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									   Improving Airport Capacity by
Adaptive Ground Traffic Management




            Dragoş STOICA
          Marc De COLIGNY
         Félix MORA-CAMINO
           Presentation Plan


  The framework for airport ground traffic
              management



Adaptive ground traffic management system



     Conclusions and further research

                                             2
           Presentation Plan

The framework for airport ground traffic
             management



Adaptive ground traffic management system



     Conclusions and further research



                                            3
                      The framework

Objective : improving airport capacity                        by
adaptive ground traffic management

 The operational framework
     The airport platform
     The airport ground traffic operational rules
 The agents
     The airport authorities and the ground traffic controllers
     The airlines and the pilots



                                                                   4
           The operational framework

The existing systems

   Signalling systems

   Localisation systems

   Communication systems

   Ground traffic control systems



                                       5
       The ground traffic control system

The aircraft flow and information exchanged with the
ground traffic control system




                                                   6
       The ground traffic control system

The organization of an airport control tower




                                               7
           The operational framework

Ground traffic control systems
   SMGCS (Surface Movement Guidance and Control
    System)
   A-SMGCS (Advanced-SMGCS)


The main functions of A-SMGCS
   Surveillance
   Routing
   Guidance
   Control


                                                   8
               The airport capacity
Capacity definition                D
   Theoretical capacity
   Potential capacity(observed)
   Practical capacity(mean delays)
   Operational capacity(max delays)

                                                  A
Airport capacity evaluation models
   Theoretical models based on queues networks
    (macroscopic)
   Simulation based models (microscopic)
   Optimisation based models (flow models)


                                                      9
                The airport capacity
   Theoretical capacity : the maximum number of aircraft
    that the airport platform may service per time unit
    without taking into account the QOS.
   Potential capacity : the maximum number of aircraft that
    the airport platform may service per time unit with a
    predefined demand levels.
   Practical capacity : the maximum number of aircraft that
    the airport platform may service per time unit with a
    predefined level for the average delay.
   Operational capacity : the maximum number of aircraft
    that the airport platform may service per time unit with a
    predefined level maximum delay.

                                                             10
    The aircraft ground traffic management

Decision elements:
   Arrivals management
        Choice of landing runway (G0)
        Choice of parking position (G1)
        Choice of the taxi path between runway and parking position
         (G2)
        Guidance and control of the aircraft between the runway exit
         and parking position (C1)




                                                                        11
    The aircraft ground traffic management

Decision elements :
   Departures management
        Choice of take-off runway (G3)
        Choice of the push-back instant (G4)
        Choice of taxi path between the parking position and the
         runway (G5)
        Guidance and control of the aircraft between the parking
         position and the runway entry (C2)




                                                                    12
            Presentation Plan

   The framework for airport ground traffic
               management



Adaptive ground traffic management system



      Conclusions and further research



                                              13
                      Contributions

At strategic planning level :

   The evaluation of operational airport capacity taking
    into account the airport ground traffic


At tactical level :

   An adaptive approach for airport ground traffic
    management



                                                       14
Taking into account the airport ground traffic

The airport capacity evaluation is extended to the
entire platform




Taking into account the number N0 of grounded
aircraft in the airport system

                                                     15
      A global approach for airport capacity
                   evaluation
The main hypothesis of the model :
     Traffic flows are assimilated to continuous flows

     The levels of offer (open runways and taxiways) and
      demand levels (planned arrival and departure rates)
      remain constant during the considered time interval

     Taking explicitly into account ground traffic interaction at
      crossings

     Storage capacities are associated to the taxiway system

                                                                16
        A global approach for airport capacity
                     evaluation
Main drawbacks of the capacity study:

 Planning issues:
       Runway system redimensioning
       Taxiway system redimensioning
       Parking zones redimensioning
       Airport terminals redesign


 Operations issues :
       Airport circulation plan
       Dimensioning of ground traffic control zones
       Parking zones allocation


                                                       17
       A global approach for airport capacity
                    evaluation
Operational capacity evaluation
      The algorithm




                                                18
       A global approach for airport capacity
                    evaluation
Exploitation of the operational capacity evaluation

      A basis for tactical planning

      A means for evaluation of different ground traffic
       management strategies and procedures




                                                            19
       A global approach for airport capacity
                    evaluation
Exploitation of the operational capacity evaluation
      The resulting circulation plan for Toulouse Blagnac
       airport




                                                             20
                      Contributions

At strategic planning level :

   Evaluation of airport airside capacity and ground
    traffic strategic planning


At tactical level :

   Adaptive approach for airport ground traffic
    management




                                                        21
           The ground traffic management
Analysis
Limitations of existing approaches :
      Mainly mono criteria approaches uniformly applied to all
       aircraft
      Effect of queues not fully taken into account
      Taxiway capacity not considered, only traffic flow
       conservation considered
      Saturation phenomena not considered and all aircraft
       supposed to move at constant speed
      Perturbations associated to the distributions of
       operations times at parking positions and the dispersion
       of touch-down and runway exit times, not considered

                                                              22
           The ground traffic management
Analysis
Tactical considerations for a fluid ground traffic flow :
      The arriving aircraft should have priority The aircraft at
       parking positions have to be cleared as soon as
       possible if they have the possibility to reach the take-off
       runway with small taxi delays
      The capacity of runways used for both landings and
       take-offs is maximised when uninterrupted sequences
       of departing aircraft and arriving aircraft are built up
      During peak hours, queues built up at taxiways
       crossings and at runways entries
      The number of effective taxi paths used by the ground
       traffic controllers is relatively small

                                                                 23
           The ground traffic management

Analysis
Exploitation of results issued from capacity studies :
      The comparison with operational capacity levels allows
       the evaluation of the current traffic saturation degree.
      The optimal distribution of traffic flows resulting from the
       operational capacity study allows the identification of
       candidate paths and the estimation of the related travel
       costs.
      For the existing airport network, statistical data allows to
       assign expected delays to the different potential paths.



                                                                 24
          The ground traffic management
Proposition
Objective : Minimize the aircraft ground movement delays

Optimization criteria : The estimated total delay over a
                             given time window

Optimization means : Choice of aircraft paths for both arrivals
                                 and departures

Approach : Adaptive with a sliding optimization horizon



                                                              25
           The ground traffic management

Definitions :

      Route = a path 2D on the graph associated to the
       airport infrastructure

      Itinerary for departures = a pair (2D + T) consisting of a
       route and the time instant when the roll-out begins.

      Itinerary for arrivals = a pair (2D+T) consisting of a route
       and the times instant of runway exit.



                                                                 26
         The ground traffic management

The support of all possible routes for an aircraft
constitutes a mesh of routes.

Defining a mesh of routes: An oriented graph without
circuits between an unique origin and an unique
destination




                                                     27
           The ground traffic management
The strategic choice for the routes
      The criteria




      Selection criteria :

      The routes are classified by :
         Length
         Generalised cost

         Degree of freedom

                                           28
           The ground traffic management

The evaluation of costs corresponding to a route
      The considered temporal structure:




      The considered queues:




                                                   29
          The ground traffic management

Queue management
 The GFA-E problem
     The criteria:



     The decision variables and the constraints:




                                                    30
           The ground traffic management

Operational approach and itinerary definition
      The operational temporal structure:




                                                31
           The ground traffic management
Operational approach and itinerary definition
       Relax the problem GFA-E by considering continuous decision
        variables  GFA-C

       Solution algorithm for GFA-C
   1.   Solve GFA-C by a Continuous Linear Programming algorithm,
        denote by the solution
   2.   There are several possibilities
        1.  If is already an optimal solution, consider it at t0+KT
        2.  If          is integer, consider it at t0+KT
        3.  If                                     adopt it
        4.  If it is not –close to an integer feasible solution, back track the
            simplex solutions until a solution –close to an integer solution
            is found


                                                                              32
           The ground traffic management

Operation approach and itinerary definition
      Processing system for ground traffic management:




                                                          33
          The ground traffic management

The mesh of routes (Toulouse-Blagnac)
     Arrivals




                                          34
         The ground traffic management

Mesh of routes (Toulouse-Blagnac)
     Departures




                                         35
          The ground traffic management

Traffic management (Toulouse-Blagnac)
      Departures


                                                                            D7




                                    D3                D4     D5          D6 A1
            D2


  D1




                               D7              troulage    tposte   tfile    ttotal
                    FIFO                         5           0      12           17
                    FIFO (chemin alternatif)     8           0       8           16
                    GFA-C (itinéraire)           5           6       4           15
                                                                                      36
           Presentation Plan

  The framework for airport ground traffic
              management



Adaptive ground traffic management system



   Conclusions and further research



                                             37
       Conclusions and further research

Contributions
   Development of a global approach for analysis and
    management of airport ground traffic by the means of
    airport operational capacity

   Introducing a third dimension in the airport capacity
    concept

   Development of adaptive approach for aircraft routing
    that is compatible with the actual operational constraints
    and with the expected performances for future airport
    ground traffic management systems
                                                            38
         Conclusions and further research

Further research
     Integrating air terminal ground space in the airport
      capacity evaluation

     Evaluation and calibration of the model for several
      airports

     Detailed tuning using specific scenarios for ground
      traffic management and comparative studies with other
      methods performing equivalent functions



                                                              39
         Conclusions and further research

Perspectives

     Use of advanced optimization methods (global
      optimisation methods, evolutionary optimisation
      methods) to solve the ground traffic management
      related optimization problems.

     Automatization of ground traffic conflict resolution.




                                                              40
   Improving Airport Capacity by
Adaptive Ground Traffic Management



  Thank you for your attention !

             Any questions?

     Dragoş STOICA, Marc DE COLIGNY, Félix MORA-CAMINO

								
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