Operation and Maintenance Manual for Penstock STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS SERIES by irf28189

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									                                                                   STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                                   SERIES 15
                                                                   STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS

General Description


Fontaine’s SERIES 15 (cf FIG 1) is a highly STANDARD versatile flow
control penstock. Adaptable to different applications, the SERIES 15 is
designed to withstand maximum seating and unseating heads ranging from
6 to 9 meters, with a maximum leakage of :

        
                                                            1
             9.0 m for 150mm to 300mm : 0.5 L/min ;
            7.5 m for 400mm to 600mm : 0.6 L/min ;
            6.0 m for 700mm to 1000mm : 0.7 L/min.

The leakage rate is maintained inside boundaries of maximum allowable
leakage recommended by BS7775 (2005). The SERIES 15 is available in
eleven standard sizes from 150mm up to 1000mm. The design is suitable
for square or round applications.



    Construction
The SERIES 15 is made of 316L stainless steel providing high corrosion
and erosion resistance and can be operated for many years with a
minimum of maintenance. Stainless steel provides virtually limitless design
flexibility. The result is a lighter weight and easier-to-install gate.

In accordance with our high standards of quality, the penstocks are
completely factory assembled as well as tested for operation and leakage
before being shipped. It eliminates the needs for any on-site assembly and
adjustments.


    Mounting
The SERIES 15 is designed for concrete wall (CW).                                  FIG 1 – S152 General view


BS Standards
SERIES 15 penstocks are built to match British Standards pertaining to design safety factors, stem and
stem guides positioning, manual lifting devices and leakage.


    Seals
SERIES 15 seals are made of an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) allowing no metal-to-
metal contact. Its low coefficient of friction makes the gate easier to open even when not operated for long
periods of time. The self-adjusting feature is obtained by a continuous compression cord that ensures a tight
seal between the gate and the frame in both seating and unseating conditions. The continuous wedging
action of the compression cord on the slide’s seals enables the SERIES 15 penstocks to control flow by
allowing water only through the open portion of the gate. This feature means that the SERIES 15 is ideal for
throttling applications.




1
    Leakage rate per liter per minute per meter of seal of perimeter.



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                                                              STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                              SERIES 15
                                                              STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


Flange Back Frame

The stainless steel frame on the SERIES 15 is a flange back type (cf FIG 2) available in open or self-
contained configurations, providing a solid one-piece penstock. The rigidity provided by the flange back
frame makes it easier to handle in transportation and installation with less risk of distortion. The seal bolts
are completely separated from the flange anchoring. This feature also allows the penstock to be completely
factory assembled before being shipped. It also eliminates any on-site assembly and adjustments.



Reinforced Gate

The gate is a stainless steel plate reinforced with members welded to the plate, making it a solid single
piece.


Parts & Materials




         TABLE 1 – Parts and Materials


 No.           Part                 Material

1 & 2 Gate & Frame        Stainless steel ASTM A-240
                          Type 316L

  3    Upper frame & Head Stainless steel ASTM A-240
                          Type 316L

  4    Bottom seal        Neoprene ASTM D-2000
                          Grade 2 BC-510

  5    Guides &           Ultra high molecular weight
       Side seals         polyethylene (UHMWPE)
                          ASTM D-4020
  6    Top seal           Ultra high molecular weight
                          polyethylene (UHMWPE)
                          ASTM D-4020
  7    Frame seal         EPDM


  8    Gate guide         Ultra high molecular weight
                          polyethylene (UHMWPE)
                          ASTM D-4020
  9    Compression        Nitrile ASTM D-2000 M6BG
       cord               7/16 in (11mm)




                                                                         FIG 2 – S152 Exploded view




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                                                       STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                       SERIES 15
                                                       STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS



   Seals arrangement
                                                                   ANCHOR
   The side and top seals (SECTION A-A & B-B) of
   the SERIES 15 are made of self-lubricating         UHMWPE TOP SEAL
   UHMWPE, allowing no metal-to-metal contact.
                                                          GATE



                                                                                       EPDM gasket
                                                                                    FRAME
                                                                              COMPRESSION CORD
                                                                 SECTION B-B : Top seal arrangement


EPDM GASKET                                              The flush-bottom seal (SECTION C-C), made of
                                                         resilient  neoprene,    leaves the   opening
                                                         unobstructed when the gate is in the open
COMPRESSION
                                                         position.
CORD

    GATE                          FRAME
                                                                            GATE
                                                    STIFFENER
                                                                               NEOPRENE FLUSH
                               UHMWPE                                          BOTTOM SEAL
                               GUIDE SEAL                                          FRAME
                                                                                         EPDM GASKET
           SECTION A-A : Side seal arrangement




                                                                 SECTION C-C : Bottom seal arrangement




                                                          FIG 3 – Section view details




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                                  STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                  SERIES 15
                                  STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


Configurations



                 MOST COMMON ARRANGEMENT

                         S15 – 152 CW
                         Non-rising stem
                  Manually operating equipment




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                                                 STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                 SERIES 15
                                                 STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS



Alternate arrangement


           S15 – 152 CW                                    S15 – 154 CW
              Non-rising stem                                Rising stem
    Manually operating equipment                        With electric actuator




                         TELESCOPIC STEM
                         ARRANGEMENT
                         AVAILABLE




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                                       STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                       SERIES 15
                                       STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


Alternate arrangement



              S15 – 152 CW                           S15 – 154 CW
               Non-rising stem                         Rising stem
            Manually operated                 Manually operating equipment



Floor box not
available for S15




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                                                      STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                     SERIES 15
                                                     STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS

Dimensions – 152-CW




                                     K


                                     J


                             FIG 4 – 152 CW : General layout (cf TABLE 2 p.11)

Specific layouts




    FIG 5 – 152 CW : 150mm - 300mm



                                         FIG 6 – 152 CW : 400mm - 600mm


                                                                            FIG 7 – 152 CW : 700mm -1000mm


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                                                      STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                      SERIES 15
                                                      STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


Dimensions – 154-CW




                                     K


                                      J

                           FIG 8 – 154 CW : General layout (cf TABLE 2 p.11)

Specific layouts




  FIG 9 – 154 CW : 150mm - 300mm
                                      FIG 10 – 154 CW : 400mm - 600mm

                                                                               FIG 11 – 154 CW : 700mm - 1000mm



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                                              STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                             SERIES 15
                                             STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


 Dimensional Chart*




                                  TABLE 2 – Dimensions

      mm       B      C      D         E       F          G       I      J     K
       150    120     88    251       357      71        430     294   303    278
       200    120     88    302       459      71        531     344   354    329
       250    126     88    353       561      71        633     395   405    379
       300    126     88    403       662      71        735     446   456    430
       400    132     88    505       865      71        956     551   557    532
       500    132     88    606      1069      71        1160    652   659    633
       600    139     88    708      1272      71        1286    754   760    735
       700    145     88    810      1483      71        1695    856   862    837
       800    145     88    911      1686      71        1794    957   965    938
       900    145     88   1013      1889      71        2105   1059   1065   1040
      1000    145     88   1114      2092      71        2130   1160   1167   1141

*     STANDARD SQUARE SIZES ONLY.
**    FOR RECTANGULAR AND HIGH HEAD APPLICATIONS, CONTACT YOUR FONTAINE LOCAL
      AGENT.




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                                                       STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                       SERIES 15
                                                       STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


Typical Specification

1.   GENERAL CONDITIONS                                       general construction and material used in the
                                                              penstock and lift mechanism.
1.1 SCOPE This section covers Stainless Steel
    Flow Control Penstocks and operating                 4.   PERFORMANCE
    equipment.
                                                         4.1 DESIGN HEAD The Penstocks shall be
1.2 GENERAL The equipment provided under                     designed to withstand a minimum of 6 m
    this section shall be fabricated, assembled,             head, (9 m for 150mm - 300mm and 7.5 m
    erected, and placed in proper operating                  for 400mm - 600mm) both seating and
    condition in full conformance with the                   unseating head.
    manufacturer’s drawings, specifications,
    engineering     data,     instructions    and        4.2 LEAKAGE According to the BS7775 (2005)
    recommendations       of    the     penstocks            Penstocks shall be substantially watertight
    manufacturer unless otherwise noted by the               under the design head. Under the seating
    engineers.                                               and unseating head, the leakage shall not
                                                             exceed 0.5 L/min per meter (700mm-
     Penstocks and operating equipment shall be              1000mm), 0.6 L/min per meter (400mm-
     supplied with all the necessary parts and               600mm).and 0.7 L/min per meter (150mm-
     accessories indicated on the drawings,                  300mm).
     specified or otherwise required for a
     complete, properly operating installation, and      4.3 SEAL PERFORMANCE TEST                  The
     shall be the latest standard product of a               Penstocks sealing system will have been
     manufacturer regularly engaged in the                   tested through a cycle test in an abrasive
     production of fabricated penstocks.                     environment and will show that the leakage
                                                             requirements are maintained after 25,000
     Penstocks supplied under this section shall             cycles with a minimum deterioration of the
     be Series 15 Stainless Steel Flow Control               Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
     Penstocks as manufactured by Fontaine.                  (UHMWPE) guides and seals.

1.3 GOVERNING STANDARDS           Except as              5.   PRODUCT
    modified or supplemented herein, all
    penstocks and operating equipment shall              5.1 PENSTOCKS
    match to the applicable requirements of
    BS7775 (2005).                                       5.1.1    GENERAL DESIGN Penstocks shall be
                                                                  either self-contained or non self-
2.   QUALITY ASSURANCE                                            contained of rising stems or non-rising
                                                                  stems configurations as indicated on the
2.1 The manufacturer shall have experience in                     penstock schedule.
    the production of substantially similar
    equipment for a minimum of 10 years and              5.1.2    FRAME       The penstock frame shall
    shall show evidence of satisfactory operation                 consist of cold formed, or press brake
    in at least 50 installations.                                 formed members welded at the corners
                                                                  to form a rigid one piece frame. Frame
2.2 Penstocks shall be shop inspected and                         shall have a minimum plate thickness of
    tested under unseating head for proper                        3mm (1/8 in). The frame shall be of the
    operation before shipping.                                    flange back design suitable for mounting
                                                                  on a concrete wall (CW). The guide slot
2.3 The manufacturer shall be ISO 9001 : 2008                     shall be made of UHMWPE ASTM D-
    certified.                                                    4020.

3.   SUBMITTALS                                                   The frame configuration shall permit the
                                                                  replacement of the top and side seals
3.1 The manufacturer shall provide drawings                       without removing the penstock frame
    showing the principal dimensions,                             from the concrete wall.



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                                                     STAINLESS STEEL PENSTOCKS

                                                     SERIES 15
                                                     STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


5.1.3   GATE The gate shall consist of a flat          5.2.1.1 Connection of the stem to the gate shall
        plate 5mm thick, reinforced with formed                be of the pinned type for rising stem
        plates or structural members with a                    configurations.
        minimal thickness of 3mm, to limit its
        deflection to 1/720 of the gate's span         5.2.1.2 Stems of the rising type shall be
        under the design head.                                 manufactured to the precise length
                                                               required by the purchaser.
5.1.4   GATE and FRAME Shall be fabricated
        form Type 316L stainless steel.                5.2.1.3 Stems of Non-Rising type shall be
                                                               equipped with a telescopic adjustment
5.1.5   GUIDES AND SEALS The guides shall                      that will permit height adjustment to
        be made of UHMWPE ASTM D-4020                          meet the requirements of the purchaser.
        and shall be of such length as to retain
        and support at least half the vertical         5.2.1.4 Stems shall be manufactured from Type
        height of the slide in the fully open                  316L stainless steel.
        position.
                                                       5.2.2   STEM GUIDES Stem guides shall be
        Side and top seals shall be made from                  fabricated from Type 316L stainless
        UHMWPE ASTM D-4020 of the self                         steel. The guide shall be equipped with
        adjusting type A. A continuous                         an UHMWPE bushing. Guides shall be
        compression cord shall ensure contact                  adjustable and spaced in accordance
        between the UHMWPE guide and the                       with         the         manufacturer's
        gate in all positions. The sealing system              recommendations. The L/r ratio shall not
        shall maintain efficient sealing in any                be greater than 200.
        position of the gate and allow the water
        to flow only in the opened part of the         5.2.3   STEM COVER. Rising stem gates shall
        gate. The UHMWPE side seals shall                      be provided with a clear PVC stem
        bear on both the upstream and                          cover. The stem cover shall have a cap
        downstream sides of the gate slide in all              and condensation vents and a clear
        positions.                                             mylar position indicating tape. The tape
                                                               shall be field applied to the stem cover
        The bottom seal shall be made of                       after the gate has been installed and
        resilient neoprene set into the bottom                 positioned.
        member of the frame and shall form a
        flush-bottom.                                  5.2.4   LIFTING MECHANISM              Manually
                                                               operating equipment of the type listed in
        The use of neoprene “J” Bulb seals, “P”                the schedule shall be provided by the
        seals or “Crown” seals is unacceptable.                penstocks manufacturer.

5.2 OPERATING EQUIPMENT AND STEM                               All bearings and gears shall be provided
                                                               by AUMA and approved by Fontaine for
5.2.1   STEM AND COUPLINGS The stem                            the    penstocks   provided to       the
        shall be of stainless steel designed to                purchaser.
        transmit in compression at least 2 times
        the rated output of the operating                      Each manually operating equipment
        equipment with a 178 N effort on the                   shall be designed to operate the gate
        crank or hand wheel.                                   under the maximum specified seating
                                                               and unseating heads by using a
        The stem shall have a slenderness ratio                maximum effort of 178 N on the crank or
        (L/r) less than 200. The threaded portion              hand wheel, and shall be able to
        of the stem shall have machined cut                    withstand, without damage, an effort of
        threads of the Acme type.                              356 N.

        When an electric operator is used, the                 The crank shall be removable and fitted
        stem design force shall not be less than               with a corrosion-resistant rotating
        1.25 times the output thrust of the                    handle. The maximum crank radius shall
        electric motor at the stalled condition.



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                                                      SERIES 15
                                                      STANDARD FLOW CONTROL PENSTOCKS


         be 300mm and the maximum hand
         wheel diameter shall be 610mm.

5.2.5    YOKE Self-contained penstocks shall
         be provided with a yoke made of
         structural members or formed plates.
         The maximum deflection of the yoke
         shall be 1/360 of the gate's span.

6.   INSTALLATION

6.1 Penstocks and appurtenances shall be
    handled and installed in accordance with the
    manufacturer's recommendations.

7.   FIELD TESTS

7.1 Following the completion of each penstock
    installation, the gates shall be operated
    through at least two complete open/close
    cycles. If an electric actuator is used, limit
    switches shall be adjusted following the
    manufacturer's instructions.

7.2 Penstocks should be checked for leakage by
    the contractor (refer to the “Performance”
    section for approval criteria).




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