On Turkey Facts, history, economic policies, problems and future Plan of presentation 1. Facts 2. Historical developments 3. Economic policies from 1908 to 2005 4. Current Problems - Economic-social - Political 5. Future 1. Facts • Area total: 780,580 sq km land: 770,760 sq km water: 9,820 sq km • Area – comparative slightly larger than Texas • Land boundaries – total: 2,648 km order countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km • Coastline 7,200 km Maritime claims territorial sea: 6 NM in the Aegean Sea; 12 NM in Black Sea and in Mediterranean • Climate temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior • Terrain high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges • Elevation extremes lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m • Natural resources coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower • Land use arable land: 34.53% permanent crops: 3.36% other: 62.11% (1998 est.) Irrigated land 42,000 sq km (1998 est.) • Natural hazards very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van • Environment - current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic • Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification • Geography - strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas. • Population 68,893,918 (July 2004 est.) Age structure 0-14 years: 26.6% (male 9,328,108; female 8,990,742) 15-64 years: 66.8% (male 23,394,465; female 22,650,532) 65 years and over: 6.6% (male 2,078,881; female 2,451,190) Population growth rate 1.13% • Birth rate 17.22 births/1,000 population (2004 est.) • Death rate 5.95 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.) • Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.) • Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.) • Infant mortality rate total: 42.62 deaths/1,000 live births male: 46.3 deaths/1,000 live births female: 38.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.) • Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.08 years male: 69.68 years female: 74.61 years (2004 est.) • Total fertility rate 1.98 children born/woman (2004 est.) • HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% - note: no country specific models provided • HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS NA • HIV/AIDS – deaths NA • Nationality noun: Turk(s) adjective: Turkish • Ethnic groups Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated) • Religions Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews) • Languages Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic, Armenian, Greek • Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 86.5% male: 94.3% female: 78.7% (2003 est.) • Country name conventional long form: Republic of Turkey conventional short form: Turkey local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti local short form: Turkiye • Government type republican parliamentary democracy (with a National Security Council) • Capital Ankara • Administrative divisions 81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir, Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mersin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak • Independence 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire) • Constitution 7 November 1982 • Legal system derived from various European continental legal systems; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations • Suffrage 18 years of age; universal • Executive branch chief of state: President Ahmet Necdet SEZER (since 16 May 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (14 March 2003) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister Note: a National Security Council serves as an advisory body to the government composed of top military and cabinet officials and presided over by the president • elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a seven-year term; election last held 5 May 2000 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president • Legislative branch unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) • elections: last held 3 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for becoming prime minister on 13 March 2003. • election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, ANAP 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and others; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 15 October 2003 - AKP 368, CHP 175, DYP 3, LDP 1, independents 3 • Flag description red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centred just outside the crescent opening Economy – overview • Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that in 2001 still accounted for 40% of employment. • It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The most important industry - and largest exporter - is textiles and clothing, which is almost entirely in private hands. • In recent years the economic situation has been marked by erratic economic growth and serious imbalances. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. • Meanwhile, the public sector fiscal deficit has regularly exceeded 10% of GDP - due in large part to the huge burden of interest payments, which accounted for more than 40% of central government spending in 2003. • Inflation, in recent years in the high double-digit range, fell to 18.4% in 2003. • Foreign direct investment in Turkey remains low - less than $1 billion annually. • In late 2000 and early 2001 a growing trade deficit and serious weaknesses in the banking sector plunged the economy into crisis - forcing Turkey to float the lira and pushing the country into recession. Results in 2002-03 were much better and healthy growth continued through 2004. • GDP purchasing power parity - $455.3 billion (2003.) • GDP - real growth rate 5% (2003.) • GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2003.) • GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11.9% Industry: 29.6% services: 58.5% (2002.) • Population below poverty line 18% (2001) • Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 32.3% (1994) • Distribution of family income - Gini index 44 (2002) • Inflation rate (consumer prices) 18.4% (Under 10% under 2004.) • Labor force 25.8 million about 1.2 million work abroad • Labor force - by occupation agriculture 39.7%, services 37.9%, industry 22.4% (3rd quarter, 2001) • Unemployment rate 11.3% (plus underemployment of 6.1%) (2003.) • Budget revenues: $42.4 billion expenditures: $69.1 billion, including capital expenditures • Industries: textiles, food processing, autos, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper • Industrial production growth rate 6.7% (2003.) • Electricity – production 116.6 billion kWh (2001) • Electricity – consumption 112.6 billion kWh (2001) • Oil – production 48,000 bbl/day (2001.) • Oil – consumption 619,500 bbl/day (200.) • Natural gas – production 312 million cu m (2001) • Natural gas – consumption 15.94 billion cu m (2001.) • Agriculture – products : tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock • Exports $49.12 billion f.o.b. (2003.) • Exports – commodities : apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment • Exports – partners Germany 16.6%, US 9.2%, UK 8.5%, Italy 6.4%, France 6% • Imports $62.43 billion f.o.b. (2003 .) • Imports – commodities: machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment • Imports – partners Germany 13.7%, Italy 8%, Russia 7.5%, US 6%, France 6%, UK 4.7%, Switzerland 4.2% • Debt – external $141.3 billion (Year end 2003) • Currency New Turkish lira (YTL) • Exchange rates New Turkish liras : 0.76453 US dollar; 5.39878 SEK; 0.59459 Euro; 0.40796 British Pound. • Telephones - main lines in use 18,914,900 (2002) • Telephones - mobile cellular 23,374,400 (2002) • Telephone system general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially with cellular telephones domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly International: country code - 90; international service is provided by three submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; also by 12 Intelsat earth stations, and by 328 mobile satellite terminals in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002) • Internet country code .tr • Internet hosts 154,585 (2002) • Internet users 4.9 million (2002) • Railways total: 8,607 km Standard gauge: 8,607 km 1.435-m gauge (2,131 km electrified) (2002) • Highways total: 385,960 km paved: 131,226 km (including 1,749 km of expressways) unpaved: 254,734 km (1999) • Waterways 1,200 km (approximately) • Pipelines gas 3,177 km; oil 3,562 km (2003) • Military branches Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Naval Forces Command (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard Command, Gendarmerie (Jandarma) • The US have more than 101 military bases in Turkey • Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2004.) • Military manpower – availability males age 15-49: 19,828,702 (2004.) • Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 11,965,262 (2004.) • Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 680,673 (2004.) • Military expenditures - dollar figure $12.155 billion (2003) • Military expenditures - percent of GDP 5.3% (2003) • Army: The second biggest army in the NATO after the US Army 1,2 million and have forces in Cyprus, Afghanistan and Iraq. Disputes - domestic • With Kurdish people for their economic-social-cultural rights (It is still limited the right to speak, to teach and to broadcast Kurdish) Disputes - international • Complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; • Cyprus question remains with Greece; • Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; • Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; • Border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh Illicit drugs Key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and - to a far lesser extent the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish, Iranian, and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul (during 1980- 1999 Some Generals in the Turkish Army were organising this traffic); laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin are in remote regions of Turkey as well as near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate 2. Historical developments • 1900BC – 323BC The Hittites dominated Anatolia from the Middle Bronze Age. Then the Persians invaded followed by Alexander the Great. • 133BC – 395AD The Romans ruled nearly five centuries. Emperor Constantine built a new capital – Constantinople. Early Roman Capital of Asia Minor at Ephesus replaced by Constantinople in Anatolian Peninsula. • 669 – 678 This Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, empire thrived under Emperor Justinian (527-565AD) until Muslim armies invaded from Arabia. • 1071 - 1243 The first Turkic people, fleeing from Mongol Expansion at the steppes of Central Asia, arrived to Anatolia. These “Seljuks” fought off the Crusaders and the Mongols and gave rise to Ottomans. (The languages; Turkish, Finnish and Hungarian belong to the same family.) • 1299 – 1914 By 1820 the Ottoman empire stretched from the Gulf to Vienna, all along the north coast of Africa, around the Red Sea and to the shores of the Caspian. • 1914 – 1918 In 1915 approximately 1.3 Million Armenians died when the Turkish Army forcibly expelled them from Eastern Turkey. The British supported an Arab revolt against the Ottomans, who sided with Germany during the First World War After war, the League of Nations took over the Empire. • 1920 – 1922 The Ottoman Empire fell as its subjects revolted. The Greeks invaded western Turkey and Greek forces advanced as far as Usak. General Mustafa Kemal organised Turkish and Kurdish forces to defend the heartland. • 1923 The resistance reversed the Greek advance and retained Turkey. Mustafa, (known as “Ataturk”, father Turk) changed Turkey into a secular democracy. Capital moved to Ankara. • 1939 – 1945 Turkey entered the second world war on the allied side shortly before its end. In 1945 Turkey joined the UN, and in 1952 it became a member of NATO and sent soldiers to South-Korea, 3500 soldiers died. • 1960 Military coup. (That was the only military coup which was not directed by the CIA.) The army staged an almost bloodless coup against the DP (Democratic Party) government. Civilian rule re-established in 1961. • 1971 The second military coup. The army took the power after signalling their intention in a series of memos against radical youth organisations. • 1974 Turkey invaded northern Cyprus saying it was to protect Turkish Cypriots from a Greek Cypriot military takeover in the south of island; the northern 37 percent of the island remains under Turkish Cypriot control. Decades of international disapproval followed but relations between the Turkey and Greece have improved greatly over the past few years. • 1980 Another CIA directed military coup. The 1982 constitution was accepted and more power given to the National Security Council in 1983. • 1984-1999 Turkish army forces and state organised civil forces started an anti- guerrilla war against the Kurdistan Worker’s party members and Kurdish people. By 1999, 30000 were dead. The Kurdistan Worker’s Party - whose leader, Abdullah OCALAN, was captured by CIA and MOSSAD agents in Kenya in February 1999. Since then occasional clashes have occurred between Turkish security forces and armed PKK militants. • 2004 Talks on membership of the European Union to start in October 2005 contingent on Turkish recognition of Cyprus. 3. Economic policies from 1908 to 2005 • 1908-1922 Revolution and War years • 1923-1929 Restructuring the economy in the open market conditions • 1930-1939 Protective state industrialization • 1940-1945 Break because of Second World War • 1946-1953 A test of different type of connection with world economy • 1954-1961 Stopping and re-harmony • 1962-1979 Import substitutionist industrialization. (Domestically closed but internationally dependent growth and crisis.) • 1980-1988 Commodity trade liberalization and export promotion “Capital’s attack against working people”. • 1989-2005 Post-financial liberalization 4. Problems – Economic-social problems Internal and Foreign Debts Unemployment Income inequality – Political problems National Security Council Kurdish problem Cyprus EU membership 5. Future Future depends on the solution of problems – Political problems require a cancellation of the National Security Council and a change of the 1982 constitution which hinders people’s use of democratic rights. – Economic-social problems require a restructuring of internal debts and control of capital movements, and changes in income distribution and employment policies.