Docstoc

OEEGP Award - Lachine Canal final

Document Sample
OEEGP Award - Lachine Canal final Powered By Docstoc
					             Association of Engineering Geologists

Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award
                            - 2003 -


 The Lachine Canal Revitalization Project – Phase 1
            Montréal, Québec, Canada




                          Submitted by:

                        Parks Canada
                       City of Montréal
                    AEG – Montréal Section
                          February 2003
                                       TABLE OF CONTENT

                                                                                                                                           Page

1                 OVERVIEW.
          PROJECT OVERVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2         HISTORY OF T HE LACHINE CANAL AND ITS ASSOCIATED
                 PARK.
          LINEAR PARK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3         COMPLETED AND FUTURE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1       ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE.......................................................................... 9
3.2       LANDSCAPING WORKS AN D PRESERVATION OF THE HISTORICAL AND
          ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES ................................................................................ 13

4                       CONSIDERATIONS
          ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.1       CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCERNS.............................................................. 16
4.1.1     Water quality monitoring................................................................................................. 17
4.1.2     Technical aspects to minimize sediment re-suspension ............................................... 18
4.2       PEEL BASIN EXCAVATION......................................................................................... 20
4.2.1     Fish by the Thousands ................................................................................................... 21
4.2.2     Excavation characteristics.............................................................................................. 22
4.3       ENVIRONMENTAL DATABASE................................................................................... 25
4.4       DRY-CLEANED ............................................................................................................. 26
4.5       THE MONTRÉAL CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN BROWNFIELDS
          REHABILITATION (MCEBR)........................................................................................ 26

5         PARTNERSHIP – THE KE YSTONE ELEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

6                  CONSIDERATIONS
          ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

7                   ENVIRONMENTAL
          LONG TERM ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

8         SOCIAL BENEFITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

9         AWARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

10        CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33




Cover photo :        Aerial photograph of the upstream canal entrance, in the the borough of Lachine.

Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                                                                 February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                                                                Page i
                              TABLE OF CONTENT


Appendices list

APPENDIX 1             ADDITIONAL INFORMAT ION

APPENDIX 2                              CD-
                       PROJECT OVERVIEW CD-ROM




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award   February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                  Page ii
1
1        PROJECT OVERVIEW
         PROJECT OVERVIEW

         The Lachine Canal is undergoing a revival. An imposing revitalization project will
         transform the landscape of the Lachine Canal and surrounding area. After being closed for
         30 years, this exceptional waterway has once again become operational, and the canal is
         now open to recreational boating since May 2002. To make this dream come true, more
         than five years of work and government investments of more than 100 million dollars were
         required. The local community has been deeply involved, the City of Montréal and Parks
         Canada have repeatedly demonstrated their commitment and all of the project partners have
         worked closely together to achieve their common goal: to make the Lachine Canal - that
         once played a major role in the industrial development of Canada - a driving force in
         regional economic development once again, and a substantial improvement for the local
         population quality of life.

         More specifically, the revitalization project involves five objectives:

         •    Bring out national heritage;

          •   Re-open the canal for pleasure boating activities;

          •   Complete the linear park landscaping and conveniences;

          •   Contribute to the South-West Montréal economic re-growth;

         •    Rehabilitation of contaminated sites.


         Phase I of the project headed by Parks Canada runs from 1997 to 2003, with the objective
         of developing the commemorative and recreational potential of the Lachine Canal. Included
         in Phase I, was the urban planning operations and work undertaken by the City of Montréal
         from 1997 to 2002 which concerned the canal approaches and waterside neighbourhoods.

         The most spectacular works involved the restoration of the canal and the operation of the
         waterway with the purpose of reopening the canal to small pleasure craft in 2002 and of
         offering the population a recreational boating area. By restoring the waterway, Parks
         Canada aims at meeting two main objectives: provide pleasure boaters with a functional and
         safe waterway with watercraft clearance of 2.4 m and give the canal back the character it
         had during its last period of use, recreating a long forgotten link between lake St. Louis and
         the St. Lawrence river.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 1
Lock No. 4 sector

         The major works involved for the reopening of the canal to small pleasure craft are:

          •   Excavation of the Peel Basin (275 000 m3);

          •   Stabilizing and rehabilitating the canal walls in appropriate places;

          •   Restoring three locks and three weirs, in addition to the two already restored in the
              1990s by the Old Port of Montréal;

          •   Modifying the decks and approaches to several bridges crossing the canal in order to
              guarantee a minimum watercraft clearance of 2.4 m for boats;

         •    Installation of structures such as holding wharves and docking stations, unloading
              docks, boat ramps and lockkeepers' cabins.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                       February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                     Page 2
         Less visible, but just as important, are the many research projects and studies in preparation
         for the canal’s historical commemoration which also required a huge amount of work and
         energy. Until the opening of a proper interpretation centre, planned for the 2nd phase of
         investment, the national historic importance of the Lachine Canal is currently presented at
         the new Lachine Lock visitor services centre, as well as the interpretation islands dotted
         around the site.




Lachine Lock (No. 5) visitor centre

         The canal landscape reveals a great deal about its history. Whatever an action is planned,
         close teamwork including landscape architects and archaeologists ensure the protection and
         the integrity of historical features by continuously updating developing site layouts.

         In addition, complementary activities will continue to improve the multi-purpose path along
         the length of the canal (creation of new pedestrian and bicycle paths, footbridges and
         tunnels are being built or upgraded) and raise the quality of the visit by adding new services
         and improving accessibility (visitor service centres and pavilions will be built as well as
         parking areas to facilitate access to the site, river and land shuttles will offer an original
         means of transportation, etc.).




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 3
         So not only will this historic site conserve its popular bicycle path, but it will also become a
         choice destination for history buffs and for recreational activities adepts both on land and on
         water. This mega project has also helped the Montréal Island South-West sector regain a
         new economic cruising speed. The revitalization of the canal has had a leverage effect by
         attracting many projects funded by the private sector such as the creation of new
         commercial activities and residential developments responding to the new business
         opportunities along its shore. Associated with these projects are the rehabilitation of
         numerous Brownfield sites, increasing the overall environmental benefits of the Project.

         Considering the numerous positive benefits and their variety, the Revitalization Project of
         the Lachine Canal is a good example of sustainable development in an urban environment
         having significant social, environmental and economic impacts.




                  Aerial photograph of the Park from the Atwater area, looking toward
                  the downstream entrance of the canal




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                          February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                        Page 4
2
2        HISTORY OF THE LACHINE CANAL AND ITS
         HISTORY OF THE LACHINE CANAL AND ITS
         ASSOCIATED LINEAR PARK
         ASSOCIATED LINEAR PARK
         The Lachine Canal Park is located in the heart
         of Montréal, the second largest city in Canada,
         having an urban area of more than 1.8 million
         habitants (Greater Montréal area: 3.4 million).
         Montréal is located on an island, on the North
         shore of the St. Lawrence River, approximately
         eight hours drive North of New-York city.

         Actually, the multi-purpose path of the Lachine
         Canal Park is one of the most popular in
         Canada and attracts more than 800 000 visitors,
         cyclists, in-line skaters, joggers and walkers
         every year, with an increase forecast of 50 %
         for the 2004-2005 season (1 200 000 visitors expected).

         In 1929, the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC) recognized the
         national historic signific ance of the Lachine Canal. In 1978, as with most historic canals in
         the country, the site became one of the national historic sites administered by Parks Canada
         and the federal government created a linear park along its banks. In 1996, the HSMBC
         confirmed and declared the heritage character of the canal by designating it the
         commemoration site of the importance of the manufacturing industry in the history of
         Canada.

         The Lachine Canal is much more
         than just a route bypassing the
         rapids of the same name. The
         Lachine Canal's history stretches
         over more than 175 years and
         takes several directions. It shows
         how the interdependence between
         shipping, industrialization and
         urbanization marked Montréal's
                                                                             Stelco industries (1910)
         development.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                       Page 5
         The canal was the port of entry for a canal network that linked the Atlantic Ocean to the
         heart of the continent. It was one of the factors that made Montréal the cradle of the
         Canadian manufacturing industry. The canal's location near the port and the development of
         its hydraulic power potential in addition to the availability of inexpensive labour, sufficient
         capital and the closeness of markets favoured the establishment of highly diversified
         businesses along its banks. Its development influenced the urbanization of the South-West
         area of the island of Montréal.




         Ships activities in the canal (early 1900s)




                  Wood lumbers being transported by a “canaller” (1934)



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                       Page 6
         Officially opened in 1825 and later enlarged twice, the canal bypasses the Lachine Rapids.
         Five locks along its 13.4-kilometre length overcome the 14-metre difference in elevation.
         As a gateway to the North American continent, it ensured Montréal an important economic
         role. Shipping reached a peak between the two world wars, when nearly 250 companies
         employed some 25,000 workers.




     1- The Old Port Locks Sector                       9- The LaSalle Coke Crane Sector
     2- The Peel Basin Sector                           10- The LaSalle Sector
     3- The CN Port Bridge Sector                       11- The Three Entrances to the Canal
     4- The Saint-Gabriel Lock Sector                   12- The Lachine Lock Sector
     5- The Atwater Market Sector                       13- Monk Island
     6- The Merchants Manufacturing Co. Sector          14- The Old Canal Sector
     7- The Côte-Saint-Paul Lock Sector                 15- The Lachine Rapids
     8- The Towpath

         Many industries were established along the banks of the canal, particularly near the locks in
         its eastern section. Their activities ranged from the following 17 manufacturing production
         groups: food and beverages,
         tobacco, rubber, leather, textile,
         clothing, wood, pulp and paper, iron
         and steel, printing, transportation
         equipment, non-ferrous          metals,
         electrical    devices,   non-metallic
         minerals, oil and coal, chemical
         products and various products. Due
         to these intensive industrial activities
         performed on the surrounding
         properties of the canal, numerous                        Former Redpath sugar refinery (1897)




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                           February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                         Page 7
         Brownfields as well as contaminated sediments deposited on the canal’s bed were left
         behind after the closing of the industries.

         The industrialization of the canal helped shape the city’s social and urban profiles as well. It
                                                                       f
         led to the rapid growth of the working class. Thousands o workers attracted by the new
         factories moved within the vicinity of their work, giving birth to the working-class
         neighbourhoods of South-West Montréal. The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959
         tolled the death knell for the canal, which was closed to shipping in 1970. Starting in the
         1960s, many industries began to close down. In the span of a single generation, the area lost
         some 20,000 manufacturing jobs and fully a third of its population. Today, that same area
         has one of the highest unemployment rates in Canada.

         Following the closing of the canal to shipping, its entrance (Peel Basin Sector) was
         backfilled with earth, mostly coming from the construction of the city’s underground metro
         (subway) but also from unknown locations. During the 1980’s, several bridges were built
         across the canal, reducing its potential for recreational activities.

         In 1978, a few years after the canal was closed, the federal government created a linear park
         along its banks. Its multi-purpose path is one of the most popular in Canada and attracts
         more than 800,000 visitors, cyclists, in-line skaters, joggers and walkers every year. In the
         late 1980s, growing community awareness led to the development of a revitalization plan
         for Montréal’s Southwest sector, of which the revitalization of the Lachine Canal was a key
         component.

         This project is currently nominated as a potential recipient for the Outstanding
         Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award of the Association of Engineering
         Geologists. The following sections will present the completed work, the benefits and the
         Project value to the community.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                          February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                        Page 8
3
3        COMPLETED AND FUTURE WORK
         COMPLETED AND FUTURE WORK

3.1      ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

         On the Lachine Canal, there were numerous engineering works to execute, including
         landscaping kilometres of earth, remediation of wood, stone and concrete walls, restoration
         and strengthening of three locks and their weirs to put back into operation, all being
         performed while respecting the historical structures dating from the last period in which the
         canal was used. Some bridges have also been raised and new footbridges installed. In
         addition, a visitor service centre was built at the head of the Canal, in the Borough of
         Lachine, and service pavilions have been erected at the other locks. Starting from the design
         of these large works up to their completion, Architects, Engineers and Scientists have
         worked diligently from the very beginning of the project. Their achievements are certainly
         the most visible signs of the revitalization of the national historic site.

         The scope of the major Engineering and Architectural works completed to date includes the
         following elements:

          •   Pivoting of the Canadian National Railway Port Bridge;

          •   Restoring the walls of Basin No. 2;

          •   Building the Sir George-Étienne Cartier footbridge;

          •   Raising Bridge No. 3, from Des Seigneurs St.;

          •   Building, by the Borough of Lachine, of a bridge to Lock No. 5 south;

          •   Restoring the weir and Lock No. 4, Côte-Saint-Paul;

          •   Restoring the Saint-Gabriel Lock. No. 3 and its weir;

          •   Excavating and restoring the walls of the Peel Basin (275 000 m3);

          •   Burying of power lines by Hydro-Québec under the newly excavated basins;

          •   Raising of the Charlevoix Bridge and building of a bike path underneath it;

          •   Building by the City of Montréal, the new Monk Bridge and the raising of the old Côte-
              Saint-Paul Bridge, now a footbridge, by Parks Canada;

          •   Restoring Lock No. 5 at Lachine;

          •   Building of a visitor service centre, including a lockkeepers' cabin at the Lachine Lock;




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                          February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                        Page 9
          •   Dredging and management of contaminated sediments in several sha llow water areas;

          •   Building of lockkeepers' cabins / services pavilions at the Saint-Gabriel and Côte-Saint-
              Paul Locks.

         •    Installation of wharves and navigation aids at critical spots along the canal.

         Other works included in the Phase 1 of the Project remain to be completed in 2003,
         including:

          •   Restoring Weir No. 2 in the Peel Basin sector;

          •   Continuing to develop the banks of the Peel Basin;

          •   Designing and building an interpretation centre;

         •    Continuing to restore canal walls.

         These works required a lot of planning and on-site adaptation due to their various effects to
         the multi-users requirements (water level and flow rate management, ongoing revitalization
         works or recreational activities in the park, traffic and residential disturbances, etc.) and
         because of the reduced workable window (≈ June-December) excluding winter works. In
         addition, managing the budget during the length of the Project (years) required tightly
         management.

         Many of the above mentioned works were very challenging in regards to the engineering
         required. As an example, the raising of the three bridges required significant planning and
         optimized design in order to allow secure approaches with the connecting roads
         (demolitionand re-design incorporating a thinner decks, re-design of abutments walls, etc.).

         Another challenging task involved the restoration of the Locks, with their significant
         dimension of 49 m (l) x 14.2 m (w) x 2.7 m (h). The general steps followed for this work
         were:

          •   Drying of the Lock, using temporary cofferdams;

          •   Partial demolition, consolidation (injection) and restoration of the walls;

          •   Bottom stabilization;

          •   Building and installation of the doors (± 20 tons each), keeping the same design and
              material used for the original doors;

         •    Demolition and building of the Southern weir.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                            February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                         Page 10
           Lock No. 3 before restoration




           Lock No. 3 after restoration. On the right hand, the Redpath’s sugar refinery
           building under restoration (future lofts)




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                     February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                  Page 11
       Lock No. 5 (Lachine sector) being restored




      Restoration of a wall along the canal




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award   February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                Page 12
3.2                        AND                 THE
         LANDSCAPING WORKS AND PRESERVATION OF THE HISTORICAL
                            FEATURES
         AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL FEATURES

         The current revitalization project has truly opened up the canal to the adjacent
         neighbourhoods by creating or re-landscaping more than a dozen parks and other public
         spaces alongside the canal as well as by extending several streets to the canal. Prior to the
         completion of the revitalization works, the canal was largely inaccessible because industries
         controlled most of the land along both its sides. The landscaping of the linear park (bicycle
         path) made the canal much more accessible to all users mainly composed of bikers, roller
         bladers and pedestrians.

         The canal landscape reveals a great deal about its history. Whenever a restoration activity is
         planned, landscape architects for example, ensure the protection of its integrity by
         developing the site layout of a lock, to the selection of street furniture. These specialists
         have developed plans that ensure the conservation, the evocation, or, depending on the
         situation, the reconstitution of the significant components of the site's evolution.

         The canal and the neighbouring lands form a huge and complex archaeological mosaic in
         which archaeologists try to locate the remains of the old locks, water projects, industrial
         complexes, and all the other witnesses to the past. These mostly buried remains have a key
         role to play in reconstructing the canal's history. When they were uncovered during
         excavations or various other works, archaeologists studied them and ensured that the most
         significant remains were protected. These studies, recorded in reports, enrich a
         computerized database containing spatial, temporal and descriptive data for all of the
         archaeological resources.

         The Lachine Canal restoration
         work has been executed under
         constant       archaeological
         surveillance.            The
         professionals are at the site
         primarily to evaluate and
         adjust, when necessary, the
         construction work impact on
         archaeological remains. In
         addition,     they      collect
         information on the building
         techniques of the various artefacts and their former use.    Archaeologist at work at Lock No. 5




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                     Page 13
         Preserving a record of the previous
         layout of the sites requires detailed
         photographic and planimetric surveys.
         These surveys were necessary to
         document the his tory of the canal and to
         understand concretely its operation and
         evolution. At Lock No. 5 (next photos),

         the archaeological surveillance team
         witnessed the excavation and recording
         of the north lock tail mitre-sill, a tri-
         angular floor upon which the lock doors
         rested when they were shut. Similarly,
         the excavation of a junction between the
         wall of this lock and a temporarily
         cleared spillway permitted some very
         interesting observa tions.




         The scope of the major landscaping works completed to date, for which a significant impact
         to the preservation of the historical and archaeological features was considered, includes the
         following elements:

         In general:

         •    A complete detailed site plan, a development outline and planning guidelines for the
              Lachine Canal Restoration Project.

         More specifically:

          •   Development of the approaches of the Des Seigneurs and Charlevoix bridges;

         •    First phase of the development of the Lachine, Côte-Saint-Paul and Saint-Gabriel
              Locks, the approaches to the Côte-Saint-Paul bridge and the north link between Des
              Seigneurs Street and the Sir-George-Étienne-Cartier footbridge.



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                     Page 14
         On-going activities that should be completed include:

          •   Regional development of the Lachine Locks sector, in conjunction with the Montreal
              adjacent boroughs;

          •   Progressive development of the approaches to the following locations: Saint-Gabriel
              Lock, Côte-Saint-Paul bridge and lock, the Des Seigneurs and Charlevoix bridges, the
              Peel Basin and the north link;

         •    Integration of various components of the site development program into the linear
              landscape.




The new Monk bridge built by the City of Montréal




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                    February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                 Page 15
4
4        ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
         ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

4.1                   SEDIMENTS
         CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS CONCERNS

         Before becoming a recreation zone, the Lachine canal was the centre of intense industrial
         activities, which had the effect of polluting both the surrounding lands and the sediments at
                                                                     the bottom of the canal. In the
                                                                     early 1990s, an exhaustive
                                                                     investigation    indicated      the
                                                                                                   3
                                                                     presence of nearly 120 000 m of
                                                                     contaminated sediments in the
                                                                     canal,     containing      various
                                                                     concentrations of heavy metals,
                                                                     Petroleum          Hydrocarbons,
                                                                     Polycyclic              Aromatic
                                                                     Hydrocarbons or Polychlorinated
                                                                     Biphenyls.

         Contaminated sediments in the Peel Basin area

         The Revitalisation Project initially proposed by Parks Canada considered the restoration of
         these contaminated sediments by dredging and nearshore confinment prior to the re-opening
         of the canal to navigation. This part of the project was rejected in the Fall of 1996 by an
         environmental commission mandated by the Québec Province and Canada governments,
         which concluded that the restoration of the sediments would not have significant effects
         regarding the water quality in the canal (most of the contamination sources were controlled
         in the 1980s) as well as to the contamination level in the fish tissues (already at the St.
         Lawrence background level). In addition, the commission stated that since the sediments
         were not affecting human health, the overall restoration budget (≈ 10 M $CAN) would be
         better invested in other aspects of the Revitalization Project.. However, the commission
         recommended that if the contaminated sediments were left in place, the risk of re-
         suspending the sediments had to be assessed prior the reopening of the canal for pleasure
         boating.

         In that context, Parks Canada, which was responsible for the environmental management of
         the sediment, proceeded with two navigation trials: one in 1998 and another in the fall of
         2001. The navigation conditions were identical to those found on the other historic canals in
         Québec, one of these being the cruising speed limit restricted to 10 km/hr. During the 2001



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 16
         trial, thirteen typical canal crafts cruised halfway up in the canal and no noticeable
         disturbance of the sediments were observed (using water sampling, sediment traps, video
         camera imaging, etc.).

4.1.1    Water quality monitoring

         Although the navigation trials performed in 1998 and 2001 indicated no noticeable
         disturbance of the sediments, Parks Canada, in collaboration with Environment Canada, had
         to set up two monitoring programs taking in to consideration that the conditions would be
         significantly different once the canal was reopened (traffic density, climatic variations,
         etc.). The first monitoring programs was targeted to obtain a reference level prior to the
         canal’s reopening, while the second was to assess the effects of navigation on the sediment
         re-suspension during the first navigation season. As a result, tests on turbidity (related to the
         presence of suspended solids in water) were carried out several times per week during the
         2002 season, at both the entrance and exit points of the canal.

         Before re-opening the canal to recreational navigation, Parks Canada was ready to take the
         appropriate mitigation measures in the case of excessive suspended solids in the water. If
         contaminated mud started to be remobilized in the canal, staff was ready to apply the
         necessary measures to rectify the situation, such as diminishing the number of boats or
         lockage manoeuvres, reducing the cruising speed of boat traffic, increasing the distance
         between vessels or close the canal to navigation.
                                                                                                         Lachine Canal
                                                                                           Concentration of Suspended Solids in Water
         After 4 600 boats cruised                                                                   May - July 2002 Period
         within the Canal during the
                                                                         30                                                                            150
         2002 season, results from                                                  Upstream station                                                   135
                                                                                    Downstream station
         the              monitoring                                     25
                                                                                    Number of boats                                                    120

                                                                                    Threshold (6.2 mg/L)                                               105
         demonstrated that pleasure
                                                                                                                                                       90

         boating did not have a
                                            Concentration of SS (mg/L)




                                                                         20                                                                            75

         negative impact on the


                                                                                                                                                             Number of boats
                                                                                                                                                       60

                                                                                                                                                       45
         milieu and the suspended                                        15
                                                                                                                                                       30

         solids        concentrations                                                                                                                  15


         remained below the fixed                                        10                                                                            0

                                                                                                                                                       -15
         thresholds.    The    water                                                                                                                   -30
                                                                          5
         quality will be monitored                                                                                                                     -45

                                                                                                                                                       -60
         for at least another season
                                                                          0                                                                            -75
         and mitigation measures                                              May                                                               July

                                                                                                           Sampling date
         introduced if necessary.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                                                                February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                                                             Page 17
4.1.2    Technical aspects to minimize sediment re-suspension

         Throughout renovations of the locks and the walls of the canal, sediments shifting to the St.
         Lawrence river was avoided by the use of as much as possible different precautionary
         measures. While rebuilding the walls, protective screens (silt screens) were installed
         downstream of the work area, prior of decreasing the water level. In addition, the water
         flow rate in the canal was diminished by over 90%. Water turbidity levels were constantly
         monitored during the restoration work performed in the canal, and a contingency plan was
         applied when necessary.




          Silt screen layout while performing restoration work in the canal

         Presuming that one of the major potentials for re-suspending the contaminated sediments
         would arise while operating the Locks, due to the high flow rate of the water getting in or
         out of the locks, special measures were considered to avoid that concern. While performing
         the restoration works of Locks Nos. 3, 4 and 5, the water needed to be initially drained out.
         To do so, two cofferdams or dikes were raised at the entrance and the exit of these locks.
         This situation presented an ideal opportunity to clean the bottom of these locks by
         extracting the contaminated sediment. As an additional protective measure against the
         sediment re-suspension potential while operating the Locks, the contaminated sediments
         were caped in-situ immediately upstream and downstream of the St. Gabriel (No. 3) and the
         Côte St. Paul (No. 4) locks, using waterproof liners (geomembranes) ballasted with a 30-
         centimetre tick layer of rock fragments.



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                     Page 18
      Downstream cofferdam construction at Lock No. 3




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award   February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                Page 19
               EXCAVATION
4.2 PEEL BASIN EXCAVATION

         The newly re-excavated Peel Basin, an inland lake, offers a magnificent setting for water
         sports and commercial activities right at the foot of the downtown core. Amongst the
         numerous works related to the revitalization project, this excavation was a major
         challenging task in regard to the environmental geology.

         In 1848, the year the basin was originally excavated, the ceaseless movement of ships and
         the warehousing and handling of merchandise reigned supreme. The "turning basin" and the
         smaller "flour basins", as they were then called, were backfilled at the start of the 1960’s
         with earth from some of the many building projects underway in Montreal at the time,
         including the tunnels for the subway system.




    Aerial photograph of the Peel Basin in 1931

         In order to enable the re-excavation of the basin, the water level as well as the flow rate
         within the canal had to be controlled. This task was not as simple as originally thought
         because the water had to be managed in rela tion with the particular needs to achieve the
         other tasks upstream, such as the restoration of the locks, canal walls (using barges) and
         raising bridges, while keeping a minimum water flow rate downstream, for the




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                       February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                    Page 20
         “Mosaiculture” international horticulture activity held at the Old Port of Montreal.
         Moreover, lowering the water level required the catching and re-locating of nearly 9 000
         fish (22 different species) as well as 20 mature trees. Sediments re-suspension was
         controlled during the excavation using sediment traps as well as silt screen. Water quality
         was monitored throughout the excavation to ensure its accordance to environmental
         regulations.




   Aerial photograph of the Peel Basin in 2000, before excavation

4.2.1    Fish by the Thousands

         Before draining the sections of the basin which had to be excavated, a team of fishermen
         were sent to traw the canal, collecting the resident fish and transferring them to the St.
         Lawrence River. The magnitude of the task came as a surprise as over nine thousand fish
         belonging to some twenty species were moved.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                      February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                   Page 21
         Between May 5 and 9, 2001, the fishermen rescued fish from the areas of the canal that
         were going to be drained. Their primary tool of capture: electrical fishing, which stuns the
         fish for a few moments allowing easy capture.

         The fish most
         frequently
         relocated was...
         the minnow, of
         which        four
         different species
         were found. Next
         most common, in
         decreasing order,
         were          the
         Pumpkinseed
         Sunfish,       the
         Yellow     Perche
         and the Rock
         Bass. Rarer species were also enc ountered, though in smaller numbers and included the eel,
         the Yellow Walleye, the Northern Pike and the Maskinonge.



4.2.2    Excavation characteristics

         The Peel Basin was backfilled between 1965 and 1970 with material (mostly earth) coming
         from various unknown excavation sites. Since these materials were not characterized prior
         to their backfilling, a preliminary characterization study was performed to allow for the
         development of a preliminary scope of work and to estimate the overall excavation costs.
         This study was also part of the environmental impact study.

         Based on the information gathered from the preliminary characterization, it was considered
         to be more advantageous to characterize the materials during excavation in order to
         determine their proper manage ment. This approach allowed substantial cost savings,
         productivity improvement and beneficial reuse of material.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                       February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                    Page 22
Aerial photograph of the Peel Basin with projected image of what it will look like in 2005, after completion
of Phase II excavation and restoration work

         The chosen excavation method
         involved the division of the
         entire Peel Basin surface into a
         20 m by 20 m regular grid,
         using nine different levels
         (elevation intervals) of 1 to
         1.75 m in thickness. Each of
         the     cells    was     initially
         characterized in situ (composite
         sample taken from the surface,
         with hydraulic excavator) to
         determine        the      proper
         management of the material
         within the cell’s limits. This
         huge excavation reached a total



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                             February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                          Page 23
         of ≈ 275 000 m3 , representing approximately 570 000 metric tons or 27 000 truck loads !
         Since the Peel Basin is part of downtown Montréal, special circulation precautions had to
         be instigated in order to minimize the associated impacts (traffic, noise, dirt and dust, etc.).




             Finishing the Peel Basin excavation

         Management of the excavated soils was one of the main concerns, and special measures
         were taken to reuse (or recycle) as much material as possible. The recycled excavated
         materials included 19 000 tons of rock, concrete and asphalt fragments as well as 5 000 tons
         of scrap metal. According to their contamination level, some of the soils were reused for
         landscaping of the Park (not-contaminated or low contamination level: ± 70 000 m3),
         increasing significantly the total landscaped area of the linear Park. The remaining soils
         were either sent to the Municipal landfill as daily or final cover material (intermediate
         contamination level: ± 204 000 m3) or disposed of at specialized treatment sites (high
         contamination level: ± 1 200 m3). All of the suitable sites for receiving the material from
         the excavation of the Basin were identified prior of the excavation.




              Cruising on the Peel Basin during the 2002 opening season



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                            February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                         Page 24
4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL DATABA SE

         Over the years, the canal's industrial character did not only muddy its waters: the
         surrounding soil was likewise touched in differing degrees by industrial pollution. One
         aspect of Parks Canada's management of its lands carefully weighs the risks posed to
         human health and the ecosystem. The lands around the Lachine canal were thus minutely
         and systematically analysed by experts wishing to determine whether the state of the soil
         called for an immediate decontamination initiative.

         For the past two years, trenches have been dug every sixty metres along the cana l, with the
         soil being subsequently removed and evaluated. This work was achieved to complement the
         information already available and to develop a strategy for the development planning of the
         linear Park (characterization → risk analysis → restoration or development) with respect to
         the chosen priority. All of the information was recorded in the Park’s contaminated site
         database, which contains all pertinent environmental data (contaminant level, restoration
         cost, geology, depth, etc.) as well as the historical and archaeological information.




    Environmental database




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                       February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                    Page 25
4.4      DRY -CLEANED

         Numerous contaminated lots in the Montréal South-West have been cleaned up over the
         past few years, according to the Revi-Sols Provincial program created in 1998. The
         Ministère de l’Environnement du Québec and the City of Montreal have signed an
         agreement which provides for the decontamination of tracts of land for which development
         projects are planned. Following a preliminary selection process, a number of projects have
         been approved and completed in the canal vicinity.

         The financial outlay for decontamination of land belonging to Montreal has been assumed
         equally by the City of Montréal and the Provincial government. In the case of private lots,
         Quebec paid half of the costs and the remaining por tion was the responsibility of the
         promoters. In all instances, the City of Montreal was responsible for the registration of
         development projects submitted by the owners of the lots. This agreement total costs for all
         partners, including Montreal, Quebec and private owners/promoters, is estimated at 60
         million $CAN.

         The rehabilitation work included in the program includes on-site or off-site treatment,
         excavation and confinement of contaminated material, management of dismantling
         material, risk analysis to reduce exposure to contaminants, and the studies inherent to such
         work.

4.5                    CENTRE                 BROWNFIELDS
         THE MONTRÉAL CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE IN BROWNFIELDS
                        (MCEBR)
         REHABILITATION (MCEBR)

         As an example of the leverage effect of the Revitalization Project, the Montréal Centre of
         Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation (MCEBR) selected the Lachine Canal to host
         construct its head office. By its strategic location situated in a former rail yard, downstream
         from Lock No 4 (on an actual mixed contamination Brownfield site), the MECBR offers a
         real technology demonstration platform for promoters. Also, this live technology window
         enables public education by presenting thematic exhibitions on urban contamination sites
         problems. Parks Canada will be called upon to act as an advisor for the Centre’s sections
         devoted to interpreting the environmental history of Montréal's South-West.

         A number of urban areas, such as Montreal, have mixed contamination problems found in
         soils and groundwater where it commonly corresponds to a mixture of inorganic (lead, zinc,
         etc.) and organic (oil, PAHs, PCBs, etc.) contaminants. Lands that contain such
         contaminants, in varying concentrations, cannot be redeveloped unless they are
         decontaminated. Presently, the state of the art methods involves the excavation and the



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 26
         disposal of the contaminated soil at an approved landfill site. The MCEBR favours a
         concerted approach to solving mixed contamination problems in cities by demonstrating
         rehabilitation techniques which could be marketed later.




The Montréal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                 February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                              Page 27
5
5        PARTNERSHIP – THE KEYSTONE ELEMENT
         PARTNERSHIP – THE KEYSTONE ELEMENT

         The principal objectives of the revitalization project for the Lachine Canal National Historic
         Site, as presented at the public consultation held in Winter 1997, reflect a remarkably broad
         consensus in the milieu. Parks Canada and the major stakeholders are currently sitting at a
         concertation table where the co-ordination of various actions and the future management
         model for the national historic site are discussed.

         The Revitalization Project could not have been realized thus far without the inter-relation
         created with the strong partnership involving the following major partners:

          •   Parks Canada;
          •   City of Montréal;
          •   Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC);
          •   Environment Canada;
          •   Canada Economic Development (CED) for the Québec Region;
          •   Citizens and organizations in the canal zone;
         •    Private investors.

         Generally speaking, Parks Canada concentrates its efforts on the waterway and the adjacent
         lands, which are Federal government property. Canada Economic Development (CED)
         provides support for the reopening of the canal to pleasure boating. Environment Canada
         and Public Works and Government Services Canada contribute to environmental programs
         while the City of Montréal invests to modernize the city’s infrastructures in the area and
         create public spaces.

         By their mutual agreement, every single action undertaken by each Partner aimed toward a
         win / win project. As an example, the revitalization project will produce a leverage effect
         on the Montréal South-West sector economy, increasing the private investments and the
         taxes collected. The contribution to the Project by the City of Montréal and CED can be
         considered as capitalization yielding a good return on investment in the near future.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                     Page 28
6
6        ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
         ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

         At this time, the Lachine Canal revitalization project is THE major public environmental
         project active in the Province of Québec. The numbers of tasks to be completed were so
         huge that nearly 100 M $CAN were invested during the Phase 1 of the Project. Individual
         contributions to the Project are as follows:

         City of Montréal:                                                  60.0 M $CAN
         Parks Canada:                                                      18.5 M $CAN
         Canada Economic Development:                                       16.5 M $CAN
         Public Works and Government Services Canada:                        2.0 M $CAN
                                                                   TOTAL:   97.0 M $CAN

         Taking into account the preliminary phase completed between 1976 and 1997 by Parks
         Canada (16.5 M $CAN) and the Old Port of Montréal (17 M $CAN), more than
         130 M $CAN were invested on the Lachine Canal Park development.

         With respect to public investment, the City of Montréal has been able to communicate its
         enthusiasm for the canal revitalization project to the private sector and attract visionary
         investors into the areas bordering the canal. Private funds totalling more than 160 M $CAN
         have been invested in:

          •   A number of residential and commercial building projects;
          •   The establishment of a growing number of "new economy" businesses;
          •   The arrival of young families who are choosing the canal area as their home;
         •    The establishment of cultural enterprises and the arrival of artists who are contributing
              to the development of the local cultural industry.




                Residential development (condos), in the Lock No.4 sector



Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 29
7
7        LONG TERM ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
         LONG TERM ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

         Many works were completed in order to improve the environment quality of the Park. To
         ensure water quality within the canal, the active contaminant sources (overflow and
         industrial sewers) were identified and correction actions were taken. Also, the erosion of
         the canal’s bank (some contaminated soils) was stopped by walls restoration and erosion
         control structure.

         Associated with the numerous works achieved during the Project, and thanks to the soil
         characterization programs conducted so far, the major environmental issues are well
         understood within the entire linear Park’s limits. The environmental knowledge gathered
         has been used to restore impacted areas or impose certain restrictions to ensure the safety of
         the Park’s users. Current and future development will be performed with the benefit of this
         valuable knowledge.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                        February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                     Page 30
8
8        SOCIAL BENEFITS
         SOCIAL BENEFITS

         The main social benefits of the Project are:

          •   Catalytic effect on the Montreal South-West sector economic development;
          •   Site’s historical heritage conservation;
          •   Public education of the site history and the environment;
          •   Multi-purpose site enabling recreational and commercial activities thanks to the links
              created with the existing urban surrounding (residential and commercial areas);
          •   Construction of the new Monk bridge and Montreal's infrastructures;
          •   «Good living» residential developments around the Park;




                                                                          Information centre in the park




        Canoe parade during the opening season




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 31
9
9        AWARDS
         AWARDS

         The Lachine Canal Revitalization Project – Phase 1 has received three distinctions
         acknowledging its overall contributions and benefits to society:

          •   Québec Federal Council Award;
          •   Queens Golden Jubilee Medal;
          •   2002 Orange Award from Sauvons Montréal.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award              February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                           Page 32
10
10       CONCLUSION
         CONCLUSION

         The Lachine Canal Park, with its revitalization project, represents one of the most popular
         attraction in Montréal for recreational activities on both land and water. This mega success
         project belongs to an effective multi-level partnership between major governmental
         agencies and social groups, and showed that urban development can respect environment,
         history, social needs, as well as long term economic development.

         The original tools used to manage environmental concerns and the historical heritage
         throughout the Project reflect a capacity to develop innovative solutions respecting the
         sustainable development approach, which is often difficult to materialize.

         In the 1800s, the canal played a significant role by linking the Atlantic Ocean to the heart of
         the American continent; it was the major factor that made Montréal the cradle of the
         Canadian manufacturing industry. Now in the new millennium, the Lachine Canal not only
         commemorates this rich heritage for the benefit of all Canadians, but it also contributes
         actively to the renewal of the city and country it participated in creating.




Association of Engineering Geologists
Outstanding Environmental and Engineering Geologic Project Award                         February 2003
Parks Canada / City of Montréal / AEG – Montréal Section                                      Page 33
A ppe ndix 1 A ddi tion al I nfo rma tion
Related Websites:


Parks Canada:
http://www2.parkscanada.gc.ca/parks/quebec/canallachine/index.html

City of Montréal:
http://canaldelachine.qc.ca/english/canallachine_en.htm
A ppe ndix 2 P roj ect Ov ervi ew C D- ROM

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:36
posted:5/21/2011
language:English
pages:39