Buckwheat Flower Pictorial by ert634

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									Fagopyrum 15:71-82. (1998)

Buckwheat Flower Pictorial
                                             2
Tamaki HIROSE l and Akio UJIHARA
I   Hokuriku National Agricultural Experiment Station, Inada, Joetsu, Niigata 943-0193, Japan
2   Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Minamiminowa, Kamiina, Nagano 399-4598, Japan
                   ,
Received on Feb. 12 1997


Key words: buckwheat, cultivated species, flower, interspecific hybrid, wild species.


Introduction

       There are two species of cultivated buckwheat around the world: common buckwheat (Fagopyrum
esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.).            These species are, from
botanical point of view, classified into the family Polygonaceae, genus Fagopyrum .           More than ten
other species has been identified including wild species in genus Fagopyrum.             This is a pictorial
reference providing the photos and explanations of the characteristics of each species.                  This
buckwheat flower pictorial is ready available on the Internet WWW server (present URL is
http://soba.shinshu-u.ac.jp/soba/soba.html).


    1. Cultivated species                               of the southern to the central part of China, and is
                                                        also cultivated as one of the traditional crops in the
F. esculentum Moench (Fig. I)                           mountainous areas in the Himalayan countries of
Common buckwheat (F. esculentum) belongs to the         Nepal and Bhutan.      It is cultivated in stead of F.
crop so called pseudocereals as well as grain           esculentum in the high altitude areas in Nepal and
amaranth (Amaranthus spp.).          This species is    the Himalayan countries.     Since F. tataricum is an
cultivated all over the Northern Hemisphere except      autogamous plant in contrast to F. esculentum
for the islands in the South East Asia.     China is    which belongs to allogamous plant, it is said that it
reported to have the largest cultivation area of this   has higher efficiency of fertilization and seed
species of 1-1.5 million ha, Russia, Ukraine,           setting and that its yield amounts higher than
Canada, USA and Poland rank after China.                common buckwheat.       Very wide differentiation of
Common buckwheat plays considerably important           strains and variations in the characteristics of grain
role     as   one   of few   crops    belonging    to   is known.   As its grains contain bitter component,
Polygonaceae.       Although Japan has cultivation      it was also called "bitter buckwheat" (Niga-soba)
area of 25-30 thousand ha, demand is not met with       in Japan, and no history of cultivation in Japan is
domestic production, and about 80% of demand is         found.   However, since the content of rutin which
dependent on import from China, Canada, USA,            is known as its medical action of curing the
etc.                                                    weakness of capillary blood vessel is much higher
                                                        in F. tataricum than in F. esculentum, F. tataricum
F. tataricum Gaertn. (Fig. 2)                           is attracting such interest as utilizing it as health
Tartary buckwheat is cultivated mainly in the area      promoting food, and is also noticed by plant
 72

                                                   Fagopyrum 15 (1998)

breeders.                                                     This species is self-compatible similar to the
                                                              cultivated species of F. tataricum, but its plant
2. Wild species                                               height and the number of branches are small until
                                                              the initial stage of flowering.          Perianth color is,
E escu/entum             Moench        spp.    ancestra/is    unlike green in F. tataricum, white as in other wild
Ohnisbi (Fig. 3)                                              species.      Characteristics       of shattering        and
This is the only one wild species that can cross in a         dormancy which are unfavorable for cultivation
usual way with the cultivated species of F.                   are found.    Spontaneous populations are found as
esculentum.         This species differs definitely from      a weed in roadside and upland field in the areas of
the cultivated species in that it has the habit of            Szechan and Kansu in China, and Tibet, Kashmir
shattering, dormancy and branching.                It also    and Karakoram.         Although morphology of a
differs from the cultivated species in that its leaves        seedling is similar to F. esculentum, differences are
are rather thick and glossy and its branches                  found in that this species has slightly longer petiole
elongate noticeably after flowering.          This species    of cotyledon and coleoptyle with cilia.         Veining of
is hetelostyly and allogamous.         Distribution areas     perianth is of F. esculentum type.
of this species are slopes facing Jinsha river in
Yongsheng, Lijiang and Zhaondian prefectures in               E cymosum (Trev.) Meissn. (              =E   dibotrys (D.
Yunnan       province,       China.           Spontaneous     Don) Hara) (Fig. 7)
populations are found in a scree-covered slope,               Vigorous perennial plant with tubers.                Diploid
under      shrubs      and    around     upland     fields.   (2n = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 32) are found.           This
Morphology of a seedling is characterized by a                species grows as an outstanding weed community
long hypocotyl and short petiole of cotyledon .               in such places as roadsides, agricultural fields and
Veining of perianth is of F. esculentum type (Fig.            surrounding areas of human residence where soil
4).                                                           moisture is rather high.         Flowers resemble those
                                                              of F. esculentum.     Although the number of seeds
E homotropicum Ohnisbi (Fig. 5)                               produced is large, shattering of seeds is remarkable.
Although this species morphologically differs little          This species       is supposed      to     propagates     by
from F. esculentum Moench ssp. ancestralis,                   vegetative    propagation.          In     diploid    plants
heterostylism is lost and is autogamous.           Flower     generation of aerial roots is remarkable and
color is pink or white.        Spontaneous populations        lignified tubers are formed, while in tetraploid
are found in a scree-covered slope and so forth as            plants runners elongate in soil.            Diploid plants
well as F. esculentum Moench ssp. ancestralis.                distribute only in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in
Distribution area is northwest part of Yunnan                 China,     while    tetraploid     plants     have      wide
province, China.        Morphology of a seedling is           distribution area spreading from Yunnan and
similar to F. esculentum: long hypocotyl and short            Kweichow provinces in China, northern part of
petiole of cotyledon.        Veining of perianth is of F.     Thailand, eastern part of Tibet, Bhutan and Nepal
esculentum type.                                              to Karakoram over Kashmir.               Both diploid and
                                                              tetraploid plants are heterostyly and autogamous.
F. tataricum (Gaertn.) ssp. Potanini Batalin                  Populations consist only of short styled plants are
(Fig. 6)                                                      found in and around Darjeeling in West Bengal in
                                                                                                                           73

                                        Hirose & Ujihara      Buckwheat flower pictorial.


India and in northern part of Thailand.                 These       Perennial plant with tubers.              Morphology of
populations are regarded as localized populations                   above ground parts resembles F. leptopodum and
arisen as a result of emigration by human                           slightly larger than F. leptopodum .         Distribution
transportation.              This would     be one of the           area is reported to be found around Kunming city
examples of peculiar distribution of a companion                    in Yunnan in China.
plant.     Seedling has short hypocotyl without cilia
and long petiole of cotyledon.                     Veining of       F. urophyllum (Bur. et Franch.) Gross (Fig. 11)
perianth is of F. esculentum type.                                  This large-sized wild species is the only one that
                                                                    belongs to arboreous perennial plant in Fagopyrum.
F. leptopodum Diels ( ;:; ; F. Grossli (Levl.)                      Colony of is found in sunny hillside near human
Gross) (Fig. 8)                                                     habitation or road
This      is an annual           species of diploid         with    The tip of a leaf blade is slim like a tail as shown
hetrostylism and self-incompatibility.              Plant size      by its scientific name.      Populations in the western
is generally small and plant height does not reach                  part of and the eastern part of Yunnan differ a little
10 em under unfavorable growing conditions.                         in the color of flower, plant height and seed setting
Stems are slender and small flowers are born                        percentage, etc., but both are diploid, hetrostyly
densely or sparsely depending on plants.                    This    and self-incompatible.       Main distribution area of
species never grow as a weed in upland fields.                      spontaneous populations are around Kunming city
Spontaneous populations are found in the sunny,                     and the western part of Yunnan province, and some
dry and wasted area between upland field and                        parts of Sichuan province.          Cotyledon is round-
forest.     Such disturbance as caused by quarry                    shaped and the surface of hypocotyl of seedling is
results in thick growth.           Mainly distributed in the        smooth .    Veining of perianth is of F. gracilipes
western and northern part of Yunnan province in                     type.
China, and veining of perianth is of F. gracilipes
type (Fig. 9).                                                      F. gracilepes (Hemsl.) Dammer (Fig. 12)
                                                                    Erect or creeping slender stems are characteristics
F. lineare Sam (Fig. 10)                                            of this species.     Number of flowers and seeds are
This species is diploid, heterostyly and seil-                      born.     This species is a very common weed in
incompatible.           Although greatly resembles F.               maize, buckwheat and vegetable fields in Sichuan ,
leptopodum, leaf blade of this species is linear as                 Yunnan and Kweichow provinces.              Flower color
shown by its scientific name in contrast to sagittate               is white or pink.      Plant height varies from 10 cm
or     hastate        leaf     blade   in   F.    leptopodum.       to 80 cm depending on growth conditions.          So far,
Distribution area is found around Kunming city in                   this species is reported to be tetraploid (2n      =   32)
Yunnan in China.                Similar to F. leptopodum,           without heterostylism and self-compatible.              In
cotyledon        is    hart-shaped      and      seedling    has    wild species of buckwheat, distribution area of this
hypocotyl with cilia and minute protuberances                       species    is   wide    as   well    as    F. cymosum .
arranged in lines.             Veining of perianth is of F.         Spontaneous        population   of this      species    is
gracilipes type.                                                    distributed from Sichuan, Yunnnan, Kweichow
                                                                    provinces in China to Himalaya including Bhutan.
F. statice (Levl.) Gross                                            Cotyledon is round-shaped and hypocotyl of
74

                                                Fagopyrum 15 (1998)

seedling has cilia and minute           protuberances      heterostyly is morphologically observed.             Fruits
arranged in lines.      Veining of perianth is of F.       are larger than those of F. urophyllum, and are
gracilipes type.                                           almost fully covered with perianth.           Surface of a
                                                           fruit is smooth and shiny.        This species is found in
R pleloramosum Ohnisbi (Fig. 13)                           dry land or in the slope of wasteland, around
Similar to F. gracilipes, number of branches are           agricultural fields, but the number of plants found
produced.     They elongate up to about I m and            is relatively small in all habitats .         Distribution
creep.   Flower color is white and number of small         area is the upriver district of Min river in Sichuan
seeds is produced .       Although heterosty, self-        province in China.           Cotyledon is ellipse-shaped
fertilization is frequent.    Leaves of basal node         and the surface of hypocotyl of seedling is smooth
orders are hastate, while those of node orders near        resembling to F pleioramosum.                 Veining of
the tip are often tail-shaped.       This species is       perianth is a type peculiar to this species (Fig. 16).
diploid, and is not found in agricultural field but
around agricultural field and roadsides in the upper       3. Interspecific hybrids
Min river valley. Cotyledon is ellipse-shaped and
the surface of hypocotyl of seedling is smooth.            R esculentum x R cymosum (Fig. 17)
Veining of perianth is of F. gracilipes type.              By using embryo culture method, Ujihara et al.
                                                           obtained for the first time in 1988 interspecific
R capillatum Obnisbi (Fig. 14)                             hybrid of F. esculentum x F. cymosum between
This species is hetrostyly and self-incompatible,          tetraploid    of      both     species .      Afterwards,
and is assumed to be diploid .    Although similar to      interspecific hybrid was also obtained by using
F. gracilipes, erect and plant height is larger, leaves    diploid of both species.        A\though morphological
are egg-shaped and number of slightly smaller              character such as internal and external morphology
flowers is produced .    This species is weed found        of stems      and     leaves     varied    widely   among
growing in dense populations in tobacco or                 individual hybrid plants, hybrid .plants resembled
buckwheat fields, fallow fields and roadsides.       F.    wild species of F. cymosum in general.              Growth
gracilipes do not exist where this species is found.       habit of many strains of this hybrid was perennial,
Distribution areas of this species are, similar to F.      but degree of growth and development of tubers
esculentum ssp. ancestralis slopes facing Jinshan          was not uniform.        Seedling has short hypocotyl
river in Yunnan province, China .       Cotyledon is       and short petioles of cotyledon, which remarkably
round-shaped and hypocotyl of seedling has cilia           resembled F. cymosum.             Tuber in underground
and minute protuberances arranged in lines.                was lignified and aerial roots was less frequent
                                                           than F. cym osum.        Heterostyly was observed in
R callianthum Obnisbi (Fig. 15)                            hybrid     likewise    parents.        Self-incompatible.
Plant height is around 40 cm and the number of             Progenies of back cross with F. esculentum has
branches are small.       This species differs from        also been obtained.
other wild species in that this species has thick and
long-triangle-shaped leaves.     Flowers as large as       R esculentum x R giganteum (Fig. 18)
those of F. esculentum are pink and most beautiful         In 1993, Ujihara et al. obtained one interspecific
among wild species .         Autogamous although           hybrid plant of F. esculentum x F. giganteum by
                                                                                                          75

                              Hirose & Ujihara    Buckwheat flower pictorial.

applying embryo culture and calus culture methods.      F. esculentum , and flower color was greenish, self-
Morphology of shoot resembled that of maternal          compatible and seeds were produced by self-
plant, but branching ,was more vigorous in hybrid.      pollination.   Th is hybrid might be a useful genetic
Flowers resembled those of short-styled flower of       resource for breeding.




                                     Fig. I. F esculentum Moench .




                                      Fig. 2. F. tataricum Gaertn ..
76

                    Fagopyrum 15 ( 1998)




       Fig. 3. F esculentum Moench spp. ancestralis.




     Fig. 4. Veining pattern ofperianth of F. esculentum.




              Fig. 5. F homotropicum Ohnishi.
                                                         77

  Hirose & Ujihara    Buckwheat flower pictorial.




Fig. 6. F. tataricum (Gaertn.) spp . Potanini Batalin.




        Fig. 7. F. cymosum (Trev.) Meissn..




            Fig. 8. F. leptopodum Diels.
78
                    Fagopyrum 15 ( 1998)




     Fig. 9. Veining pattern of perianth of F. gracilipes .




                   Fig. J O. F lineare Sam.
                                                 79

Hirose & Ujihara   Buckwheat flower pictorial.




Fig. 11. F urophyllum (Bur. et Franch.) Gross.




   Fig. 12. F gracilepes (Hems!.) Dammer.




      Fig. 13. F p/eioramosum Ohnishi.
80

                   Fagopyrum 15 (1998 )




              Fig. 14. F capillatum Ohnishi.




              Fig. 15. F callianthum Ohnishi .




     Fig. 16. Veining pattern of F callianthum Ohnishi.
                                                                       81

            Hirose & Ujihara   Buckwheat flower pictorial.




     Fig. 17. Backcross progeny of interspecific hybrid between
                   F esculentum and F cymosum.




Fig. 18. Interspecific hybrid between F esculentum and F gigant eum.
82

                                                Fagopyrum 15 ( 1998)


Bibliography                                                Ohnishi, O. 1993. What is the wild ancestor of
                                                                buckwheat, and where is the or igin? - Genetic
Campbell, C. G. 1976. Buckwheat. In Simmonds, N.                approach.    Research results of the research
     W. (ed. ) Evolut ion of Crop Plants . pp. 235-237,         project, grant-in-aid for scientific research for
     Longman, London                                            1992. pp. I-52 . Kyoto University*.
Hirose , T., Uj ihara, A., Kitabayashi H. and Minami ,      Ohnishi, O. ( 1995) Discovery of new Fagopyrum
     M. 1993. Morphology and ident ification by                 species and its implication for the studies of
     isozyme analysis of interspecific hybrids        In        evolution of Fagopyrum and of the origin of
     buckwheat. Fagopyrum 13: 25-30.                            cultivated buckwheat. In Matano, T. and Ujihara,

Hirose, T., Lee, B. S., Okuno, 1. Konishi , A, Minami,          A. (Eds.) Current Advances        in Buckwheat

     M. and Ujihara, A. (1995) Interspecific pollen-            Research , pp. 175-190 . Shinshu University Press,
                                                                Matsumoto.
     pistil interaction and hybridization in genus
                                                            Ujihara, A. 1994. Ways of utilization of buckwheat in
     Fagopyrum . In Matano, T. and Ujihara, A. (Eds.)
                                                                the world. New Food Industry 36: 11-16*.
     Current   Advances    in   Buckwheat      Research.
     pp.239-246.     Shinshu      University      Press,
                                                             *In Japanese.    Title is translated by the present
     Matsumoto.
                                                              authors.
Ohnishi, O. 1991. Discovery of the wi Id ance stor of
     common buckwheat. Fagopyrum 11 : 5-10.

								
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