Abdominal ultrasound Acellular scaffolds Acrylic

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Abdominal ultrasound Acellular scaffolds Acrylic Powered By Docstoc
					Index




Abdominal ultrasound, 13                Androgen
Acellular scaffolds, 162–164             fracture healing, 146
Acrylic splints, 48, 49                 Angiogenesis, 139, 140
  pediatric mandibular fractures, 399    tissue differentiation theory
Acuity cards, 239                           mechanical loading, 142
Adams, Milton, 88, 332                      osteogenesis, 142–144
Adenoviruses                            Angle, Edward, 39, 87, 88
  gene transfer                         Angle fractures
     fracture healing, 157–159           bone plates, 396
Adipose tissue, 238                      infected, 388, 389
Aesthetic brow deformity, 210            mandibular, 396
Age                                     Anosmia, 294
  bone marrow, 144                      Anterior maxillary wall
  calvarium, 144                         bone fragment reduction,
  fracture healing, 144, 145                   198
  periosteum, 144                       Anterior wall frontal sinus fractures,
Air-filled sinuses, 333                         298–303
Airway management, 2, 3                  comminuted, 302, 303
  gunshot wounds, 440–442                depressed, 300
  maxillofacial trauma, 7                linear nondisplaced,
Alloplastic materials                          299
  fracture repair, 246                  Antibiotics
Alveolar process                         mandibular fractures,
  fracture, 42                                 395
     stabilization, 48                   World War II, 331

                                                                           457




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458                                                                      Index


AO=ASIF (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur        [Biomaterials]
       Osteosynthesefragen=               clinical experience, 191
       Association for the Study of       craniofacial skeleton fixation,
       Internal Fixation), 382, 386            183, 184
Appositional growth, 61                   delayed reconstruction, 182
Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur                   evolution, 201, 202
       Osteosynthesefragen=               fracture fixation plate selection, 190
       Association for the Study of       histology, 189
       Internal Fixation, 382, 386        immediate skeletal fixation, 182
Arch bars, 382                            mechanical properties, 189, 190
  Erich-type, 218                         physical properties, 184, 185
  fixation, 48                             safety, 183
ASIF, 386                                 toxicology, 188
Assaults, 335                           Bioresorbable plates, 191
Association for the Study of Internal     mandibular fractures, 390
       Fixation (ASIF), 386             Blair, Vilray, 88
Autogenous bone grafts                  Blood supply
  early developments, 88                  fracture healing, 148
  Tessier, 351                          Blowout fracture, 243
Avulsed tooth, 47                       BMP, 105
Avulsive maxillofacial injuries         BMP-2, 105
  facial unit restoration, 348–350,     BMP-3, 105
       454, 455                         BMP-4, 105
  reconstruction, 439–455               BMP-7, 105, 106
    gunshot wounds, 440–444               fracture healing, 156
    mandible, 444–448                   Bone
    postreconstruction preprosthetic      children, 417
       surgery, 453, 454                  composition, 96, 97
    tissue management and                 deposition
       assessment, 449–452                   bone graft, 114
                                          fixation
Bag-valve mask (BVM), 3                      plate selection, 192
Balloon catheter, 228                     fractured rat mandible differential
Bicuspids, 30                                  healing, 81
Bilateral fractures                       growth, 55–63, 57
  atrophic mandible, 406, 407             modeling, 98
  Le Fort I and II                        remodeling, 57, 98
     midface, 351, 353                    repair, 57
Bioelectrical effects                     terminology, 96, 97
  fracture healing, 110, 111            Bone flap
Bioelectrical potentials, 110             vs. bone graft, 22
Bioinductive biomaterial, 205           Bone grafts, 112–128. see also specific
Biomaterials, 181–206                          bone grafts
  bone substitutes, 204–206               autogenous
  cranio-facial trauma, 203                  early developments, 88
  chemical properties, 185–188               Tessier, 351




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Index                                                                      459


[Bone grafts]                             Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP),
  bilateral fractures                            105
     atrophic mandible, 406, 407          Bone plates
  vs. bone flap, 22                          angle fractures, 396
  cancellous revascularization, 114         zygomas fractures, 376
  cortical revascularization, 114, 115    Bone substitutes, 205, 206
  embryological origin, 117–119             biomaterials, 204, 206
  mandible                                Bony orbit
     infection control, 445                 anatomy, 235–237
  mechanical environment, 123, 124        Bony repair optimization, 137–165
  mechanical stress, 119, 120               cell-based, 161–164
  microarchitecture, 117–119, 126           fracture healing, 138, 139
  new concepts, 123                         gene transfer, 157–161
  nonvascularized physiology, 113, 114      local factors, 147–151
  osteogenesis, 115, 116                    mechanical strategies, 152–154
  osteoinduction, 115, 116                  recombinant growth factor, 155–157
  position, 117–119                         systemic factors affecting, 144–147
  primary                                   systemic strategies, 151, 152
     maxillary fractures, 351–354           tissue differentiation theory,
  remodeling, 116                                139–144
  repair, 95–128                          Bowstringing, 284
  revascularization, 124, 125             Brain abscess, 322, 323
     mechanical force, 125–129            Breathing, 7, 8
  survival, 116                           Brown-Grus vault compression test,
Bone healing                                     263
  biochemical and molecular aspects,      Buccal surface, 28
        101–107                           Bulbous conjunctiva, 237
  fibroblast growth factor (FGF), 103      BVM, 3
  growth factor release, 102–105
  IL-1, 103                               Calcitonin
  insulin-like growth factor (IGF), 104     fracture healing, 146
  osteoinductive factors, 105, 106        Calcium hydroxyapatite, 100
  primary, 101                            Calcium phosphate ceramics (CPC),
  transforming growth factor-beta                 163
        (TGF-beta), 102                   Caldwell Luc approach, 90, 361, 362
Bone marrow                               Calvarial bone graft
  age, 144                                  vs. iliac bone graft, 117, 118
Bone morphogenetic proteins-2             Calvarium
  (BMP-2), 105                              age, 144
Bone morphogenetic proteins-3             Cancellous bone
  (BMP-3), 105                              defined, 96
Bone morphogenetic proteins-4               revascularization, 114
  (BMP-4), 105                            Canthal deformities, 375
Bone morphogenetic proteins-7             Capillaries
  (BMP-7), 105, 106                         development, 99, 100
  fracture healing, 156                   Carter Phase diagram, 141




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460                                                                  Index


Cementum oementoblasts                [Children]
  injury reaction, 82, 83               roof fractures
Central midface                            frontal sinus, 253
  tissue management and assessment,     skull
        450, 451                           growth, 58
Centric occlusion, 36, 37               subglottic stenosis, 6
Centric relation, 36, 37                unique features, 416, 417
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)              Circulation control
  leak, 264, 308, 309                   gunshot wounds, 442–444
  rhinorrhea, 294, 338                Circulatory status
Cervical cancer                         assessment, 8–10
  radical neck dissection             Class III occlusion, 44
     early developments, 88           Class II occlusion, 43
Cervical spine                        Class I occlusion, 42
  fracture                            Cleft lips
     incidence, 12                      early developments, 88
  immobilization, 3                   Cleft palate
  injuries, 12, 13                      early developments, 88
Champy technique, 397                 Closed reduction
Cheever, David, 87                      condylar fractures, 398
Chemotaxis, 115, 116                    history, 382
Chest                                   mandibular fractures, 396
  anteroposterior view, 13              pediatric mandibular fractures,
Child abuse, 418                              399, 424
Children                              Comminuted mandible fractures, 22
  craniofacial skeletal deformities   Commotio retinae, 254
     cranial base approach, 332       Compression forces, 139
  dental arches, 27                   Compression plates
  facial fractures, 415–430             mandibular fractures, 387
     epidemiology, 418–421            Compressive stress, 139
     etiology, 417, 418               Computed tomography (CT),
     management, 422–430                      13, 14, 416
     prevention, 421, 422               frontal sinus fractures, 295, 296
  fractures, 252, 253                   frontal sinus injuries, 295
     healing, 144, 145                  helical
  greenstick fractures, 424                mandibular fractures, 384
  mandibular fractures,                 late twentieth century, 89
        399, 424, 425                   mandibular fractures, 384
  nasal injuries, 277                   maxillary fractures, 337
  needle cricothyroidotomy              nasal fractures, 265
     converted to tracheostomy, 6       NOE fractures, 285
  nondisplaced fractures, 424           orbital floor fractures, 244
  ORIF, 423, 424                        orbital injuries, 241, 242
  primary dentition                     orbital roof fractures, 248
     developing tooth limbs, 35         orbital wall
  rigid internal fixation, 423, 424         fractures, 249, 250




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Index                                                                    461


[Computed tomography (CT)]              Craniofacial skeleton fixation
  pediatric mandibular fractures, 424     biomaterials, 183, 184
  spiral                                Craniofaciodental growth, 61
     orbital injuries, 242              Craniomandibular joint, 212
  subcondylar fracture, 215             Craniomaxillofacial fixation devices,
  zygomas fractures, 365, 368–370              184
  zygomaticomaxillary complex           Craniomaxillofacial trauma
     fractures, 251                       etiology, 415
Computed tomography (CT)                  incidence, 415
        angiography                     Cranio-orbital wound,
  spiral, 14                                   354–357
Condyle. see also Mandibular condyle    Cranium
       fractures                          growth, 62
  avulsion, 445                         Creeping substitution, 113
  fractures, 384,397–399                Cribiform plate, 283
     children, 402–405, 419, 429        Cricothyroidotomy, 6
     displaced, 400, 401                Cricothyrotomy, 441, 442
Condylectomy                            Crile, George, 88
  monkeys                               Crooked nose, 269, 270
     posteroanterior cephalometric      Crossbite, 37, 38
        radiograph, 66                  Crouzon syndrome
Contamination                             Le Fort III osteotomy, 332
  traumatic wounds, 182                 Crown, 25
Copolymer plating                       Crystalloid resuscitation, 9
  fracture fixation, 190                 CSF
Cornea                                    leak, 264, 308, 309
  injury, 253, 254                        rhinorrhea, 294, 338
Coronal incision                        CT. see Computed tomography (CT)
  zygomas fractures, 374                Curve of Spee, 35, 36
Cortical bone                           Cushing, Harvey, 88
  defined, 96
  revascularization, 114, 115           DAART, 276
Corticosteroids                         Dandy, Walter, 88
  fracture healing, 146, 152            Dautrey, Jacques, 89
CPC, 163                                Deciduous teeth
Cranial nerves, 364                      vs. permanent teeth, 27–30
Cranial vault                            wire ligation, 34
  children                              Definitive airway
     facial fractures, 420               immediate need, 4
  primary bone graft, 357               Delayed reconstruction
Craniofacial bone                        biomaterials, 182
  growth, 56–63                         Delayed unions, 138, 139
Craniofacial skeletal deformities        mandibular fractures, 409
  children                               smoking, 146
     cranial base approach,             Dental anatomy
        332                              overview, 25–34




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462                                                                   Index


Dental arches, 28                     Ear prostheses, 455
  children, 27                        ECM, 105
  restoration, 344                    Egyptians, 382
Dental cast models, 52                Electrokinetic energy, 110
Dental guidelines, 25–53              Electromagnetic fields, 110
Dental implants, 454                  Electromechanical transduction, 110
Dental injuries, 40–48, 44–46         Embryological origin
  history and evaluation, 41–44         bone graft, 117–119
  WHO classification, 44–45,           Embryology hypothesis, 118
Dental radiographs                    Enamel ameloblasts
  periapical, 42–44                     injury reaction, 82, 83
Dental splints, 49–53, 50, 51         Endochondral growth, 58
  early developments, 87              Endochondral ossification, 97, 100
Dentin, 26                            Endoscopically assisted open reduction
Dentin odontoblasts                          and internal fixation
  injury reaction, 82, 83                    (EAORIF)
Dentition                               mandibular condyle fractures,
  nomenclature, 30–34                        211–214, 218
Dentoalveolar trauma, 40                zygomatic fractures, 222
Developing tooth limbs                Endoscopic approaches
  primary dentition                     facial fractures, 209–231
     children, 35                     Endoscopic surgery, 90
Diabetes mellitus                     Endoscopy
  fracture healing, 145, 146            frontal sinus fractures, 229, 230
Differential healing                    mandibular condyle fractures,
  fractured rat mandible, 77–84, 80          211–221
Differentiation, 115, 116               orbital fractures, 228, 229
Diplopia, 255, 256, 367, 368, 430       zygomatic fractures, 221–226
Dishpan facies, 336                   Endothelial cells, 99
Distal surface, 28                    Endotracheal anesthesia
Distraction osteogenesis, 90            late twentieth century, 89
  Ilizarov’s method of, 90            Endotracheal tube
Dogs                                    oral
  maxillary sinus                          maxillary fractures, 338
     bony changes, 64                 Enlow’s theory of resorptive and
Dural tear, 308–309                          depository fields, 127
Dynamic adjustable rotation tip       Enophthalmos, 244, 245, 255–257, 368,
  tensioning (DAART), 276                    375, 430
Dysesthesia                             posttraumatic, 256
  infraorbital nerve dermatome, 366   Epidural abscess, 324, 325
Dystopia, 244                         Epistaxis, 294
                                      Equine facies, 336
EAORIF                                Erich-type arch bars, 218
 mandibular condyle fractures,        Ethmoidal artery, 282
     211–214, 218                     Ethmoid bone, 236, 282, 283
 zygomatic fractures, 222             Ethmoid foramen, 282




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Index                                                                     463


Etruscans, 382                         Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2),
European Society of Maxillofacial             144
       Surgeons, 89                    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
Evulsed tooth                            bone healing, 103
  wire, 48                             Fibroblasts, 102
External pin fixation                   Fibula
  mandibular fractures, 390–393          flap, 22, 23
Extracellular matrix (ECM), 105        Flail chest, 7, 8
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy      Flaps, 23
  fracture healing, 154                  fibula, 22, 23
Extraocular muscles, 237–239             harvest, 210
Extruded primary tooth, 47             Flexner report, 88
Eye                                    Fluid resuscitation, 9
  examination, 240                     Fluorescein, 255
  prosthesis, 455                      Flying buttress graft, 276
Eyelids                                Food and Drug Administration
  retraction, 284                             (FDA), 183
  scars, 375                           Foramina, 282
                                       Fractures. see also specific fractures
Face                                     alveolar process, 42
  bone graft, 117, 118                   apposition
  fractures                                 fracture healing, 149, 150
     children, 415–430                   children, 252, 253
        epidemiology, 418–421            healing, 95–128, 138, 139
        etiology, 417, 418                  bioelectrical effects, 110, 111
        incidence, 418                      biophysical aspects, 107–112
        management, 422, 423                gene transfer, 157–161
        mandibular, 424, 425                improving, 151–164
        prevention, 421, 422                intercalary gap, 150
     endoscopic approaches,                 local factors, 147–151
        209–231                             low-intensity ultrasound, 111, 112
  growth                                    mechanobiology, 108, 109
     surgical experimentation, 63–77        oxygen tension, 107, 108
  malignancy                                recombinant growth factor,
     early developments, 87                    155–157
  nerve, 222, 410                           systemic factors affecting,
  restoration, 454, 455                        144–147
  trauma                                 osteoclastic degradation, 100
     fracture patterns, 331              rat mandible
     overview, 1–14                         differential healing, 77–84, 80
Falls, 417                               repair, 97–128
Falx cerebri, 291                           histological aspects, 99–101
FDA, 183                                    macroscopic aspects, 97–99
FGF                                      teeth, 42
  bone healing, 103                      triangle, 140
FGF-2, 144                                  components, 139




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464                                                                         Index


Fragmentation missiles                     Frontonasal sutures
  World War I, 331                           rabbits, 65, 69–74
Free scapular flap, 22                      Frontonasoethmoid fractures
Frontal bone, 236                            children, 427, 428
  fracture                                 Fronto-orbital fractures
     reconstruction, 199                     reconstruction, 200
Frontal sinus                                resorbable fixation, 195, 196
  anatomy, 290–292                         Furnas traction test, 284
  axial plane, 290
  blood supply, 292                        Galen, 382
  drainage, 291, 292                       GAM
  incisions, 301                             fracture healing, 159, 160
  location, 305                            Gap healing, 138
  mucosa                                   Gender
     pathophysiology, 293                    facial fractures
  pediatric roof fractures, 253                 children, 419
  venous drainage, 292                     Gene-activated matrices (GAM)
Frontal sinus fractures                      fracture healing, 159, 160
  anterior wall, 298–303                   Gene transfer
     comminuted, 302, 303                    fracture healing, 157–161
     depressed, 300                          nonviral
     linear nondisplaced, 299                   fracture healing, 159–161
  classification, 297, 298                  Gillies, Harold, 88
  CT, 295, 296                             Gillies’ approach
  endoscopy, 210, 211, 229, 230              zygomatic arch reduction, 372
  posterior wall, 303–311                  Gingiva
  treatment, 298–318                         cross-sectional anatomy, 25–27
     anterior wall, 298–303                Gingivobuccal sulcus incision
     nasofrontal duct, 310–314               zygomas fractures, 373
     posterior wall, 303–310               Globe
     through-and-through,                    injury, 253–255
        314–318                              rupture, 254
  treatment algorithm, 297                 Glycolides, 184
Frontal sinusitis, 324, 325                Golden hour, 1
Frontal sinus trauma, 289–327              Greenstick fractures
  clinical presentation, 293–297             children, 417, 422, 424
  complications, 318–326                   Growth abnormalities
     epidural abscess, 324, 325              children, 429, 430
     extracranial, 318–322                 Growth arrest, 253
     intracranial, 322, 323                Growth factor release
     subdural abscess, 323, 324              bone healing, 102–105
     superior sagittal sinus thrombosis,   Growth hormone
        325, 326                             fracture healing, 146
  CT, 295                                  GTR, 161, 162
Frontal skull fractures                    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR),
  children, 427, 428                               161, 162




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Index                                                                    465


Guiot, Gerard, 90                     IGFBP, 104
Gunshots, 336                         IL-1
Gunshot wounds, 21, 22                   bone healing, 103
 airway control, 440–442              Iliac bone graft
 anatomical pattern, 21, 22              vs. calvarial bone graft, 117, 118
 central midface, 354–357, 450, 451   Iliac crest
 circulation control, 442–444            primary bone graft, 357
 infection control, 443               Ilizarov’s method of distraction
 initial treatment, 440–444              osteogenesis, 90
                                      Immediate skeletal fixation
Hard callus, 98                          biomaterials, 182
Hard tissue                           Immobilization, 422
  assessment, 444, 445                   fracture healing, 150, 151
Harrison’s classification                 pediatric mandibular fractures, 424
  nasal fractures, 262, 263           Incisal surface, 30
Haug and Prather classification        Incisions
  nasal fractures, 263                   maxillary fractures, 340
Haversian canals, 114                 Industrial accidents, 335
Healing wounds                        Infection
  osteoblasts, 143                       fracture healing, 149
Helical computed tomography (CT)         mandibular fractures, 409
  mandibular fractures, 384           Infection control
Helmets, 422                             gunshot wounds, 443
Hematoma, 107, 108, 113                  mandible
Hemorrhage                                  bone graft reconstruction, 445
  control, 8–10                       Inferior alveolar nerve, 409, 410
  maxillary fractures, 338            Inferior oblique muscle, 238
Hemothorax, 10                        Infraorbital nerve dermatome
Hippocrates, 382                         dysesthesia, 366
Hogeman, Karl, 89                     Inlay grafts, 118, 119, 126, 357
Hopital Foch (Paris), 90
  ˆ                                   Insulin
Hormones                                 fracture healing, 146
  fracture healing, 146               Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)
Hullihen, Simon P, 88                    bone healing, 104
Hydrodissection, 268                     fracture healing, 146
Hypertelorbitism, 249                 Interleukin-1 (IL-1)
Hypesthesia, 294                         bone healing, 103
Hyphema, 254                          Interlocked stresses, 267
Hypoglobus, 244                       Intermaxillary fixation
  posttraumatic, 256                     history, 382
Hyposmia, 294                         Internal carotid system, 292
                                      Internal fixation, 183
IGF                                   Internal maxillary artery, 27
  bone healing, 104                   Interorbital space, 283
  fracture healing, 146               Interpersonal violence, 415
IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), 104     Intramembranous ossification, 97




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466                                                                     Index


Intraoperative airway management        Levator palpebrae superioris muscle,
   maxillary fractures, 337                    238
Intubation                              Lid incisions
   indications, 4, 5                      zygomas fractures, 373, 374
Ischemia, 99                            Life-threatening injuries
                                          identification, 2
Jaws, 65                                Line of fracture
                                          teeth, 395
Killian incision, 268                   Lingual splint, 53
Korean War, 439                         Lingual surface, 28
K-wire fixation, 332                     Liposomes
                                          fracture healing, 159, 160
Labial surface, 28                      LMA device, 3
Lacrimal bone, 236, 282                 Loads, 139
Lactide copolymer resorption,           Locking reconstruction plates
       188                                mandibular fractures, 387–390
Lactides, 184                           Lower face mandible, 21–23
LactoSorb, 184                            radiographic studies, 21
Lacunae                                 Low-intensity ultrasound
  defined, 96                              fracture healing, 111, 112, 153, 154
Lag screw fixation
  mandibular fractures, 390             Macrophages, 99,102
  midline diastema, 391, 392            MacroPore mesh, 184, 198, 201
Lamellar bone                           Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  defined, 96                             late twentieth century, 89
Laryngeal mask airway (LMA)              orbital injuries, 241, 242
  device, 3                             Malar region, 246
Lateral midface                          fracture
  tissue management and assessment,         contoured mesh fixation, 198
       449, 450                             resorbable fixation, 193, 194, 196
Lateral wall                            Malocclusion, 38
  fractures, 250                         children, 429
Latissimus dorsi flaps, 20, 22, 23        mandibular fractures, 408, 409
Lavage, 13                              Malunions, 138, 139
Le Fort, Rene, 331                       mandibular fractures, 408, 409
Le Fort fractures                       Mamelons, 41
  children, 428                         Mandible
  classification, 334–336                 comminuted fractures, 22
  patterns illustrated, 334              growth, 62
  type I, II, and III shown, 345–347,    lower face, 21–23
       348–357                              radiographic studies, 21
Le Fort type 1 osteotomy                 primary bone graft, 357
  late twentieth century, 89             reconstruction, 444–448
  segment reconstruction, 348–351           definitive bony, 447, 448
Le Fort type 3 osteotomy, 88                setup surgery, 445–447
  Crouzon syndrome, 332                     tissue assessment, 444, 445




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Index                                                                467


Mandibular condyle, 36             [Mandibular fractures]
 monkeys, 67                         treatment, 395–404
Mandibular condylectomy                 algorithm, 408
 monkeys                                protocol, 404–408
    facial growth, 63–68             zonography, 384
Mandibular condyle fractures       Mandibular permanent molars, 30
 diagnosis, 214                    Mandibular second molar
 endoscopy, 211–221                  occlusal anatomy, 29
    equipment, 214                 Mandibular teeth
    rationale, 211, 212              lengths, 30
 indications, 213, 214             Manson and Markowitz classification
 open vs. closed, 211                NOE fractures, 286, 287
 surgical anatomy, 212, 213        Marcus Gunn pupil, 240
 treatment, 218–221                Mast cells, 99
Mandibular fractures, 381–410      Maxilla, 236
 angle, 396                          distraction, 90
 antibiotics, 395                  Maxillary fractures, 331–357
 body, 396                           bone fragment reduction, 198
 causes, 383                         clinical assessment, 336
 children, 399, 424, 425             diagnosis, 336
    complications, 429, 430          epidemiology, 335, 336
    frontal skull, 427, 428          historical background, 331, 332
    Le Fort Fractures, 428           initial management, 337, 338
    midface, 425, 426                midface fracture classification,
    nasal, 428, 429                        334–336
    orbital, 427                     postoperative patient management,
    zygomatic complex,                     357–358
       426, 427                      primary bone grafting,
 closed vs. open treatment,                351–354
       384, 385                      radiological assessment, 337
 complications, 408, 409             soft-tissue reconstruction, 357
 condyle, 397–399                    surgical anatomy, 332, 333
 CT, 384                             surgical management,
 diagnosis, 384                            340–351
 edentulous, 399–401                    fixation, 343
 helical CT, 384                        maxillary disimpaction and
 history, 381, 382, 384                    occlusal restoration, 340–342
 incidence, etiology, and          Maxillary sinus
       biomechanics, 382, 383        dogs
 infected, 401–404                      bony changes, 64
 inferior border miniplates, 383     soft-tissue herniation, 245
 panoramic tomography, 384         Maxillary teeth
 physical examination, 384           innervation, 26
 rigid fixation, 385–388              lengths, 30
 surgical technique, 394, 395      Maxillary tuberosity
 symphysis, 395, 396                 primary bone grafts, 354




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468                                                                          Index


Maxillofacial injuries. see also Avulsive   Microarchitecture
       maxillofacial injuries                bone graft, 117–119
 airway management, 7                       Microminiplates
 life-threatening bleeding following,        mandibular fractures, 386
       10, 11                               Microplates, 430
Maxillofacial surgery                       Microsurgery, 19–23
 early developments, 87, 88                 Midface
 future, 91                                  defects
 late twentieth century, 89–91                   microsurgery, 20, 21
 mid-twentieth century, 88                   fractures
Maxillomandibular fixation (MMF),                 bilateral Le Fort I and II, 351–353
       219, 221                                  children, 419, 425, 426, 429, 430
 mandibular condyle fractures,                   classification, 334–336
       211                                       hemorrhage association, 339
 mandibular fractures, 384                       resorbable fixation, 191
Maximal-intercuspal position (MIP),              sequencing algorithm, 343
       209, 219                              gunshot wounds, 354–357
McCarthy, Joe, 90                            illustration, 333
Mechanical environment                       vertical height
 bone graft, 123, 124                            restoration, 346, 347
Mechanical force                            Midpalatine sutures
 revascularization                           monkeys, 65
    bone graft, 125–129                     Military notation system
Mechanical loading, 140                      permanent teeth, 30, 31
 angiogenesis                               Millard, Ralph, 88
    tissue differentiation theory, 142      Mineralized tissue
 history, 139                                fractured rat mandible differential
Mechanical stress                                   healing, 81–84
 bone graft, 119, 120                       Miniplates
Mechanobiology                               mandibular fractures, 383, 386, 387,
 fracture healing, 108, 109                         395, 396
Mechanotransduction. see Mechanical          rigid fixation, 306
       loading                              MIP, 209, 219
Medial canthal tendon, 282                  Mitosis, 115, 116
Medial wall                                 MMF, 219, 221
 fractures, 247–250                          mandibular condyle fractures, 211
Medical education                            mandibular fractures, 384
 early developments, 88                     Molina, Fernando, 90
Med Pore, 204                               Monkeys
Medpor implants, 228                         condylectomy
Meningitis, 323                                  posteroanterior cephalometric
Mental nerve, 396, 409, 410                         radiograph, 66
Mesenchymal cells, 99                        mandibular condyle, 67
Mesial surface, 28                           mandibular condylectomy
Metabolism                                       facial growth, 63–68
 fracture healing, 146                       midpalatine sutures, 65




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Index                                                                  469


[Monkeys]                               Nasal septum
  palatine sutures, 74–76                rabbits, 65, 68 69, 70–73
  temporalis muscle coronoid process,       bony changes, 64
       65                               Nasociliary nerve, 282
  temporomandibular joint               Nasofrontal duct fracture, 310–314
     bony changes, 64                   Nasomaxillary buttress, 332
Motor vehicle accidents (MVA), 289,     Naso-orbito-ethmoid (NOE), 248, 249
       335, 418, 421                     anatomy, 281–283
MRI                                      diagnosis, 283–286
  late twentieth century, 89             fractures, 262, 263, 281–287
  orbital injuries, 241, 242                classification, 286, 287
Mucoceles, 293                              CT, 285
  frontal sinus, 319–322                    radiology, 285–286
     endoscopic decompression,              treatment, 287
       320, 321                          physical examination, 283–285
Murray classification                     tactile examination, 284, 285
  nasal fractures, 263                  Nasotracheal tubes
Mustarde-type sutures, 269               maxillary fractures, 337
MVA, 289, 335, 418, 421                 Neck
Myocutaneous muscle flap,                 tooth, 26
       20                               Necrosis, 99
                                        Needle cricothyroidotomy
Nasal bones                              converted to tracheostomy
 children                                   children, 6
    facial fractures, 420               Nerve injury
Nasal fractures, 261–277                 mandibular fractures, 409, 410
 children, 428, 429                     Neuropraxias, 410
 classification, 262, 263                Neurological status
 CT, 265                                 assessment, 11
 plain film radiographs, 264             Neurosurgery
 radiology, 264, 265                     early developments, 88
Nasal injuries                          NOE. see Naso-orbito-ethmoid (NOE)
 acute, 264                             Nomenclature
 children, 277                           dentition, 30–34
 closed reduction, 266, 267             Nondisplaced fractures
    vs. open reduction, 266              children, 417, 422, 424
 late posttraumatic deformity,          Nonunion, 138, 139
       268–276                           mandibular fractures, 409
 open reduction, 268                     smoking, 146
    vs. closed reduction, 266           Nonvascularized physiology
 treatment, 265–267                      bone graft, 113, 114
Nasal intubation, 5                     Nonviral gene transfer
Nasal packing                            fracture healing, 159–161
 maxillary fractures, 338               Nose. see also Nasal
Nasal prosthesis,                        anatomy, 262
       454, 455                          crooked, 269, 270




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470                                                                    Index


[Nose. see also Nasal]                  [Orbit]
  short, 274–276                          bony changes, 64
  twisted, 269, 270                     Orbital defects, 20
Nutrition                               Orbital floor fractures, 228
  fracture healing, 145,151               CT, 244
                                          reconstruction plates, 196
Obwegeser, Hugo, 89                       surgical treatment, 242–247
Occlusal surface, 30                    Orbital fractures
Occlusion, 34–40                          children, 427
  classification, 39, 40                   endoscopy, 228, 229
Ocular hemorrhage                       Orbital injuries, 197, 201, 235–257
  posttraumatic, 254                      anatomy, 235–239
Odontoblasts                              CT, 241, 242
  injury reaction, 82, 83                 diagnosis, 241–242
Omental free flap, 22                      evaluation, 239–241
Onlay grafts, 118, 119, 126, 270, 357     MRI, 241–242
Open pneumothorax, 7, 8                   repair complications, 255–257
Open reduction, 382                       spiral CT, 242
  condylar fractures, 398                 surgical treatment, 242–253
Open reduction and internal fixation     Orbital rim
       (ORIF), 210, 397                   bony fragment reduction, 197
  children, 423, 424                    Orbital roof fractures, 247
  mandibular condyle fractures,           CT, 248
       211, 213, 214, 218               Orbital sinus fractures
  zygomatic fractures, 222                endoscopy, 210, 211
Ophthalmic artery                       Orbital wall fractures
  supraorbital branch, 292                CT, 249, 250
Ophthalmological evaluation             Orbito-cranial complex
  NOE fractures, 284                      secondary reconstruction,
Ophthalmological five-point                      201, 202
  examination, 239–241                  Orbitozygomatic fractures, 228
Ophthalmoscope, 240                     ORIF. see Open reduction and internal
Optic foramen, 282                              fixation (ORIF)
Optic nerve, 238, 282                   Orofacial trauma, 40
  injury, 254                           Orotracheal intubation, 5
Optic neuropathy, 254, 255              Orthodontics
Oral endotracheal tube                    early developments, 87
  maxillary fractures, 338              Osteoblasts, 100, 101, 114
Orbit                                     defined, 96
  anatomy, 236, 282                       healing wounds, 143
  children                                injury reaction, 82, 83
     facial fractures, 420              Osteoclasts, 101
  contents, 237–239                       defined, 96
  growth, 62                            Osteoconduction, 102, 113
  normal relationships, 238, 239        Osteocytes
  rabbits, 65, 76–79                      defined, 96




                                                            Search
Index                                                                     471


Osteogenesis, 97,139,140                 Parathyroid hormone
  angiogenesis                             fracture healing, 146
     tissue differentiation theory,      Pare, Ambroise, 382
        142–144                          Patient history, 416
  bone graft, 115, 116                     orbital injuries, 239
  distraction, 90                        PDGF
Osteogenin, 105                            bone healing, 102
Osteoid                                  PDS, 390
  defined, 96                             Pediatric. see Children
Osteoinduction, 102                      Pellets, 21
  bone graft, 115, 116                   Pelvis
  bone healing, 105, 106                   anteroposterior view, 13
Osteomyelitis                            Percutaneous translaryngeal catheter
  frontal sinus, 322                             insufflation, 6, 7
Osteomyocutaneous flap, 20                Periapical dental radiographs, 42–44
Osteons                                  Periodontal injuries, 46–48
  defined, 96                             Periodontal membrane
  healing, 98,101                          cross-sectional anatomy, 25–27
Osteoplastic flap, 307, 308               Periosteum
Osteoprogenitor cells, 99, 100             age, 144
  defined, 96                             Permanent teeth
Osteotomies                                vs. deciduous teeth, 27–30
  early developments, 88                   military notation system, 30, 31
Overbite, 37, 38,                          universal notation system, 30, 31
Overjet, 37, 38                          Peroneal artery, 22
Oxygen                                   Perpendicular plate, 283
  supplemental, 441                      Phoenicians, 382
Oxygen tension                           Physical examination, 416
  fracture healing, 107, 108, 147, 148   Piezoelectricity, 110
                                         Pin fixation
Palatal fractures                          mandibular fractures, 390–393
  maxilla                                Pistol injuries
    classification, 335                     large-caliber, 21
  splint fabrication, 341                Plain radiographs, 416
Palatal splitting, 341                     zygomas fractures, 368, 369
Palatine bone, 236                       Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Palatine sutures                           bone healing, 102
  monkeys, 74–76                         Platelet rich plasma (PRP) growth
Palpable plate, 375                              factor, 447, 448
Panoramic radiographs                    Plates, 210
  mandibular condyle fractures, 214        selection for bone fixation,
Panorex, 34, 42                                  192
  maxillary fractures, 337               PLLA plate, 390
Paranasal sinuses                        PMN, 99, 102
  drainage routes, 292                   Pneumothorax, 7, 8
Parascapular flaps, 23                    Polley, John, 90




                                                              Search
472                                                                        Index


Pollock classification                     Rabbits
  nasal fractures, 263                      cartilaginous nasal septum, 65, 68, 69
Polydioxanone (PDS), 390                       bony changes, 64
Polyesters, 184                             frontonasal suture, 65
Polyetherurethan terephthalate, 204         frontonasal suture extirpation,
Polyglycolic acid, 390                           69–74
Polylactic acid, 390                        nasal septum, 70–73
Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) plate, 390        orbit, 65, 76–79
Poly-L-lactide                                 bony changes, 64
  mechanical properties, 189              R-activin A
  shear strength, 190                       fracture healing, 155, 156
  tensile strength, 189                   Radial forearm flaps, 22, 23
Polymethylmethacrylate, 203, 204          Radical neck dissection
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes                cervical cancer
       (PMN), 99,102                           early developments, 88
Posterior wall frontal sinus fractures,   Radical submucous resection
       303–310, 304–311                     nasal septum, 267
Posttraumatic enophthalmos, 256           Radiological evaluation, 13, 14
Posttraumatic hypoglobus, 256             Ramus
Posttraumatic ocular hemorrhage,            avulsion, 445
       254                                RAP, 101, 102
Premarket studies, 183                    Recombinant activin A (r-activin A)
Primary bone grafting                       fracture healing, 155, 156
  maxillary fractures, 351–354            Recombinant growth factor
Primary bone healing, 101                   fracture healing, 155–157
Primary dentition                         Recombinant human (rh)PTH
  developing tooth limbs                    fracture healing, 152
     children, 35                         Reconstruction plates
Primary healing, 98                         mandibular fractures, 387–390
Primary tooth                               orbital floor blowout fracture,
  extruded, 47                                   196
Proximal osteotomy, 22                    Reconstructive plastic surgery
PRP growth factor, 447, 448                 early developments, 88
Pseudarthroses, 139                       Rectus abdominis, 237
  smoking, 146                              flaps, 20, 22, 23
Pterygoid process                         Regional acceleratory phenomenon
  primary bone grafts, 354                       (RAP), 101, 102
Pterygomaxillary buttress, 332            Resorbable fixation
Pulp canal, 25                              child symphysis fracture, 393, 394
Pulp chamber, 25                            fronto-orbital fractures, 195, 196
Pulsed electromagnetic fields, 111           left malar fracture, 194
  fracture healing, 153, 154                midface fractures, 191
Pupil                                       right malar fracture, 193
  constriction, 240                         secondary craniofacial trauma
  dilation, 240                                  reconstruction, 196–201
  function, 240                             zygomatic fractures, 191




                                                                Search
Index                                                                   473


Resorbable polymers, 183, 184         Septoplasty, 268, 270
  contouring, 186, 187, 194           Serratus free flap, 22
  placement, 196                      Setup surgery
  trimming, 195                          mandible reconstruction, 445–447
Resorptive growth, 61                 Shear forces, 139
Restraints, 421                       Shear stress, 140
Resuscitation, 2                      Shock
Retromandibular vein, 212, 213           cause, 9
Revascularization                     Short nose, 274–276
  bone graft, 124, 125                Shotgun wounds, 21
  mechanical force bone graft,           anatomical pattern, 21, 22
       125–129                           patterns, 21
Rhinoscopy, 285                       Silicones, 204
rhPTH                                 Skeletal buttresses, 333
  fracture healing, 152               Skin-free flaps, 23
Ribs                                  Skull
  primary bone graft, 357                children
Rigid internal fixation                      growth, 58
  children, 423, 424                     frontal view, 60, 334
Road traffic accidents, 415, 417          growth, 58
Root, 26                                 lateral cephalometric radiographic,
Rubber band traction, 332                     59
                                         lateral-oblique, 334
Saddle nose deformity, 265, 270–274      microsurgery, 19, 20
Safety                                Slow unions, 138, 139
  biomaterials, 183                   Smoking
Sagittal splint                          fracture healing, 146, 147, 151
  late twentieth century, 89          Smooth muscle cells, 99
Salicetti, Guglielmo, 382             Smyth Papyrus, 361
Scalp                                 Soft callus, 98
  microsurgery, 19–20                 Soft tissue
Scapular flaps, 20, 21, 23                assessment, 444, 445
Scarcicatrization, 430                   flaps
Sclera, 237                                 early developments, 88
Screws, 210                              injuries, 253–255
Seat belts, 421                       Somatomedins. see Insulin-like growth
Secondary craniofacial trauma                 factor (IGF)
        reconstruction                Soranus of Ephesus, 382
  resorbable fixation, 196–201         Speissl, Bernd, 89
Secondary fracture healing, 138       Sphenoid bone, 236
Septal injuries                       Spiral computed tomography (CT)
  management, 267, 268                        orbital injuries, 242
Septal perforations, 276, 277         Spiral computed tomography (CT)
Septal repositioning, 268                     angiography, 14
Septic thrombophlebitis               Splints
  veins of Breschet, 322                 skeletal fixation, 49




                                                           Search
474                                                               Index


Split temporalis flap, 450, 451   Teeth. see also specific teeth
Sporting accidents,                angulation, 35, 36
        417, 421, 422              avulsed, 47
Sports, 335                        cross-sectional anatomy, 26
Strain, 140                        description, 27–30
Stress                             eruption sequence, 31–33
  defined, 139                      evulsed
Subciliary incisions                  wire, 48
  zygomas fractures, 373           fracture, 42
Subcondylar fracture               fractured rat mandible differential
  CT scan, 215                          healing, 81
  EAORIF, 216–218                  line of fracture, 395
Subdural abscess, 323, 324         luxation, 47
Subglottic stenosis, 6             position, 28
  children, 6                      reimplantation, 47
Submentovertex, 369                surfaces, 28
Subperiosteal dissection,          units, 25, 26
        218, 395                 Telecanthus, 249
Subtarsal incisions              Temporalis muscle, 222
  zygomas fractures, 373, 374      coronoid process
Suicide, 21                           monkeys, 65
Superior oblique muscle, 237       flap, 451
Superior sagittal sinus          Temporal parietal region, 205
  safe zone for ligation, 291    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ),
  thrombosis, 325, 326                  425
Supplemental oxygen, 441           children, 429
Surgical airway, 6, 7              monkeys
Suspension wires, 210, 332            bony changes, 64
Sutures                          Tensile stress, 139
  frontonasal                    Tension forces, 139
     rabbits, 65, 69–74          Tension pneumothorax, 7, 8
  growth, 61                     Terminal hinge, 36
  lines                          Terminology
     children, 417                 bone, 96, 97
  midpalatine                    Tessier, Paul, 88
     monkeys, 65                   autogenous bone grafts, 351
  Mustarde-type, 269               transconjunctival approach, 373
  palatine                       Tetanus, 443
     monkeys, 74–76                prophylaxis, 48
Symphysis area                   TGF-beta, 103, 104
  avulsion, 444, 445               bone healing, 102
Symphysis fracture               THORP, 387
  child, 393, 394, 402–405       Through-and-through fractures,
  mandibular, 395, 396                  314–318
  midline diastema,              Thyroid hormone
        391, 392                   fracture healing, 146




                                                       Search
Index                                                                       475


Tissue differentiation theory, 139–144   Ultrastructural hypothesis, 118
  mechanical loading                     Union. see also Nonunion
     angiogenesis, 142                          slow, 138, 139
  osteogenesis                           Universal notation system
     angiogenesis, 142–144                 permanent teeth, 30, 31
Titanium hollow-screw osteointegrated    Upper airway
       reconstruction plate (THORP),       obstruction, 2, 3
       387                               Upper facial area
Titanium mesh, 228                         tissue management and assessment,
Titanium plating, 183                           449
  fracture fixation, 190                  Upper facial defects
TMJ. see Temporomandibular joint           microsurgery, 20, 21
       (TMJ)                             Upper facial skeleton
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)           restoration, 344
  fracture healing, 151
Tourniquet, 9                            Vascularized bone flaps, 22
TPN                                      Vascularized bone graft healing,
  fracture healing, 151                          115, 116
Tracheostomy, 7, 441                     Veau, Victor, 88
  maxillary fractures, 338               Veins of Breschet
Traffic accidents, 415, 417                 septic thrombophlebitis, 322
Training elastics                        Ventilation, 7, 8
  condylar fractures, 398                Vertical fractures
Transantral endoscopy, 247                 maxilla
Transconjunctival approach                    classification, 335
  Tessier, Paul, 373                     Vestibuloplasty, 453
Transconjunctival slit incision,         Vietnam War, 440
       228                               Viral vectors
Transcutaneous incisions                   fracture healing, 157–159
  mandibular condyle fractures,          Vision axes, 240
       212, 213                          Vitallium plating, 183
Transforming growth factor-beta          Vitamin A
       (TGF-beta), 103, 104                fracture healing, 146, 152
  bone healing, 102                      Vitamin D
Transilluminated skull, 333                fracture healing, 146
Transosseous venous channels,            Volkmann’s canals, 114
       293                               Von Langenbeck, Bernhard, 87
Traumatic telecanthus, 284               Vulcanite splints, 382
Traumatic wounds
  contamination, 182                     Water’s view
Trigeminal nerve, 26, 27                  maxillary fractures, 337
Tube pedicles                             zygomas fractures,
  early developments, 88                       368, 369
Twisted nose, 269, 270                   Wear facets, 38–40, 52
Two-jaw movement                         WHO classification
  late twentieth century, 89              dental injuries, 44–45




                                                              Search
476                                                                     Index


Wire                                   [Zygoma]
 evulsed tooth, 48                          gingivobuccal sulcus incision, 373
Wired teeth, 382                            historical perspective, 361, 362
Wire ligation                               lid incisions, 373, 374
 deciduous teeth, 34                        radiographic evaluation, 368–370
Wire osteosynthesis, 306                    treatment, 370–375
Wolff’s law, 116, 119                    frontal view, 363
World Health Organization (WHO)          lateral view, 364
       classification                   Zygomatic arch, 222
 dental injuries, 44, 45                 complex fractures
World War I, 439                            children, 426–427
 fragmentation missiles, 331             fractures
World War II                                EAORIF, 224–227
 antibiotics, 331                           endoscopy, 221–226
Woven bone, 100                             resorbable fixation, 191
 defined, 96                                 surgical anatomy, 222, 223
                                         reduction
Zahnartliches Institute (Zurich), 89        Gillies’ approach, 372
Zygoma, 236                              trismus fracture, 367
  endoscopy, 210                       Zygomatic arches, 333
  fractures, 361–378, 367              Zygomaticomaxillary buttress,
     anatomical considerations,                332, 362, 363
        362–364                        Zygomaticomaxillary complex
     bone plating, 376                         fractures, 251, 364
     classification, 365, 366             CT, 251
     clinical presentation, 366–368      incisions, 371
     coronal incision, 374               temporal and supraorbital
     CT, 365                                   approaches, 371–373
     endoscopic-assisted approach,     Zygomatico-orbital fracture,
        374, 375                               363, 364




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