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									      Islamic Studies Courses
Chabot, Ohlone, Missoin and De Anza
 Fourth and Fifth Pillars of Islam
      Fasting and Pilgrimage
        Designed and taught
Hafiz Mohammed Khalid Siddiqi, Ph.D.
• The Holy Qur‟an‟s first revelation came in the
  Holy month of Ramadan, therefore Ramadan
  is the anniversary of The Holy Qur‟an.
• Ramadan receives its holiness and importance
  because of the Holy Qur‟an, therefore it was
  selected by Allah swt (God) to be the month
  of reading Qur‟an and fasting.
• Ramadan is the 9th month in the Islamic
  calendar year which follows lunar system of
  beginning a month by sighting a moon. In
  this system a month has 29 or 30 days and a
  year 354 days. We lose 10.5-11 days yearly.
Allah (God) created Adam to be His Khalifah
(Vicegerent) on earth. The main purpose of
sending Adam and Eve to the Garden of
paradise before sending them to earth, was to
provide them with the training on 1. Self
Control 2. Keep away from Satan 3. Repent, if
You made a mistake. Ramadan fasting is all
About self control and taking charge of your
life. It is all about freeing ourselves from the
Slavery to our habits, lust, and forbidden
O‟ You who believe! Fasting is ordained for you
as it was ordained for those before you, so that
you may learn self-restraint. (Fasting) for a
fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or
on a journey, the prescribed number (should be
made up) from days later. For those who can
Do it (with hardship), is a ransom, feeding of
A needy person. But he that will give more, of
his own free will, it is better for him. And it is
better for you that you fast, if you only knew.
2/183-184, please refer to 2/185-187 too.
The most successful human being will be the
one who can successfully establish just balance
Between material and spiritual aspects of life.
The pressure of our habits is so strong and
sometimes so tremendous that we become
Slaves to our habits of overeating, smoking etc;
That disturb the balance and as a result we
Suffer sometimes obesity of body which results
In sickness of mind and spirit both.
Fasting restores that balance annually, and
Successfully, because it is done collectively.
Sawm/Siyam: total abstinence from food,
drink, and lawful intimate marital relationship
between dawn and dusk.
Suhur/Sahri: to take a light Breakfast, or a
glass of milk, or juice, or some dates, 90
minutes before sunrise.
Imsak: to stop eating Suhur at dawn.
Iftar: to break your fast immediately after
I‟tikaf: Retreat in a Mosque, in last 10 days of
the holy month of Ramadan.
Laylatul-Qadr: Night of power, one of the odd
Nights in last 10 days of Ramadan, considered
to be better than 1000 months in value of
devotional deeds. 97/1-5
Sawm/Siyam is also abstaining from every
Indecent thought, word, deed. Don‟t think,
say, or do evil.
It is reviewing the past 11 months mistakes
and resolving firmly to have next 11 months
free from them. It is one month long practice
to repel evil with goodness.
Fasting during the Holy month of Ramadan is
one of the five pillars of Islam.
It is Prophet‟s tradition to sight the crescent of
Ramadan on 29th of previous month Sha‟ban.
If the new moon wasn‟t visible, for some Reason, 30
days of the month completed.
Islamic day begins after sunset and not after
Midnight. From the night of sighting the new
moon, Taraweeh Prayers of 20 units is offered in
Group all through the month of Ramadan, after „Isha
• Physical aspects of fasting during Ramadan.
• Intellectual aspects of fasting…………
• Spiritual aspects of fasting……………
• Emotional aspects of fasting………
• Social aspects of fasting…………
• Financial aspects of fasting………..
• Traveling, sickness and other conditions in
  which you are allowed to delay the fasting.
• Qada, Kaffarah, Fidyah, Sadaqatul-Fitr.
• Etiquette of eating in Ramadan.
There are six kinds of fasting: 1. Fard: Compulsory,
one month fasting of Ramadan. 2. Wajib: Necessary,
Nadhr, to vow to fast for a day or days 3. Prophet‟s
Sunnah: 9th and 10th days of Muharram, 9th day of
Dhul-Hijjah, 13th, 14th, and 15th, of each month.
4. Nafilah: Extra, 6 days of 10th month, every Monday
and Thursday, 15th day of 8th month, first 8 days of
first month, 5. Makruh: undesirable, continuous
fasting 6. Haram: Forbidden, feast days, first day of
10th month, 10th day of 12th Month, 11th, 12th, and
13th, of 12th month.
     Fifth Pillar of Islam Hajj (pilgrimage)
For Hajj are the months well known. If any
one undertakes that duty therein, let there
be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor
wrangling in the Hajj. And whatever good
you do, (be sure) Allah knows it. And take a
provision (with you) for the journey, but the
best provisions is right conduct. So fear me
O you that are wise. 2/197-203
Ifrad, Qiran and Tamattu‟
References: 2/158, 189, 196-203, 3/96-97,
6/79, 162-163, 22/26-38, 37/99-113, 48/27
Stoies: Zamzam, Rebuilding Kaba, Sacrifice,
(Qurbani, „Udhiyah), Hajj, „Umrah, Ihram,
Talbiyah, Miqat, Tawaf, Istilam, Maqam
(Station) of Abraham, Sa‟y, Halq, Taqsir, Mina,
„Arafat, Muzdalifah, Ramyul-Jamarat, Ifrad,
Qiran, Tamattu‟.
Hajj is the fifth and final pillar of Islam. It is
the pilgrimage to Mecca, in Saudi Arabia. Hajj
takes place in the 12th month of the Islamic
calendar. Every Muslim who is physically and
financially able must perform pilgrimage once
in their lifetime. Before going on pilgrimage,
Muslims are recommended to repay all debts,
seek the forgiveness of anyone they may have
upset and re-establish good relations with all.
Muslims believe that if their Hajj is accepted,
all of their sins are washed away.
      Kaba, Baytullah, Baytul ‘Ateeq
The first House (of worship) appointed for men
was that at Bakka (Mecca), full of blessings
and of guidance for all kinds of beings. In it
are signs manifest; (for example), the station
of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security;
Pilgrimage thereto is a duty men owe to Allah,
those who can afford the journey; but if any
Deny faith, Allah does not stand in need of any
of His creatures. 3/96-97
Miqat and Ihram
The Miqat is a boundary outside Mecca. It is a
place where intentions regarding pilgrimage are
purified and pilgrims enter into a state of Ihram.
Ihram is the changing of the mental state to that
which is most sacred. Pilgrims prepare to
communicate with God in what is believed to be
the world's most sacred ground.

All men wear the same clothing: two sheets of plain
white, unstitched cotton. This dress is a mark of
equality between all humans. It is also a reminder
of the shroud Muslims wear in death. For the sake
of modesty, women do not have to conform to this
dress and may wear any modest clothing and may
not cover their face.
• Ihram is a spiritual state of purity during
 which the person must not quarrel, commit
 any act of violence or engage in sexual
 activity. "The white garments are symbolic
 of human equality and unity before God,
 since all the pilgrims are dressed similarly“
 then pilgrims repeat the Talbiyah:
• "Here I am, O God, at Your Command! Here
 I am at Your Command! You are without
 associate; Here I am at Thy Command! Your
 are praise and grace and dominion! You are
 without associate”.
         Tawaful-Qudum, Tawafuz-Ziyarah,
The most important method of worship in the
Kaba is Tawaf (Circumambulation), and Tawaf
has to start from a corner of Kaba which
Houses the black stone. The black stone came
from the Garden of Paradise with Prophet
Adam pbuh, to be placed in Kaba, to be the
point of beginning of each circle out of seven
Circles of Tawaf. The black stone, is touched,
Kissed, or pointed with raising hands.
The pilgrim then performs the sa„y ( Efforts
and endeavors). He hurries seven times
between two small hills near the Kaba, called
Safa and Marwah. This commemorates the
search for water by Hagar, Prophet Abraham's
Second wife. She strongly believed in Allah
And concluded in the light of her unshaken
Faith: 1. God has power over everything, He
can create water for me if He so willed. 2. He
Taught us that He help those who help
Themselves. Therefore I must start the search
First myself.
With that idea in mind, she looked around and Saw
two hills: Safa and Marwa, she thought, this is good
point for my search for water, so she climbed Safa,
came down, went to Marwa, and continued seven
times, until she was fully exhausted, physically. At
that point, angel Gabriel appeared and near the feet
of baby Ishmael, touched the ground with his wings
and water started gushing out forcefully. Hager
thought it will flood the area and said Zamzam,
Zamzam, (Stop, stop) and made a Boundry. This is
how its name became Zamzam.
Maqam Ibrahim, Zamzam, Ramyul-Jamarat

Before the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, a person who
wants to perform pilgrimage (Hajj)
pronounces the intention to perform Umrah
while approaching the Miqat. A second
intention for the actual Hajj is pronounced at
a later period. There are several rites to
properly complete the Hajj and Umrah.
In Tamattu, after completing the Umrah,
the pilgrim changes into everyday clothes.
All restrictions of the Ihram are
temporarily lifted. On the 8th of Dhul-
Hijjah, the pilgrim intends to perform
Hajj, and puts on Ihram in the prescribed
manner and proceeds to Mina soon
after the Fajr Prayers.

On the 8th day of Dhul-Hijjah, by mid morning,
Pilgrims go to Mina. This is a large area of land
a few kilometers away from the Kaba and is
completely tented. Pilgrims stay in Mina for 24
hours, and perform 5 prayers. They also spend
their time reciting the Qur'an, learning Hadith,
doing devotional deeds, and remembering God.
They leave Mina for Arafat on 9th morning.

After Fajr, pilgrims then make their way to
the plain of Arafat. Arafat is the most
important part of the Hajj. It is a reminder of
the Day of Judgment, where Muslims believe
humankind will stand on a similar plain
waiting for judgment.
Muslims spend the entire day in Arafat,
praying to God and thinking over the purpose
of their lives. It is an extremely emotional
Pilgrims in Ihram
 At sunset without praying Maghrib, pilgrims
 make their way to Muzdalifah, another
 massive plain. 3-4 millions pilgrims perform
 in group Maghrib and „Ishaa‟ prayers here
 and spend the night in devotional deeds,
 under the stars, with no tents or other
 covering. Hajj is one of the best examples of
 how humans regardless of race, sex,
 language or status, can live without
 discrimination. The pilgrims will also collect
 pebbles from here for Jamarat.
• Jamaraat
    The 10th day morning, pilgrims come back to Mina.
    It is the day of „Idul-Adha for the rest of the Muslim
•   They now go to Jamaratul „Uqba and throw 7
    pebbles. The Jamaraat are three tall, stone pillars
    which represent Satan. The pillars remind pilgrims
    of the three temptations that were presented to
    Abraham as he was getting ready to sacrifice his
    son. Just as Abraham resisted the temptations,
    pilgrims symbolically reject Satan and all of life's
    temptations, by throwing pebbles at the pillars.
Farewell Tawaf
 The final act of Hajj is the farewell Tawaf.
 After this, the Hajj is complete. Many people
 then visit the city of Medina, which became
 Muhammad's pbuh home city. The Hajj is an
 act of remembrance of the Prophet
 Abraham who is revered in Islam. Abraham
 is regarded as the Father of the Prophets,
 from whose lineage came Moses, Jesus and
 Muhammad pbut, Both Mecca and Medina
 are extremely sacred lands for Muslims,
 because of their association with Abraham
 and Muhammad pbut.
Shaving or cutting the hair
  Once the pilgrim has completed the 10th day
  Jamaratul-„Uqbah rite, they cut or shave their hair
  and in doing so leave the state of Ihram physically.
  It is recommended that men shave their heads
  completely, but women need only cut a lock of
  hair. This is symbolic of being reborn and cleansing
  the body as well as soul. Pilgrims may now wear
  normal clothes and wear scent, which they were
  not allowed to do in the natural state of Ihram.The
  next two or three nights will be spent at Mina, on
  each day of which pilgrims will return to the
  Jamaraat and throw pebbles at the pillars. The time
  is also spent in praying, reading the Qur'an and
The Mosque of the Prophet pbuh, in Madina

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