Chapter 6 Metabolism Cloze Notes

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					                                          Chapter 6 Metabolism Cloze Notes

        You will need to read on the aging process in your textbook
        Metabolism:


        Potential energy:

             o Measured in ______________________
             o Also called_____________________________
        Kinetic Energy:

        ________________________

        Heat:

What can cells do with energy?

        Energy from the _______________________________________ becomes coupled to thousands of energy-
         requiring processes in cells
        Cells use the energy to perform ____________________________________________________.

How energy is available?

        First law of thermodynamics:
        Energy cannot be produced by the -_____________- it can only be________________________ from someplace
        High quality energy is ____________________________
        Low quality (such as heat) is released into the _____________________________

One way flow energy

        Second law of thermodynamics:

        Each conversion produces _____________________________ (usually heat) that is unavailable for work
        Entropy:

Cells and Energy Hills

        Energy changes in living cells tend to proceed _____________________________________ in the direction that
         results in a decrease in usable energy
        Endergonic (“energy in”) reactions
        Example:
        Exergonic (“energy out”) reactions :

        Example:
ATP couples energy inputs with outputs

       ATP is composed of __________________________________________
       Energy input links ______________________________________ (phosphorlyation phosphate transfer)
       ATP can in turn _________________ a phosphate group to another molecule, which then becomes primed and
        energized for specific reactions
       ATP is like________________________ in an ________________________
       Earning ATP is an _____________________ reaction and spending (using) ATP is a
       ADP can be recycled to ATP very rapidly in the __________________________________

Electrons transfer drive ATP formation

       Electrons are transferred in nearly every reaction that harnesses energy for use in the formation of ATP
       In plant cells sunlight energy drives electrons from water molecules to initiate the reactions that will eventually
       In aerobic respiration, the degradation of _______________________ release energy that can be transferred to
       This actually makes more ________________________

Participants in Metabolic Reactions

       Reactants:

       Products:

       Intermediates:

       Energy Carriers:

       Cofactors:

       Transport Proteins:

What are metabolic pathways?

       Metabolic Pathways form series of reactions that regulate the concentration of substances within cells by
       Biosynthetic pathways:

       Example:
       Degradative pathways:

       Released energy can be used for _______________________
Are reactions are reversible?

       ________________________________ can proceed from reactants to products, which if they are allowed to
        accumulate, will be convert back to reactants
       The direction of concentrations and the collision of molecules
       When reaction approaches _______________________________, the forward and reverse reaction proceed at
        equal rates
       __________________________ change in concentration
       Every reaction has its own ratio of _________________________to ___________________ at equilibrium

No vanishing at the end of the run

    •   The law of conservation of mass

            –   This is why we must “____________________________” a chemical equation by having equal number
                of atoms of each element on both sides of the arrow.

                        C02 + H20  C6H12O6 + O2

                                Balance the equation

Electron transfer chains in the main metabolic pathways

       Energy is released from _________________________________ (such as glucose) in controlled steps via a series
        of __________________________________
       Electrons released during bond breaking are transferred_________________________ through the components
        of electron transport systems located on various cells membranes
       Oxidized:

       Reduced:

       Coenzymes:

       Electrons are similar to ____________________ where the electrons flow down the steps from the
        ____________________ (most energy available) to the __________________ (least amount of energy)
       The energy is harnessed to move ______________________ which turns establish pH and electric gradient


       _________________________ helps organisms exist through speeding up chemical reactions
       Without_________________________ could not process food, build new cells, get rid of old cells, keep your
        brain working, and to contract muscles
       Enzymes increases the rate of reaction by _________________________________- energy (the amount of
        energy needed to get a reaction going)
       Enzymes have four features:

How doe enzymes lower energy hill?

       Active Site:
       Increases the rate of reaction by creating a ______________________________ that is energetically more
        favorable for the reaction


Transition at the Top of the Hill

       _________________________________ brings the reactive chemical groups into alignment so that chemical
        bonds can be broken, created, and rearranged.
       The substrate is brought to its transition state– ________________________________________

How enzymes work?

       Binding energy:

        Which helps bring about transition state by four mechanisms:

About those cofactors
    Cofactors

       Inorganic metal ions such as Fe++ also serve as cofactors when assisting membrane cytochrome proteins in their
        electron transfer in ____________________________________________
Why are enzymes so big?

      A large molecule affords ______________________________________________
      Extensive folding of polypeptide chains puts ______________________ and _____________________in location
       and orientations that favor interactions with water and substrate

How Enzymes activity controlled?

      Some controls regulate the number of enzyme molecules available by
       _______________________________their synthesis
      Sometimes enzymes bind to other sites than their _____________________________
      Allosteric enzymes

Do temperature and pH affect enzyme activity?

      Enzymes operate best within defined ________________________________
      High temperature decreases reaction rate by disrupting the bond that maintain 3-D shape
       (____________________________________ occurs)
      Most enzymes function best at the pH range of _______________________
      Exception: _____________________________
      Higher or lower pH can disrupt the ________________________________

Light Up the Night

      Fireflies use enzymes (l_____________________________) to produce light by
      Researchers transferred genes for bioluminescence into strains of ________________________________ so
       that the course of infection could be tracked by visualization