the Ostrava´s German population was expelled. These population
losses were compensated by the in-migration of population from the whole former
Czechoslovakia. Then, especially in the 2nd half of 1940s and in 1950s, the political
decisions concerning new developments of Ostrava affected the inner city by the
decision not to invest there, but to invest into developments westwards (Poruba)
and southwards (Zábřeh, Hrabůvka, Výškovice). The reasons were the possibility of
mining of mineable coal deposits underneath inner city of Ostrava in 2 nd half of
1940s. Second reason for new greenfield developments was the bad environmental
situation in the inner city due to the concentration of mines, coke plants (Karolina)
and iron and steel works (Žofínská huť, Vítkovice) in the area. The industrial plants
were causing air pollution and noise in the inner city, which accounted for very low
quality of life in the inner city.

Flood in 1997 affected as an environmental disaster especially the northern part of
Hrušov (a part of Slezská Ostrava). The damages caused by flood were intensified by
plundering of houses by certain group of local inhabitants.




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                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


According to the statements of Ostrava inhabitants in the newspapers and certain
surveys, the reason for leaving (certain locality) Ostrava, can be the presence of
persons or a certain group of persons, who do not obey the law and do not follow
conventions. Some of them even steal, plunder, litter, make noise in the night,
destroy buildings and houses and are offensive to fellow-citizens. Unfortunately,
there are such places in Ostrava. The reason for it is the wrong displacement policy
of some politicians leading to concentration of negative phenomena. The local
government, some NGOs and city police have been trying to improve the situation by
some measures, but without any visible success yet.

The drivers of shrinkage have been as follows:
    Disinvestment in central parts of the city in the past, i.e. the decision of the
       communist party not to invest into central “historical” parts of the inner city
       in the end of 1940s – 1960s (because of mineable coal deposits underneath
       the city centre) and the decision to invest and establish “New Ostrava”,
       westwards of the city on the fields and meadows in the village of Poruba and
       construction of new huge housing estates in the southern territory of Ostrava
       (Ostrava – South: Zábřeh, Hrabůvka, Výškovice).
    Deindustrialization and economic decline in old industries: the loss of
       attractiveness for in-migrants due to decline of regional economic base after
       1989 and loss of relatively well paid jobs in heavy industry
    Flood 1997 as a significant natural disaster
    Air pollution by industries and motor vehicles
    Less (or not at all) attractive prefabricated housing estates
    Significant social problems e.g. socially excluded areas
    The existence of brownfields (Lagunas, Karolina, Lower Vitkovice, Hrušov)
    Bad image of a polluted industrial city


National development trajectory and consequences for Ostrava region
The policy of Prague central government (economic policy, regional policy and
regulations by law in former Czechoslovakia 1918-1992 with interruptions) has been
very important factor for the development of regions and cities in the Czech
Republic. The regional development trajectory of the Ostrava region (in terms of
economic, social, demographic development) replicates to a large extent the
development trajectory of the whole Czech Republic, which has been demonstrated
and proved by statistical data included in the annex. In the Czech Republic and in
Ostrava region we can track down the influences of all important societal processes
typical for OECD nations such as deindustrialization, development and growth of
services – especially advanced producer services, the growing importance of tertiary
education and research, second demographic transition and ageing, suburbanisation
and others.

However, Ostrava region has its specifics such as the less diversified economic
structure based on coal and steel production (in other words very specialised
economic structure in mature industries such as coal mining and coke production,
iron and steel production, energy industries, chemical industries), high levels of


                                                                                   13
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


environmental damages of landscape, and lower social and educational level typical
for old industrial regions.

Development of Ostrava’s regional economy was in the communist period 1948-
1989 strongly supported by the communist central government within the
totalitarian political system and centrally planned economic system under the motto
“Ostrava is the steel heart of the Czechoslovakia” (on 1.1.1993 Czechoslovakia was
split up into two independent states – Czech Republic and Slovakia). Czech Republic
with Ostrava region was a part of Eastern block and regional economy of Ostrava
was part of the Council of Mutual Economic Cooperation, with all the negative
consequences of international socialist economic specialization. The political support
played an important role in the process of very extensive socialist industrialization
(coal mining, heavy industry and energy production as core of national economy)
and socialist urbanization especially in the 2nd half of 1940s and in 1950s and 1960s.
Lots of new jobs were created in the framework conditions of completely
inefficiently functioning central planning system. In order to gain enough workforce
for the industrial complexes (such as OKD, VŽKG, NHKG, VOKD), the central
government focused its efforts and investments into the construction of completely
new neighbourhoods such as Poruba, Zábřeh (new part called “Stalingrad” at the
moment of establishment, afterwards re-named), Hrabůvka, Dubina. Jobs and new
apartments (in apartment houses – brick two story houses with good environment
and social infrastructure built during the First two-year plan and the First five-year
plan in 1947-1948 and 1950s, in contrast to prefabs built later in 1960s-1980s)
attracted young people and accelerated extensive urban growth, but predominately
of a low quality. The economic structure and the extensive industrialization in the
last 150 years caused huge and various environmental problems, which lowered the
degree of Ostrava´s attractiveness to almost zero after the economic collapse and
loss of jobs after 1990, when the economic transformation began.

In the end of 1989 came the “Velvet revolution” in the Czech Republic and the
process of political and economic transformation of the Czech Republic began. First
consequence of transformation was the loss of “importance” of Ostrava region for
national economy. Ostrava region major problems in 1990s in terms of economic
development were a) the bad image as a blue collar/proletarian city with low social
quality, which was the reason for low attractiveness for creative class; b) “black”
polluted city and high pollution levels, especially high air pollution with airborne
dust; c) bad connectivity / accessibility of the region due to missing highway and high
speed railway; d) large distance from European and Czech growth centres; e) missing
foreign direct investment inflow and developer activities until 2004; f) social
exclusion and ghettos – especially affecting the Roma minority g) brain drain during
the last 20 years (but without precise evidence).

New economic and political elites criticized after 1990 the central government
support for Ostrava during the communism era (1948-1989). The necessary
restructuring of the regional economy started in 1990s without any strong systemic
approach of the central Prague government and led in Ostrava region to
deindustrialization due to economic inefficiency of local big industrial companies.


                                                                                    14
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


The abrupt deindustrialization began in the framework of economic system
transformation (liberalization of prices, restrictive monetary policy and monetary
depreciation, small and large scale privatization, etc.) By 1994, all coal mines on the
city territory were closed-down, most of the coke plants and factory power plants as
well, and in 1998 were closed Vitkovice blast furnaces. The internal restructuring and
closures of companies in the old industrial branches brought collective redundancies
(layoffs) and high unemployment rate. In 2000, there were 100,000 unemployed in
the Moravian-Silesian Region. The loss of jobs in 1990s in the old industrial branches
during the transformation and restructuring led to shrinkage processes.

The labour offices began to monitor the unemployment rate in 1991 at the level of
counties (okres), i.e. is in our case the county Ostrava – City. The unemployment
rate trajectory developed as follows. According to data by Labour office in 1991 was
the average unemployment rate in Ostrava county 4.7%, but then in the period
1997-2003 grew significantly to the highest unemployment rate in 2003 with 18.4%
(in comparison with the whole Czech Republic 7.8% in 2003), and in 2003 was almost
three times higher than the average unemployment rate of the Czech Republic. From
2004 to 2008 the unemployment rate began to fall by almost 2% yearly and reached
the bottom in 2008 with 8.4% (Czech Republic 4.4% in 2008).

The GDP has been surveyed by the Czech Statistical Office from 1996 at the level of
regions (kraj – NUTS3) and cohesion regions (NUTS2) and all the following GDP data
are available only at the level of region i.e. the Moravian-Silesian Region
(Moravskoslezský kraj). However, the development of the regional economy reflects
the development of the local economy of the city of Ostrava. In terms of the
trajectory of regional GDP, there was surprisingly a generally positive development
(considering the “mature” economy based on coal mining and heavy industries) until
1996 (6.4% growth of regional GDP). Nevertheless, in 1997-1998 came the crisis of
the Czech economy and the Czech Republic´s GDP growth rate dropped to –0.8%
(1998), and regional GDP growth rate in the Moravian-Silesian region dropped to –
5.1% (1998). The crisis 1997-1998 had several reasons such as the development of
global economy, the restrictive monetary policy of the Czech National Bank, the very
limited willingness of commercial banks to provide companies with risk loans, the
impact of privatization of companies, and the real deep structural changes in the
Czech industry leading to better efficiency and labour productivity. In 1997-1998 the
economy witnessed the decrease of GDP, followed by increase of unemployment
rate both in the Czech Republic and in the Moravian-Silesian Region.




                                                                                    15
                                  SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                                     Figure 2 Trajectory of GDP 1996-2008
                                                 Trajectory of GDP


                    10
                     8
  % growth of GDP




                     6
                     4                                                                    ČR
                                                                                          MSK
                     2
                     0
                    -2 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
                    -4
                    -6
                                                     year



In the 2nd half of 1990s, and especially after the crisis of 1997-1998, started the
extensive activities of all local and regional development actors with EU support,
however with lack of central government support. In 1993, the Regional
Development Agency was established with the support of the EU with aim to provide
support for the development activities of cities in Moravian-Silesian Region. The
Ostrava local authority established the Department for economic development,
which carried out a strategy of attracting foreign investment to the city. A business
zone was prepared on the greenfield of Hrabůvka, and regional marketing for
attracting FDIs started in 1998 with the participation at the real estate exhibition
MIPIM in Cannes (France). The efforts of attracting investors into the region brought
in the first wave the retailers, and then also the industrial investors. The inflow of
FDIs into the Czech Republic was supported by the Czechinvest Agency (established
by the Ministry of Industry and Trade) and by the Act of Investment Support enabling
to provide incentives to investors such as subsidies, tax reliefs or cheaper land. This
direct support for FDIs brought about the re-industrialization of the Czech Republic
and the Moravian-Silesian Region. In 2004 – 2005, GDP of Ostrava (and Moravian-
Silesian Region) grew even faster than the average of the Czech Republic. In 2006,
the Hyundai Motor Company decided to invest in the region, and in 2008 launched
the car production at the regional strategic industrial zone in Nošovice. The Hyundai
assembly plant with its tier one car part production suppliers has had high impact on
regional employment. Very important for the development of the regional economy
was the new highway to Ostrava built in 2008.

The global economic crisis at the end of 2008 and in 2009 caused new wave of
unemployment in the Czech Republic and in the Ostrava region. Ostrava has
undergone a rather short (in comparison with other industrial cities and regions)
period of change over the past two decades. The change was caused by the
breakdown of communist regime after/during the “Velvet revolution” and following
political and economic transformation




                                                                                               16
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Demographics (population development and migration)

After the launching of transformation process as a consequence of the 1989
democratic “velvet” revolution started also the adaptation process of Czech society
to West European societal conditions. Socio-demographic behaviour and structure
rapidly changed. The first decade of transformation was characterized by a rapid
decline in birth rate. However, the situation changed slowly after 2000, and only
after 2007 the birth rate started to grew more significantly. The post-productive age
group (60+) proportion grew significantly and the pre-productive age group share
dropped. The pattern of population structure development of Ostrava is to a large
extent very similar to the pattern of population development of the Czech Republic.

                Figure 3 Ostrava population development 1961 - 2008
                                                    Ostrava population
 340,000

 320,000

 300,000

 280,000

 260,000

 240,000
                                                                                                                                                       Ostrava
 220,000

 200,000
                     1…




                                                                                                                                               2…
           1…

                1…



                              1…

                                           1…

                                                     1…

                                                                 1…

                                                                           1…

                                                                                      1…

                                                                                                    1…

                                                                                                             1…

                                                                                                                          1…

                                                                                                                                   1…



                                                                                                                                                      2…

                                                                                                                                                           2…
In 1990, Ostrava had 331,219 inhabitants and in 2008 (December 31, 2008) 308,374.
The city lost 22,845 inhabitants, which is a decrease by -6.9%. Since 1992 Ostrava has
been experiencing continuous population decline by approximately 1,000
inhabitants per year.

                          Figure 4 Ostrava population 1991 – 2008
                                                  Total population in Ostrava
           330,000

           325,000

           320,000

           315,000                                                                                                                      Ostrava

           310,000

           305,000
                      1991
                             1992
                                    1993
                                           1994
                                                   1995
                                                          1996
                                                                 1997
                                                                        1998
                                                                               1999
                                                                                      2000
                                                                                             2001
                                                                                                     2002
                                                                                                            2003
                                                                                                                   2004
                                                                                                                          2005
                                                                                                                                 2006
                                                                                                                                        2007
                                                                                                                                               2008




                                                                                                                                                                17
                                                 SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                                                        Figure 5 Ostrava population 65+
                                                              Ostrava population aged 65+

                                    50,000
                                    45,000
                                    40,000                                                                       Ostrava
                                    35,000
                                    30,000
                                    25,000
                                                      1991                2001                 2008


                         Figure 6 Rates of Population Change – Ostrava and the Czech Republic
                         20
         Percentage change in




                         15
              population




                                                                                                                         Ostrava
                         10

                                5
                                                                                                                         Czech
                                                                                                                         Republic
                                0
                                       1961-70         1971-80          1981-91         1992-01          2002-08
                           -5

                        -10



Peak of population losses was reached in 2004 with -1,686 inhabitants (-1,342
migration balance and -344 natural change balance). The principal reasons of
shrinkage are negative migration balance over the whole time period 1990-2007,
and negative balance of natural change.

                                          Figure 7 In- and out-migration in Ostrava 1990-2007
                                                     In and out migration in Ostrava
                        7000

                        6000

                        5000
   Number of migrants




                        4000

                        3000

                        2000
                                                                                                                   in-migrants
                        1000                                                                                       out-migrants

                                0
                                    1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007




                                                                                                                                    18
                              SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



According to demographic projection by Solanský (Sociodemografická struktura
Ostravy – současný stav a očekávaný vývoj, Ostrava, 2008), in 2050 will Ostrava
shrink and have only 280,000 inhabitants, because of the population decline due to
deaths of the most numerous age group (in 2008 aged 30-34, born 1974-1978) and
low birth rates from the beginning of 1990s. It is assumed, that the migration
balance and international immigration will be most likely similar to the situation in
2007/2008, i.e. rather insignificant for population increase.

                           Figure 8 Prediction of population trend in Ostrava
                                  Prediction of population trend in Ostrava
                  310000
                                                                                       Ostrava
                  305000
                  300000
                  295000
     Population




                  290000
                  285000
                  280000
                  275000
                           2010   2015   2020   2025    2030   2035   2040      2045    2050




Economic development

The disintegration of big companies after 1990, the shift from in-sourcing (within big
socialist industrial complexes) to out-sourcing, and changes and reforms in the
methodology of statistical surveys makes the comparison of different evolutionary
stages of the regional economy almost impossible. Most important processes and
phenomena in the field of economic development are deindustrialization fomenting
the shrinkage (closure of mines and coke plants, and decline in metallurgy, heavy
machinery and chemical industries); counter-shrinkage processes are growth of
micro-, small and medium sized companies in construction, transport, retail and
other services, privatization, and acquisitions (takeovers) of local big companies; the
vertical disintegration of big companies in the era of outsourcing; development of
services/tertiarisation - retail sector and services development, and attempts of
quaternary sector development.

At the moment of the departure of economic reforms from the centrally planned
economy to market economy the structure of Ostrava’s economy was as follows: In
1990 there were several large state-owned companies such as OKD (Ostrava Karvina
Mines), New steel mill (Nová Huť in 1988 25,000 jobs, nowadays in 2008 Mittal Steel
7,000), Iron- and machinery works Vítkovice (in 1988 in all plants of the industrial
complex almost 36,000 jobs, see in Prokop, R. 2003), Moravian Chemical Works,
VOKD Construction of mines and others. All the companies belonged to the so called
mature or old traditional industries, which grew in Western Europe until the end of
1950s, but then came their decline, whereas in Ostrava and other regions of socialist


                                                                                                 19
                                         SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Eastern European countries they were subsidized by governments and grew very
extensively until the breakdown of socialist regimes in 1989. During 1950s-1980s
tens of thousands of people in-migrated to Ostrava new neighbourhoods from
Slovakia and other regions of the Czech Republic because of the construction of new
housing estates in Poruba and Ostrava – South (Hrabůvka, Zábřeh, Výškovice,
Dubina), and tens of thousands of workers commuted by buses from the wider
Ostrava region, and even from distant villages in North-West Slovakia (Kysuce
region). Some workers, especially single men, stayed in workers’ dormitories.

At the beginning of 1990s there were no private small and medium sized companies
and only weakly developed sector of specialized services. Advanced producer
services (business services such as ICT; design departments; construction,
maintenance and reconstruction of buildings, including dwellings in residential
company owned buildings), and even other services (health care – company
hospitals, culture – culture houses, vocational schools, sport clubs and recreational
centres and leisure amenities) were integrated into the big industrial complexes and
financed by them. The industrial complexes were common in the context of the
Soviet bloc, the Council for mutual economic cooperation, and the centrally planned
system. These complexes were totally inefficient and had very high rate of latent
(hidden) unemployment. Due to the long-term disinvestment and general technological
backwardness of socialist economy they were competitive on the global market only in a
limited way – through ecological/environmental dumping (no investment into
environmental protection) and social dumping (very low wages). The economic reforms
in 1990s revealed all the weaknesses and shortages of the local economy.

                                                Figure 9 Economic activity rates
      Percentage of economically




                                    55
       active in total population




                                    50

                                    45
                                                                                          Ostrava

                                    40                                                    MSK


                                    35

                                    30
                                         1961         1970         1980        1991       2001

                                                                    Note: MSK = Moravian Silesian Region

One of the main reasons for the population decline and out-migration in 1990s and
2000s has been the weak local economy of Ostrava, especially in comparison to
Prague. The city with its mature old industries experienced a process of massive
deindustrialization after the collapse of the centrally planned economic system, which
resulted in dramatic job-losses and growing unemployment. In the period 1990-1994 all
the mines on the city territory of Ostrava were closed down and other industrial
companies lost at least 30% or more jobs until 1998. Since 1994 is Ostrava no longer a
mining city, and in 1998 the blast furnaces of Vitkovice were closed down as well.


                                                                                                     20
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



                       Figure 10 New steel mill / Arcelor Mittal




The industrial complex of mining in the whole Ostrava – Karvina mining region lost
almost 100,000 jobs (in 1988 - 112,000 jobs in mining sector under the conditions of
in-sourcing, and approximately 16,000 in 2008 under the conditions of extensive
outsourcing). Ostrava still has a high rate of unemployment, currently about 11%
(2009), while the Czech average unemployment rate is in 2009 9.9%, but locally –
especially in socially excluded localities - more than 40% and higher (e.g. Na Liščině –
Hrušov). The closure of companies such as collieries, cock plants and power stations
has caused the occurrence of abandoned, contaminated areas with deteriorated
industrial buildings and infrastructure – the brownfields, which make up officially 8%
of the total area of Ostrava. The brownfields are located especially in the Northern
zone of the city along the Odra River and along the railway. The industrial zone
spreads from Heřmanice (brownfield Důl Heřmanice with dumps, then chemical
plant brownfield in Hrušov) in the East and goes to the West through Přívoz and
Mariánské Hory to Třebovice. Another brownfield zone, former Eastern zone of
collieries and coke plants, is located in the inner city near to the city centre with the
decontaminated brownfield Karolina, then lower Vitkovice area, in Slezská Ostrava
brownfields of collieries Důl Trojice and Důl Petr Bezruč with dump Ema, and in the
South dump in Hrabůvka and closed area of Mine Alexander (industrial monument)
in Kunčičky. In the Southeast of Ostrava is the area of Mittal Steel, the biggest
industrial polluter in the city.




                                                                                      21
                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                    Figure 11 Unemployment rates 1993 - 2009




On one hand, the deindustrialization brought about loss of jobs and unemployment
in the traditional old industrial branches, on the other hand the fast
tertiarisation/growth of service sector was the contradictory process partially
retarding the negative consequences of deindustrialization.

In the course of economic transformation and restructuring from 1990s the service
sector has grown, especially retail and advanced producer services connected with
the market economy such as consultancy, lawyers’ offices, real estate offices, banks,
financial services, insurance companies, marketing and PR companies. But the
services have been mature and strengthened in branches like accommodation and
gastronomy – hotels, restaurants, fast foods, wellness, fitness, etc. Service micro-
firms have often privatized or rented some premises in the neighbourhoods which
deteriorated between 1950s and 1980s. Good examples of this are in Přívoz,
Mariánské Hory or Vítkovice, where newly established micro firms found their seats
and business premises, and renovated the building stock after displacing socially
excluded groups with lower social status. Our pictures show how the business driven
process contributed to the regeneration of building stock at Stodolní, Poděbradova
or Masná streets, which suffered from deep decline of physical, functional and social
structures.




                                                                                  22
                   SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                 Figure 12 Renovated buildings on Masná Street




            Figure 13 Building on Stodolní Street before reconstruction




Very important for the economic development of the Czech Republic and other
Middle European countries has been the attraction and inflow of foreign direct
investment (FDIs) in 1990s-2000s. The attraction of FDIs were promoted by the Act
on support of FDIs (from 2000) defining the support measures for FDIs. The city of
Ostrava in 2000s has been advised to establish the Department for economic
development, which will prepare and build industrial zones with the necessary


                                                                               23
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


infrastructure on greenfield sites in the city, and then promote the new economic
zones at real estate exhibitions. The assumption was that the investors will create
new jobs in new branches and in this way replace the jobs lost during the
deindustrialization and diversify the local economy. The social and economic
situation of the city, especially high unemployment and job related outward
migration should be eliminated. Paradoxically, first investors were the retail chains
such as Makro (German Metro) in the new industrial zone Hrabová in the south of
the city and French Carrefour in the inner city (former sport stadium in the very
north west of Moravská Ostrava). In the course of economic boom from 2004 have
been coming into the “greenfield” industrial zones new industrial companies
creating even new industrial jobs, which we can see as a (low-road) re-
industrialization (for example Pegatron Czech/Asus 1,500 jobs, Sungwoo Hitech
1,260 jobs, Henniges Automotive 810 jobs). Another type of investors is the
company Tieto Enator in ICT sector with 1,400 new jobs or GE Money Multiservice
with 610 jobs. The most important FDI is Korean automotive company Hyundai in
Nošovice (in the vicinity of Ostrava, 25km from Ostrava) with more than 2,500 direct
jobs and another 10,000 in tier one supplier companies. The fastest growing
branches in terms of new jobs are ICT, electronics and automotive, which has a
positive impact on the labour market situation. New companies (such as Elcom,
Tieto) are partially concentrated in Ostrava Science and Technology Park (established
by the city council of Ostrava together with local universities) in the vicinity of the
Technical University of Ostrava. Some importance in terms of counter-shrinkage has
the activities of local universities as the establishment of new universities and new
faculties such as Faculty of Civil Construction, Faculty of Safety Engineering, Faculty
of Medical Studies. The universities are trying to strengthen the research and
development activity and have stronger impact on the economic development
concerning the brain drain or brain gain.


Settlement system

Ostrava evolved from Moravian Ostrava as core historical town, but actually it is
polycentric agglomeration, with very fragmented and chaotic urban structures until
recent times. Moravian Ostrava as a small town was from 1267 until the industrial
revolution the centre of business and trade with the agricultural hinterland.
Nowadays there are on one hand areas with highest population density like Ostrava
– South (e.g. Dubina housing estate) or Poruba city district, and on the other hand
areas of fields or woods in between. These extensive and fragmented settlement
systems make the delivery of public services and maintaining of infrastructure more
complicated and expensive than in compact cities.




                                                                                    24
                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                       Figure 14 Aerial view of Ostrava-South




The new development trajectory commenced with the discovery of hard coal in
Silesian Ostrava in 1763, and has been promoted in 1840s-1860s, when the extensive
coal mining and related industries (railway transportation, coke production, iron and
steel production, metallurgy, chemicals, heavy engineering, energy production) in
close neighbouring villages emerged. The urbanization process was determined by
industrialization and urbanization was lagging behind the industrialization, which is
the reason of chaotic development. The typical story of the evolution of settlement
system was as follows: In independent towns or villages like Moravská Ostrava,
Vítkovice, Přívoz, Slezská Ostrava, Hrušov, Čertova Lhotka (later Mariánské Hory)
were founded collieries or another types of industrial factories, and then near to the
factory were built workers´ colonies for immigrated labourers and later on houses
for higher social class and representative buildings like churches or town halls. In
1924 came the first wave of administrative unification of towns around Moravská
Ostrava such as Přívoz, Vítkovice, Hrabůvka, Mariánské Hory, Zábřeh, and Nová Ves.
The city of Ostrava (Greater Moravian Ostrava) was established in 1924 with more
than 120,000 inhabitants. Then, under Nazi occupation (1939-1945) in 1941, the
Silesian towns and villages (Silesian Ostrava, Michálkovice, Muglinov, Hrušov,
Heřmanice, Radvanice, Kunčičky, Kunčice) and 4 Moravian villages (Hrabová, Stará
Bělá, Nová Bělá, Výškovice), which had strong economic ties and interconnected
transportation system with Moravian Ostrava, were incorporated into the
administration of Greater Moravian Ostrava.




                                                                                   25
   SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Figure 15 Prefabs housing estates in Ostrava-South




    Figure 16 Aerial view of Moravian Ostrava




                                                     26
                  SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Figure 17 Ostrava consists of the following morphogenetic urban macrostructures
                    (according to Bednář, P., 2008 and 2010)




                                                                             27
SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


    Figure 18 View of Silesian Ostrava




   Figure 19 New suburb in Krásné Pole




                                              28
                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


       Figure 20 Prefabs housing reconstruction in Bělský les housing estate




       2.2. Trajectories of urban shrinkage

It is important to perceive the urban shrinkage of Ostrava in the evolutionary
perspective and broad historical context. Until 1938 Ostrava was a multinational city
where cohabitated Czechs, Poles, Germans and Jews. Polish workers came mostly
from the territory of Halič in the period from 1850s-1920s. In the same period came
Germans from neighbouring German/Prussian Silesia region and industry experts
and mid-level managers from Austria or Germany. During the World War 2 the Jews
were deported and killed in extermination camps and their property was confiscated
by the occupation German administration. In 1945-1946 most of German population
in Ostrava city was expelled according to president Beneš decrees (Edvard Beneš –
Czech president 1945-1948, who decided with support of France and England about
the deportation of German population from Czechoslovakia). The Germans lived
predominantly in Vítkovice, Přívoz (Prokop, R.), and Moravská Ostrava. After the
expulsion, their houses and dwellings were occupied by in-migrants from the whole
Czechoslovakia, but the social structure in the originally German upper middle class
and middle class neighbourhoods changed totally. The originally good address
neighbourhoods changed step by step from 1950s until the end of 1980s to
dilapidated and socially deprived neighbourhoods perceived by local population as


                                                                                  29
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


worst addresses, such as Přívoz or Vítkovice. The reason for the urban decay was the
in-migration of Gypsy/Roma population from Slovakia from 1950s. The Roma
population in Ostrava has been growing very fast due to very high fertility rate of
local Roma population, and after 1993 (the splitting of Czechoslovakia into Czech
Republic and Slovak Republic) this inflow was even promoted by in-migration from
Slovakia thanks to higher social benefits in the Czech Republic than in Slovakia. In
2000s the problematic cohabitation of Roma population with majority population is
one of the biggest challenges for experts and politicians as well. The Roma
population has different value system than majority population and this is the reason
for social exclusion of Roma, who tend to concentrate (or to be concentrated) in
ghettos (as enclaves of poverty and social deprivation). Such ghettos or places of
social exclusion (Tvrdý, L., Horák,) can be found in Hrušov (street Riegerova ulice, Na
Liščině), in Vítkovice (street Sirotčí), in Přívoz (Palackého), or in Kunčičky.


       Spatial-temporal patterns

The main factors causing urban shrinkage of Ostrava are demographic change,
deindustrialization and suburbanisation. However, the causes and impact of
shrinkage are different in different neighbourhoods and districts of the city of
Ostrava. In general, there has been a significant shrinkage process in Poruba, where
the population was 93,667 in 1980 and 71.788 in 2008. Poruba was founded in 1950s
as New Ostrava and built up as satellite, example socialist city westwards of Ostrava.
In 1957, it became an administrative part of Ostrava. We could call Poruba as an
ageing district, because most of the young families came into this new
neighbourhood in 1950s-1970s, had in average 2 children, who have been leaving
the households continuously in 1980s-2000s. We assume that nowadays in 2010
there are many single households (a household with one elderly person instead of
households with three/four persons). We assume (we cannot claim it because census
was in 2001 and new census and new data we will be available in 2012 from census
in 2011) that there is a certain change and young people (even young families) move
into Poruba (intra urban in-migration), attracted by relatively good quality of life,
living conditions, and better image than other parts of Ostrava. However, due to the
low birth rates there is no population increase. Similar shrinkage process and
situation is in central parts of Ostrava like Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz, Mariánské
Hory a Hulváky. Surprisingly, when we take into consideration the district Ostrava-
South as a whole, there is no strong shrinkage process, even though parts of this
district were built in 1980s and at beginning of 1990s as very unattractive
prefabricated high rises without appropriate infrastructure and amenities. Most of
dwellings have been privatized, the houses reconstructed and dwellings modernized
and retrofitted. Certain positive role plays the programme for regeneration of
prefabricated housing estates financed via grants from central government.




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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


      Figure 21 Moravian Ostrava mixture of residential and industrial areas




On the other hand, we can observe population growth in the last decade in the
peripheral, or even rural, parts of Ostrava due to the suburbanization process. We
can assume (according to certain research results) that it is a process of intra-urban
population movements to the peripheral parts of the city with more attractive
natural environment (especially in the western parts of the city because of lower air
pollution), where the younger middle class or even upper class families have been
building their family houses. The process of population increase in 2000s thanks to
in-migration can be seen in districts like Krásné Pole (the good/best address
neighbourhood), Lhotka, Plesná, Pustkovec, and Třebovice. Even more surprising is
the slight population growth in eastern parts of the city such as Slezská Ostrava and
Michálkovice, which have been affected by development of mining and related
economic and non-economic activities during long period from 1850s-1980s. Slezská
Ostrava is the largest city district with structurally and functionally different parts
(convenient subdivision of the district Slezská Ostrava is according to the cadastral
units), which developed differently in the history. It consists of parts such as
Antošovice, Koblov (villages with family houses in the north), Hrušov (originally
industrial town, dilapidated, partly even destroyed more details below), Heřmanice
(formerly mining village/municipality), Muglinov, cadastral unit Slezská Ostrava,
Kunčičky, Kunčice (with a new steel mill - Arcellor Mittal). These parts of city district
Slezská Ostrava have different urban structures and functions on micro-geographic
level (basic settlement units), which influences the contemporary development. On
the territory of Slezská Ostrava were built collieries with miners´ colonies (houses
with dwellings for miners), heaped colliery tips or subsidence of the ground were
caused by mining activities. Many houses had to be demolished due to the
subsidence of ground. However, we are witnessing certain positive residential
developments in this district, such as the construction of condominiums (at



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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Keltičkova Street; Atrium Slezská; or houses in new residential areas), reconstruction
of villas, or construction of University of Ostrava buildings at Chittussiho Street. In
Muglinov was implemented an interesting project concerning the social inclusion –
the so-called village of cohabitation for inhabitants from Hrušov, who were affected
by floods in 1997.

        Hrušov, shrank part of Ostrava
Hrušov, as a part of (Slezská) Ostrava since 1941, is a very interesting place in terms
of shrinkage and reflects at small scale all the negative processes and problems (but
not the positive trends), that are typical for Ostrava as a whole. Hrušov, as a former
village at the border between Moravia and Silesia and at the confluence of rivers
Odra and Ostravice, was first mentioned in written sources in 1256, but more
important became in the 19th century. In 1838, the first mine was opened and in
1848 the railway came to Hrušov, which promoted the industrialization process and
foundation of important companies such as First Austrian soda factory (1851) and in
1852 Ceramic goods factory. The industrialization boosted consequent urbanization
through construction of workers’ colonies/quarters (in 1860s) and related facilities
such as school, post office and town hall. In 1908 became Hrušov the township
village with about 5,000 inhabitants, closely connected both economically and in
terms of transportation with Silesian Ostrava and Moravian Ostrava as well. In 1921
the number of inhabitants reached its top with 7,736 inhabitants – including Czechs,
Poles, Germans and Jews. During the Nazi occupation in 1941 Hrušov was
incorporated into the City of Ostrava. In the history of the development and
shrinkage of the former municipality, the following events played important role:
During the World War 2 the Jewish population was deported and killed in
extermination camps and then in the 2nd half of 1945 and in 1946 the Germans were
expelled and replaced by immigrants from the Ostrava region and from the whole
former Czechoslovakia. The ethnic and social structures changed significantly in
1940s, but even in 1961 Hrušov as a city district had 7,278 inhabitants working
mostly in the local collieries, chemical factory and other plants.

Since 1980s Hrušov has been shrinking due to several reasons. First reason was the
subsidence of the ground due to long term mining activity and the consequent
deterioration of building stock (disturbed statics of buildings), leading to demolitions.
Secondly, it was the construction of new bridges over the railways and the necessary
demolition of impedimentary building stock, and thirdly it was the loss of jobs
caused by closing down of the Ceramic factory (1966) as well as some mines and
works of the chemical company, and related out-migration. The fourth reason was
the in-migration and presence of socially excluded groups of inhabitants, who
deliberately gradually destroyed the already run-down building stock since 1960s.
The economic transformation and restructuring revealed in 1990s the lack of
competitiveness of local companies (collieries and the chemical factory), which were
closed down and became brownfields or even 'blackfields' (as a sort of a strongly
contaminated brownfield). The most important cause of the destruction of north-
eastern part of Hrušov and its depopulation was the flood in 1997 (water level
reached height of 3m) in combination with plundering of houses during this natural
disaster. From this moment, Hrušov has been the most dilapidated part of Ostrava.


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



            Figure 22 Dilapidated building in Hrušov - north eastern part




However, due to high fertility rate of Roma population (there are no official data on
Roma population, because they declare themselves in censuses as Czechs and
Slovaks or another nationality; but there is an empirical evidence) in the part “Na
Liščině” (south eastern part of Hrušov) and in the south-western part in Riegrova
street, in the census of 2001, the population decline was not dramatic in Hrušov.
Thus, at the first glance Hrušov is being considered as a part of Ostrava with the
lowest quality of life. There is the settlement of socially excluded Roma communities
living in run-down houses in combination with industrial brownfields (as a result of
the chemical plant demolition) and social brownfields such as former residential
areas destroyed after floods. However, some positive developments have evolved in
Hrušov as well. The industrial brownfields are expected to be reconverted into
business zone. In the south-western part near to former Ceramic factory the
buildings and some villas and parts of the former factory have been privatized and
reconstructed by local entrepreneurs and are serving as their firm seats and
workshops. Several attempts have been implemented to solve the Roma segregation
in socially excluded communities.

The so-called “Village of cohabitation” was built in neighbouring cadastral district
Muglinov (part of city district Slezská-Ostrava as well) after floods in 1997 through
the support of many organizations and institutions, most notably Ministry for
Regional Development, the City of Ostrava, charity organizations and church. It is a
project and an attempt of social inclusion of Roma minority. The Village of
cohabitation has been settled by Roma, mixed and majority population families
together. A street worker from India Kumar Vishwanathan has been active here in
supporting Roma population in their efforts for better life. The problem of coping
with general shrinkage processes in Hrušov is very complex. The complicated and
fragmented ownership structure of building stock and land (i.e. brownfields), not
existing local authorities (as Hrušov is “only” cadastral district, a part of city district
Slezská Ostrava), and the justified opinion of politicians and city officials that there


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                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


are more important problems in Ostrava to be solved. According to our estimations
more than 70% of the territory of Hrušov is deteriorated areas and brownfields.
Most of the brownfields such as former conical waste dumps (refuse tips) or
chemical pit heaps will be naturally regenerated and will become urban wilderness.
The brownfield in the north-eastern part of Hrušov will be regenerated through
public-private-partnership project led by the city of Ostrava (owner of 51% of the
brownfield). The territory of Hrušov could be developed with regards to its low
attractiveness only as an area for industrial development, for small and medium
sized enterprises in the field of services or light industries. The residential
development is possible only in relation with the development of micro-firms (small
construction or car repair firms) in the area, where entrepreneurs renovate the
building stock with only few good examples in south-western part of Hrušov.

                 Figure 23 Hrušov building in process of renovation




        Vítkovice, shrank city district
The first written reference about the village of Vítkovice is from June 15, 1357. The
village was situated near the Ostravice River. Vítkovice was a part of Hukvaldy
demesne. On the basis of Viennese professor F. X. Riepel’s recommendation,
archbishop Rudolf of Habsburg decided to build steel works in Vitkovice in 1828.
This factory developed economically, socially and nationally to an exceptional extent
during the capitalist industrialization. The Rothschilds bought the factory and in
1843 and then in 1873 allied with businessmen in mining, Guttmann brothers, to
create Vitkovicke horní a hutní těžířstvo (heavy industry corporation).



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                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Thanks to this the agricultural village changed into an industrial town with the
biggest and the most modern steelworks in the Habsburg Monarchy. Fast
development of the steelworks helped to a dynamic population growth in Vitkovice
and the surrounding villages. The national and professional structure of the
population significantly changed. Originally, in 1843 the rural municipality had 328
citizens in 81 households; in the 1869 census Vitkovice had already 1,677 inhabitants
(74.2 % who have moved in). 78.6% inhabitants were dependent on industrial
production. The widespread construction of industrial buildings, flats and social
infrastructure amenities according to the unique project called “New Vitkovice”
outweighed the agriculture.

The development and growth of steelworks and the mine Louis, whose construction
started in 1891, caused an influx of mostly unqualified workforce. At the beginning
people were coming from close surroundings, later from faraway areas of Moravia,
Silesia, Bohemia and Poland and since 1890s also from Halic. The massive wave of
migration caused the fact that in the 1921 census Vitkovice had 27,358 inhabitants.

The most important dates in the history of the district are: 1908 when Vitkovice
became a town, 1902 when the town hall was finished, and also 1924 when it was
merged with Moravska Ostrava. After the liberation in 1945, the vulnerable balance
of industry and civic amenities was destroyed. The socialist economy’s plans
favoured the development of industry to the development of trade and in late 1960s
they sentenced the residential area of Vitkovice to a gradual run-down and
destruction. At that time Vítkovice ceased to be a separate quarter and became a
part of Ostrava 3 (today’s Ostrava South). The second half of the 20th century was
not a good era for Vitkovice. This fact is reflected by a huge decline in population
(1961 – 16,907 inhabitants, 1971 – 11,272 inhabitants, 1980 – 9,555 inhabitants,
1991 – 7,292 inhabitants, 2001 – 7,518 inhabitants).

The district of Vitkovice was saved at the last moment in 1990 when it became a
separate quarter again and the inappropriate enormous goals of the centrally
planned economy were confronted with liberal economy and free enterprise. Life
started to come back with the privatization of building stock, with the initiative of
new entrepreneurs. In 1990s-2000s the newly reconstructed buildings emerged from
under layers of dust. Formerly ruined buildings became seats of small and middle-
sized companies, which chose this location because of its good accessibility and
comparatively low purchase price of the properties. The forgotten beauty of the
industrial architecture was revealed and the whole history of the quarter gained
significance by the initiatives of several NGOs. People started to appreciate the
typical redbrick buildings built in 19th and early 20th century and many houses in
“Štítová” settlement and Josefinská Street have been reconstructed and now provide
a high quality accommodation. The industrial complex in the lower part of Vitkovice
has become a national cultural (industrial) heritage and since December 1, 2008 has
been a European Cultural Site, which is awaiting its revitalization and visitors.




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                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


     Figure 24 Vítkovice: privatised and partly reconstructed houses in Štítová
                                     settlement




Next problematic area in terms of shrinkage is the inner city (districts Moravská
Ostrava a Přívoz, Mariánské Hory, parts of Slezská Ostrava) with population decline
since 1960s. For example in 1961, population of Moravská Ostrava a Přívoz was
59,319, and in 2008 only 42,538 despite the construction of prefabricated housing
estates in 1970s or 1980s such as Fifejdy in the north-western part of Moravská
Ostrava. In 2000s there has been a moderate new residential development in
Moravská Ostrava such as Podkova (Horseshoe), Améba, and Městská Brána at the
most attractive location of the city close to Komenský Park, with positive impact on
the physical structure.

To sum up: The most shrank area has been Hrušov with population decline,
deindustrialization and occurrence of brownfields, downgrading of social structure
(negative trends such as social exclusion of Roma population), and deterioration of
building stock. Similar negative development can be observed in Kunčičky, where the
Roma population is being displaced and the building stock suffers from long-term
disinvestment and inappropriate way of usage by the socially excluded population.

The most problematic district in the future (2030-2050) could be some parts of
Ostrava – South (such as Dubina) because of the ageing and high concentration of
elderly population with rather lower income after 2030. We have to take into
account the context of suburbanization, which means the moving out of young


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                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


middle class families from prefab housing estates and less attractive inner city areas
to the geographic periphery of the city with better environmental conditions,
especially in western part such as Krásné Pole with increasing number of houses,
dwellings and population. Suburbanization with ageing and social polarization
could/will lead to strong shrinkage process in Ostrava – South, with the high
concentration of young people in 1980s - 2000s.


       Dynamics

We can prove different waves of shrinkage in different districts or parts of the city.
Recent situation in 2010 in socio-demographic development affects mainly Ostrava-
Poruba, where in the last 20 years lower birth rates and high deaths rate caused the
population decline significant in the demographic statistics for the whole Ostrava.
Young, especially well educated people, are leaving the dwellings with originally four
person families and in the dwellings live then only two-person families (empty
nesters) or singles (elderly women or single young people). Paradoxically, there is no
housing oversupply or building stock deterioration. On the contrary the houses are
being renovated and flats retrofitted. Poruba is considered according to our research
as good address and attractive district of Ostrava.




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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


             3. IMPACTS AND CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN SHRINKAGE

This part of the paper describes the structural impact that urban shrinkage has on
different fields or aspects of urban development. It closely follows research
questions and is based upon indicators defined in Tables 5 and 7 of WP1 (see
attached below for your convenience). Thus, Part 3 analyzes direct and indirect
impacts and asks which developments might be caused primarily by urban shrinkage.
It also contains tables, photos and figures to support the main argument.

       3.1. Patterns of segregation and social cohesion

After the breakdown of the regime of totalitarianism of Communist party in 1989
marked by long-term equalization efforts affecting economic efficiency/performance
and social levelling efforts (such as wage levelling), started the transformation to
market economy with post-socialist democracy. After the extermination of Jews and
expulsion of Germans in 1940s and after 40 years of socialism there where rather
unclear spatial patterns of social structure in the cities like Ostrava. General trend
during socialism was rather mixture of members of different social groups in new
housing estates in form of new cities e.g. Poruba with 93,000 inhabitants in 1980 or
Ostrava-South with 118,800 in 1991. Despite this general trend there where areas or
enclaves with lower class inhabitants such as e.g. Vitkovice or Přívoz (originally until
1946 with strong German population) with Roma population and on the other side
villa neighbourhoods with higher social status population such as Bazaly in Slezská
Ostrava or Sadová street in Moravská Ostrava.

The market economy brought economic and social polarization with impact on the
creation of more distinct spatial patterns of social structure. According to Horák
(2009) Ostrava is in 2008 significantly more polarized than in 1990. The young,
economically successful population move to the environmentally more attractive
geographic periphery of Ostrava, to Krásné Pole (population increase by 29%/550
inhabitants from 1991 to 2008), Lhotka, Nová Bělá, Stará Bělá, Proskovice, Polanka
nad Odrou or even into Pustkovec, Svinov, Michálkovice, Radvanice and Bartovice
with less attractive environment due to dense traffic or pollution.

We cannot follow and explain the social exclusion at the level of city districts but
rather city parts, basic settlement units (census tracks) or particular streets. In the
district Slezská Ostrava we can see on one hand socially excluded communities in
Hrušov (Riegrova street, area Na Liščině), in Zárubek area, in cadastral unit Kunčičky,
and on the other hand the new housing estates or condominiums such as Atrium
Slezská at Michálkovická street. The process of social exclusion has been in 1990s-
2010 strongly connected with the displacement of Roma population from the inner
city – from parts of Moravská Ostrava, Přívoz or Vítkovice. Roma population have
been affected by unemployment due to missing qualification and skills for the new
situation on the labour market. The socially excluded localities suffer from strong
residential separation, are bordered by industrial areas with high pollution,
brownfields, high-speed communications. The poverty of living in deteriorated
houses is coupled with the environmental pollution. There is no evidence, but


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


according to our knowledge, the population growth in these communities is above
average. We can consider this localities in Ostrava as most shrank areas in terms of
deterioration of houses, environment, social and technical infrastructure even if the
main indicator of shrinkage, i.e. the population decline, is definitely not the case. The
bad living condition and social situation in the socially excluded communities and
areas should be solved by the Agency for Social Inclusion established by the Ministry
for Human Rights and Equal Opportunities in 2006. The Agency for Social Inclusion
has its network of branches in selected locations of Ostrava e.g. Sirotčí, and
cooperates with other NGOs in order to improve the situation. A successful project
have been implemented at the end of 1990s - the construction of the “Village of
cohabitation” in Muglinov for people from Hrušov – Roma population lives here
together with majority population families, who have been affected by the flood in
1997. In 2010 rather growing polarization more than cohesion is the case in Ostrava.

           Figure 25 Map of the social differentiation of the Ostrava city




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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


       3.2. Business and employment

In the last 20 years, from 1989 to 2009, the economic structure and structure of
employment in Ostrava has changed significantly. From 1840 until 1989 tens of
thousands workers in-migrated or commuted to the Ostrava region due to relatively
well paid jobs in the companies in traditional regional industries such as coal mining
and heavy industries.

After 1989 came the economic transformation and deindustrialization, and Ostrava
became one of the most affected regions in terms of unemployment. The regional
unemployment rate was 1990-2003 higher than in other Czech regions. The regional
unemployment trajectory copied the national trajectory, i.e. when the
unemployment in the Czech Republic grew, then grew the unemployment rate in the
region, but with higher intensity. In 1990s grew the service sector, but industrial jobs
declined. Since 2004, the economic situation began to change for the better due to
the growth of the whole Czech economy thanks to development of small and
medium sized enterprises, acquisitions of existing industrial companies and new
foreign direct investments into industrial and business zones. New foreign
companies came into the region in order to benefit from investment incentives, low
labour cost, and to capture new emerging markets in Central Europe. The
reindustrialization process was accompanied by the retail, residential, office and
hospitality development until the start of economic crisis in 2008. The car industry
and ICT sectors in the region underwent positive development and the regional
economy became more diversified. Most important investments were the Tieto
Enator investment (created about 1,400 new jobs in ICT sector), or Hyundai Motor
Company investment (created about 2,500 jobs in manufacturing activities and
assembly plant) with its tier one suppliers. The economic development process
based on exogenous development strategy through attracting foreign investors has
been criticized for several reasons. Firstly, the investors came due the incentives and
low labour cost and can/will leave the region after gaining all the benefits. Secondly,
the re-industrialization based on low costs of inputs is not the strategy for
developing higher value added activities. Thirdly, the foreign investors will transfer
the profits made in region anywhere else and re-invest the profit for example in
Russia. The region itself will not have any other profit but new jobs.
In 2009, new effort towards more endogenous development based on innovation in
regionally embedded companies has been introduced, and in 2010 the
implementation of the regional innovation strategy has been launched. The local and
regional authorities want to support innovative, export oriented firms in order to
create more diversified economy with higher value production. If it will be successful
is not ensured, but such attempts are being made in all European (not only) regions
and Ostrava region does not want to be an exception, even if the future positive
results will be rather limited.

The positive economic development, especially since 2003/2004, together with
strong urban renewal efforts and investments made by local authorities, influenced
the attractiveness of Ostrava for its inhabitants and we may assume that the process
of out-migration and urban deterioration has been stopped. The shrinkage is and will


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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


be the reality in certain parts of the city of Ostrava in the future due to ageing and
shrinkage of households, due to suburbanization and social polarization. However,
the urban decay connected with economic development and possible economic
breakdown of the local economic base in the period 1990-2003 has been warded off.
The economic crisis 2009-2010 hit the local and regional economy in similar way as
the whole Czech Republic´s economy. The unemployment rate in the region in the
course of the economic crisis increased from 6.8% in January 2009 to 9.9% in
February 2010.


       3.3. Social infrastructure and education

Ostrava as a formerly pure industrial city has many specific problems having impact
on state of health and social situation of the inhabitants, who have been working in
companies of heavy industry (physically demanding jobs) and living in a highly
polluted environment. Generally, we can say that the polluted environment and
unhealthy lifestyle of the dominant working class population with lower educational
level caused early retirements and industrial occupational diseases. The local
industrial economy has been determining the social structure and subsequently the
specific needs in the fields of social infrastructure and social services, in specialized
medical services and health care infrastructure.

According to the research results of the “Analytical part of The Strategic plan of the
development of the city Ostrava for 2009-2015” (Strategic plan, 2008) there is no
oversupply in social infrastructure with regard to the slight population decline, but
there is the need to enhance, improve and modernize the social infrastructure,
especially with regard to the gradual ageing of the population. Due to the ageing
process and growing number of elderly people (age group 70+), and due to the
needs of handicapped and disabled persons in Ostrava, the capacities of social
services and social infrastructure are not sufficient, although there is a whole range
of social services for elderly, handicapped and disabled people. For example we can
name retirement homes, day care centres and homes with domiciliary services,
consulting centres, etc. The city administration in cooperation with all important
actors in the field of social services has been applying the methodology of
community planning since 2003, which enables the upgrading of social services and
social infrastructure. For instance in 2000s CZK 500 million has been invested only
into the construction of the retirement home “Slunečnice” in Ostrava – Poruba. One
of the recent major challenges is the social inclusion of the Roma population, which
is numerous in Ostrava (but we do not have any precise official data). To tackle the
problem of social exclusion of Roma population the government of the Czech
Republic launched in 2000s some activities such as the establishment of the Agency
for Social Inclusion. Ostrava has adequate availability of medical services and
healthcare infrastructure comprising three major hospitals such as University Hospital
Ostrava (with 1,370 beds), Municipal Hospital (1,050 beds), Vitkovice Hospital, and 900
other medical facilities serving the population of Ostrava and its hinterland.




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                      SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


Unfortunately, Ostrava has not been the city of culture, which is connected with the
social structure of the former industrial city and the limited cultural needs of the
prevailing working class inhabitants. Ostrava has been perceived rather as a city with
low cultural and educational level (in comparison to Prague and particularly to Brno)
by both inhabitants of Ostrava, and by the whole Czech population. In fact, the
reality is better than the image and Ostrava dispose of theatres, museums, galleries.
Furthermore, the city council supports the candidature of Ostrava for European
Capital of Culture 2015, which should help in development of cultural infrastructure,
e.g. the needed big concert hall.



       3.4. Housing

In the whole Czech Republic was housing deficit/shortage in the period 1945-1989
and the construction of new estate housing in Ostrava in combination with the
availability of well paid jobs in the heavy industry over this period attracted many
people to Ostrava. There were strong in-migration waves during 1950s-1980s to
Ostrava, which stopped after the launch of transformation process 1990 because of
lack of jobs. In Ostrava, even over the transformation period in 1990s-2000s the
demand for dwellings was higher than new supply – not many vacant dwellings have
been available. There have been rather quality dwellings shortages on the housing
market than housing oversupply. This fact has weakened the mobility of persons and
of workforce after 1989 together with the low mobility propensity (inclination) of
Czech population due to their value system and preference of strong local social ties.

The number and size of dwellings grew from 1947 permanently, even after 1992
when the slight shrinkage process began. We can distinguish different stages during
the period of communist urbanization and construction of housing estates. In 1950s
were built rather small dwellings (2 rooms and kitchen) in housing estates with brick
two story houses and good living environment and social infrastructure were taken
into account. In 1970s were built dwellings with 2/3 rooms and kitchen in mostly
prefabricated housing estates with high rises (15 story houses were not exceptional)
and prefabricated table houses. The environmental quality was lower than in 1950s
(not much green and public space) but the social infrastructure such as health
centres, nurseries, kindergartens and schools was available. In 1980s, due to
economic weakness of the communist regime, the construction of housing estates
was of lowest quality, even though 4 room dwellings were built at that time. Typical
was extraordinary density of population, with neglected built-environment, no
amenities such as green and public space, and not enough developed social
infrastructure. Such an example is Dubina housing estate in Ostrava – South. In 1989
the state of building stock and houses in the Czech Republic and particularly in
Ostrava was in very bad condition due to disinvestment. The facades of houses were
grey and dilapidated and the dwellings needed to be reconstructed and retrofitted.




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                                               SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                                         Figure 26 Flats and permanently inhabited flats in total
                                                    Flats in total, permanently inhabited

                           160 000
                           140 000
         number of flats




                           120 000
                           100 000
                            80 000
                            60 000
                            40 000                                                                number of flats in
                                                                                                  total
                            20 000                                                                permanently
                                    0                                                             inhabited
                                             1970             1980              1991           2001
                                                                      year



The slight population decline did not cause dwelling vacancies, but enabled the
improvement of living conditions through the growth of dwelling space per person
(in sq. m.). The growth of number of dwelling has been determined with the demand
of inhabitants/households for living alone in one dwelling and having more space per
person. According to census data in 1970, in Ostrava there were 106,412 dwellings
with dwelling space per person 10.6 m2 and average number of persons in a
permanently inhabited dwelling 2.83. In 1991, there were in Ostrava 132,806
dwellings with dwelling space per person 15.3 m2 and average number of persons in
permanently inhabited dwelling 2.58. In 2001 there were 135,912 dwellings with
dwelling space per person 17.0 m2 and average number of persons in permanently
inhabited dwelling 2.43.

                                        Figure 27 Total number of households in Ostrava and MSK
                                                      Total number of households
                        500,000
                        450,000
                        400,000
 Number of households




                        350,000
                        300,000                                                                           Ostrava
                        250,000                                                                           MSK
                        200,000
                        150,000
                        100,000
                           50,000
                               0
                                           1961           1970           1980           1991            2001

Note: MSK = Moravian Silesian Region




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                                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                               Figure 28 Average household size in Ostrava and MSK
                                              Average household size
           3.5                                                                           Ostrava
                                                                                         MSK
   Number of living persons




           2.5




           1.5
                              1961          1970           1980          1991          2001

                                                               Note: MSK = Moravian Silesian Region

Actually, we do not have enough quality data to be able to assess precisely the state
of housing in Ostrava. According to data of the Czech Statistical Office, the number
of vacant houses (not permanently inhabited) has been growing. We can claim that
due to the growth of number of students, which tripled during the last 20 years from
approximately 10,000 in 1990 to 30,000 students in 2009, the vacancy rate did not
increase significantly. Some dwellings have been occupied by legal (or even illegal)
workers and in some dwellings, especially in socially excluded neighbourhoods, are
staying much more inhabitants than officially registered.

The Roma population and its social position in Ostrava and in other Czech
municipalities are very specific in the context of urban development in Europe. In the
course of economic transformation in 1990s – 2000s, connected with the pressure
on productivity and efficiency in local companies, the Roma population was affected
very intensively. The Roma were laid off as first due to the low level of education and
skills, which even worsened the economic and social situation of the large and
growing (due to high fertility rate) Roma families.

Very important process from the shrinkage point of view was the privatization of
houses in the Czech Republic and in Ostrava. In 1990 the city of Ostrava was the
owner of 45,476 dwellings. Then, in 1990s-2000s the privatization of houses and
dwellings took place and new property relations were established. The higher ratio
of dwellings or houses ownership contributes to higher stability of inhabitants and
better identification with Ostrava. We can see it as a remarkable stimulus for
reconstructions of houses and dwellings and a significant factor of improvement of
building stock in the city. Since 2004, over the economic revival period 2004-2008,
has began the wave of construction of new residential buildings in Ostrava by
developers (houses “Podkova”, “Ameba” and “Městská brána” in the city centre,
“Atrium Slezska” in Slezská Ostrava, “Nová Poruba” in Poruba. Since 1990s, in the
peripheral rural districts of Ostrava has been booming the construction of family
houses for instance in Krasné Pole (73 new houses in period 1991-2001 that is 15.4%
growth of housing stock), Lhotka, Nová Bělá, Proskovice, Pustkovec.



                                                                                                   44
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



       3.5. Technical infrastructure

In the course of the last 20 years (1990-2009) important modernization efforts of
technical infrastructure in the city of Ostrava have been carried out, or are in the
pipeline. However, there are also localities affected by disinvestment, such as
Hrušov. The most important for the development of the city is transportation
infrastructure, especially the launch of high speed train to Prague in 2005 (so-called
SuperCity Pendolino train), the completion of the motorway D1 (to Brno, Prague)
and slow development of the Ostrava airport in Mošnov, which improved the
accessibility of the city and its attractiveness for investors.

The biggest problem is the rapid growth of numbers of cars (in 2008 330 cars per
1000 inhabitants and 474 motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants) and car
transportation in the city affecting air quality due to high levels of pollution. Missing
parking spaces are the reality in the inner city and local authorities invest into
construction of parking garages and parking lots, unfortunately at the expense of
public space and green space in the city. After 1990 dropped among the public the
degree of preference for public transportation in the city in connection with the
changes of lifestyle of certain social groups, who prefers to drive. However, Ostrava
has still very well developed system of public transportation based on tramways,
busses and trolley-busses. There is no decline in number of vehicles or lines in the
period 2006-2008 (according to Analysis carried out in the course of the preparation
of Ostrava development strategy 2009-2016, p.108-110). More than 10 years ago the
Integrated public transportation system ODIS for the Moravian-Silesian Region was
established and is being developed and improved. Only the public connections
between distant regions and cities, especially the workers´ commuter busses were
reduced or abolished.

Unfortunately, the cyclist transportation in the city has not developed yet (until
2010) and has a very limited importance, mainly as a sport activity in the
surroundings of the city. There are 330 km of cycling paths in the pipeline according
to the city master plan. Ostrava has been very important railway hub with 5 railway
stations – Ostrava main station in Ostrava – Přívoz, Ostrava – Svinov, Ostrava –
Vítkovice, Ostrava – Centre, Ostrava – Kunčice. In 2007 was opened the railway
station Ostrava-Stodolní.

Freight trains and regional freight railway network were the most important
transportation infrastructure in the history of intensive coal mining in the Ostrava
region. After 1994 became the freight railway network on the Ostrava territory
obsolete and redundant. There are tens of kilometres of useless track-bed
brownfields without any utilization, which affects the attractiveness of the city. It is
the sign of shrinkage in Ostrava, related to the closure of mines and decay in iron
and steel production and transportation within the region and outside the region.




                                                                                      45
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


       3.6. Land use and environmental quality

Ostrava´s land use is characterized by very high density of mining and industrial
areas, brownfields and even 'blackfields' (very contaminated areas). In the northern
part of the city along the Odra river and the railway evolved industrial areas of huge
extent with collieries, coke plants, chemical factories and power plants with related
infrastructure, which became brownfields after the decline of old traditional
industries. A typical 'blackfield' is the former factory zone of chemical industry in
Hrušov, or former coke plant Karolina in Moravská Ostrava, where the new city
centre with mixed use should be built up. There are lots of deserted industrial zones in
the vicinity of the city centre, in the potential inner city such as Lower Vitkovice area
with blast furnaces as monuments of industrial history under the protection of the state.

             Figure 29 Lower Vítkovice blast furnaces in the background




Very typical for Ostrava landscape are anthropogenic relief forms as refuse tips and
slag dumps, especially in the Eastern part – Silesian Ostrava (Ema refuse tip as
symbol of mining history of Silesian Ostrava) together with subsidence of the ground
(slow downfall of the ground), which affected the building stock (like in Hrušov,
Slezská Ostrava and Moravská Ostrava).




                                                                                      46
                          SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                      Figure 30 Coke plant Jan Šverma in Přívoz with dump




     There are proportionally more water areas in Ostrava than in comparable cities of
     the Czech Republic, but less wooded land.

          Table 1 Land use of Ostrava (as of December 31, 2007) in comparison with
                                    comparable Czech cities
                                                                         Moravian-Silesian
                         Ostrava             Brno             Plzeň
                                                                               Region
Total size of the
                      214.22 (100%)     230.19 (100%)     137.67 (100%)     5426.98 (100%)
area (km2)
Farmland              84.63 (39.51%)    79.35 (34.47%)    60.50 (43.94%)   2771.83 (51.07%)
Wooded land           24.29 (11.34%)    63.69 (27.66%)    25.92 (18.82%)   1927.25 (35.51%)
Water area             9.62 (4.50%)      4.45 (1.93%)      4.38 (3.18%)    114.10 (21.02%)
Built up area          20.04 (9.35%)     20.91 (9.08%)     9.71 (7.05%)     120.71 (2.22%)
Others                75.64 (35.30%)    61.79 (26.84%)    37.16 (27.00%)    493.09 (9.08%)
Population (without
                          308,374          368,533           165,238           1,249,290
foreigners)
Population density        1439.52          1600.99           1200.25            230.20

     Ostrava has been the core city of the Ostrava old industrial region based on mining,
     coke production, metallurgy, energy production and heavy mechanical engineering
     determining the land use and environmental quality to a great extent, even after the
     closure of many plants. In Ostrava, all the components of environment (air, water,
     soils, and plants) have been affected, polluted or contaminated. Most important is
     the large scale degradation of landscape owing to mining (subsidence and refuse
     tips), furthermore contamination of soil and the surface areas together with ground
     water pollution and the air pollution due to industrial production, automobile
     transport and heating of houses with low quality coal or even waste.



                                                                                      47
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


The city of Ostrava is one of the most polluted cities in the Czech Republic, together
with Prague and Ústí nad Labem. The most influential is the pollution by airborne
dust especially in the Eastern part of the city (Bartovice and Radvanice). The air
pollution can be considered as one of the main factors of unattractiveness of Ostrava
region and as a push factor for out-migration. However, the pollution is not even in
all parts of Ostrava but there are strong differences in spatial distribution of air
pollution. The most polluted air is in Eastern parts of Ostrava (Moravská Ostrava,
Radvanice, Bartovice), reverse situation is in the western parts such as Krásné Pole or
Poruba. The differences are caused by the prevailing western winds and the spatial
distribution of industrial pollutants in the northern industrial area (with coke plants and
chemical factories) and in the south-east industrial area (with Arcellor Mittal). We have
to consider the bad environmental situation, and especially air pollution as one of the
main factors causing the out-migration in the future development of Ostrava.


         3.7. Municipal finances and budget

Ostrava is a corporate town (statutární město) with central town council and its
budget. The corporate town of Ostrava is divided into 23 city districts (městské
obvody) with their own councils and budgets. There is a rather complicated system
of redistribution of finance in a Czech corporate town such as Ostrava. As an
example: In 2009, the budget of the corporate city was CZK 8,251,960 million (Czech
Republic’s currency with exchange rate 1EUR = circa 26 CZK) and the budgets of 23
city neighbourhoods made up 3,015,000,000 CZK.

                Table 2 Budget of the city of Ostrava (corporate town)
             Planned/approved city budget
  Year                                          Running expenses        Capital expenses
                   (in thousand CZK)
  1989                            2,462,149               1,961,379                500,770

  1995                             2,554,491              1,648,448                906,043
  1996                             3,303,934              2,086,391              1,217,543
  1997                             3,941,596              2,368,698              1,572,898
  1998                             2,986,423              2,425,443                560,980
  1999                             3,488,292              2,860,372                627,920
  2000                             3.467,064              2,876,564                590,500
  2001                             5,651,204              3,332,925              2,318,279
  2002                             6,085,994              3,789,673              2,296,321
  2003                             5,777,433              3,945,590              1,831,843
  2004                             5,814,392              4,358,710              1,455,682
  2005                             7,748,479              4,879,179              2,869,300
  2006                             7,247,169              5,212,143              2,035,026
  2007                             6,040,258              5,183,251                857,007
  2008                             7,310,635              5,535,653              1,774,982
  2009                             8,251,969              5,606,417              2,645,552
  2010                             6,366,953              5,169,050              1,197,903
Lindovská (Head of the Finance and budget department City of Ostrava)




                                                                                        48
                      SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


According to Lindovská, the decline in number of inhabitants between 1989 and
2009 did not play any significant role in the positive development of budget. There
were several important points in the development of the budget of Ostrava:
In 1996 were issued city bonds (1.3 billion CZK) and the revenues were invested into
the construction and improvements of water infrastructure, sewage canals and
sewage disposal plant. In 2004 were issued the second city bonds (3.16 billion CZK)
and the revenues plus EU funding (ISPA fund) were invested into the construction of
collector channels in the city centre and new sewage lines. The revenues from the city
bonds in 2004 were used for other investments such as the retirement home
„Slunečnice“ in Poruba (0.6 billion CZK), hospice in Bartovice, indoor swimming pool, etc.

Much investment were put into the business support and preparation and
construction of business and industrial zones (such as in Hrabová, or Mošnov) in
order to create new jobs. Very important was the city’s investment into the Ostrava
Science and Technology Park in the vicinity of the Technical University of Ostrava. In
2009, 1.2 billion CZK were allocated in the form of grants for cultural, sports and
charity organizations. In crisis year 2010 the budget is at the level of the year 2007.
The city of Ostrava has relatively enough funds to cover all the necessary mandatory
expenses, and the city council decided to support the project Ostrava - European
capital of culture 2015. Very significant role plays the EU structural funding covering
the investment of several projects.

               Table 3 Rating of municipal finances of the city of Ostrava
    Rating
                  rating in 2006    rating in 2007    rating in 2008     rating in 2009
    agency
   Moody´s          A2 Stable         A2 Stable          A2 Stable          A2 Stable
   Standard
                  A-/Stable/A-2     A-/Stable/A-2      A-/Stable/A-2     A-/Stable/A-2
  and Poor´s

Since 1998, the city finances have been rated by two internationally recognized
rating agencies – the Moody´s and Standard and Poor´s. According to these ratings
the municipal finances of Ostrava are in very good condition and ratings reflect the
low total indebtedness, the ability to pay off all loans, good city liquidity and efficient
financial performance. The strength of municipal finances in the last 5 years
emphasized in these ratings are the inflow of investment from European Union
structural funds helping the city to improve the infrastructure for the economic base
and to raise the attractiveness of the city in general. The rating is lowered only by
the fact of limited ability of the city to influence the revenues significantly in short
term (but the fact is valid for all municipalities in the Czech Republic, not only for
Ostrava). The prospect for next good ratings is being based on conservative financial
policy of the city and continuous low level of indebtedness. The ratings suggest the
confidence in future positive development of Ostrava.

POLITICAL AND PLANNING RESPONSES
The revitalization of the old-industrial Moravian Silesian region with its centre in
Ostrava represents one of the biggest challenges for the Czech Republic as the
regions suffers from accumulation of social, economic (only few jobs in new modern


                                                                                        49
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


sectors) and environmental (air pollution, lots of brownfields) problems. The main
policy responses towards shrinkage have been directed on attracting investments
and regaining economic prosperity. In this context, the Moravian–Silesian Region has
by far the most active and respected Regional Development Agency which operates
in the region since 1993. Nevertheless, within the Czech Republic, Ostrava has one of
the most proactive local governments and makes a systemic effort to implement
(along with regional government and RDA) a lot of development activities such as
Ostrava strategic development plan, Regional development plan, efficient
implementation of European cohesion funding; Regional innovation strategy (to be
completed in 2010); regional marketing attracting developers, investors and tourists
into the urban region; ten cluster initiatives; European Capital of Culture 2015;
tertiary education development and support for establishing a faculty of medicine.
The aim is to diversify the economy, strengthen new industries such as automotive and
ICT services and modernize traditional industries such as engineering. The regional
governance system tries to improve both the quality of hard development factors
(transportation system – highway, railway and airport) and soft location/development
factors (housing, education, events, and environment) and change the negative trends in
economic, social, environmental and population development.




                                                                                    50
                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                                  4. REFERENCES

Analýza bydlení na ulici Riegrova v Ostravě – Hrušově, provedená na základě
        podkladů městského obvodu Slezská Ostrava a dotazníků vyplněných s
        občany žijícími v této lokalitě.

CENSUS REPORT 1991. Statistical Office of the Czech Republic.

CENSUS REPORT 2001. Statistical Office of the Czech Republic.

ECKART, Karl et alii (2003) Social, Economic and Cultural Aspects in the Dynamic
        Changing Process of Old Industrial Regions (Ruhr District, Upper Silesia,
        Ostrava Region), LIT Verlag Muenster, ISBN 3-8258-6784-6

HORÁK, J., IVAN, I., INSPEKTOR, T., TVRDÝ, L.(2009) Identification and Monitoring of
        Socially Excluded Localities of Ostrava City Using a Register of
        Unemployment

KUTA, Vítězslav (2001) Rozvojové problémy ostravské aglomerace. Transport,
       Sdružení pro obnovu a rozvoj severní Moravy a Slezska.

KLUSÁČEK, P., KREJČÍ, T. Populační prostorové změny měst Brna a Ostravy

MARTINÁT, S., KLUSÁČEK, P., NOVÁKOVÁ, E. (2008): Impact of globalization on socio-
       demographic changes of inner structures of City of Ostrava after 1989, In:
       Baar, V., Siwek, T. (eds.) (2008): Globalisation and its impact on localities,
       Ostrava University, Ostrava, s. 173 -179

PROKOP, R. (2006) Vývojové proměny postsocialistických měst Ostravska a
       Hornoslezského regionu v podmínkách transformace. Slezský ústav
       Slezského zemského muzea, Opava. Nakladatelství Tilia.

PROKOP, R (2003): Ostrava v procesu transformace, In: Ostrava 21 (Příspěvky
       k dějinám a současnosti Ostravy a Ostravska), Tilia, Šenov u Ostravy, s. 284-
       208.

RUMPEL, P. (2002) Teritoriální marketing jako koncept územního rozvoje. Ostravská
       univerzita, Ostrava.

Sociálně demografická analýza Slezské Ostravy s přihlédnutím k tzv. Rómským a
         sociálně vyloučeným lokalitám. (2008) Závěrečná zpráva. VeryVision a
         Agentura pro sociální začleňování v romských lokalitách.

SOLANSKÝ, (2008) Sociodemografická struktura Ostravy – současný stav a očekávaný
       vývoj, Ostrava.




                                                                                  51
                   SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


SUCHÁČEK, J. (2005) Restrukturalizace tradičních průmyslových regionů v
       tranzitivních ekonomikách. VŠB TO Ostrava, 2005, ISBN 80-248-0865-X

Strategický plán rozvoje statutárního města Ostravy na léta 2005-2013. (2005)
         Statutární město Ostrava.

Strategický plán rozvoje statutárního města Ostravy na léta 2009-2015. (2008)
         Statutární město Ostrava. RPIC VIP Ostrava.

Strategie rozvoje Moravskoslezského kraje 2009-2016. Agentura regionálního
         rozvoje. Ostrava 2009.

ŠRAJEROVÁ, O. ed. 2006. Vývojové proměny postsocialistických měst ostravského a
       hornoslezského regionu v podmínkách transformace. Šenov u Ostravy: Tilia.
       ISBN 80-86904-18-0.

VENCÁLEK, J., KRAJČOVÁ, J. Regionální demografické aspekty dynamiky obyvatel
       Moravskoslezského kraje (1971-2000). Regionální demografie . Olomouc:
       ČDS, 2007. s. 286-295. [2007-05-23-2007-05-24]. ISBN 80-86746-04-6




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                        SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



                                   5. ANNEX: Database

                    Table 4 Population development in city districts
                size                                                          difference
city district              1961    1970     1980    1991     2001      2008
                km2                                                           2008-1991
Hošťálkovice    5,29       1634    1620     1611    1538     1511      1572    +34/+1%
Hrabová         9,19       4571    3946     3544    3446     3433      3779   +333/+11%
Krásné Pole     6,30       1643    1762     1966    1898     2101      2448   +550/+29%
Lhotka          2,13       1059     997     1009     941     1004      1142   +201/+21%
Mariánské
Hory a          6,17      19780   14119    16152   14542   12998      13165   -1377/-10%
Hulváky
Martinov        4,08        710     869      872    1109     1093      1126    +17/+1%
Michálkovice    2,89       4766    3599     2965    2466     2836      3126   +660/+27%
Moravská
Ostrava a       13,85     59319   50086    50395   46397   43428      42538    -3859/-9%
Přívoz
Nová Bělá        6,88      1437    1334     1406   1460   1565   1702         +242/+16%
Nová Ves         3,00      1666    1080      779    640    603    676          +36/+5%
Ostrava - Jih   16,95     33413   70748    90109 118806 118094 116945         -1149/-1%
Petřkovice       3,90      3236    2891     2846   2659   2783   2960         +301/+11%
Plesná           4,84       992     979      996   1001   1098   1222         +221/+22%
Polanka nad
                17,22      3815    3792     4032    3934     4224      4603   +669/+17%
Odrou
Poruba          12,78     42575   83196    93667   83982   74980      71788   -12194/-15%
Proskovice       3,43       775     775      954    1052    1125       1199    +147/+14%
Pustkovec        1,08       697     653      824     999    1115       1216    +217/+22%
Radvanice a
                15,18      9387    7588     6510    5773     6284      6755   +982/+17%
Bartovice
Slezská
                42,68     36731   27537    23534   19466   19484      21349   +1883/+10%
Ostrava
Stará Bělá      13,66      2843    2884     3013    2989     3233      3623 +634/+21%
Svinov          11,70      5088    3904     3572    3379     4536      4516 +1137/+33,5%
Třebovice        3,41      1253    1540     1762    1620     1698      1836 +216/+13%
Vítkovice        7,38     16907   11272     9555    7292     7518      7798   +506/+7%
Ostrava -
                214,20 254297 297171 322073 327389 316744 317086              -10303/-3%
celkem

                        Table 5 Population development in Ostrava
                        1990        1995           2000         2005           2008
 Total
                  331,219        325,670        321,263       311,402         308,374
 population
 Yearbooks of Czech Statistical Office




                                                                                        53
                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                       Table 6 Migration balance in Ostrava
      Year            In-migration        Out-migration     Migration balance
      1990                4808                5107                -299
      1991                4495                4887                -392
      1992                4416                4933                -517
      1993                3551                4550                -999
      1994                3157                3638                -481
      1995                3014                3342                -328
      1996                2881                3304                -423
      1997                3007                3220                -231
      1998                3058                3462                -404
      1999                3055                3450                -395
      2000                2601                3334                -733
      2001                3257                3972                -715
      2002                3759                4556                -797
      2003                4018                4649                -631
      2004                3590                4932               -1342
      2005                3513                4713               -1200
      2006                3800                4788                -988
      2007                5096                5887                -791

                 Table 7 Indicators of population change since 1990
     Indicator        1990       1995        2000      2005      2006    2007
    Marriages         3138       1794        1692      1653      1650    1896*
     Divorces         1245       1182        1241      1224      1193    1208*
       Births         4516       3098        2853      3269      3241    3431
      Deaths          3970       3627        3342      3393      3233    3364
  Natural change
                       546       -529         -489      -124        8     67
      balance
   In-migration       4808       3014        2601      3513      3800    4788
  Out- migration      5107       3342        3334      4713      4788    5887
 Migration balance -299          -328         -733     -1200      -988   -791
    Population
                      +247       -857        -1222     -1324      -980   -724
  change balance
Note: * Ostrava county




                                                                                54
                       SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                                     Table 8 Population
                     Year        Ostrava          MSK          Czech Republic
                     1991        327 605       1 280 131         10 313 000
                     1992        327 271       1 282 196         10 326 000
                     1993        326 933       1 284 787         10 334 000
                     1994        326 049       1 285 898         10 333 000
                     1995        325 508       1 285 449         10 321 000
                     1996        324 359       1 283 935         10 309 000
                     1997        323 539       1 282 082         10 227 000
                     1998        322 684       1 280 659         10 290 000
                     1999        321 764       1 276 929         10 278 000
                     2000        320 743       1 273 537         10 267 000
                     2001        316 396       1 261 503         10 206 000
                     2002        314 710       1 258 251         10 203 000
                     2003        313 568       1 255 910         10 211 000
                     2004        312 080       1 253 257         10 221 000
                     2005        310 681       1 250 769         10 251 000
                     2006        309 495       1 249 290         10 287 000
                     2007        308 832       1 249 897         10 381 000
                     2008        308 211       1 250 255         10 468 000
Source: CZSO. Note: MSK = Moravian Silesian Region

                 Table 9 Prediction of age structure of Ostrava in 2050
    Age      2010       2015      2020     2025    2030    2035    2040     2045       2050
    0-4      14401      14047     13426    12551   11900   11808   11874    11706      11289
    5-9      13938      14387     14033    13413   12538   11888   11796    11862      11694
   10 - 14   13242      13929     14377    14024   13404   12530   11881    11789      11855
   15 - 19   17067      13350     14037    14485   14133   13515   12642    11994      11902
   20 - 24   19720      17427     13721    14407   14856   14506   13889    13020      12374
   25 - 29   21119      20214     17928    14236   14920   15367   15019    14405      13539
   30 - 34   25983      21539     20639    18362   14683   15366   15813    15466      14855
   35 - 39   26039      26340     21920    21027   18762   15102   15784    16230      15886
   40 - 44   20881      26330     26634    22253   21373   19126   15494    16176      16623
   45 - 49   20765      21091     26490    26802   22487   21629   19414    15827      16511
   50 - 54   20232      20791     21132    26455   26778   22567   21744    19579      16064
   55 - 59   22609      19736     20321    20683   25890   26230   22168    21394      19302
   60 - 64   21984      21425     18750    19374   19768   24814   25181    21331      20628
   65 - 69   16283      20259     19837    17426   18095   18528   23346    23749      20182
   70 - 74   11178      14365     17987    17740   15675   16402   16887    21406      21855
   75 - 79   9033       9145      11913    15077   15048   13424   14219    14765      18888
   80 - 84   6640       6435      6723     8960    11545   11748   10646    11500      12106
   85 - 89   3472       3737      3776     4154    5748    7635    8024     7466       8333
    90 +      820       1425      1787     2021    2438    3540    5094     6117       6431
   in total 305406     305969 305433 303451 300042 295725 290915 285781 280319
Source: Solansky, modyfied by Rumpel. Note: Red marked is the strong population wave of 1970s




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                        SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic



                           Table 10 Population rates of change
                         1961-70     1971-80      1981-91      1992-01                 2002-08
 Ostrava                      16,9             8,4           1,6             -3,2          -2,7
 Czech Republic               2,3              5,3           -0,1            -1,0          2,6
Source: CZSO

                          Table 11 Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
             1999       2000         2001      2002   2003         2004     2005    2006      2007

MSK          162,531    166,891 179,745 186,132 195,867 226,089 246,825 261,158 286,580

Czech,Rep. 2,080,797 2,189,169 2,352,214 2,464,432 2,577,110 2,814,762 2,987,722 3,231,576 3,530,249

Source: CZSO. Note: Data for city Ostrava are not avalible

                              Table 12 Total number of households
                          1961                1970      1980               1991        2001
   Ostrava               81,915             103,554    116,650            125,969     128,388
   MSK                  304,261             365,512    417,817            452,609     470,235
Source: CZSO, census data

                                Table 13 Average household size
                       1961           1970        1980          1991                   2001
   Ostrava             3.11                 2.83      2.74                2.58         2.43
  MSK             3.38                      3.18       3.0                2.82         2.66
Source: CZSO, census data




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                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                            Table 14 In and out migration
                        Year          in-migrants       out-migrants
                      1990         4,808                   5107
                      1991         4,495                   4887
                      1992         4,416                   4933
                      1993         3,551                   4550
                      1994         3157                    3638
                      1995         3014                    3342
                      1996         2881                    3304
                      1997         3007                    3220
                      1998         3058                    3462
                      1999         3055                    3450
                      2000         2601                    3334
                      2001         3257                    3972
                      2002         3759                    4556
                      2003         4018                    4649
                      2004         3590                    4932
                      2005         3513                    4713
                      2006         3800                    4788
                      2007         5096                    5887
Source: Solansky, modyfied by Rumpel

                       Table 15 Age percentage of population
              1961            1970         1980          1991            2001
                                         Ostrava
   0-14       25,6             22,8              23,8             20,8   16,4
  15-59       62,6             62,1              61,8             63,0   66,0
   60+        11,8             15,0              14,4             16,1   17,6
                                           MSK
   0-14       28,3             24,6              24,9             21,9   17,2
  15-59       60,0             61,1              61,4             62,5   65,7
   60+         11,7            14,3              13,8             15,6   17,1
Source: CZSO, census data




                                                                                57
                   SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                          Table 16 Dependency rate
    Ostrava       Economically active   Economically inactive             Rate
     1961              106892                  147405                      1,4
     1970              145092                  152079                      1,0
     1980              164378                  157695                      1,0
     1991              172268                  155103                      0,9
     2001              160210                  156534                      1,0

     MSK          Economically active      Economically inactive          Rate
     1961              467130                    565537                    1,2
     1970              555006                    615943                    1,1
     1980              629279                    631707                    1,0
     1991              659395                    623876                    0,9
     2001               630679                      638788                 1,0
Source: CZSO, census data

                        Table 17 One person households
                   1961        1970        1980        1991               2001
    Ostrava        16,7           20,8       26,1            19,7         33,9
Source: CZSO, census data

                      Table 18 Number of persons employed
        year                Ostrava            MSK               Czech Republic
        1992              177118
        1993              170557             574,7 tis              4931,9 tis
        1994              169827             579,6 tis              4943,3 tis
        1995              166329             587,6 tis              4994,9 tis
        1996              162024             598,3 tis              4980,3 tis
        1997              157434             581,9 tis              4926,9 tis
        1998              151610             568,6 tis              4865,7 tis
        1999              143032             542,6 tis              4765,4 tis
        2000              139060             530,5 tis              4751,0 tis
        2001              138385             528,1 tis              4738,6 tis
        2002              135800             536,5 tis              4791,7 tis
        2003              131115             524,3 tis              4724,9 tis
        2004              128568             522,7 tis              4732,7 tis
        2005              129853             535,6 tis              4803,7 tis
        2006              130058             536,9 tis              4861,7 tis
        2007              139045             553,3 tis              4967,2 tis
        2008              142305             568,6 tis              5033,4 tis
Source: Labour Office Ostrava, CZSO




                                                                                  58
                   SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                         Table 19 Unemployment rate
                 year         Ostrava          MSK           ČR

                  1991            4,7
                  1992            3,0
                  1993            5,1            6,63       4,3
                  1994            5,6            5,99       4,3
                  1995            4,8            5,07       4,0
                  1996            5,4            5,67       3,9
                  1997            7,5            7,85       4,8
                  1998            12,0          11,45       6,5
                  1999            15,9          14,94       8,7
                  2000            16,6          15,13       8,8
                  2001            16,2          15,11       8,1
                  2002            17,2          15,89       7,3
                  2003            18,4          16,84       7,8
                  2004            16,6          16,85       8,3
                  2005            14,8          14,23       7,9
                  2006            13,3          12,58       7,1
                  2007            9,4            9,62       5,3
                  2008            8,4            8,49       4,4
                  2009            9,4           12,14       6,7
Source: Labour Office Ostrava, CSZO. Note: from 2005 new changed methodology




                                                                               59
                    SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                    Table 20 Proportion long term unemployed
                              year             Ostrava
                             1991                5,2
                             1992                15,6
                             1993                14,7
                             1994                24,2
                             1995                29,7
                             1996                24,9
                             1997                25,5
                             1998                27,4
                             1999                36,6
                             2000                46,8
                             2001                49,1
                             2002                49,4
                             2003                52,7
                             2004                54,0
                             2005                55,6
                             2006                54,3
                             2007                52,6
                             2008                42,3
Source: Labour Office Ostrava

                            Table 21 Economic activity rate
                     year              Ostrava            MSK
                     1961                42,0             45,2
                     1970                48,8             47,4
                     1980                51,0             49,9
                     1991                52,6             51,4
                     2001                50,6             49,7
Source: Labour Office Ostrava

                                Table 22 Vacancy rate
                                        1970      1980        1991   2001

                 Ostrava                 2,7       4,1        5,1    5,5
Source: CZSO, census data




                                                                            60
                     SHRiNK SMaRT WP2 D4 Ostrava, Czech Republic


                Table 23 Population density (population per sq. km)
                 1961        1970       1980        1991       2001         2008
   Ostrava      1 187,1     1 387,2    1 503,5     1 528,3    1 478,6      1 438,8
    MSK                                                        227,9       230,4
 Czech Rep.                                                    129,3       132,2
Source: CZSO, census data

                Table 24 Population density (population per sq. km)
              year          Czech Rep.           MSK             Ostrava
              1993             131,0              229,5            1 527
              1994             131,1              229,5            1 523
              1995             131,0              229,3            1 520
              1996             130,8              231,8            1 516
              1997             130,7              231,5            1 512
              1998             130,5              231,1            1 509
              1999             130,4              230,7            1 504
              2000             130,3              230,1            1 500
              2001             129,6              227,9            1 478
              2002             129,3              228,1            1 473
              2003             129,4              227,7            1 466
              2004             129,4              227,2            1 462
              2005             129,8              230,5            1 454
              2006             130,2              230,2            1 448
              2007             130,9              230,3            1 443
            2008               132,2              230,4            1 439
Source: CZSO




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