Fagopyrum 15:71-82. (1998) Buckwheat Flower Pictorial 2 Tamaki HIROSE l and Akio UJIHARA I Hokuriku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Inada, Joetsu, Niigata 943-0193, Japan 2 Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Minamiminowa, Kamiina, Nagano 399-4598, Japan , Received on Feb. 12 1997 Key words: buckwheat, cultivated species, flower, interspecific hybrid, wild species. Introduction There are two species of cultivated buckwheat around the world: common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.). These species are, from botanical point of view, classified into the family Polygonaceae, genus Fagopyrum . More than ten other species has been identified including wild species in genus Fagopyrum. This is a pictorial reference providing the photos and explanations of the characteristics of each species. This buckwheat flower pictorial is ready available on the Internet WWW server (present URL is http://soba.shinshu-u.ac.jp/soba/soba.html). 1. Cultivated species of the southern to the central part of China, and is also cultivated as one of the traditional crops in the F. esculentum Moench (Fig. I) mountainous areas in the Himalayan countries of Common buckwheat (F. esculentum) belongs to the Nepal and Bhutan. It is cultivated in stead of F. crop so called pseudocereals as well as grain esculentum in the high altitude areas in Nepal and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). This species is the Himalayan countries. Since F. tataricum is an cultivated all over the Northern Hemisphere except autogamous plant in contrast to F. esculentum for the islands in the South East Asia. China is which belongs to allogamous plant, it is said that it reported to have the largest cultivation area of this has higher efficiency of fertilization and seed species of 1-1.5 million ha, Russia, Ukraine, setting and that its yield amounts higher than Canada, USA and Poland rank after China. common buckwheat. Very wide differentiation of Common buckwheat plays considerably important strains and variations in the characteristics of grain role as one of few crops belonging to is known. As its grains contain bitter component, Polygonaceae. Although Japan has cultivation it was also called "bitter buckwheat" (Niga-soba) area of 25-30 thousand ha, demand is not met with in Japan, and no history of cultivation in Japan is domestic production, and about 80% of demand is found. However, since the content of rutin which dependent on import from China, Canada, USA, is known as its medical action of curing the etc. weakness of capillary blood vessel is much higher in F. tataricum than in F. esculentum, F. tataricum F. tataricum Gaertn. (Fig. 2) is attracting such interest as utilizing it as health Tartary buckwheat is cultivated mainly in the area promoting food, and is also noticed by plant 72 Fagopyrum 15 (1998) breeders. This species is self-compatible similar to the cultivated species of F. tataricum, but its plant 2. Wild species height and the number of branches are small until the initial stage of flowering. Perianth color is, E escu/entum Moench spp. ancestra/is unlike green in F. tataricum, white as in other wild Ohnisbi (Fig. 3) species. Characteristics of shattering and This is the only one wild species that can cross in a dormancy which are unfavorable for cultivation usual way with the cultivated species of F. are found. Spontaneous populations are found as esculentum. This species differs definitely from a weed in roadside and upland field in the areas of the cultivated species in that it has the habit of Szechan and Kansu in China, and Tibet, Kashmir shattering, dormancy and branching. It also and Karakoram. Although morphology of a differs from the cultivated species in that its leaves seedling is similar to F. esculentum, differences are are rather thick and glossy and its branches found in that this species has slightly longer petiole elongate noticeably after flowering. This species of cotyledon and coleoptyle with cilia. Veining of is hetelostyly and allogamous. Distribution areas perianth is of F. esculentum type. of this species are slopes facing Jinsha river in Yongsheng, Lijiang and Zhaondian prefectures in E cymosum (Trev.) Meissn. ( =E dibotrys (D. Yunnan province, China. Spontaneous Don) Hara) (Fig. 7) populations are found in a scree-covered slope, Vigorous perennial plant with tubers. Diploid under shrubs and around upland fields. (2n = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 32) are found. This Morphology of a seedling is characterized by a species grows as an outstanding weed community long hypocotyl and short petiole of cotyledon . in such places as roadsides, agricultural fields and Veining of perianth is of F. esculentum type (Fig. surrounding areas of human residence where soil 4). moisture is rather high. Flowers resemble those of F. esculentum. Although the number of seeds E homotropicum Ohnisbi (Fig. 5) produced is large, shattering of seeds is remarkable. Although this species morphologically differs little This species is supposed to propagates by from F. esculentum Moench ssp. ancestralis, vegetative propagation. In diploid plants heterostylism is lost and is autogamous. Flower generation of aerial roots is remarkable and color is pink or white. Spontaneous populations lignified tubers are formed, while in tetraploid are found in a scree-covered slope and so forth as plants runners elongate in soil. Diploid plants well as F. esculentum Moench ssp. ancestralis. distribute only in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in Distribution area is northwest part of Yunnan China, while tetraploid plants have wide province, China. Morphology of a seedling is distribution area spreading from Yunnan and similar to F. esculentum: long hypocotyl and short Kweichow provinces in China, northern part of petiole of cotyledon. Veining of perianth is of F. Thailand, eastern part of Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal esculentum type. to Karakoram over Kashmir. Both diploid and tetraploid plants are heterostyly and autogamous. F. tataricum (Gaertn.) ssp. Potanini Batalin Populations consist only of short styled plants are (Fig. 6) found in and around Darjeeling in West Bengal in 73 Hirose & Ujihara Buckwheat flower pictorial. India and in northern part of Thailand. These Perennial plant with tubers. Morphology of populations are regarded as localized populations above ground parts resembles F. leptopodum and arisen as a result of emigration by human slightly larger than F. leptopodum . Distribution transportation. This would be one of the area is reported to be found around Kunming city examples of peculiar distribution of a companion in Yunnan in China. plant. Seedling has short hypocotyl without cilia and long petiole of cotyledon. Veining of F. urophyllum (Bur. et Franch.) Gross (Fig. 11) perianth is of F. esculentum type. This large-sized wild species is the only one that belongs to arboreous perennial plant in Fagopyrum. F. leptopodum Diels ( ;:; ; F. Grossli (Levl.) Colony of is found in sunny hillside near human Gross) (Fig. 8) habitation or road This is an annual species of diploid with The tip of a leaf blade is slim like a tail as shown hetrostylism and self-incompatibility. Plant size by its scientific name. Populations in the western is generally small and plant height does not reach part of and the eastern part of Yunnan differ a little 10 em under unfavorable growing conditions. in the color of flower, plant height and seed setting Stems are slender and small flowers are born percentage, etc., but both are diploid, hetrostyly densely or sparsely depending on plants. This and self-incompatible. Main distribution area of species never grow as a weed in upland fields. spontaneous populations are around Kunming city Spontaneous populations are found in the sunny, and the western part of Yunnan province, and some dry and wasted area between upland field and parts of Sichuan province. Cotyledon is round- forest. Such disturbance as caused by quarry shaped and the surface of hypocotyl of seedling is results in thick growth. Mainly distributed in the smooth . Veining of perianth is of F. gracilipes western and northern part of Yunnan province in type. China, and veining of perianth is of F. gracilipes type (Fig. 9). F. gracilepes (Hemsl.) Dammer (Fig. 12) Erect or creeping slender stems are characteristics F. lineare Sam (Fig. 10) of this species. Number of flowers and seeds are This species is diploid, heterostyly and seil- born. This species is a very common weed in incompatible. Although greatly resembles F. maize, buckwheat and vegetable fields in Sichuan , leptopodum, leaf blade of this species is linear as Yunnan and Kweichow provinces. Flower color shown by its scientific name in contrast to sagittate is white or pink. Plant height varies from 10 cm or hastate leaf blade in F. leptopodum. to 80 cm depending on growth conditions. So far, Distribution area is found around Kunming city in this species is reported to be tetraploid (2n = 32) Yunnan in China. Similar to F. leptopodum, without heterostylism and self-compatible. In cotyledon is hart-shaped and seedling has wild species of buckwheat, distribution area of this hypocotyl with cilia and minute protuberances species is wide as well as F. cymosum . arranged in lines. Veining of perianth is of F. Spontaneous population of this species is gracilipes type. distributed from Sichuan, Yunnnan, Kweichow provinces in China to Himalaya including Bhutan. F. statice (Levl.) Gross Cotyledon is round-shaped and hypocotyl of 74 Fagopyrum 15 (1998) seedling has cilia and minute protuberances heterostyly is morphologically observed. Fruits arranged in lines. Veining of perianth is of F. are larger than those of F. urophyllum, and are gracilipes type. almost fully covered with perianth. Surface of a fruit is smooth and shiny. This species is found in R pleloramosum Ohnisbi (Fig. 13) dry land or in the slope of wasteland, around Similar to F. gracilipes, number of branches are agricultural fields, but the number of plants found produced. They elongate up to about I m and is relatively small in all habitats . Distribution creep. Flower color is white and number of small area is the upriver district of Min river in Sichuan seeds is produced . Although heterosty, self- province in China. Cotyledon is ellipse-shaped fertilization is frequent. Leaves of basal node and the surface of hypocotyl of seedling is smooth orders are hastate, while those of node orders near resembling to F pleioramosum. Veining of the tip are often tail-shaped. This species is perianth is a type peculiar to this species (Fig. 16). diploid, and is not found in agricultural field but around agricultural field and roadsides in the upper 3. Interspecific hybrids Min river valley. Cotyledon is ellipse-shaped and the surface of hypocotyl of seedling is smooth. R esculentum x R cymosum (Fig. 17) Veining of perianth is of F. gracilipes type. By using embryo culture method, Ujihara et al. obtained for the first time in 1988 interspecific R capillatum Obnisbi (Fig. 14) hybrid of F. esculentum x F. cymosum between This species is hetrostyly and self-incompatible, tetraploid of both species . Afterwards, and is assumed to be diploid . Although similar to interspecific hybrid was also obtained by using F. gracilipes, erect and plant height is larger, leaves diploid of both species. A\though morphological are egg-shaped and number of slightly smaller character such as internal and external morphology flowers is produced . This species is weed found of stems and leaves varied widely among growing in dense populations in tobacco or individual hybrid plants, hybrid .plants resembled buckwheat fields, fallow fields and roadsides. F. wild species of F. cymosum in general. Growth gracilipes do not exist where this species is found. habit of many strains of this hybrid was perennial, Distribution areas of this species are, similar to F. but degree of growth and development of tubers esculentum ssp. ancestralis slopes facing Jinshan was not uniform. Seedling has short hypocotyl river in Yunnan province, China . Cotyledon is and short petioles of cotyledon, which remarkably round-shaped and hypocotyl of seedling has cilia resembled F. cymosum. Tuber in underground and minute protuberances arranged in lines. was lignified and aerial roots was less frequent than F. cym osum. Heterostyly was observed in R callianthum Obnisbi (Fig. 15) hybrid likewise parents. Self-incompatible. Plant height is around 40 cm and the number of Progenies of back cross with F. esculentum has branches are small. This species differs from also been obtained. other wild species in that this species has thick and long-triangle-shaped leaves. Flowers as large as R esculentum x R giganteum (Fig. 18) those of F. esculentum are pink and most beautiful In 1993, Ujihara et al. obtained one interspecific among wild species . Autogamous although hybrid plant of F. esculentum x F. giganteum by 75 Hirose & Ujihara Buckwheat flower pictorial. applying embryo culture and calus culture methods. F. esculentum , and flower color was greenish, self- Morphology of shoot resembled that of maternal compatible and seeds were produced by self- plant, but branching ,was more vigorous in hybrid. pollination. Th is hybrid might be a useful genetic Flowers resembled those of short-styled flower of resource for breeding. Fig. I. F esculentum Moench . Fig. 2. F. tataricum Gaertn .. 76 Fagopyrum 15 ( 1998) Fig. 3. F esculentum Moench spp. ancestralis. Fig. 4. Veining pattern ofperianth of F. esculentum. Fig. 5. F homotropicum Ohnishi. 77 Hirose & Ujihara Buckwheat flower pictorial. Fig. 6. F. tataricum (Gaertn.) spp . Potanini Batalin. Fig. 7. F. cymosum (Trev.) Meissn.. Fig. 8. F. leptopodum Diels. 78 Fagopyrum 15 ( 1998) Fig. 9. Veining pattern of perianth of F. gracilipes . Fig. J O. F lineare Sam. 79 Hirose & Ujihara Buckwheat flower pictorial. Fig. 11. F urophyllum (Bur. et Franch.) Gross. Fig. 12. F gracilepes (Hems!.) Dammer. Fig. 13. F p/eioramosum Ohnishi. 80 Fagopyrum 15 (1998 ) Fig. 14. F capillatum Ohnishi. Fig. 15. F callianthum Ohnishi . Fig. 16. Veining pattern of F callianthum Ohnishi. 81 Hirose & Ujihara Buckwheat flower pictorial. Fig. 17. Backcross progeny of interspecific hybrid between F esculentum and F cymosum. Fig. 18. Interspecific hybrid between F esculentum and F gigant eum. 82 Fagopyrum 15 ( 1998) Bibliography Ohnishi, O. 1993. What is the wild ancestor of buckwheat, and where is the or igin? - Genetic Campbell, C. G. 1976. Buckwheat. In Simmonds, N. approach. Research results of the research W. (ed. ) Evolut ion of Crop Plants . pp. 235-237, project, grant-in-aid for scientific research for Longman, London 1992. pp. I-52 . Kyoto University*. Hirose , T., Uj ihara, A., Kitabayashi H. and Minami , Ohnishi, O. ( 1995) Discovery of new Fagopyrum M. 1993. Morphology and ident ification by species and its implication for the studies of isozyme analysis of interspecific hybrids In evolution of Fagopyrum and of the origin of buckwheat. Fagopyrum 13: 25-30. cultivated buckwheat. In Matano, T. and Ujihara, Hirose, T., Lee, B. S., Okuno, 1. Konishi , A, Minami, A. (Eds.) Current Advances in Buckwheat M. and Ujihara, A. (1995) Interspecific pollen- Research , pp. 175-190 . Shinshu University Press, Matsumoto. pistil interaction and hybridization in genus Ujihara, A. 1994. Ways of utilization of buckwheat in Fagopyrum . In Matano, T. and Ujihara, A. (Eds.) the world. New Food Industry 36: 11-16*. Current Advances in Buckwheat Research. pp.239-246. Shinshu University Press, *In Japanese. Title is translated by the present Matsumoto. authors. Ohnishi, O. 1991. Discovery of the wi Id ance stor of common buckwheat. Fagopyrum 11 : 5-10.
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