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2009_Hy-Line_Parent_Stock

VIEWS: 247 PAGES: 55

									Variety W-36   Variety BroWn   Variety W-98   Variety silVer BroWn
           General Management Recommendations
The genetic potential of Hy-Line varieties can only be realized if good poultry husbandry practices and management are used.
This booklet outlines successful flock management programs and provides management recommendations for Hy-Line’s
varieties based on field experience compiled by Hy-Line, extensive commercial flock records cataloged by Hy-Line from all
parts of the world and principles taken from industry technical literature. Where a difference between varieties exists it will be
noted either in the text or in the separate section for each variety.

The information and suggestions contained in this booklet should be used for guidance and educational purposes only,
recognizing that local environmental and disease conditions may vary and a guide cannot cover all possible circumstances.
While every attempt has been made to ensure that the information presented is accurate and reliable at the time of publication,
Hy-Line cannot accept responsibility for any errors, omissions or inaccuracies in such information or management suggestions.
Further, Hy-Line does not warrant or make any representations or guarantees regarding the use, validity, accuracy, or reliability
of, or flock performance or productivity resulting from the use of, or otherwise respecting, such information or management
suggestions. In no event shall Hy-Line be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or special damages
whatsoever arising out of or in connection with the use of the information or management suggestions contained in this booklet.




                                                                2
                            Table of Contents
Performance Summaries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4

Parent Chick Management…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..8

Beak Trimming………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...9

Floor Systems Management………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..10

Cage Systems Management………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..12

Space Requirements for Cages during Growing and Laying Periods………………………………………………………………….13

Disease Control………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………13

Vaccination Program………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...14

Internal Parasites…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….14

External Parasites……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………15

Lighting Program……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16

Sunrise Sunset Chart………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17

Monitoring Body Weights……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………18

Egg Size Management………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………19

Nutritional Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...20

Growing Period Breeder Nutrition………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23

Growing Period Feed Consumption………………………………………………………………………………………………………..24

Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Added Trace Minerals and Vitamins……………………………………………………………………………………………………….37

Laying Period Feed Consumption………………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

Water Consumption………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….40

Ventilation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..40

Breeder Hen Management………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….41

Hatching Egg Care…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..42

Incubation and Hatching…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….42

Color Sexing………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….42

Feather Sexing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….42

Color and Feather Sexing Photos………………………………………………………………………………………………………….43

Performance Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45

Performance Graphs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...46

Feed Ingredient Analysis Table…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….53
                                            3
   Hy-Line W-36 Parent Performance Summary
Female Livability                                 1–18 Weeks                  96%
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 96%


Male Livability                                   1–18 Weeks                  85%
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 94%


Age at 50% Production                                                      143 Days



Peak Percent Hen-Day Production (age)                                   91% (27 weeks)


Number of Hen-Day Eggs                            19–60 Weeks                 241
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 268


Number of Hen-Housed Eggs                         19–60 Weeks                 236
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 262


Number of Settable Hen-Housed Eggs                25–60 Weeks                 203
                                                  25–65 Weeks                 228


Number of Female Chicks Produced                  25–60 Weeks                  87
                                                  25–65 Weeks                  97


Average Number of Female Chicks/Week              25–60 Weeks                 2.4
                                                  25–65 Weeks                 2.4


Average Percent Hatchability                      25–60 Weeks                 86%
                                                  25–65 Weeks                 85%


Female Body Weight                                18 Weeks              1.20 kg (2.7 lb)
                                              65 Weeks (mature)         1.59 kg (3.5 lb)


Male Body Weight                                  18 Weeks              1.56 kg (3.4 lb)
                                              65 Weeks (mature)         2.12 kg (4.7 lb)


Feed Consumption
        Per Bird Housed                     1–18 Weeks (cumulative)     5.85 kg (12.9 lb)
           (total of males and females)   19–65 Weeks (average daily)    100 g (0.22 lb)
        Per Dozen                                19–65 Weeks            1.48 kg (3.3 lb)




                                              4
   Hy-Line W-98 Parent Performance Summary
Female Livability                                 1–18 Weeks                  96%
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 94%


Male Livability                                   1–18 Weeks                  83%
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 90%


Age at 50% Production                                                      141 Days



Peak Percent Hen-Day Production (age)                                   92% (26 weeks)


Number of Hen-Day Eggs                            19–60 Weeks                 242
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 269


Number of Hen-Housed Eggs                         19–60 Weeks                 236
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 261


Number of Settable Hen-Housed Eggs                24–60 Weeks                 206
                                                  24–65 Weeks                 229


Number of Female Chicks Produced                  24–60 Weeks                  90
                                                  24–65 Weeks                  99


Average Number of Female Chicks/Week              24–60 Weeks                 2.4
                                                  24–65 Weeks                 2.4


Average Percent Hatchability                      24–60 Weeks                 87%
                                                  24–65 Weeks                 86%


Female Body Weight                                18 Weeks              1.21 kg (2.7 lb)
                                              65 Weeks (mature)         1.64 kg (3.6 lb)


Male Body Weight                                  18 Weeks              1.48 kg (3.3 lb)
                                              65 Weeks (mature)         2.20 kg (4.9 lb)


Feed Consumption
        Per Bird Housed                     1–18 Weeks (cumulative)     6.26 kg (13.8 lb)
           (total of males and females)   19–65 Weeks (average daily)    105 g (0.23 lb)
        Per Dozen                                19–65 Weeks            1.56 kg (3.4 lb)




                                              5
 Hy-Line Brown Parent Performance Summary
Female Livability                                 1–18 Weeks                  97%
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 91%


Male Livability                                   1–18 Weeks                  96%
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 90%


Age at 50% Production                                                      145 Days



Peak Percent Hen-Day Production (age)                                   92% (28 weeks)


Number of Hen-Day Eggs                            19–60 Weeks                 235
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 259


Number of Hen-Housed Eggs                         19–60 Weeks                 227
                                                  19–65 Weeks                 249


Number of Settable Hen-Housed Eggs                25–60 Weeks                 194
                                                  25–65 Weeks                 215


Number of Female Chicks Produced                  25–60 Weeks                  78
                                                  25–65 Weeks                  85


Average Number of Female Chicks/Week              25–60 Weeks                 2.2
                                                  25–65 Weeks                 2.1


Average Percent Hatchability                      25–60 Weeks                 80%
                                                  25–65 Weeks                 79%


Female Body Weight                                18 Weeks              1.44 kg (3.2 lb)
                                              65 Weeks (mature)         1.88 kg (4.1 lb)


Male Body Weight                                  18 Weeks              2.20 kg (4.9 lb)
                                              65 Weeks (mature)         2.80 kg (6.2 lb)


Feed Consumption
        Per Bird Housed                     1–18 Weeks (cumulative)     6.55 kg (14.4 lb)
           (total of males and females)   19–65 Weeks (average daily)    108 g (0.24 lb)
        Per Dozen                                19–65 Weeks            1.65 kg (3.6 lb)




                                              6
Hy-Line Silver Brown Parent Performance Summary
 Female Livability                                 1–18 Weeks                  94%
                                                   19–65 Weeks                 92%


 Male Livability                                   1–18 Weeks                  90%
                                                   19–65 Weeks                 42%


 Age at 50% Production                                                      147 Days



 Peak Percent Hen-Day Production (age)                                   91% (30 weeks)


 Number of Hen-Day Eggs                            19–60 Weeks                 243
                                                   19–65 Weeks                 270


 Number of Hen-Housed Eggs                         19–60 Weeks                 235
                                                   19–65 Weeks                 260


 Number of Settable Hen-Housed Eggs                25–60 Weeks                 197
                                                   25–65 Weeks                 221


 Number of Female Chicks Produced                  25–60 Weeks                  73
                                                   25–65 Weeks                  81


 Average Number of Female Chicks/Week              25–60 Weeks                 2.0
                                                   25–65 Weeks                 2.0


 Average Percent Hatchability                      25–60 Weeks                 74%
                                                   25–65 Weeks                 73%


 Female Body Weight                                18 Weeks              1.46 kg (3.2 lb)
                                               65 Weeks (mature)         2.06 kg (4.5 lb)


 Male Body Weight                                  18 Weeks              2.13 kg (4.7 lb)
                                               65 Weeks (mature)         2.70 kg (6.0 lb)


 Feed Consumption
         Per Bird Housed                     1–18 Weeks (cumulative)     6.55 kg (14.4 lb)
            (total of males and females)   19–65 Weeks (average daily)    108 g (0.24 lb)
         Per Dozen                                19–65 Weeks            1.65 kg (3.6 lb)




                                               7
                                   Parent Chick Management
A breeder flock has a major part of its potential performance
determined during the first 20 weeks of its lifetime. Encourage
the chicks to drink. Vitamins and electrolytes may be used in the
water the first 2–3 days.
                                                                                     Brooding Temperatures
                                                                                                            Hy-Line Brown or
Humidity is an important factor in chick comfort control. If                                W-36 or W-98      Silver Brown
possible, maintain 40–60% relative humidity when chicks are                                 Parent Stock      Parent Stock
started. Humidity control becomes increasingly important when
warm room brooding in cold climates. Humidity will normally be          Temperature at       32°C (90°F)      35°C (95°F)
lowered to 30–40% by the end of the growing period.                     Edge of Hover

Reduce temperatures 2–3°C (3–5°F) per week to 21°C (70°F).              Cage or Warm     32–33°C (90–92°F) 33–35°C (92–95°F)
Males must be intermingled with females by 4 weeks of age to            Room Temperature
ensure normal adult male mating behavior.




                                                                    8
                                            Beak Trimming
Beak trimming is not necessary in all management systems,          The following precautions must be observed at all times:
however, if beak trimming is done, proper procedures               1. Do not beak-trim sick birds.
should be followed.                                                2. Do not hurry.
                                                                   3. Use electrolytes and vitamins (containing vitamin K) in
The pullets are most successfully beak trimmed at hatch by              the water two days before and two days after beak
infrared beak treatment or between 7–10 days of age using               trimming.
a precision cam activated beak trimmer with guide plate            4. Keep feed at the highest level for several days after
holes of 4.00, 4.37, and 4.75 mm (10/64, 11/64, and 12/64               beak trimming. If a coccidiostat is being used in the
in). Males are just tipped on their beaks at the same age as            feed, supplement it with water soluble coccidiostats
the pullets. The proper size hole should be selected to                 until feed consumption returns to normal.
provide the width of 2 mm between the nostrils and the             5. Use only well trained crews for beak trimming.
cauterizing ring. The proper size hole will depend both on
size and age of the chicks. Beaks should be re-trimmed at
12–14 weeks of age.

A cherry red color blade has been recommended for proper
cautery. However, a better way to measure blade
temperature is by use of a pyrometer to keep the blade at
approximately 595°C (1100°F). The use of a line voltage
meter and chart available from the Hy-Line website will
facilitate maintaining the proper blade temperature at all
times. A variation of 38°C (100°F) is common due to
external influences and cannot be detected by the
human eye.




        Guide plate holes for precision beak trim.                          7–10 day old chick immediately
                                                                                   after beak trim.




           Infrared beak treatment at hatch as                          The result of an appropriate beak trim
                 shown at 4 days of age.                                  as it appears at 18 weeks of age.



                                                               9
                             Floor Systems Management
Hy-Line parent stock are used successfully in floor                  Perches—Perches provide a significant improvement to
systems due to her good livability and nest behavior when            the growing and laying house environment. In grow, they
the birds have been appropriately socialized. It is                  allow birds to fully develop their leg and flight muscles.
important to provide the birds with an optimum floor                 Perches in the growing house will habituate jumping
environment to achieve the performance potential of the              behavior which will be important in good nesting behavior.
parent stock. It is essential to grow the birds on the floor         Perches reduce the social stress of the floor by providing
when they will be housed in floor systems for the laying             safe resting sites. Perches reduce the social pressure in
period.                                                              the environment by increasing the space in the house.
                                                                     Piling is a common problem in flocks without access to
Growing Period                                                       perches. Place perches on slats where possible to
                                                                     maintain good litter conditions. Distance between perches
Lighting—Birds should be grown in housing that allows
                                                                     on A-frame design should be 40 cm (16 in) and at a slope
adjustment to light duration and the light intensity. The
                                                                     of 45°. The length of the perch depends on the bird
lighting programs are usually similar to those used for
                                                                     density (as shown in the table below).
parent stock in cage production, but light intensity may be
different. It is important to provide floor grown birds with
enough light intensity to allow them to navigate their
environment. Week-one light intensity of 20–30 lux (2–3
                                                                              Bird Density              Perch Length
foot-candles) should be used, dropping down to 15 lux                                                     per Bird
(1.5 foot-candles) by week four and remaining at the level
until week 17. At week 17, gradually increase the light                Birds/m²       ft²/bird     cm               in
intensity, reaching 20–30 lux (2–3 foot-candles) by the                   7             1.4         2              0.75
time the pullets are transferred to the breeder house.
Birds moving into open-sided housing should have higher                   8             1.3         4              1.50
light intensities of 30–40 lux (3–4 foot-candles) at the time             9             1.2         6              2.25
of housing.
                                                                         10             1.1         8              3.00
                                                                         11             1.0        10              3.75
                                                                         12             0.9        12              4.50




                                                      Perch Dimensions



                                                                10
                                 Floor Systems Management
Growing Period                                                            nest will encourage floor eggs. Allow the pullets access to the
                                                                          nests during the day when they arrive. Place the pullets on the
Body Weights—Ensure that the feed and water systems in the
                                                                          slats at housing. Walk the birds several times daily, particularly
growing and laying facilities are compatible. Ideally, the growing
                                                                          in the morning, to ensure the birds are finding feed and water.
house should have elevated bird walkways with feed and water
stations. Birds grown on the floor will often be as much as 50 g
                                                                          Training Period—Train the pullets to use the nests by frequent
(0.1 lb) lower in body weight at 12 weeks of age than cage-
                                                                          walks through the house in the mornings for the first eight
grown birds. To offset any decrease in egg size, it is common to
                                                                          weeks after the birds are placed in the laying house. Use of
delay light stimulation until the pullets reach the breed’s
                                                                          electric deterrent wires on the slats around the house perimeter
stimulation body weight.
                                                                          will help discourage egg laying in corners or near the walls.
                                                                          Electric deterrent wires must be turned on as soon as the birds
Relative Humidity—Birds are very sensitive to extremes of
                                                                          are housed. Place the electric deterrent wires 5 cm (2 in) away
relative humidity. It is common to see young flocks in floor
                                                                          from the wall or the house and about 10 cm (4 in) above the
houses with relative humidity dropping below 30%. This will
                                                                          floor. An electric wire over water and feed lines increase
cause increased agitation of the chicks and can cause
                                                                          nervousness among the birds and should be avoided. Use of
aggressive behavior. Excessive moisture may cause poor litter
                                                                          solid perches above water and feed lines are preferred.
conditions. Wet litter will be associated with high ammonia
levels, poor air quality and enteric diseases. This must be
                                                                          Nests—Open nest box curtains to encourage nest exploration
avoided to prevent respiratory problems. Ideally, relative
                                                                          in young laying flocks. Nest lights can be used to train birds to
humidity should be in the 40–60% range.
                                                                          explore the nests and should be turned on one hour before the
                                                                          house lights are turned on and remain on for one hour after the
Socialization—It is important to socialize the birds to humans
                                                                          house lights have been turned on. This will help prevent
by walking through the chicks daily. It is recommended the birds
                                                                          overcrowding and smothering inside the nests. False walls that
be walked at two hour intervals. This would give the birds time
                                                                          are 1 m (3 ft) in length every 12 m (39 ft) along the line of nest
to relax and settle between walkings. Brighten the house and
                                                                          boxes can reduce overcrowding in nests.
walk briskly through the house to improve the process of
socialization.
                                                                          House Layout—The litter area in layer houses should not be
                                                                          more than 60 cm (24 in) below the slat area. Position lights to
Laying Period                                                             eliminate shadows on the litter below the slat area. Position
Lighting—Check the lighting program and light intensity.                  lights to provide the brightest light intensity over the litter or
Ensure that light intensity in lay house is brighter than grow.           resting areas and the lowest light intensity at the front of the
Synchronize light times with the growing house. It is important           nest boxes. Flocks housed in all-slat houses should also be
not to have shadows in the lay house, as dark areas outside the           grown on slat or wire floors.




                                                                     11
                                      Cage Systems Management
Introduction                                                                    Caution—Growing breeders in cages and then transferring them to
                                                                                a floor production system is not advisable. Breeders handled in this
Breeders can be raised and produced in breeder cages with
                                                                                way can experience behavior problems (displaced pecking behavior)
success. Cage systems have been specifically designed for use in
                                                                                as adults.
breeders. Advantages of keeping breeders in cages are cleaner
hatching eggs, better control of enteric diseases (coccidiosis,
Gumboro, internal parasites, Salmonella), more settable eggs, better            Laying Period
feed efficiency, more efficient use of the breeder house space and              Moving—The flock can be moved into the laying facility at 15–16
lower labor costs. The main disadvantages are lower fertility and               weeks of age or after administration of the last live vaccinations.
higher capital investment in facilities.                                        W-36 and Hy-Line Brown males may be moved a few days earlier to
                                                                                the laying house to give them more time to acclimate to their new
                                                                                environment before the arrival of females. This is not recommended
Growing Period                                                                  for the W-98 and Silver Brown males. It is important that growing and
Preparations—Place paper on the cage floor during the brooding                  production breeder cages be compatible in feeder, drinker and
period. This will allow supplemental feeding on cage paper to quickly           lighting systems.
get chicks eating. Place feed on the cage paper in front of the
permanent feeder to train chicks to move towards the feeders.                   Selections—During the transfer of males, a selection for the best
Remove paper by 14 days of age to avoid build up of feces that                  individuals should be made. All roosters entering the laying house
could lead to IBD (Gumboro) or coccidia infections. Waterlines                  should be in good body condition, well-feathered, with good feet and
should be flushed prior to arrival of the chicks to remove residual             legs and free of physical defects. Keep extra males in reserve cages
disinfectant and warm the drinking water. Drinking water temperature            to use later. Any sex slips should be removed at transfer. Supportive
should be 25 to 30°C (77 to 86°F) for the first week. Adjusting water           care to reduce stress such as water-soluble vitamins, probiotics, and
system pressure in nipple drinkers to create a hanging drop will help           vitamin C should be used three days before and three days after the
chicks find water. Cup drinkers should be manually filled during the            transfer. Flocks transferred early should be moved into a laying
first three days to train chicks to drink. The W-36 male can be                 house with the same light hours and light intensity as those in the
smaller and less developed than the female. Special supportive care             growing house.
for these males include higher brooding temperatures, reduced bird
density, vitamins and electrolytes in drinking water and enriched               Cages—A breeder cage designed for a colony size of greater than
feed. To avoid leg problems, the rearing cage should be constructed             100 birds will usually have better fertility than those with smaller
with wire that is at least 2 mm (0.08 in) in diameter with spacing              colony size. Smaller breeder cages with only one or two roosters are
between wires to provide a maximum cell size of 18 mm x 18 mm                   subject to accelerated fertility loss as the flock ages. Breeder laying
(0.71 in × 0.71 in). The floor of the cages should not be slippery or           cages should provide 700 cm² (276 in²) of floor space per bird. The
sloped. The height of the cage should be a minimum of 40 cm (15.75              height of the laying cage must be at least 60 cm (23.6 in) to avoid the
in). If too low the roosters can experience problems with legs and              roosters from hitting their heads on the top of the cage. Roosters
pressure sores on the keel bone.                                                striking their heads on the top of the cage will be reluctant to mate.
                                                                                Roosters in cage systems should be dubbed to avoid being caught in
Lighting—During the first week, chicks should be provided with 20–              cage wires.
22 hours of light with bright lights (20–30 lux, 2–3 foot-candles) to
help chicks find water and feed. Alternatively, an intermittent lighting        Mating Ratios—Male to female ratios depend on the type of breeder
program (4 hours of light followed by 2 hours of dark) can be used              cage and the size of the cage colony but as a rule they should follow
for the first week.                                                             as closely as possible those ratios used on the floor. The same
                                                                                lighting program used for floor breeders should be used in caged
Socialization—Males and females should be grown together to                     breeder flocks.
allow socialization. This can avoid mating problems that can occur as
adults. Ideally, the males and females should be co-mingled by 4                Fertility—Fertility checks on fresh eggs can be done to identify
weeks of age.                                                                   cages with low fertility. Poor quality roosters should be removed and
                                                                                replaced with reserve roosters.


                                                                Fresh Egg Breakout




                                                Infertile                               Fertile Un-incubated

                                                                           12
           Space Recommendations* for Caged Breeders
              during the Growing and Laying Periods
                 Item                                 W-36 and W-98                                       Brown and Silver Brown

                                          Growing                        Laying                       Growing                     Laying

        Cage Floor, cm² (in²)              330–350                          630                       380–400                    700–710
                                          (130–138)                        (248)                     (150–157)                  (276–280)
           Feeder, cm (in)                   7–8                            10                           8–9                        10
                                          (2.8–3.2)                        (3.9)                      (3.2–3.5)                    (3.9)
          Drinking System             1 per 8–10 birds             1 per 10 birds                 1 per 8–10 birds            1 per 10 birds

       * includes both males and females


                                                      Disease Control
A flock of pullets or layers can only perform up to its genetic                    Rodents are known carriers of many poultry diseases and they are
potential when disease influence is minimized. The appearance of                   the most common reason for re-contamination of a cleaned and
various diseases can vary from a subclinical effect on performance                 disinfected poultry facility. They are also responsible for house-to-
to outright severe mortality. The diseases of economic importance                  house spread of disease on a farm. The farm should be free of
vary widely between locations, but in every case the challenge is to               debris and tall grass that might provide cover for rodents. The
identify and control those diseases.                                               perimeter of the house should have a 1 m (3 ft) area of crushed rock
                                                                                   or concrete to prevent rodents from burrowing into the houses. Feed
Biosecurity                                                                        and eggs should be stored in rodent-proof areas. Bait stations
Biosecurity is the best method of avoiding disease. A good                         should be placed throughout the house and maintained with
biosecurity program identifies and controls the most likely ways a                 fresh rodenticide.
disease could enter the farm. Human and equipment movement
onto the farm should be strictly controlled. Visitors to the farm                  Cleaning and disinfection of the house between flocks serves to
should be limited to those who are essential for its operation. All                reduce the infection pressure for a new incoming flock. The house
visitors and workers should enter at a central location. Visitors                  should be cleaned of organic matter by high pressure spraying with
should use a logbook to document their visits. Anyone having been                  a warm water containing a detergent/disinfectant. Allow time for the
on another poultry facility within 48 hours should not be permitted                detergent to soak. After drying, the house should be disinfected or
access. Clean boots, clothing and head cover should be provided                    fumigated and allowed to dry again before repopulating with birds.
for everyone working or visiting the farm. Clean footbaths                         Heating the house during washing improves the removal of organic
containing disinfectant should be placed outside the entries to all                matter. Wash the upper portion of the house before the pit.
poultry houses. If possible, avoid using outside crews or equipment                Thoroughly clean the air inlets, fan housing, fan blades and fan
for vaccination, moving, and beak trimming. Ideally, workers should                louvers. Flush and sanitize the water lines. All feed and manure
be limited to a single house. The number of flocks visited in one day              should be removed from the housing before cleaning. Allow a
should be limited, and always progressing from younger to older                    minimum of two weeks downtime between flocks.
flocks, and from healthy to sick flocks. After visiting a sick flock, no
other flocks should be visited.                                                    Monitoring of poultry houses for the presence of Salmonella,
                                                                                   particularly Salmonella enteritidis, is recommended. This can be
The removal of old hens from the farm is a time when disease can                   done by routine testing of the environment.
be introduced. The trucks and crews used to transport old hens
have often been on other farms. A plan should be developed to                      Vertically Transmitted Diseases
minimize the biosecurity risk during times outside crews or                        Some diseases are known to be transmitted from infected breeders
equipment are needed for vaccination, moving pullets, and                          to their progeny. This requires the production and maintenance of
beak trimming.                                                                     disease-free breeders as a first step in the control of these diseases
                                                                                   at the commercial level. All breeders directly under Hy-Line’s control
A single-aged growing farm using the all-in/all-out principle is best.             are free of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae,
This will prevent the transmission of disease from older flocks to                 Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum (typhoid), Salmonella
younger, susceptible flocks. All houses should be designed to                      enteritidis, and lymphoid leukosis. Due to the possibility of horizontal
prevent exposure of the flock to wild birds. Quickly and properly                  transmission of any of these diseases, later generations may not
dispose of dead chickens.                                                          remain free. It is the responsibility of the breeding and commercial
                                                                                   flock owner to prevent horizontal transmission of these diseases and
                                                                                   to continue testing to be assured of a negative status.
                                                                           13
 Vaccination
 Certain diseases are too widespread or difficult to eradicate and          optimum time to vaccinate such chicks with intermediate strain live
 require a routine vaccination program. In general, all layer flocks        vaccines is at 18–20 days, 24–26 days and at 30–32 days of age.
 should be vaccinated against Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis,             Extremely severe IBD challenge may require even more frequent
 Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) and Avian Encephalomyelitis                vaccination with stronger strains of vaccine during this period.
 (AE). The exact vaccination schedule depends upon many things              Bursas can be examined later to determine the extent of protection.
 such as diseases exposures expected, maternal immunities,
 vaccine types available and routes of administration preferred.
 Therefore, no one program can be recommended for all                                    Basic Breeder Vaccination Program
 locations. Consult with local veterinarians to determine the best                      Age                 Disease             Method
 vaccination program for your area. Following is a basic program                       1 day                Marek’s              injection
 where breeders received an inactivated Newcastle-Bronchitis-                         18 days               Gumboro               water
 IBD vaccine.
                                                                                      24 days               Gumboro               water
                                                                                                      Newcastle-Bronchitis        water
 Infectious Bursal Disease
 Special attention should be paid to IBD control. This disease can                    30 days               Gumboro               water
 have many subtle effects which are detrimental to pullet health.                     6 weeks         Newcastle-Bronchitis        spray
 The primary feature of IBD is immuno-supression caused by                            9 weeks         Newcastle-Bronchitis        spray
 damage to the bursa of Fabricius which leaves the bird unable to
 fend off other disease challenges. Secondary diseases such as                                              AE-Pox              wing-web
 gangrenous dermatitis, bacterial arthritis, peritonitis, and even                                     Chick Anemia Virus       wing-web
 Marek’s often result. Virtually all flocks are exposed to IBD and                    13 weeks      Newcastle-Bronchitis-IBD,    injection
 therefore, should be protected by vaccination. Most breeding                                             inactivated
 stock receives a killed IBD vaccine to boost maternal titers in the                  15 weeks        Newcastle-Bronchitis        spray
 chicks. Research at Hy-Line International has shown the



                                               Internal Parasites
Infections with internal parasites cause damage to the bird’s gut.          A product used for roundworm treatment in the United States is
This may result in a variety of problems including:                         piperazine at 50 mg/bird (0.1%) for 24 hours. A possible licensed
     - Loss of shell strength, yolk color, and egg size.                    dewormer in some countries for laying birds is flubendazole. This
     - Poor body weight gain leading to unevenness or stunted               product has no withdrawal period, which means that it can be
        birds. Affected birds may be dull and show pale combs.              given in the feed during lay without the need to discard eggs,
     - Increased cannibalism through vent pecking due to                    except in organic diets where eggs may need to be withheld.
        straining.
     - Death, in very heavy infestations.                                   Effective control is aimed at breaking the cycle of infection.
                                                                            Strategic use of anti-parasitic drugs (in the rearing phase) will help
There are three main worms that may cause problems in free-                 to reduce challenge, but this needs to be combined with limiting
range or cage birds:                                                        stock density on land, the use of range rotation, good drainage,
    1. Roundworms (Ascaridia galli)                                         and the removal of heavily contaminated soil around the house
          These are the largest and most common. They are                   before new pullets arrive.
          white, up to 5 cm (2 in) long and may be visible in
          droppings in heavy infestations.                                  Coccidia
    2. Hairworms (Capillaria)                                               This parasitic infection of the intestines can lead to gut damage
          These are much smaller (hair-like) and are barely                 and, in severe infestations, death of birds. More commonly, poor
          visible with the naked eye but can cause significant              control of sub-clinical infection reduces feed conversion, or leaves
          damage even in only moderate infestations.                        pullets with chronic irreversible gut damage. Such flocks may be
    3. Cecal worms (Heterakis gallinarum)                                   uneven or underweight at housing, and may not perform to their
          As their name suggests, these worms spend most                    full potential in lay. Currently, effective control is achieved with
          of their time in the lower end of the gut, the ceca.              drug treatments in feed that suppress oocyst output. These may
          They cause no obvious harm in themselves, but can                 involve the use of ionophores or chemicals on a step-down
          carry another parasite, Histomonas, into the birds.               program to ensure immunity in pullets. An alternative to anti-
          Histomonas is the cause of blackhead and hence                    coccidial drug treatments is using a live vaccine. Live coccidial
          control of one parasite can help to control another.              vaccines are available that can be administered by spray in the
                                                                            hatchery or by feed or water application the first few days in the
Birds become infected by picking up worm eggs from litter, soil,            brooder house. All treatment/vaccination strategies should be
or feces. The worm eggs need warm moist conditions to develop               supported with effective biosecurity. The use of a disinfectant with
outside the bird, which is why problems are frequently worse in             proven efficacy against coccidial oocysts will reduce challenge
the spring and summer, especially following a wet spring. Worm              pressure. Maintenance of good dry litter will reduce oocyst
burdens can be identified by examination of feces, culled birds,            build up.
or worm egg counts on bulk feces.

                                                                       14
                                         External Parasites
Red Mite or Northern Fowl Mite                                         Control strategies involve two broad areas:
Mites are a cause of increasing problems in free-range and                 1.   Breaking the cycle of re-infection when the house
caged layers. It is particularly severe in the summer months                    is empty is the most effective approach. Treat the
when the weather is warm and mites are able to                                  houses effectively at site depletion with an
multiply quickly.                                                               approved product, properly applied, to reach into
                                                                                all crevices on equipment, slats, and nest boxes.
Even light infestations can irritate the birds, leading to poor                 Use a fan nozzle to produce a flat spray. Do not
performance and reduced feed intake. In more severe cases,                      mix pesticides with disinfectants unless
infestations can lead to some or all of the following:                          recommended by the manufacturer.
     - Mites irritate the birds and can make the flock                     2.   Monitor the house and birds during the life of the
       unsettled and nervous.                                                   flock to allow prompt treatment even if only light
     - The incidence of peritonitis may increase and there                      infestations are identified. Programs for treatment
       may be increased vent pecking.                                           to break the Northern Fowl Mite life cycle (5–7
     - Feed intake may be depressed.                                            days) should be done three times on day 0, 5, and
     - Heavy mite infestations can depress egg production                       10. Treatment to break the Red Mite life cycle (10
       up to 5%.                                                                days) should be done three times on day 0, 10,
     - Heavy infestations of red mites will make birds anemic                   and 20.
       due to loss of blood. Birds will be evident in the flock
       with pale combs and, if severely affected, mortality
       may increase.
     - There may be loss of yolk color and, with heavy
       infestations of red mites, there will be evidence of
       mites and mite feces on eggs and egg belts, which
       may lead to downgrading of speckled eggs.
     - There may be an increase in floor eggs as birds will
       be reluctant to use heavily infested nests.
     - Where there are heavy mite infestations, egg
       collectors may experience skin irritation.




                                                                  15
                                        Lighting Program
Egg production is very closely related to the changes in day              3.   Open or brownout growing to light-controlled
length to which the pullets are exposed. Egg numbers, egg                      laying:
size, livability and total profitability can be favorably                      a. Step-down day length from 20–22 hours the
influenced by a proper lighting program.                                            first week to 10–12 hours at 15 weeks of age
                                                                                    or, if longer, the longest natural day length
Basic Rules of Lighting                                                             the flock will be exposed to from 8 to 18
    1.   Start pullets with 20–22 hours of light the first                          weeks.
         week at 30 lux (3 foot-candles) intensity. Reduce                     b. Increase day length one hour at the 18-week
         day length weekly to reach 10–12 hours at 15                               body weight target. Add 15–30 minutes per
         weeks of age or, if longer, the day length dictated                        week or every 2 weeks until 16 hours of total
         by natural day length in open or brownout houses                           light is reached.
         (see page 10). Reduce intensity to 7–10 lux                      4.   Open or brownout growing to open or brownout
         (0.75–1.0 foot-candles) after the first week.                         laying:
    2.   Provide the light stimulation at 17–19 weeks of                       a. Step-down day length from 20–22 hours the
         age, depending on body weight and desired                                  first week to 10–12 hours at 15 weeks of age
         control egg size. Earlier stimulation at lower body                        or, if longer, the longest natural day length
         weight will produce more total eggs but a smaller                          the flock will be exposed to from 8 to 18
         average egg size and would negatively impact                               weeks.
         chick quality. Later stimulation at a heavier body                    b. Increase one hour at the 18-week body
         weight will produce a few less eggs, but of larger                         weight target. Add 15–30 minutes per week
         egg size. In open or brownout houses the initial                           or every 2 weeks until 16 hours of total light
         increase should be no less than one hour.                                  is reached, or at least the longest natural day
         Increase 15–30 minutes per week or once every                              length of the year.
         two weeks until 16 hours of light is reached.
         Preferably the period of stimulation should last            Midnight Feeding
         until peak production. Light intensity should also          An optional lighting technique that will promote more feed
         be increased at housing to 15–30 lux (1.5–3.0               consumption is the “midnight feeding.” The technique
         foot-candles).                                              involves turning the lights on for 1 hour in the middle of the
    3.   Allow no decrease in day length or light intensity          dark period and running the feeders during this time. For a
         in adult layers.                                            typical layer lighting program with 16 hours of light and 8
                                                                     hours dark, the night would consist of 3.5 hours of darkness,
Local sunrise-sunset timetables should be obtained to                one hour of light, and 3.5 hours of darkness. The regular 16
accurately design individual programs.                               hour light period should not be changed. The hour of light
                                                                     can be added all at once, but if it is removed at a later time,
Guidelines for Housing Styles                                        that should be done gradually, at the rate of 15 minutes per
    1.   Light-controlled growing to light-controlled laying:        week. Midnight feeding will generally increase feed intake
         a. Step-down day length from 20–22 hours the                about 2.5–5.0 g/day per bird (0.4–1.0 lb/day per 100 birds).
              first week to 10–12 hours at 15 weeks of age           The technique is applicable for heat stress conditions, or
              and hold constant.                                     any time more feed intake is desired in either growing or
         b. Increase day length one hour at the 18-week              laying flocks.
              body weight target. Add 15–30 minutes per
              week until 16 hours total light is reached.            Planning Individual Light Programs
    2.   Light-controlled growing to open or brownout                When open-type houses are used, which allow natural
         laying:                                                     daylight to affect the flock, the lighting program must be
         a. Step-down day length from 20–22 hours the                planned in conjunction with changes in the natural day
              first week to 10–12 hours at 15 weeks of age,          length. Because no two places have the same sunrise-
              or one hour less than the natural day length           sunset times year-round, custom lighting programs for any
              the flock will be exposed to after moving to           location worldwide are available on the Hy-Line website
              the layer house.                                       (www.hyline.com).
         b. Increase to natural day length or a minimum
              increase of one hour at the 18-week body               In the example shown on the next page, the growing flock is
              weight target. Add 15–30 minutes per week              maturing in the spring when there is a naturally increasing
              or every 2 weeks until 16 hours total light, or        day length. To prevent early sexual development, find the
              at least the longest natural day length of             natural day length at 18 weeks of age and hold that day
              the year.                                              length constant with artificial lights from 8 to 17 weeks.




                                                                16
Sunrise Sunset Chart




                       Brown Parent


                       15




                       18




         17
                                              Monitoring Body Weights
        Body weights should be monitored weekly during the growing                    Factors which can adversely affect body weight and uniformity
        period and until after peak. At least 100 birds should be weighed             are crowding, disease, poor beak trimming and inadequate
        individually with a scale having increments no larger than 50 g or            nutrient and energy intake. Weighing at frequent intervals after
        1/10 lb. Weighing should be started at four weeks of age and                  six weeks of age will determine the age at which a flock deviates
        continued every two weeks during the growing period and until                 from normal and thereby helps identify the problem so that
        after peak. It is most critical to weigh just prior to a scheduled            corrective measures can be taken.
        feed change. If the flock is below target body weight, it should be
        left on the higher nutrient feed formulation until the target weight          Variability Between Individual Birds Within a Flock
        for age is reached.                                                           For example, if the average flock weight at 17 weeks is 1.27 kg
                                                                                      (2.8 lb), 80% of all birds should weigh between 1.14 kg (2.5 lb)
        In addition to body weight averages, the uniformity of body                   and 1.40 kg (3.1 lb). Graph individual weights to be sure there is
        weights within the flock is an indicator of normal flock                      a bell shaped or “normal” distribution as shown below.
        development. Uniformity is expressed as the percent of
        individual weights which occur within 10% of the current flock                To evaluate uniformity, at least 100 individual birds should be
        average. A realistic goal is 80% uniformity. Flocks lacking                   weighed. Typically, uniformity reaches 90% at point of lay, with
        uniformity can be segregated into similar weight groups to reduce             lower values in younger and older birds.
        competition between large, medium, and small birds.




                                                 Hy-Line Parent Body Weights—Growing Periods
                Hy-Line W-36                           Hy-Line W-98                             Hy-Line Brown                      Hy-Line Silver Brown
           Female               Male              Female               Male                 Female              Male               Female                Male
 Age
Weeks     g        lb        g          lb       g        lb        g           lb         g        lb        g         lb        g        lb        g           lb
  1      65       0.14      65         0.14     65       0.14      60          0.13       65       0.14      70        0.15      60       0.13      70          0.15
  2     110       0.24     120         0.26    110       0.24     120          0.26      115       0.25     140        0.31     120       0.26     140          0.31
  3     175       0.39     180         0.40    175       0.39     180          0.40      175       0.39     200        0.44     165       0.36     200          0.44
  4     230       0.51     260         0.57    240       0.53     260          0.57      255       0.56     330        0.73     270       0.60     280          0.62
  5     300       0.66     375         0.83    310       0.68     380          0.84      340       0.75     450        0.99     330       0.73     400          0.88
  6     400       0.88     495         1.09    400       0.88     490          1.08      440       0.97     590        1.30     420       0.93     510          1.12
  7     480       1.06     635         1.40    485       1.07     625          1.38      540       1.19     730        1.61     550       1.21     640          1.41
  8     550       1.21     730         1.61    570       1.26     730          1.61      640       1.41     900        1.98     660       1.46     790          1.74
  9     650       1.43     840         1.85    630       1.39     830          1.83      735       1.62     1060       2.34     770       1.70     940          2.07
  10    715       1.58     945         2.08    730       1.61     960          2.12      820       1.81     1220       2.69     870       1.92     1120         2.47
  11    780       1.72     1040        2.29    820       1.81     1050         2.32      910       2.01     1370       3.02     1010      2.23     1260         2.78
  12    860       1.90     1110        2.45    895       1.97     1110         2.45      990       2.18     1530       3.37     1070      2.36     1400         3.09
  13    900       1.98     1200        2.65    965       2.13     1190         2.62      1085      2.39     1690       3.73     1200      2.65     1540         3.40
  14    970       2.14     1280        2.82    1030      2.27     1250         2.76      1160      2.56     1830       4.03     1270      2.80     1670         3.68
  15    1030      2.27     1370        3.02    1080      2.38     1320         2.91      1230      2.71     1960       4.32     1340      2.95     1810         3.99
  16    1100      2.43     1435        3.16    1110      2.45     1380         3.04      1300      2.87     2060       4.54     1380      3.04     1910         4.21
  17    1170      2.58     1490        3.28    1150      2.54     1420         3.13      1360      3.00     2140       4.72     1420      3.13     2010         4.43
  18    1200      2.65     1560        3.44    1210      2.67     1480         3.26      1440      3.17     2200       4.85     1460      3.22     2130         4.70
                                     Egg Size Management
Egg size is to a large extent genetically determined, but                  production, the smaller the egg size will be, and
within this given range, can be controlled to minimize                     likewise, the later the maturity, the larger the egg
increases in egg weight and optimize the hatchability.                     size. Lighting programs can be manipulated to
                                                                           influence rate of maturity. A decreasing light
The following management areas should be given particular                  pattern after 12 weeks of age during growing will
attention.                                                                 delay maturity and increase average egg size.

     1.   Body weight at maturity—The larger the body                 3.   Nutrition—Egg size is greatly affected by the
          weight at first egg, the larger that hen’s eggs will             intake of energy, fat, crude protein, methionine
          be for her entire life. For optimum egg size, do                 and cystine, and linoleic acid. Levels of these
          not stimulate maturity with lights until the target              nutrients can be increased to improve early egg
          body weight is attained.                                         size and gradually reduced to control late egg
                                                                           size.
     2.   Rate of maturity—This also relates to body size,
          but in general the earlier the age a flock begins




                                                                 19
                                       Nutritional Recommendations
The nutritional recommendations presented in this guide result in                           Periodically, feed samples should be sent to a laboratory for
excellent production in a wide variety of situations, however,                              analysis of nutrient content (e.g., moisture, amino acids, fat, crude
specific conditions may require advice from a professional                                  protein) and for comparison with the supplier’s guarantees.
nutritionist.
                                                                                            Energy
Feed Management                                                                             Energy is supplied by dietary nutrients (i.e., fats, carbohydrates,
Regularly empty, clean, and disinfect feed bins and avoid                                   and amino acids) and is necessary for growth and egg production.
unnecessary build-up of dusty, stale, moldy, and unpalatable feed.                          For poultry, metabolizable energy (defined as gross energy minus
Birds should be allowed to occasionally empty feeders to avoid                              losses of energy in feces, urine, and gaseous products) is used to
feed build-up in the feeders. Order feed in good time to avoid                              express the available-energy content of feed ingredients and
running out of feed. Upon feed delivery, before discharge, ensure                           complete diets. However, as illustrated in the table below,
that the correct product and quantities have been delivered and                             differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed
that it is delivered to the correct feed bin. During discharge, collect                     ingredients of the same name differ substantially. Some of the
representable feed samples and label the sample bags                                        differences can be attributed to differences in the feed ingredients’
appropriately before storage (preferably in a freezer at –20°C) for                         moisture content, but even when the metabolizable energy value
at least 4 weeks. Inspect the feed visually for particle size, color,                       is expressed on a dry matter basis, the assigned energy values
and smell and compare it with previous samples. In the event of a                           differ. As a result, the calculated energy content of a given diet
significant deviation from the norm, inform your feed supplier                              varies substantially depending on which assigned energy values
immediately. Consider returning the load and, if so, send a feed                            were used for the individual feed ingredients.
sample to a laboratory for analysis to verify the suspected defect.



   Table values of selected feed ingredients showing differences in metabolizable energy values (as-fed values).
   Region                                                 Corn (maize)                               Wheat, soft                        Soybean meal, 48%
                                                   kcal/kg              MJ/kg                kcal/kg               MJ/kg              kcal/kg              MJ/kg
   United States of America¹                        3390                 14.18                3210                 13.43               2458                10.28
   Brazil²                                          3381                 14.15                3046                 12.74               2302                 9.63
   Netherlands³                                     3415                 14.29                3258                 13.63               2309                 9.66
   France4                                          3203                 13.40                2988                 12.50               2366                 9.90
   Europe5                                          3289                 13.79                3036                 12.69               2323                 9.72

   1Feedstuffs 2008 Reference issue and buyers guide. Feedstuffs, September 10, 2008. Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA.
   2Rostagno,  H. S. (ed.). 2005. Brazilian tables for poultry and swine. Composition of feedstuffs and nutritional requirements. 2nd ed. Departamento de Zootecnia
     Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Brazil.
   3Centraal Veevoederbureau (CVB). 2008. CVB Table booklet feeding of poultry. CVB-series no. 45. (values of ME for laying hens, “MEla,” are shown).
   4Sauvant, D., J.-M. Perez, and G. Tran (eds). 2004. Tables of composition and nutritional value of feed materials. 2nd rev. ed. INRA-AFZ, France.
   5Janssen, W. M. M. A. (ed.). 1989. European table of energy values for poultry feedstuffs. 3rd ed. Spederholt Center for Poultry Research and Information

     Services, Beekbergen, The Netherlands



 The recommended metabolizable energy content of the diets in                               Protein and Amino Acids
 this guide is based on the assigned energy contents of feed                                Birds do not require protein, but rather the amino acids that make
 ingredients commonly used in the United States of America using                            up protein. Although minimum recommendations for dietary crude
 the nitrogen-corrected, apparent metabolizable energy system.                              protein contents are shown in the accompanying tables, it is
 These values are shown for selected feed ingredients on the                                strongly recommended that diets be formulated on an amino acid
 inside back cover of this guide. When using feed-ingredient                                basis with no crude protein minimums. However, when no
 energy values that are substantially different from those shown in                         minimum crude protein content is specified, it is important to
 this guide, the recommended dietary energy content should be                               consider the content of all amino acids to avoid deficiencies. With
 adjusted accordingly. Regardless of which energy system or                                 the use of synthetic (crystalline) amino acids, the limiting amino
 dietary energy content that is used, there must be sufficient                              acids in most diets will be tryptophan, valine, or isoleucine.
 energy in the diet to meet the birds’ need for maintenance,                                Therefore, if the dietary contents of only methionine (plus cystine)
 growth, and egg production. If the hens consume insufficient                               and lysine are considered, a crude protein minimum should be
 energy, body reserves will be used at first to maintain egg                                specified to avoid deficiencies of other amino acids.
 production, followed by reductions in egg weight, egg production,
 and body weight.


                                                                                      20
                                 Nutritional Recommendations
A portion (typically 10–15%) of the dietary amino acids is not                  Feeding the Pullet
digested and instead excreted into the feces. Because the                       Feeding and management of pullets during the growing period
indigestible portion varies considerably among feed ingredients,                have major effects on egg production and egg weights during the
it is highly recommended that diets are formulated on a digestible              laying period. Mistakes made during the growing period can lead
amino acid basis. For instance, soybean meal, meat and bone                     to poor production in lay and cannot easily be corrected during
meal, and cottonseed meal contain about the same amounts of                     the laying period. Therefore, flexibility in pullet diet formulation
total methionine, but their methionine digestibilities differ widely:           and in the timing of diet changes is necessary to ensure that
                                                                                body weight and uniformity targets are met. Feeding the starter
Soybean meal (48%):           0.64% total methionine × 91% digestibility        diet as crumbles can improve body weight gain and uniformity by
                                   = 0.58% digestible methionine                increasing the chicks’ feed consumption and avoiding
Meat and bone meal (48%):     0.64% total methionine × 85% digestibility        selective feeding.
                                   = 0.54% digestible methionine
Cottonseed meal (46%):        0.64% total methionine × 72% digestibility
                                                                                Diet changes are governed by target body weights, not bird age.
                                   = 0.46% digestible methionine                Close monitoring of the pullet’s body weight is therefore a key
                                                                                prerequisite for diet changes. If chicks are below the
Diets formulated on a total amino acid basis must contain large                 recommended target weight at 3 weeks of age (when a change
safety margins to account for the differences in digestible amino               from the starter diet to the grower diet is normally
acid content of different feed ingredients. By formulating diets on             recommended), the starter diet should be fed longer until the
a digestible amino acid basis, safety margins can be reduced                    target weight-for-age is met. If there is a large discrepancy
and feed ingredients can be more accurately valued based on                     between the pullets’ body weight and the target weight, diets can
their content of bioavailable amino acids. Formulation of diets on              be reformulated with higher energy concentrations. Pullets do not
a digestible amino acid basis is more accurate, results in more                 regulate feed consumption based on energy intake as well as
economical diets, and can reduce the impact on the environment                  mature laying hens do, and they will therefore respond to higher-
compared to formulation on total amino acid basis or on a crude                 energy density diets with an increase in body weight gain.
protein basis. Recommended amino acid digestibilities of                        Increasing the dietary energy content to promote growth in warm
selected feed ingredients are shown on the inside back cover of                 weather may not be as effective as in cool weather; therefore,
this guide.                                                                     the concentrations of amino acids, minerals, and vitamins should
                                                                                also be increased proportionally in these situations. Although
Use of Exogenous Feed Enzymes                                                   high-density diets can be used to improve body weight gain, the
Exogenous feed enzymes can be effective in improving the                        sustained feeding of diets with higher-than-recommended energy
digestibility of nutrients and energy in feed ingredients, thereby              contents or with a low fiber content can result in inadequate
lowering diet cost and the impact on the environment. For                       development of the birds’ capacity for feed consumption, leading
instance, phytase can be used effectively to increase phosphorus                to low feed intakes and egg-production during lay.
bioavailability from phytate-containing ingredients, such as corn
grain and soybean meal, whereas carbohydrases, such as                          Pre-Lay Diets
xylanase and beta-glucanase, can effectively increase the diet’s                The recommended calcium content in the pullet diet is around
energy digestibility. However, the composition of the complete                  1%, which ensures sufficient calcium consumption to develop a
diet must be carefully considered to ensure that the exogenous                  good bone structure. The pre-lay diet, fed for 2 weeks prior to the
enzymes have sufficient amounts of substrates to work on. For                   first egg, but never earlier than 15 weeks of age, should contain
instance, the efficacy of phytase is greatest when all the                      higher levels of calcium (2.50% calcium) and phosphorus than
phosphorus in the diet comes from phytate-containing                            the grower diets in an effort to help develop medullary bone. This
ingredients. The available-phosphorus credit assigned to phytase                type of bone acts as a calcium reservoir, from which the mature
should be higher in a diet containing corn and soybean meal than                hen can quickly mobilize calcium for eggshell formation. Proper
in a diet containing wheat, soybean meal, and meat-and-bone                     development of medullary bone has implications for osteoporosis
meal. Failure to consider the phytate content of the complete diet              and eggshell quality in late lay. Nevertheless, the extra
when assigning an available-phosphorus credit to the phytase                    management of a pre-lay diet, which is fed for only a short time,
product may lead to phosphorus deficiencies, resulting in poor                  may preclude its use. In these cases, it is not recommended to
egg production, osteomalacia, and gout. Similarly, failure to                   feed a layer-type diet with high (4–5%) calcium prior to sexual
consider the xylan or beta-glucan content of the complete diet                  maturity (i.e., instead of a pre-layer diet), because it can lead to
when assigning energy credits to a carbohydrase product may                     wet manure, which persist well into the lay period. On the other
lead to insufficient energy consumption, resulting in reduced                   hand, the grower and pre-lay diets should not be fed beyond the
growth, egg weight, and egg production.                                         first egg, as they contain inadequate amounts of calcium for
                                                                                sustained egg production.




                                                                           21
                                 Nutritional Recommendations
Feeding the Laying Hen                                                              4.10 g calcium needed × 100
                                                                                                                     = 4.32% calcium in the diet
A phase-feeding program should be practiced to ensure correct                           95 g feed consumed
nutrient consumption throughout lay in order to match                       Similarly, if the recommended digestible lysine consumption is
performance demands and to control egg size. The diets should               750 mg/day, the dietary concentration of digestible lysine should
be formulated according to the actual feed consumption rate and             be 0.789%:
level of desired production. The number of feedings per day is
important as a feed management tool, but careful depth control in            750 mg digestible lysine needed × 100
                                                                                                                      = 0.789% digestible lysine in the diet
the feed trough is essential to avoid feed waste. Hens should                        95 g feed consumed
have access to feed at all times, especially immediately prior to
the dark period.                                                            Should the daily feed consumption decrease to, say, 85 g/day (for
                                                                            instance due to increased effective ambient temperature or an
The hens’ feed consumption rate is governed by several factors,             increase in the dietary energy concentration), the hens fed the
including body weight (or age), rate of egg production, egg                 above diet would consume only (85 g × 4.32% =) 3.67 g calcium
weight, effective ambient temperature, feed texture, dietary                and (85 g × 0.789% =) 671 mg digestible lysine, which is signifi-
nutrient imbalances, and dietary energy content. The latter is              cantly less that the recommended amounts. As a result, eggshell
especially important, because hens tend to increase or decrease             quality, egg weight, and egg production will decrease. Therefore,
feed consumption to maintain energy intake—in other words,                  with a feed consumption of 85 g/day, the dietary concentrations of
hens will consume more of a low-energy diet than of a high-                 calcium and digestible lysine should be adjusted to 4.82% and
energy diet. Only in special cases (such as nutrient imbalances             0.882%, respectively, to ensure the recommended calcium and
or salt deficiencies) will the hens adjust their feed consumption to        digestible-lysine intakes of 4.10 g and 750 mg, respectively:
meet their needs for specific nutrients, but usually not with great
accuracy.                                                                            4.10 g calcium needed × 100
                                                                                                                     = 4.82% calcium in the diet
                                                                                         85 g feed consumed
A range of recommended energy concentrations is provided to
accommodate several situations where diets of different densities            750 mg digestible lysine needed × 100
                                                                                                                      = 0.882% digestible lysine in the diet
are needed or to accommodate changes in feed-energy costs.                           85 g feed consumed
As a general rule, the energy concentration at the low end of the
recommended range corresponds to the higher feed                            Nutrition and Egg Weight
consumption rates. Increased energy and nutrient density of the             Body weight at point of lay influences yolk size, which, in turn,
feed is useful at certain times, especially when energy                     influences egg weight. Therefore, changing the pullet feeding
consumption may be a limiting factor, such as the critical period           and management program to increase body weight at point of lay
between housing and peak production. Flocks consuming less                  can increase the egg size throughout the laying period and vice
than 270–280 kcal/day (1.13–1.17 MJ/day) per bird at peak                   versa. During the laying period, egg weight can be controlled to
production tend to suffer post-peak dips in production and                  some degree by changing the consumption of balanced protein
reduced egg size. Heat stress will also result in lower feed and            or individual amino acids (of these, methionine has traditionally
energy consumption. As a result, increasing the energy content              been used to affect egg weight), linoleic acid, and supplemental
in the feed can result in better body weight gain, egg production,          fat or oil. Although energy consumption can affect egg weight, it
and egg weight, especially when the effective ambient                       is difficult to manipulate energy consumption, because birds tend
temperature is high. Fats or oils are concentrated sources of               to regulate their feed consumption rate to meet their energy
energy and can be useful in increasing the energy content of                needs. Note that if these nutritional strategies are used to control
feed. The digestion of fat produces less body heat (i.e., fat has a         egg weights to avoid excessively heavy eggs, it is important to
relatively low heat increment), which is useful during periods of           start egg-weight control early in the production cycle—once the
heat stress. Moreover, vegetable oils are typically high in linoleic        eggs are above the desired weights, it is difficult to make
acid, which generally benefits egg weight, although a blend of              corrections without affecting egg production.
vegetable oil and animal fat may also be acceptable.
                                                                            Nutrition and Eggshell Quality
Formulating for Feed Intake                                                 Adequate consumption of calcium, phosphorus, trace minerals
Accurate and frequent estimates of actual flock feed intake are             (e.g., zinc, magnesium, manganese, and copper), and vitamin D3
critical to effective feed formulation. Because the hens’ feed              is essential for eggshell quality. Bioavailabilities of the minerals
consumption rate can vary with age of the bird, effective ambient           vary greatly among feed ingredients and should be considered
temperature, and dietary energy content, the diet’s concentration           when formulating diets. Moreover, the particle size of the main
of energy and nutrients should be carefully considered such that            calcium supplement (typically calcium carbonate) is important. At
the diet provides the recommended nutrient intake. For example,             least 65% of the added calcium carbonate should have a mean
with an observed feed consumption of 95 g/day and a                         particle size of 2–4 mm, while 35% of the added calcium
recommended daily calcium intake of 4.10 g/day, the dietary                 carbonate should have a mean particle size less than 2 mm. The
calcium concentration should be 4.32%:                                      lower solubility of the large–particle-size calcium carbonate will
                                                                            ensure that there is calcium available in the intestines during
                                                                            dark hours, when the hens normally do not consume the calcium-
                                                                            rich feed.
                                                                       22
                                  Growing Period Breeder Nutrition
Item¹                                                         Starter 1          Starter 2           Grower            Developer           Pre-lay7
For W-36, feed to a body weight of                              175 g             to 400 g           to 860 g           to 1170 g          to 1230 g
For W-98, feed to a body weight of                              175 g             to 400 g           to 895 g           to 1150 g          to 1330 g
For Hy-Line Brown, feed to a body weight of                     175 g             to 440 g           to 990 g           to 1360 g          to 1530 g
For Silver Brown, feed to a body weight of                      165 g             to 420 g          to 1070 g           to 1420 g          to 1560 g
Approximate age                                              0–3 weeks           4–6 weeks         7–12 weeks         13–17 weeks        18–19 weeks


Recommended concentration2,3
Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb                                1370–1410          1360–1400           1350–1390          1350–1390          1320–1340
Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg                                3020–3110          3000–3085           2975–3065          2975–3065          2910–2955
Metabolizable energy, MJ/kg                                  12.65–13.00        12.55–12.90        12.45–12.85        12.45–12.85        12.20–12.35


Minimum recommended concentration
Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
 Lysine, %                                                      1.07               0.88               0.79                0.72               0.78
 Methionine, %                                                  0.45               0.40               0.36                0.34               0.37
 Methionine+cystine, %                                          0.71               0.66               0.60                0.57               0.64
 Threonine, %                                                   0.70               0.58               0.53                0.49               0.55
 Tryptophan, %                                                  0.18               0.15               0.14                0.14               0.16
 Arginine, %                                                    1.16               0.95               0.85                0.78               0.84
 Isoleucine, %                                                  0.75               0.63               0.58                0.54               0.62
 Valine, %                                                      0.77               0.65               0.62                0.58               0.66
Total amino   acids4
 Lysine, %                                                      1.17               0.96               0.86                0.79               0.85
 Methionine, %                                                  0.48               0.43               0.39                0.36               0.39
 Methionine+cystine, %                                          0.80               0.74               0.68                0.64               0.72
 Threonine, %                                                   0.82               0.68               0.62                0.58               0.64
 Tryptophan, %                                                  0.22               0.18               0.17                0.16               0.19
 Arginine, %                                                    1.24               1.02               0.92                0.84               0.91
 Isoleucine, %                                                  0.81               0.68               0.63                0.58               0.67
 Valine, %                                                      0.85               0.72               0.68                0.64               0.73
Crude protein (nitrogen × 6.25),4 %                             20.00              18.00              16.00              15.50              17.50
Calcium,5 %                                                     1.10               1.10               1.10                1.40               2.50
Phosphorus    (available),6   %                                 0.50               0.49               0.47                0.46               0.50
Sodium, %                                                       0.18               0.18               0.18                0.18               0.18
Chloride, %                                                     0.18               0.18               0.18                0.18               0.18
Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                    1.00               1.00               1.00                1.00               1.50

¹Change diets at the recommended target body weight—the approximate age is a guide only.
²Use the higher energy value for W-36 and the lower values for W-98, Hy-Line Brown, and Silver Brown.
³Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in some cases, the recommended
 dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
4The minimum recommendations for total amino acids and crude protein are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet

 on digestible amino acid basis instead.
5Calcium should be supplied as a fine calcium carbonate source (mean particle size less than 2 mm).
6Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a

 minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus
 contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
7Do not feed the pre-lay diet beyond the first egg as it does not contain sufficient calcium to sustain egg production.




                                                                           23
                                                   Growing Period Feed Consumption

                        Hy-Line W-36                            Hy-Line W-98                             Hy-Line Brown                       Hy-Line Silver Brown
      Age
       in     g/day     lb/day per     Cum.           g/day     lb/day per        Cum.         g/day      lb/day per        Cum.         g/day     lb/day per     Cum.
     Weeks   per bird    100 birds   kg     lb       per bird    100 birds   kg          lb   per bird     100 birds   kg          lb   per bird    100 birds   kg     lb

       1       13          2.9       0.09   0.2        13          2.9       0.09    0.2        13           2.9       0.09    0.2        13          2.9       0.09   0.2
       2       16          3.5       0.20   0.4        17          3.7       0.21    0.5        20           4.4       0.23    0.5        20          4.4       0.23   0.5
       3       19          4.2       0.34   0.7        22          4.9       0.36    0.8        25           5.5       0.41    0.9        25          5.5       0.41   0.9
       4       29          6.4       0.54   1.2        30          6.6       0.57    1.3        29           6.4       0.61    1.3        29          6.4       0.61   1.3
       5       38          8.4       0.81   1.8        40          8.8       0.85    1.9        33           7.3       0.84    1.9        33          7.3       0.84   1.9


      6        41         9.0        1.09   2.4        43         9.5        1.16    2.5        37          8.2        1.10    2.4        37         8.2        1.10   2.4
      7        43         9.5        1.39   3.1        45         9.9        1.47    3.2        41          9.0        1.39    3.1        41         9.0        1.39   3.1
      8        46         10.1       1.72   3.8        48         10.6       1.81    4.0        46          10.1       1.71    3.8        46         10.1       1.71   3.8
      9        48         10.6       2.05   4.5        51         11.2       2.16    4.8        51          11.2       2.07    4.6        51         11.2       2.07   4.6
      10       51         11.2       2.41   5.3        54         11.9       2.54    5.6        56          12.3       2.46    5.4        56         12.3       2.46   5.4
24




      11       53         11.7       2.78   6.1        56         12.3       2.93    6.5        61          13.4       2.88    6.4        61         13.4       2.88   6.4
      12       54         11.9       3.16   7.0        57         12.6       3.33    7.3        66          14.6       3.35    7.4        66         14.6       3.35   7.4
      13       56         12.3       3.55   7.8        59         13.0       3.75    8.3        70          15.4       3.84    8.5        70         15.4       3.84   8.5
      14       57         12.6       3.95   8.7        62         13.7       4.18    9.2        73          16.1       4.35    9.6        73         16.1       4.35   9.6
      15       59         13.0       4.36   9.6        66         14.6       4.64    10.2       75          16.5       4.87    10.7       75         16.5       4.87   10.7


      16       64         14.1       4.81   10.6       71         15.7       5.14    11.3       77          17.0       5.41    11.9       77         17.0       5.41   11.9
      17       71         15.7       5.31   11.7       77         17.0       5.68    12.5       80          17.6       5.97    13.2       80         17.6       5.97   13.2
      18       78         17.2       5.85   12.9       83         18.3       6.26    13.8       83          18.3       6.55    14.4       83         18.3       6.55   14.4
Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—W-36

   Item¹                                               Peaking           Above 90% to 84%   83–80% egg        Less than 80%
                                                                          egg production    production        egg production
                                                      To 32 Weeks          33–44 Weeks      45–55 Weeks         56+ Weeks
   Recommended         concentration2
   Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb                      1280–1300             1280–1300        1280–1300          1280–1300
   Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg                      2822–2867             2822–2867        2822–2867          2822–2867
   Metabolizable energy, MJ/kg                        11.81–12.00          11.81–12.00      11.81–12.00        11.81–12.00
   Minimum recommended daily consumption
   Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
    Lysine, mg/day                                       810                   775              740                720
    Methionine, mg/day                                   397                   380              363                338
    Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           656                   636              599                569
    Threonine, mg/day                                    567                   543              518                504
    Tryptophan, mg/day                                   170                   163              155                151
    Arginine, mg/day                                     867                   829              792                770
    Isoleucine, mg/day                                   640                   612              585                569
    Valine, mg/day                                       729                   698              666                648
   Total amino   acids3
    Lysine, mg/day                                       887                   849              810                788
    Methionine, mg/day                                   427                   408              390                364
    Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           740                   717              676                642
    Threonine, mg/day                                    667                   638              609                593
    Tryptophan, mg/day                                   203                   195              186                181
    Arginine, mg/day                                     932                   892              851                828
    Isoleucine, mg/day                                   688                   658              629                612
    Valine, mg/day                                       804                   769              735                715
   Crude protein (nitrogen × 6.25),3 g/day               16.00                15.50            15.25              15.00
   Calcium,4   g/day                                     4.20                  4.25            4.50                4.65
   Phosphorus    (available),5 mg/day                    485                   475              440                420
   Sodium, mg/day                                        180                   180              180                180
   Chloride, mg/day                                      180                   180              180                180
   Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), g/day                      1.00                  1.00            1.00                1.00
   Choline, mg/day                                       100                   100              100                100

   ¹Consumption of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
   ²The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide.
    Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
    some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
   ³Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid
    basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
   4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
   5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to

    make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the
    available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside
    back cover of this guide).




                                                                    25
                                                  Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—W-36
     Peaking; point of lay to 32 weeks1                                                                                           Above 90% to 84% egg production; 33–44 weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1280–1300 kcal/lb, 2822–2867 kcal/kg, 11.81–12.00 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1280–1300 kcal/lb, 2822–2867 kcal/kg, 11.81–12.00 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      81          86           91*     96     101             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      84          89           94*     99     104
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                17.9        19.0         20.1*   21.2    22.3            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                18.5        19.6         20.7*   21.8    22.9
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          1.00        0.94         0.89    0.84    0.80             Lysine, %                                                          0.92        0.87         0.82    0.78    0.75
      Methionine, %                                                      0.49        0.46         0.44    0.41    0.39             Methionine, %                                                      0.45        0.43         0.40    0.38    0.37
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.81        0.76         0.72    0.68    0.65             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.76        0.71         0.68    0.64    0.61
      Threonine, %                                                       0.70        0.66         0.62    0.59    0.56             Threonine, %                                                       0.65        0.61         0.58    0.55    0.52
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.19        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.16
      Arginine, %                                                        1.07        1.01         0.95    0.90    0.86             Arginine, %                                                        0.99        0.93         0.88    0.84    0.80
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.79        0.74         0.70    0.67    0.63             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.73        0.69         0.65    0.62    0.59
      Valine, %                                                          0.90        0.85         0.80    0.76    0.72             Valine, %                                                          0.83        0.78         0.74    0.71    0.67
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          1.10        1.03         0.97    0.92    0.88             Lysine, %                                                          1.01        0.95         0.90    0.86    0.82
26




      Methionine, %                                                      0.53        0.50         0.47    0.44    0.42             Methionine, %                                                      0.49        0.46         0.43    0.41    0.39
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.91        0.86         0.81    0.77    0.73             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.85        0.81         0.76    0.72    0.69
      Threonine, %                                                       0.82        0.78         0.73    0.69    0.66             Threonine, %                                                       0.76        0.72         0.68    0.64    0.61
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.25        0.24         0.22    0.21    0.20             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.23        0.22         0.21    0.20    0.19
      Arginine, %                                                        1.15        1.08         1.02    0.97    0.92             Arginine, %                                                        1.06        1.00         0.95    0.90    0.86
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.85        0.80         0.76    0.72    0.68             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.78        0.74         0.70    0.66    0.63
      Valine, %                                                          0.99        0.93         0.88    0.84    0.80             Valine, %                                                          0.92        0.86         0.82    0.78    0.74
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          19.75      18.60         17.58   16.67   15.84           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          18.45      17.42         16.49   15.66   14.90
     Calcium,4 %                                                         5.19        4.88         4.62    4.38    4.16            Calcium,4 %                                                         5.06        4.78         4.52    4.29    4.09
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.60        0.56         0.53    0.51    0.48            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.57        0.53         0.51    0.48    0.46
     Sodium, %                                                           0.22        0.21         0.20    0.19    0.18            Sodium, %                                                           0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17
     Chloride, %                                                         0.22        0.21         0.20    0.19    0.18            Chloride, %                                                         0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.23        1.16         1.10    1.04    0.99            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.19        1.12         1.06    1.01    0.96
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially;
      in some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
                                                  Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—W-36
     83–80% egg production; 45–55 weeks1                                                                                          Less than 80% egg production; 56+ weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1280–1300 kcal/lb, 2822–2867 kcal/kg, 11.81–12.00 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1280–1300 kcal/lb, 2822–2867 kcal/kg, 11.81–12.00 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      86          91           96*    101     106             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      88          93           98*    103     108
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                19.0        20.1         21.2*   22.3    23.4            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                19.4        20.5         21.6*   22.7    23.8
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.86        0.81         0.77    0.73    0.70             Lysine, %                                                          0.82        0.77         0.73    0.70    0.67
      Methionine, %                                                      0.42        0.40         0.38    0.36    0.34             Methionine, %                                                      0.38        0.36         0.34    0.33    0.31
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.70        0.66         0.62    0.59    0.57             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.65        0.61         0.58    0.55    0.53
      Threonine, %                                                       0.60        0.57         0.54    0.51    0.49             Threonine, %                                                       0.57        0.54         0.51    0.49    0.47
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.18        0.17         0.16    0.15    0.15             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.17        0.16         0.15    0.15    0.14
      Arginine, %                                                        0.92        0.87         0.83    0.78    0.75             Arginine, %                                                        0.88        0.83         0.79    0.75    0.71
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.68        0.64         0.61    0.58    0.55             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.65        0.61         0.58    0.55    0.53
      Valine, %                                                          0.77        0.73         0.69    0.66    0.63             Valine, %                                                          0.74        0.70         0.66    0.63    0.60
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          0.94        0.89         0.84    0.80    0.76             Lysine, %                                                          0.90        0.85         0.80    0.77    0.73
27




      Methionine, %                                                      0.45        0.43         0.41    0.39    0.37             Methionine, %                                                      0.41        0.39         0.37    0.35    0.34
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.79        0.74         0.70    0.67    0.64             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.73        0.69         0.66    0.62    0.59
      Threonine, %                                                       0.71        0.67         0.63    0.60    0.57             Threonine, %                                                       0.67        0.64         0.61    0.58    0.55
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.22        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.18             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.21        0.19         0.18    0.18    0.17
      Arginine, %                                                        0.99        0.94         0.89    0.84    0.80             Arginine, %                                                        0.94        0.89         0.84    0.80    0.77
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.73        0.69         0.66    0.62    0.59             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.70        0.66         0.62    0.59    0.57
      Valine, %                                                          0.85        0.81         0.77    0.73    0.69             Valine, %                                                          0.81        0.77         0.73    0.69    0.66
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          17.73      16.76         15.89   15.10   14.39           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          17.05      16.13         15.31   14.56   13.89
     Calcium,4 %                                                         5.23        4.95         4.69    4.46    4.25            Calcium,4 %                                                         5.28        5.00         4.74    4.51    4.31
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.51        0.48         0.46    0.44    0.42            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.48        0.45         0.43    0.41    0.39
     Sodium, %                                                           0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17            Sodium, %                                                           0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.17
     Chloride, %                                                         0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17            Chloride, %                                                         0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.17
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.16        1.10         1.04    0.99    0.94            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.14        1.08         1.02    0.97    0.93
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially;
      in some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—W-98

   Item¹                                               Peaking           Above 90% to 86%   85–79% egg        Less than 79%
                                                                          egg production    production        egg production
                                                      To 32 Weeks          33–44 Weeks      45–55 Weeks         56+ Weeks
   Recommended         concentration2
   Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb                      1290–1325             1290–1325        1280–1325          1270–1290
   Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg                      2844–2922             2844–2922        2822–2922          2800–2844
   Metabolizable energy, MJ/kg                        11.90–12.23          11.90–12.23      11.81–12.23        11.72–11.90
   Minimum recommended daily consumption
   Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
    Lysine, mg/day                                       820                   785              730                715
    Methionine, mg/day                                   361                   345              321                300
    Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           599                   573              533                493
    Threonine, mg/day                                    574                   550              511                501
    Tryptophan, mg/day                                   172                   165              153                150
    Arginine, mg/day                                     877                   840              781                765
    Isoleucine, mg/day                                   648                   620              577                565
    Valine, mg/day                                       738                   707              657                644
   Total amino   acids3
    Lysine, mg/day                                       898                   859              799                783
    Methionine, mg/day                                   388                   371              345                323
    Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           675                   646              601                556
    Threonine, mg/day                                    675                   646              601                589
    Tryptophan, mg/day                                   206                   197              183                179
    Arginine, mg/day                                     943                   903              840                823
    Isoleucine, mg/day                                   697                   667              620                607
    Valine, mg/day                                       814                   779              725                710
   Crude protein (nitrogen × 6.25),3 g/day               16.50                16.00            15.50              15.00
   Calcium,4   g/day                                     4.00                  4.25            4.40                4.50
   Phosphorus    (available),5   mg/day                  500                   450              400                350
   Sodium, mg/day                                        180                   180              180                180
   Chloride, mg/day                                      180                   180              180                180
   Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), g/day                      1.00                  1.00            1.00                1.00
   Choline, mg/day                                       100                   100              100                100

   ¹Consumption of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
   ²The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide.
    Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
    some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
   ³Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid
    basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
   4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
   5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to

    make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the
    available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside
    back cover of this guide).




                                                                    28
                                                  Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—W-98
     Peaking; to 32 weeks1                                                                                                        Above 90% to 86% egg production; 33–44 weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1290–1325 kcal/lb, 2844–2922 kcal/kg, 11.90–12.23 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1290–1325 kcal/lb, 2844–2922 kcal/kg, 11.90–12.23 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      85          90           95*    100     105             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      91          96          101*    106     111
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                18.7        19.8         20.9*   22.1    23.2            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                20.1        21.2         22.3*   23.4    24.5
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.96        0.91         0.86    0.82    0.78             Lysine, %                                                          0.86        0.82         0.78    0.74    0.71
      Methionine, %                                                      0.42        0.40         0.38    0.36    0.34             Methionine, %                                                      0.38        0.36         0.34    0.33    0.31
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.70        0.67         0.63    0.60    0.57             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.63        0.60         0.57    0.54    0.52
      Threonine, %                                                       0.68        0.64         0.60    0.57    0.55             Threonine, %                                                       0.60        0.57         0.54    0.52    0.50
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.16             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15
      Arginine, %                                                        1.03        0.97         0.92    0.88    0.84             Arginine, %                                                        0.92        0.88         0.83    0.79    0.76
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.76        0.72         0.68    0.65    0.62             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.68        0.65         0.61    0.58    0.56
      Valine, %                                                          0.87        0.82         0.78    0.74    0.70             Valine, %                                                          0.78        0.74         0.70    0.67    0.64
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          1.06        1.00         0.95    0.90    0.86             Lysine, %                                                          0.94        0.89         0.85    0.81    0.77
29




      Methionine, %                                                      0.46        0.43         0.41    0.39    0.37             Methionine, %                                                      0.41        0.39         0.37    0.35    0.33
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.79        0.75         0.71    0.68    0.64             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.71        0.67         0.64    0.61    0.58
      Threonine, %                                                       0.79        0.75         0.71    0.68    0.64             Threonine, %                                                       0.71        0.67         0.64    0.61    0.58
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.24        0.23         0.22    0.21    0.20             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.22        0.21         0.20    0.19    0.18
      Arginine, %                                                        1.11        1.05         0.99    0.94    0.90             Arginine, %                                                        0.99        0.94         0.89    0.85    0.81
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.82        0.77         0.73    0.70    0.66             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.73        0.69         0.66    0.63    0.60
      Valine, %                                                          0.96        0.90         0.86    0.81    0.78             Valine, %                                                          0.86        0.81         0.77    0.73    0.70
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          19.41      18.33         17.37   16.50   15.71           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          17.58      16.67         15.84   15.09   14.41
     Calcium,4 %                                                         4.71        4.44         4.21    4.00    3.81            Calcium,4 %                                                         4.67        4.43         4.21    4.01    3.83
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.59        0.56         0.53    0.50    0.48            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.49        0.47         0.45    0.42    0.41
     Sodium, %                                                           0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17            Sodium, %                                                           0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.16
     Chloride, %                                                         0.21        0.20         0.19    0.18    0.17            Chloride, %                                                         0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.16
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.18        1.11         1.05    1.00    0.95            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.10        1.04         0.99    0.94    0.90
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially;
      in some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
                                                  Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—W-98
     85–79% egg production; 45–55 weeks1                                                                                          Less than 79% egg production; 56+ weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1280–1325 kcal/lb, 2822–2922 kcal/kg, 11.81–12.23 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1270–1290 kcal/lb, 2800–2844 kcal/kg, 11.72–11.90 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      94          99          104*    109     114             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      96         101          106*    111     116
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                20.7        21.8         22.9*   24.0    25.1            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                21.2        22.3         23.4*   24.5    25.6
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.78        0.74         0.70    0.67    0.64             Lysine, %                                                          0.74        0.71         0.67    0.64    0.62
      Methionine, %                                                      0.34        0.32         0.31    0.29    0.28             Methionine, %                                                      0.31        0.30         0.28    0.27    0.26
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.57        0.54         0.51    0.49    0.47             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.51        0.49         0.47    0.44    0.43
      Threonine, %                                                       0.54        0.52         0.49    0.47    0.45             Threonine, %                                                       0.52        0.50         0.47    0.45    0.43
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.16        0.15         0.15    0.14    0.13             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.16        0.15         0.14    0.14    0.13
      Arginine, %                                                        0.83        0.79         0.75    0.72    0.69             Arginine, %                                                        0.80        0.76         0.72    0.69    0.66
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.61        0.58         0.55    0.53    0.51             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.59        0.56         0.53    0.51    0.49
      Valine, %                                                          0.70        0.66         0.63    0.60    0.58             Valine, %                                                          0.67        0.64         0.61    0.58    0.56
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          0.85        0.81         0.77    0.73    0.70             Lysine, %                                                          0.82        0.78         0.74    0.71    0.68
30




      Methionine, %                                                      0.37        0.35         0.33    0.32    0.30             Methionine, %                                                      0.34        0.32         0.30    0.29    0.28
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.64        0.61         0.58    0.55    0.53             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.58        0.55         0.52    0.50    0.48
      Threonine, %                                                       0.64        0.61         0.58    0.55    0.53             Threonine, %                                                       0.61        0.58         0.56    0.53    0.51
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.19        0.18         0.18    0.17    0.16             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.19        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.15
      Arginine, %                                                        0.89        0.85         0.81    0.77    0.74             Arginine, %                                                        0.86        0.81         0.78    0.74    0.71
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.66        0.63         0.60    0.57    0.54             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.63        0.60         0.57    0.55    0.52
      Valine, %                                                          0.77        0.73         0.70    0.67    0.64             Valine, %                                                          0.74        0.70         0.67    0.64    0.61
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          16.49      15.66         14.90   14.22   13.60           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          15.63      14.85         14.15   13.51   12.93
     Calcium,4 %                                                         4.68        4.44         4.23    4.04    3.86            Calcium,4 %                                                         4.69        4.46         4.25    4.05    3.88
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.43        0.40         0.38    0.37    0.35            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.36        0.35         0.33    0.32    0.30
     Sodium, %                                                           0.19        0.18         0.17    0.17    0.16            Sodium, %                                                           0.19        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.16
     Chloride, %                                                         0.19        0.18         0.17    0.17    0.16            Chloride, %                                                         0.19        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.16
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.06        1.01         0.96    0.92    0.88            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.04        0.99         0.94    0.90    0.86
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially;
      in some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—Brown

   Item¹                                               Peaking           Above 90% to 84%   83–77% egg        Less than 77%
                                                                          egg production    production        egg production
                                                      To 32 Weeks          33–44 Weeks      45–55 Weeks         56+ Weeks
   Recommended         concentration2
   Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb                      1270–1320             1260–1310        1250–1300          1235–1285
   Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg                      2800–2911             2778–2889        2756–2867          2723–2833
   Metabolizable energy, MJ/kg                        11.72–12.18          11.63–12.09      11.54–12.00        11.40–11.86
   Minimum recommended daily consumption
   Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
    Lysine, mg/day                                       845                   820              785                750
    Methionine, mg/day                                   423                   402              369                345
    Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           693                   664              604                570
    Threonine, mg/day                                    592                   574              550                525
    Tryptophan, mg/day                                   177                   172              165                158
    Arginine, mg/day                                     904                   877              840                803
    Isoleucine, mg/day                                   668                   648              620                593
    Valine, mg/day                                       761                   738              707                675
   Total amino   acids3
    Lysine, mg/day                                       925                   898              859                821
    Methionine, mg/day                                   454                   432              397                371
    Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           781                   749              682                643
    Threonine, mg/day                                    696                   675              646                618
    Tryptophan, mg/day                                   212                   206              197                188
    Arginine, mg/day                                     972                   943              903                863
    Isoleucine, mg/day                                   718                   697              667                637
    Valine, mg/day                                       839                   814              779                744
   Crude protein (nitrogen × 6.25),3 g/day               18.00                17.75            17.00              16.00
   Calcium,4   g/day                                     4.00                  4.10            4.25                4.40
   Phosphorus    (available),5   mg/day                  450                   400              380                340
   Sodium, mg/day                                        180                   180              180                180
   Chloride, mg/day                                      180                   180              180                180
   Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), g/day                      2.50                  2.00            1.50                1.30
   Choline, mg/day                                       100                   100              100                100

   ¹Consumption of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
   ²The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide.
    Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
    some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
   ³Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid
    basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
   4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
   5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to

    make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the
    available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside
    back cover of this guide).




                                                                    31
                                                  Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—Brown
     Peaking; to 32 weeks1                                                                                                        Above 90% to 84% egg production; 33–44 weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1270–1320 kcal/lb, 2800–2911 kcal/kg, 11.72–12.18 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1260–1310 kcal/lb, 2778–2889 kcal/kg, 11.63–12.09 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      93          98          103*    108     113             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                     101         106          111*    116     121
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                20.5        21.6         22.7*   23.8    24.9            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                22.3        23.4         24.5*   25.6    26.7
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.91        0.86         0.82    0.78    0.75             Lysine, %                                                          0.81        0.77         0.74    0.71    0.68
      Methionine, %                                                      0.45        0.43         0.41    0.39    0.37             Methionine, %                                                      0.40        0.38         0.36    0.35    0.33
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.75        0.71         0.67    0.64    0.61             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.66        0.63         0.60    0.57    0.55
      Threonine, %                                                       0.64        0.60         0.57    0.55    0.52             Threonine, %                                                       0.57        0.54         0.52    0.49    0.47
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.19        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.16             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.17        0.16         0.15    0.15    0.14
      Arginine, %                                                        0.97        0.92         0.88    0.84    0.80             Arginine, %                                                        0.87        0.83         0.79    0.76    0.72
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.72        0.68         0.65    0.62    0.59             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.64        0.61         0.58    0.56    0.54
      Valine, %                                                          0.82        0.78         0.74    0.70    0.67             Valine, %                                                          0.73        0.70         0.66    0.64    0.61
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          0.99        0.94         0.90    0.86    0.82             Lysine, %                                                          0.89        0.85         0.81    0.77    0.74
32




      Methionine, %                                                      0.49        0.46         0.44    0.42    0.40             Methionine, %                                                      0.43        0.41         0.39    0.37    0.36
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.84        0.80         0.76    0.72    0.69             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.74        0.71         0.67    0.65    0.62
      Threonine, %                                                       0.75        0.71         0.68    0.64    0.62             Threonine, %                                                       0.67        0.64         0.61    0.58    0.56
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.23        0.22         0.21    0.20    0.19             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.20        0.19         0.19    0.18    0.17
      Arginine, %                                                        1.05        0.99         0.94    0.90    0.86             Arginine, %                                                        0.93        0.89         0.85    0.81    0.78
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.77        0.73         0.70    0.66    0.64             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.69        0.66         0.63    0.60    0.58
      Valine, %                                                          0.90        0.86         0.81    0.78    0.74             Valine, %                                                          0.81        0.77         0.73    0.70    0.67
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          19.35      18.37         17.48   16.67   15.93           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          17.57      16.75         15.99   15.30   14.67
     Calcium,4 %                                                         4.30        4.08         3.88    3.70    3.54            Calcium,4 %                                                         4.06        3.87         3.69    3.53    3.39
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.48        0.46         0.44    0.42    0.40            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.40        0.38         0.36    0.34    0.33
     Sodium, %                                                           0.19        0.18         0.17    0.17    0.16            Sodium, %                                                           0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15
     Chloride, %                                                         0.19        0.18         0.17    0.17    0.16            Chloride, %                                                         0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        2.69        2.55         2.43    2.31    2.21            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.98        1.89         1.80    1.72    1.65
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially;
      in some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
                                                  Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—Brown
     83–77% egg production; 45–55 weeks1                                                                                          Less than 77% egg production; 56+ weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1250–1300 kcal/lb, 2756–2867 kcal/kg, 11.54–12.00 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1235–1285 kcal/lb, 2723–2833 kcal/kg, 11.40–11.86 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                     101         106          111*    116     121             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                     102         107          112*    117     122
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                22.3        23.4         24.5*   25.6    26.7            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                22.5        23.6         24.7*   25.8    26.9
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.78        0.74         0.71    0.68    0.65             Lysine, %                                                          0.74        0.70         0.67    0.64    0.61
      Methionine, %                                                      0.37        0.35         0.33    0.32    0.30             Methionine, %                                                      0.34        0.32         0.31    0.29    0.28
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.60        0.57         0.54    0.52    0.50             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.56        0.53         0.51    0.49    0.47
      Threonine, %                                                       0.54        0.52         0.50    0.47    0.45             Threonine, %                                                       0.51        0.49         0.47    0.45    0.43
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.16        0.16         0.15    0.14    0.14             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.15        0.15         0.14    0.14    0.13
      Arginine, %                                                        0.83        0.79         0.76    0.72    0.69             Arginine, %                                                        0.79        0.75         0.72    0.69    0.66
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.61        0.58         0.56    0.53    0.51             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.58        0.55         0.53    0.51    0.49
      Valine, %                                                          0.70        0.67         0.64    0.61    0.58             Valine, %                                                          0.66        0.63         0.60    0.58    0.55
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          0.85        0.81         0.77    0.74    0.71             Lysine, %                                                          0.80        0.77         0.73    0.70    0.67
33




      Methionine, %                                                      0.39        0.37         0.36    0.34    0.33             Methionine, %                                                      0.36        0.35         0.33    0.32    0.30
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.68        0.64         0.61    0.59    0.56             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.63        0.60         0.57    0.55    0.53
      Threonine, %                                                       0.64        0.61         0.58    0.56    0.53             Threonine, %                                                       0.61        0.58         0.55    0.53    0.51
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.16             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.18        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.15
      Arginine, %                                                        0.89        0.85         0.81    0.78    0.75             Arginine, %                                                        0.85        0.81         0.77    0.74    0.71
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.66        0.63         0.60    0.58    0.55             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.62        0.60         0.57    0.54    0.52
      Valine, %                                                          0.77        0.73         0.70    0.67    0.64             Valine, %                                                          0.73        0.70         0.66    0.64    0.61
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          16.83      16.04         15.32   14.66   14.05           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          15.69      14.95         14.29   13.68   13.11
     Calcium,4 %                                                         4.21        4.01         3.83    3.66    3.51            Calcium,4 %                                                         4.31        4.11         3.93    3.76    3.61
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.38        0.36         0.34    0.33    0.31            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.33        0.32         0.30    0.29    0.28
     Sodium, %                                                           0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15            Sodium, %                                                           0.18        0.17         0.16    0.15    0.15
     Chloride, %                                                         0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15            Chloride, %                                                         0.18        0.17         0.16    0.15    0.15
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.49        1.42         1.35    1.29    1.24            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.27        1.21         1.16    1.11    1.07
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The  recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
      some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximatley 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—Silver Brown

      Item¹                                               Peaking           Above 90% to 88%   87%–84% egg       Less than 84%
                                                                             egg production     production       egg production
                                                         To 32 Weeks          33–44 Weeks      45–55 Weeks         56+ Weeks
      Recommended         concentration2
      Metabolizable energy, kcal/lb                      1270–1320             1260–1310        1250–1300          1235–1285
      Metabolizable energy, kcal/kg                      2800–2911             2778–2889        2756–2867          2723–2833
      Metabolizable energy, MJ/kg                        11.72–12.18          11.63–12.09      11.54–12.00        11.40–11.86
      Minimum recommended daily consumption
      Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
       Lysine, mg/day                                       845                   820              785                750
       Methionine, mg/day                                   423                   402              369                345
       Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           693                   664              604                570
       Threonine, mg/day                                    592                   574              550                525
       Tryptophan, mg/day                                   177                   172              165                158
       Arginine, mg/day                                     904                   877              840                803
       Isoleucine, mg/day                                   668                   648              620                593
       Valine, mg/day                                       761                   738              707                675
      Total amino   acids3
       Lysine, mg/day                                       925                   898              859                821
       Methionine, mg/day                                   454                   432              397                371
       Methionine+cystine, mg/day                           781                   749              682                643
       Threonine, mg/day                                    696                   675              646                618
       Tryptophan, mg/day                                   212                   206              197                188
       Arginine, mg/day                                     972                   943              903                863
       Isoleucine, mg/day                                   718                   697              667                637
       Valine, mg/day                                       839                   814              779                744
      Crude protein (nitrogen × 6.25),3 g/day               18.00                17.75            17.00              16.00
      Calcium,4   g/day                                     4.00                  4.10            4.25                4.40
      Phosphorus    (available),5   mg/day                  450                   400              380                340
      Sodium, mg/day                                        180                   180              180                180
      Chloride, mg/day                                      180                   180              180                180
      Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), g/day                      2.50                  2.00            1.50                1.30
      Choline, mg/day                                       100                   100              100                100

      ¹Consumption of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
      ²The recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside back cover of this guide.
       Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
       some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
      ³Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid
       basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
      4Approximately 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
      5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to

       make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the
       available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside
       back cover of this guide).




                                                                       34
                                    Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—Silver Brown
     Peaking; to 32 weeks1                                                                                                        Above 90% to 88% egg production; 33–44 weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1270–1320 kcal/lb, 2800–2911 kcal/kg, 11.72–12.18 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1260–1310 kcal/lb, 2778–2889 kcal/kg, 11.63–12.09 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                      93          98          103*    108     113             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                     101         106          111*    116     121
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                20.5        21.6         22.7*   23.8    24.9            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                22.3        23.4         24.5*   25.6    26.7
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.91        0.86         0.82    0.78    0.75             Lysine, %                                                          0.81        0.77         0.74    0.71    0.68
      Methionine, %                                                      0.45        0.43         0.41    0.39    0.37             Methionine, %                                                      0.40        0.38         0.36    0.35    0.33
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.75        0.71         0.67    0.64    0.61             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.66        0.63         0.60    0.57    0.55
      Threonine, %                                                       0.64        0.60         0.57    0.55    0.52             Threonine, %                                                       0.57        0.54         0.52    0.49    0.47
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.19        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.16             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.17        0.16         0.15    0.15    0.14
      Arginine, %                                                        0.97        0.92         0.88    0.84    0.80             Arginine, %                                                        0.87        0.83         0.79    0.76    0.72
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.72        0.68         0.65    0.62    0.59             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.64        0.61         0.58    0.56    0.54
      Valine, %                                                          0.82        0.78         0.74    0.70    0.67             Valine, %                                                          0.73        0.70         0.66    0.64    0.61
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          0.99        0.94         0.90    0.86    0.82             Lysine, %                                                          0.89        0.85         0.81    0.77    0.74
35




      Methionine, %                                                      0.49        0.46         0.44    0.42    0.40             Methionine, %                                                      0.43        0.41         0.39    0.37    0.36
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.84        0.80         0.76    0.72    0.69             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.74        0.71         0.67    0.65    0.62
      Threonine, %                                                       0.75        0.71         0.68    0.64    0.62             Threonine, %                                                       0.67        0.64         0.61    0.58    0.56
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.23        0.22         0.21    0.20    0.19             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.20        0.19         0.19    0.18    0.17
      Arginine, %                                                        1.05        0.99         0.94    0.90    0.86             Arginine, %                                                        0.93        0.89         0.85    0.81    0.78
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.77        0.73         0.70    0.66    0.64             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.69        0.66         0.63    0.60    0.58
      Valine, %                                                          0.90        0.86         0.81    0.78    0.74             Valine, %                                                          0.81        0.77         0.73    0.70    0.67
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          19.35      18.37         17.48   16.67   15.93           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          17.57      16.75         15.99   15.30   14.67
     Calcium,4 %                                                         4.30        4.08         3.88    3.70    3.54            Calcium,4 %                                                         4.06        3.87         3.69    3.53    3.39
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.48        0.46         0.44    0.42    0.40            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.40        0.38         0.36    0.34    0.33
     Sodium, %                                                           0.19        0.18         0.17    0.17    0.16            Sodium, %                                                           0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15
     Chloride, %                                                         0.19        0.18         0.17    0.17    0.16            Chloride, %                                                         0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        2.69        2.55         2.43    2.31    2.21            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.98        1.89         1.80    1.72    1.65
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The  recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
      some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximatley 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
                                    Laying Period Nutritional Recommendations—Silver Brown
     87–84% egg production; 45–55 weeks1                                                                                          Less than 84% egg production; 56+ weeks1
     Recommended energy concentration:2 1250–1300 kcal/lb, 2756–2867 kcal/kg, 11.54–12.00 MJ/kg                                   Recommended energy concentration:2 1235–1285 kcal/lb, 2723–2833 kcal/kg, 11.40–11.86 MJ/kg
     Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                     101         106          111*    116     121             Feed consumption, g/day per hen                                     102         107          112*    117     122
     Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                22.3        23.4         24.5*   25.6    26.7            Feed consumption lb/day per 100 hens                                22.5        23.6         24.7*   25.8    26.9
     Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids                                                                             Standardized (true) ileal digestible amino acids
      Lysine, %                                                          0.78        0.74         0.71    0.68    0.65             Lysine, %                                                          0.74        0.70         0.67    0.64    0.61
      Methionine, %                                                      0.37        0.35         0.33    0.32    0.30             Methionine, %                                                      0.34        0.32         0.31    0.29    0.28
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.60        0.57         0.54    0.52    0.50             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.56        0.53         0.51    0.49    0.47
      Threonine, %                                                       0.54        0.52         0.50    0.47    0.45             Threonine, %                                                       0.51        0.49         0.47    0.45    0.43
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.16        0.16         0.15    0.14    0.14             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.15        0.15         0.14    0.14    0.13
      Arginine, %                                                        0.83        0.79         0.76    0.72    0.69             Arginine, %                                                        0.79        0.75         0.72    0.69    0.66
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.61        0.58         0.56    0.53    0.51             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.58        0.55         0.53    0.51    0.49
      Valine, %                                                          0.70        0.67         0.64    0.61    0.58             Valine, %                                                          0.66        0.63         0.60    0.58    0.55
     Total amino   acids3                                                                                                         Total amino   acids3
      Lysine, %                                                          0.85        0.81         0.77    0.74    0.71             Lysine, %                                                          0.80        0.77         0.73    0.70    0.67
36




      Methionine, %                                                      0.39        0.37         0.36    0.34    0.33             Methionine, %                                                      0.36        0.35         0.33    0.32    0.30
      Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.68        0.64         0.61    0.59    0.56             Methionine+cystine, %                                              0.63        0.60         0.57    0.55    0.53
      Threonine, %                                                       0.64        0.61         0.58    0.56    0.53             Threonine, %                                                       0.61        0.58         0.55    0.53    0.51
      Tryptophan, %                                                      0.20        0.19         0.18    0.17    0.16             Tryptophan, %                                                      0.18        0.18         0.17    0.16    0.15
      Arginine, %                                                        0.89        0.85         0.81    0.78    0.75             Arginine, %                                                        0.85        0.81         0.77    0.74    0.71
      Isoleucine, %                                                      0.66        0.63         0.60    0.58    0.55             Isoleucine, %                                                      0.62        0.60         0.57    0.54    0.52
      Valine, %                                                          0.77        0.73         0.70    0.67    0.64             Valine, %                                                          0.73        0.70         0.66    0.64    0.61
     Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          16.83      16.04         15.32   14.66   14.05           Crude protein (nitrogen ×      6.25),3   %                          15.69      14.95         14.29   13.68   13.11
     Calcium,4 %                                                         4.21        4.01         3.83    3.66    3.51            Calcium,4 %                                                         4.31        4.11         3.93    3.76    3.61
     Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.38        0.36         0.34    0.33    0.31            Phosphorus    (avail.),5   %                                        0.33        0.32         0.30    0.29    0.28
     Sodium, %                                                           0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15            Sodium, %                                                           0.18        0.17         0.16    0.15    0.15
     Chloride, %                                                         0.18        0.17         0.16    0.16    0.15            Chloride, %                                                         0.18        0.17         0.16    0.15    0.15
     Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.49        1.42         1.35    1.29    1.24            Linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6), %                                        1.27        1.21         1.16    1.11    1.07
     *Typical feed consumption for the age.                                                                                       *Typical feed consumption for the age.

     1Consumption   of crude protein, methionine+cystine, fat, linoleic acid, and/or energy may be changed to optimize egg size.
     2The  recommended energy range is based on the energy values shown in the table on the inside cover of this guide. Differences in the metabolizable energy value assigned to feed ingredients of the same name can differ substantially; in
      some cases, the recommended dietary energy content may have to be adjusted accordingly (see text).
     3Total amino acids are only appropriate with a corn and soybean meal diet; please formulate the diet on digestible amino acid basis if a substantial amount of other protein-supplying ingredients are used.
     4Approximatley 65% of the added calcium carbonate (limestone) should be in particle sizes of 2–4 mm.
     5Digestible phosphorus is sometimes preferred over available phosphorus. However, there are insufficient data available to make recommendations about a minimum dietary digestible-phosphorus content for Hy-Line birds. Instead, use the

      available-phosphorus recommendations and the available-phosphorus contents of feed ingredients (shown on the inside back cover of this guide).
Added Trace Minerals and Vitamins
  Item1,2                                      In 1000 kg complete diet      In 2000 lb complete diet

  Added minerals per ton
   Manganese, g                                             83                               75
   Zinc, g                                                  83                               75
   Iron, g                                                  66                               60
   Copper, g                                               19.3                          17.5
   Iodine, g                                               2.2                           2.0
   Selenium, g                                             0.30                          0.27
  Added vitamins per ton
   Vitamin A, IU                                        11,000,000                    10,000,000
   Vitamin D3, IU                                       4,400,000                     4,000,000
   Vitamin E, IU                                          66,000                        60,000
   Vitamin K (menadione), g                                2.2                           2.0
   Thiamine (B1), g                                        2.2                           2.0
   Riboflavin (B2), g                                       11                               10
   Niacin (B3), g                                           44                               40
   Pantothenic acid (B5), g                                 13                               12
   Pyridoxine (B6), g                                      5.0                           4.5
   Biotin (B7), mg                                         220                           200
   Folic acid (B9), g                                      1.7                           1.5
   Cobalamine (B12), mg                                     24                               22
   Choline, g                                              220                           200
  1Minimum      recommendations for grower and laying periods.
  2Local     regulations may limit the dietary content of individual minerals or vitamins.




                                                    37
                                                    Laying Period Feed Consumption
                        Hy-Line W-36                            Hy-Line W-98                           Hy-Line Brown                    Hy-Line Silver Brown
      Age
       in     g/day     lb/day per      Cum.          g/day     lb/day per      Cum.         g/day      lb/day per      Cum.         g/day     lb/day per      Cum.
     Weeks   per bird    100 birds    kg     lb      per bird    100 birds    kg     lb     per bird     100 birds    kg     lb     per bird    100 birds    kg     lb

      19       84          18.5      0.59    1.3       80          17.6      0.56    1.2      86          19.0       0.60    1.3      86         19.0       0.60    1.3
      20       86          19.0      1.19    2.6       84          18.5      1.15    2.5      89          19.6       1.23    2.7      89         19.6       1.23    2.7
      21       86          19.0      1.79    4.0       86          19.0      1.75    3.9      92          20.3       1.87    4.1      92         20.3       1.87    4.1
      22       90          19.8      2.42    5.3       90          19.8      2.38    5.2      95          20.9       2.53    5.6      95         20.9       2.53    5.6
      23       91          20.1      3.06    6.7       92          20.3      3.02    6.7      98          21.6       3.22    7.1      98         21.6       3.22    7.1
      24       95          20.9      3.72    8.2       96          21.2      3.70    8.1      100         22.0       3.92    8.6      100        22.0       3.92    8.6
      25       95          20.9      4.39    9.7       100         22.0      4.40    9.7      103         22.7       4.64    10.2     103        22.7       4.64    10.2

      26       95          20.9      5.05    11.1      102         22.5      5.11    11.3     105         23.1       5.38    11.9     105        23.1       5.38    11.9
      27       95          20.9      5.72    12.6      102         22.5      5.82    12.8     106         23.4       6.12    13.5     106        23.4       6.12    13.5
      28       100         22.0      6.42    14.2      103         22.7      6.55    14.4     108         23.8       6.87    15.2     108        23.8       6.87    15.2
      29       100         22.0      7.12    15.7      103         22.7      7.27    16.0     108         23.8       7.63    16.8     108        23.8       7.63    16.8
      30       100         22.0      7.82    17.2      104         22.9      7.99    17.6     108         23.8       8.39    18.5     108        23.8       8.39    18.5

      31       100         22.0      8.52    18.8      104         22.9      8.72    19.2     109         24.0       9.15    20.2     109        24.0       9.15    20.2
38




      32       100         22.0      9.22    20.3      104         22.9      9.45    20.8     109         24.0       9.91    21.9     109        24.0       9.91    21.9
      33       100         22.0      9.92    21.9      105         23.1      10.19   22.5     110         24.3       10.68   23.6     110        24.3       10.68   23.6
      34       101         22.3      10.63   23.4      105         23.1      10.92   24.1     110         24.3       11.45   25.3     110        24.3       11.45   25.3
      35       101         22.3      11.33   25.0      105         23.1      11.66   25.7     110         24.3       12.22   26.9     110        24.3       12.22   26.9

      36       101         22.3      12.04   26.5      106         23.4      12.40   27.3     110         24.3       12.99   28.6     110        24.3       12.99   28.6
      37       101         22.3      12.75   28.1      106         23.4      13.14   29.0     111         24.5       13.77   30.4     111        24.5       13.77   30.4
      38       101         22.3      13.45   29.7      106         23.4      13.88   30.6     111         24.5       14.55   32.1     111        24.5       14.55   32.1
      39       101         22.3      14.16   31.2      106         23.4      14.62   32.2     111         24.5       15.32   33.8     111        24.5       15.32   33.8
      40       101         22.3      14.87   32.8      106         23.4      15.37   33.9     111         24.5       16.10   35.5     111        24.5       16.10   35.5

      41       101         22.3      15.58   34.3      106         23.4      16.11   35.5     111         24.5       16.88   37.2     111        24.5       16.88   37.2
      42       102         22.5      16.29   35.9      107         23.6      16.86   37.2     111         24.5       17.65   38.9     111        24.5       17.65   38.9
      43       102         22.5      17.00   37.5      107         23.6      17.61   38.8     111         24.5       18.43   40.6     111        24.5       18.43   40.6
      44       102         22.5      17.72   39.1      107         23.6      18.35   40.5     111         24.5       19.21   42.4     111        24.5       19.21   42.4
      45       102         22.5      18.43   40.6      107         23.6      19.10   42.1     111         24.5       19.99   44.1     111        24.5       19.99   44.1

      46       102         22.5      19.15   42.2      107         23.6      19.85   43.8     111         24.5       20.76   45.8     111        24.5       20.76   45.8
      47       102         22.5      19.86   43.8      108         23.8      20.61   45.4     111         24.5       21.54   47.5     111        24.5       21.54   47.5
      48       102         22.5      20.57   45.4      108         23.8      21.36   47.1     111         24.5       22.32   49.2     111        24.5       22.32   49.2
      49       102         22.5      21.29   46.9      108         23.8      22.12   48.8     111         24.5       23.09   50.9     111        24.5       23.09   50.9
      50       102         22.5      22.00   48.5      108         23.8      22.88   50.4     111         24.5       23.87   52.6     111        24.5       23.87   52.6
                                                    Laying Period Feed Consumption
                        Hy-Line W-36                            Hy-Line W-98                           Hy-Line Brown                    Hy-Line Silver Brown
      Age
       in     g/day     lb/day per      Cum.          g/day     lb/day per      Cum.         g/day      lb/day per      Cum.         g/day     lb/day per      Cum.
     Weeks   per bird    100 birds    kg     lb      per bird    100 birds    kg     lb     per bird     100 birds    kg     lb     per bird    100 birds    kg     lb

      51       103         22.7      22.72   50.1      108         23.8      23.63   52.1     112         24.7       24.65   54.4     112        24.7       24.65   54.4
      52       103         22.7      23.44   51.7      109         24.0      24.40   53.8     112         24.7       25.44   56.1     112        24.7       25.44   56.1
      53       103         22.7      24.16   53.3      109         24.0      25.16   55.5     112         24.7       26.22   57.8     112        24.7       26.22   57.8
      54       103         22.7      24.89   54.9      109         24.0      25.92   57.2     112         24.7       27.01   59.5     112        24.7       27.01   59.5
      55       103         22.7      25.61   56.5      109         24.0      26.68   58.8     112         24.7       27.79   61.3     112        24.7       27.79   61.3

      56       103         22.7      26.33   58.1      109         24.0      27.45   60.5     112         24.7       28.57   63.0     112        24.7       28.57   63.0
      57       103         22.7      27.05   59.6      110         24.3      28.22   62.2     112         24.7       29.36   64.7     112        24.7       29.36   64.7
      58       103         22.7      27.77   61.2      110         24.3      28.99   63.9     112         24.7       30.14   66.5     112        24.7       30.14   66.5
      59       104         22.9      28.50   62.8      110         24.3      29.76   65.6     112         24.7       30.93   68.2     112        24.7       30.93   68.2
      60       104         22.9      29.23   64.4      110         24.3      30.53   67.3     112         24.7       31.71   69.9     112        24.7       31.71   69.9

      61       104         22.9      29.95   66.0      110         24.3      31.30   69.0     112         24.7       32.49   71.6     112        24.7       32.49   71.6
      62       104         22.9      30.68   67.7      110         24.3      32.07   70.7     112         24.7       33.28   73.4     112        24.7       33.28   73.4
               105         23.1      31.42   69.3      111         24.5      32.84   72.4     112         24.7       34.06   75.1     112        24.7       34.06   75.1
39




      63
      64       105         23.1      32.15   70.9      111         24.5      33.62   74.1     112         24.7       34.85   76.8     112        24.7       34.85   76.8
      65       105         23.1      32.89   72.5      111         24.5      34.40   75.8     112         24.7       35.63   78.6     112        24.7       35.63   78.6
                                          Water Consumption
    Water is the most important nutrient and good-quality                  As a general rule, healthy birds will consume twice as
    water must be available to the birds at all times. Only in             much water as feed, although the ratio increases during
    special cases (e.g., prior to vaccine delivery through the             periods of high ambient temperatures. In some cases,
    drinking water), should drinking water be restricted, and              high concentrations of minerals (e.g., sodium) in the
    then only for a short time. Water and feed consumption                 water should lead to changes in the dietary composition.
    are directly related—when birds drink less, they consume
    less feed, and production quickly declines accordingly.

                                 Water Consumption for Hy-Line Breeder Pullets and Layers
                                                 Water Consumed per 100 Birds per Day

                           Chicks should consume 0.83 liters (0.22 gallons) per 100 birds on day one of age.

      Age in                                                              Age in
      Weeks             Liters               Gallons                      Weeks                    Liters                   Gallons
        1              0.8–1.1              0.20–0.30                       8                     6.1–8.0                  1.60–2.10
        2              1.1–1.9              0.30–0.50                       9                     6.4–9.5                  1.70–2.50
        3              1.7–2.7              0.45–0.70                     10–15                   6.8–10.2                 1.80–2.70
        4              2.5–3.8              0.65–1.00                     16–20                   7.2–15.2                 1.90–4.00
        5              3.4–4.7              0.90–1.25                     21–25*                  9.9–18.2                 2.60–4.80
        6              4.5–5.7              1.20–1.50                     Over 25*               15.2–20.8                 4.00–5.50
        7              5.7–6.8              1.50–1.80
                                                                          *Higher temperatures tend to elevate water consumption by 1.9 liters
                                                                          (0.5 gallons) per 100 birds




                                                     Ventilation
    Ventilation should be used as a major management tool                  In the breeding house the temperature and humidity
    to provide the optimum micro-environment. It is essential              should be in the range of 18–27°C (65–80°F) and 40–
    to provide each bird with an adequate supply of oxygen                 60% humidity. A general rule for determining required fan
    and to remove carbon dioxide produced by the birds and                 capacity is 4 m³ of air movement per kilogram of body
    dust particles that have become aerosolized. Controlled                weight per hour (1 ft³ per minute per pound of body
    ventilation can do a great deal to dilute pathogenic                   weight).
    organisms as well as provide an optimum environment
    when ventilation equipment is designed and operated to
    give correct air speed and direction.


                                                Suggested Minimum Ventilation Rates


                Cubic Feet Per Minute Per Bird                                            Cubic Meters Per Hour Per Bird
                          Age of Birds                                                                Age of Birds


  Outside         First  3   6           12       18     Beyond          Outside             First  3   6                12        18      Beyond
Temperature       Week Wks. Wks.         Wks.     Wks.   18 Wks.        Temperature          Week Wks. Wks.              Wks.      Wks.    18 Wks.
   90°F            1.0  1.5 2.0          3.0      4.0    6.0–7.0           32°C               1.7  2.5 3.4               5.1       6.8    10.2–11.9
   70°F            0.7  1.0 1.5          2.0      3.0    4.0–5.0           21°C               12   1.7 2.5               3.4       5.1     6.8–8.5
   50°F            0.4  0.7 1.0          1.5      2.0    2.5–3.0           10°C               0.7  1.2 1.7               2.5       3.4     4.2–5.1
   32°F            0.3  0.5 0.7          1.0      1.5    2.0–2.5            0°C               0.5  0.8 1.2               1.7       2.5     3.4–4.2
   10°F            0.2  0.3 0.5          0.7      1.0    1.5–2.0          –12°C               0.3  0.5 0.8               1.2       1.7     2.5–3.4
  –10°F            0.1  0.2 0.3          0.5      0.5    1.0–1.5          –23°C               0.2  0.3 0.5               0.8       0.8     1.7–2.5


                                                                   40
                               Breeder Hen Management
 Removal of Culls and Sex Errors is Imperative                        Housing Ratios
 All breeders should be handled at housing time and any cull          The number of males and females in any breeding flock is
 birds or sex slips removed. It is extremely important to             important. If there are too few males, overall fertility may
 remove all sex slips to maintain sexing accuracy and                 suffer. Likewise, if there are too many males they may fight
 performance in the progeny. In addition to sex slips,                and fertility may also suffer. The viability of the males may
 physical defects, as well as extremely light-weight birds            vary from flock to flock and the exact number of males must
 should be removed.                                                   be left to the judgment of the production manager. See table
                                                                      below.
 All male Hy-Line breeders regardless of variety are dubbed
 at the hatchery as chicks, and all females are left full
 combed. Inspection of the breeder flock post housing should
 also be made with an effort to detect sex slips missed on the
 initial inspection. There should be no full-combed males nor
 dubbed females in any Hy-Line breeder flock. When
 housing, select only males with masculine head appearance
 to house the appropriate number of males for the mating
 ratio for each variety.




                                          Hy-Line Breeder Housing Ratios
                                    (Excess males should not be immediately discarded.)


                     White Breeder                                                            Brown Breeder
         W-36                               W-98                                 Brown                              Silver Brown

Female            Male            Female              Male              Female             Male             Female              Male

 100               11               100                 7                 100                8                100                  7




                                                                 41
                                             Hatching Egg Care
Chick weight at hatch is directly related to the weight of the              longer than ten days, a temperature of 13°C (55°F) with a
hatching egg. Flock sizes are becoming so large it is difficult to          relative humidity of between 70% and 80% is recommended.
supply the number of chicks required in a single hatch or from a            Temperatures below this will result in an unsatisfactory hatch.
single parent source. Uniformity of commercial pullets is
extremely important in attaining future production goals. To assist         Hy-Line W-36 hatching eggs should come from a flock that is at
in attaining uniformity, it is suggested that eggs be set according         least 25 weeks of age and weigh a minimum of 49 g per egg.
to parent source flock and this grouping be maintained until                Hy-Line W-98 hatching eggs should come from a flock that is 24
chicks are placed in the brooder house. Research indicates that             weeks or older and weigh a minimum of 49 g per egg. Hy-Line
grouping hatching eggs by 4-g increments and maintaining                    Brown/Silver Brown hatching eggs should come from a flock that
chicks hatched from each group separately, significantly reduces            is at least 24 weeks of age and weigh a minimum of 49 g per
the size variability of chicks at four weeks of age.                        egg. Smaller eggs from younger flocks can be used, although it
                                                                            should be realized that chick size and early livability will not be
Hatching eggs should be gathered a minimum of twice daily or                optimum.
more during extremely hot weather. Eggs should be stored at
18.3°C (65°F) with a relative humidity between 70% and 80%.                 It is extremely important that once eggs are cooled they be
Hatching eggs should be sanitized using products specifically               maintained at a temperature that does not allow them to
developed for this purpose.                                                 “sweat” (gather moisture from being exposed to warm humid air).
                                                                            The truck taking them from a cooler at the farm to the hatchery
Hatching eggs should not be kept longer than ten days from the              should be capable of keeping the eggs cool enough to avoid
day they were laid. Best hatches result when eggs from three to             sweating.
seven days of age are used. When it is necessary to save eggs




                                    Incubation and Hatching
Pre-warming of all Hy-Line hatching eggs is recommended to                  Under normal conditions the W-36 eggs will achieve optimum
achieve maximum yield and uniformity of hatch time. This is                 hatch in 21 days and 6 hours. The Hy-Line W-98 and Brown/
accomplished by removing the eggs from the cooler eight to                  Silver Brown may require 21 days and 8 hours. Age of eggs will
twelve hours prior to setting and storing at a temperature of               influence hatch times. Allow one additional hour of incubation for
24.1°C (75°F) during this time. Provide adequate air movement               every day beyond 10 days of egg age.
in the pre-warming area to reduce sweating and provide uniform
temperature to all eggs.



                                                     Color Sexing
 Color sexing of Hy-Line Brown can be conducted when the                     nearly white heads. However, they will have the red-buffy color
 chicks are taken from the hatchery before other processing is               on the back and still be distinguishable for the males. The
 started. The sex is determined on the basis of the down color.              occasional male may show some red on the head (Figure 3), but
 The males are generally pure white (Figure 1) although                      this will occur as a round spot. Females showing red on the head
 occasionally they may show some red over the head and neck.                 (Figure 4) will have it concentrated around the base of the beak
 The females are a buffy-red color (Figure 2). In perhaps 1% of              and around the eyes.
 the chicks some confusion may occur wherein females will show



                                                 Feather Sexing
Hy-Line W-36, W-98, and Silver Brown commercial chicks are                 (primary and covert feathers are the same length). In a small
sexable by means of the wing feathers. The female commercial               percentage of chicks covert feathers may be longer than the
chicks show fast feathering (primary wing feathers are longer              primary feathers (super slow feathering). These chicks may be
than the covert feathers) and male chicks are slow feathering              males.




                                                                      42
                                    Color Sexing Photos




              Figure 1—Brown Males                             Figure 2—Brown Females




   Figure 3—Male Chicks—Red spot on head               Figure 4—Female Chicks—Red around the eyes




Male Chicks—Red strip in the middle of the back            Female Chicks—Two red strips on back




                                                  43
                             Feather Sexing Photos
                                  The tip of the wing is used for feather sexing




                                                Left wing, top side




             Slow feathering = male chick                              Fast feathering = female chick
Sight: Coverts and primaries are short and same height             Sight: Coverts are shorter than primaries
      Feel: Coverts and primaries same thickness                 Feel: Coverts are thin and primaries are thick




                                      Super slow feathering = male chick
                                  Sight: Coverts are longer than primary feathers
                                   Feel: Coverts are thick and primaries are thin


                                                         44
               Hy-Line W-36 Parent Performance Projection
 Age      %       Female       Male          Number         Number          Female        Average           %          Number        %        Number
  in    Hen-Day     %            %           Hen-Day      Hen-Housed      Body Weight    Egg Weight      Settable     Settable      Hatch   Female Chicks
Weeks    Curr.    Mortality   Mortality       Eggs           Eggs                                                    Hen-Housed
                   Cum.        Cum.                                                            Net lb/                  Eggs
                                                                                              30 doz.
                                          Curr.   Cum.    Curr.   Cum.    kg      lb    g/egg   case                Curr.   Cum.            Curr.   Cum.
 19       22         0.1         0.2        1.5    1.5     1.5     1.5    1.23   2.71    42.9    34.0       –         –      –        –       –       –
 20       43         0.2         0.5        3.0    4.6     3.0     4.5    1.27   2.80    45.5    36.1       –         –      –        –       –       –
 21       64         0.3         0.7        4.5    9.0     4.5     9.0    1.30   2.87    46.5    36.9       –         –      –        –       –       –
 22       79         0.3         0.9        5.5   14.6     5.5    14.5    1.35   2.98    48.5    38.5       –         –      –        –       –       –
 23       87         0.4         1.1        6.1   20.7     6.1    20.6    1.40   3.09    50.3    39.9       –         –      –        –       –       –
 24       88         0.5         1.2        6.2   26.8     6.1    26.7    1.42   3.13    52.0    41.3       –         –      –        –       –       –
 25       89         0.5         1.4        6.2   33.0     6.2    32.9    1.44   3.18    53.1    42.1       87        5.3    5.3     85       2.3    2.3
 26       90         0.6         1.6        6.3   39.3     6.3    39.2    1.45   3.20    53.8    42.7       94        5.8   11.2     86       2.5    4.8
 27       91         0.7         1.8        6.4   45.7     6.3    45.5    1.46   3.22    54.3    43.1       95        5.9   17.1     86       2.6    7.3
 28       91         0.8         1.9        6.4   52.1     6.3    51.8    1.47   3.24    55.1    43.7       96        6.1   23.2     87       2.6   10.0
 29       91         0.8         2.1        6.4   58.5     6.3    58.1    1.48   3.26    55.6    44.1       96        6.1   29.3     88       2.7   12.6
 30       90         0.9         2.2        6.3   64.8     6.2    64.4    1.49   3.29    56.1    44.5       97        6.1   35.4     88       2.7   15.3
 31       90         1.0         2.4        6.3   71.1     6.2    70.6    1.49   3.29    56.6    44.9       97        6.1   41.4     88       2.7   18.0
 32       90         1.0         2.6        6.3   77.4     6.2    76.9    1.50   3.31    57.1    45.3       97        6.1   47.5     89       2.7   20.7
 33       89         1.1         2.7        6.2   83.6     6.2    83.0    1.51   3.33    57.4    45.6       97        6.0   53.5     89       2.7   23.4
 34       89         1.2         2.9        6.2   89.8     6.2    89.2    1.51   3.33    57.9    46.0       97        6.0   59.5     88       2.6   26.0
 35       89         1.3         3.0        6.2   96.0     6.2    95.3    1.52   3.35    58.2    46.2       97        6.0   65.5     88       2.6   28.6
 36       88         1.4         3.1        6.2   102.2    6.1    101.4   1.52   3.35    58.4    46.3       97        6.0   71.4     88       2.6   31.3
 37       87         1.5         3.3        6.1   108.3    6.0    107.4   1.52   3.35    59.0    46.8       97        5.9   77.3     88       2.6   33.9
 38       87         1.5         3.4        6.1   114.4    6.0    113.4   1.53   3.37    59.2    47.0       97        5.8   83.2     87       2.5   36.4
 39       86         1.6         3.6        6.0   120.4    5.9    119.3   1.53   3.37    59.4    47.1       97        5.8   89.0     87       2.5   38.9
 40       86         1.7         3.7        6.0   126.4    5.9    125.2   1.53   3.37    59.6    47.3       97        5.7   94.7     87       2.5   41.4
 41       85         1.8         3.8        6.0   132.4    5.8    131.1   1.53   3.37    59.9    47.5       97        5.7   100.5    87       2.5   43.9
 42       85         1.9         3.9        6.0   138.3    5.8    136.9   1.54   3.40    60.1    47.7       97        5.7   106.1    87       2.5   46.4
 43       85         2.0         4.1        6.0   144.3    5.8    142.8   1.54   3.40    60.2    47.8       97        5.7   111.8    87       2.4   48.8
 44       84         2.1         4.2        5.9   150.2    5.8    148.5   1.54   3.40    60.5    48.0       97        5.7   117.4    86       2.4   51.3
 45       84         2.2         4.3        5.9   156.0    5.8    154.3   1.55   3.42    61.0    48.4       97        5.6   123.0    86       2.4   53.7
 46       83         2.3         4.4        5.8   161.8    5.7    159.9   1.55   3.42    61.1    48.5       97        5.6   128.6    86       2.4   56.1
 47       83         2.4         4.5        5.8   167.7    5.7    165.6   1.55   3.42    61.3    48.7       97        5.5   134.1    86       2.4   58.4
 48       82         2.4         4.6        5.7   173.4    5.6    171.2   1.55   3.42    61.3    48.7       97        5.5   139.6    86       2.4   60.8

 49       82         2.5         4.7        5.7   179.1    5.6    176.8   1.55   3.42    61.4    48.7       97        5.4   145.1    86       2.3   63.1

 50       82         2.6         4.8        5.7   184.9    5.6    182.4   1.56   3.44    61.6    48.9       97        5.4   150.5    85       2.3   65.4

 51       81         2.7         4.9        5.7   190.5    5.5    187.9   1.56   3.44    61.8    49.0       97        5.4   155.9    85       2.3   67.7

 52       81         2.8         5.0        5.7   196.2    5.5    193.4   1.56   3.44    61.9    49.1       97        5.3   161.3    85       2.3   70.0

 53       81         2.9         5.1        5.7   201.9    5.5    198.9   1.56   3.44    62.0    49.2       97        5.3   166.6    84       2.2   72.3

 54       80         3.0         5.2        5.6   207.5    5.4    204.4   1.57   3.46    62.1    49.3       97        5.3   171.9    84       2.2   74.5

 55       80         3.1         5.3        5.6   213.1    5.4    209.8   1.57   3.46    62.2    49.4       97        5.3   177.2    84       2.2   76.7

 56       79         3.2         5.4        5.5   218.6    5.4    215.1   1.57   3.46    62.2    49.4       96        5.2   182.4    84       2.2   78.9

 57       79         3.3         5.5        5.5   224.1    5.3    220.5   1.57   3.46    62.3    49.4       96        5.1   187.5    83       2.1   81.0

 58       78         3.4         5.6        5.5   229.6    5.3    225.7   1.58   3.48    62.3    49.4       96        5.1   192.7    83       2.1   83.1

 59       78         3.5         5.7        5.5   235.1    5.3    231.0   1.58   3.48    62.4    49.5       96        5.1   197.7    82       2.1   85.2

 60       78         3.6         5.8        5.5   240.5    5.3    236.3   1.58   3.48    62.4    49.5       96        5.1   202.8    81       2.0   87.3

 61       77         3.8         5.9        5.4   245.9    5.2    241.5   1.58   3.48    62.5    49.6       96        5.1   207.8    80       2.0   89.3

 62       77         3.9         6.0        5.4   251.3    5.2    246.6   1.58   3.48    62.5    49.6       96        5.0   212.8    79       2.0   91.3

 63       77         4.0         6.0        5.4   256.7    5.2    251.8   1.58   3.48    62.7    49.8       96        5.0   217.8    78       2.0   93.2

 64       77         4.1         6.1        5.4   262.1    5.2    257.0   1.59   3.51    62.7    49.8       96        5.0   222.8    78       1.9   95.1

 65       77         4.2         6.2        5.4   267.5    5.2    262.2   1.59   3.51    62.8    49.8       96        5.0   227.7    77       1.9   97.0
               Hy-Line W-36 Parent Performance Graph

      100 %                                                                                                                     100%


       90                                                                                                                       90


       80                                                                                                                       80


       70                                                                                                                       70

                                                    Percent Hatch of All Eggs Set Current
       60                                                                                                                       60


       50                                                                                                                       50
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50        54         58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1    2    3   4     5    6   7            8        9          10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18




       100 %                                                                                                                    100%
 46




        90                                                                                                                      90


        80                                                                                                                      80


        70                                                                                                                      70
                                                    Percent Hen-Day Production Current
        60                                                                                                                      60


        50                                                                                                                      50


        40                                                                                                                      40


        30                                                                                                                      30


        20                                                                                                                      20


        10                                                                                                                      10


         0                                                                                                                      0
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50         54        58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1   2     3    4    5    6    7           8         9         10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18
               Hy-Line W-98 Parent Performance Projection
 Age      %       Female       Male          Number         Number          Female        Average           %          Number        %        Number
  in    Hen-Day     %            %           Hen-Day      Hen-Housed      Body Weight    Egg Weight      Settable     Settable      Hatch   Female Chicks
Weeks    Curr.    Mortality   Mortality       Eggs           Eggs                                                    Hen-Housed
                   Cum.        Cum.                                                            Net lb/                  Eggs
                                                                                              30 doz.
                                          Curr.   Cum.    Curr.   Cum.    kg      lb    g/egg   case                Curr.   Cum.            Curr.   Cum.
 19       20         0.1         0.3        1.4    1.4     1.4     1.4    1.33   2.93     –       –         –         –      –        –       –       –
 20       42         0.3         0.6        2.9    4.3     2.9     4.3    1.38   3.04    44.1    35.0       –         –      –        –       –       –
 21       60         0.4         0.9        4.2    8.5     4.2     8.5    1.42   3.13    48.3    38.3       –         –      –        –       –       –
 22       78         0.5         1.2        5.5   14.0     5.4    13.9    1.44   3.18    50.5    40.1       –         –      –        –       –       –
 23       85         0.6         1.5        6.0   20.0     5.9    19.9    1.48   3.26    51.6    40.9       –         –      –        –       –       –
 24       90         0.7         1.8        6.3   26.3     6.3    26.1    1.52   3.35    52.1    41.3       76        4.5    4.5     86       1.9    1.9
 25       91         0.8         2.0        6.4   32.6     6.3    32.4    1.56   3.44    53.4    42.4       84        5.3    9.7     87       2.3    4.2
 26       92         0.9         2.3        6.4   39.1     6.4    38.8    1.56   3.44    54.0    42.8       92        5.8   15.6     88       2.6    6.8
 27       92         1.0         2.6        6.4   45.5     6.4    45.2    1.58   3.48    54.2    43.0       96        6.1   21.7     89       2.7    9.5
 28       91         1.1         2.8        6.4   51.9     6.3    51.5    1.58   3.48    55.1    43.7       96        6.1   27.8     90       2.8   12.3
 29       91         1.2         3.1        6.4   58.2     6.3    57.8    1.58   3.48    55.8    44.3       96        6.1   33.9     90       2.7   15.0
 30       91         1.3         3.3        6.4   64.6     6.3    64.1    1.60   3.53    56.1    44.5       97        6.1   40.0     90       2.7   17.7
 31       91         1.4         3.6        6.4   71.0     6.3    70.3    1.60   3.53    56.2    44.6       97        6.1   46.1     90       2.7   20.5
 32       91         1.5         3.8        6.4   77.4     6.3    76.6    1.60   3.53    56.6    44.9       97        6.1   52.2     90       2.7   23.2
 33       91         1.6         4.1        6.4   83.7     6.3    82.9    1.60   3.53    57.1    45.3       97        6.1   58.2     90       2.7   25.9
 34       90         1.7         4.3        6.3   90.0     6.2    89.1    1.60   3.53    57.5    45.6       97        6.1   64.3     91       2.7   28.7
 35       90         1.8         4.5        6.3   96.3     6.2    95.3    1.60   3.53    57.6    45.7       97        6.0   70.3     91       2.7   31.4
 36       90         1.9         4.7        6.3   102.6    6.2    101.5   1.62   3.57    58.0    46.0       97        6.0   76.3     91       2.7   34.2
 37       89         2.0         5.0        6.2   108.9    6.1    107.6   1.62   3.57    58.3    46.3       97        6.0   82.3     91       2.7   36.9
 38       89         2.1         5.2        6.2   115.1    6.1    113.7   1.62   3.57    58.4    46.3       97        5.9   88.3     91       2.7   39.6
 39       88         2.2         5.4        6.2   121.2    6.0    119.7   1.62   3.57    58.8    46.7       97        5.9   94.2     90       2.7   42.3
 40       88         2.3         5.6        6.2   127.4    6.0    125.7   1.62   3.57    59.2    47.0       96        5.8   100.0    90       2.6   44.9
 41       87         2.4         5.8        6.1   133.5    5.9    131.7   1.62   3.57    59.5    47.2       96        5.8   105.7    89       2.6   47.4
 42       87         2.5         6.0        6.1   139.6    5.9    137.6   1.62   3.57    59.7    47.4       96        5.7   111.4    89       2.5   50.0
 43       86         2.6         6.2        6.0   145.6    5.9    143.5   1.63   3.59    60.0    47.6       96        5.7   117.1    89       2.5   52.5
 44       86         2.7         6.4        6.0   151.6    5.9    149.3   1.63   3.59    60.2    47.8       95        5.6   122.7    89       2.5   55.0
 45       85         2.8         6.6        6.0   157.6    5.8    155.1   1.63   3.59    60.3    47.9       95        5.6   128.3    89       2.5   57.5
 46       84         3.0         6.7        5.9   163.5    5.7    160.8   1.63   3.59    60.5    48.0       95        5.5   133.8    88       2.4   59.9
 47       84         3.1         6.9        5.9   169.3    5.7    166.5   1.63   3.59    60.9    48.3       95        5.4   139.2    87       2.4   62.2
 48       83         3.2         7.1        5.8   175.1    5.6    172.1   1.63   3.59    61.0    48.4       95        5.4   144.6    86       2.3   64.6

 49       83         3.3         7.3        5.8   181.0    5.6    177.7   1.63   3.59    61.2    48.6       95        5.3   150.0    86       2.3   66.9

 50       83         3.5         7.5        5.8   186.8    5.6    183.3   1.63   3.59    61.3    48.6       95        5.3   155.3    85       2.3   69.1

 51       82         3.6         7.7        5.7   192.5    5.5    188.9   1.63   3.59    61.4    48.7       95        5.3   160.6    85       2.3   71.4

 52       81         3.8         7.9        5.7   198.2    5.5    194.3   1.63   3.59    61.5    48.8       95        5.3   165.9    85       2.2   73.6

 53       80         3.9         8.1        5.6   203.8    5.4    199.7   1.63   3.59    61.7    49.0       94        5.1   171.0    85       2.2   75.8

 54       80         4.1         8.3        5.6   209.4    5.4    205.1   1.63   3.59    61.9    49.1       94        5.1   176.0    84       2.1   77.9

 55       79         4.2         8.4        5.5   214.9    5.3    210.4   1.64   3.62    62.0    49.2       94        5.1   181.1    83       2.1   80.0

 56       79         4.4         8.6        5.5   220.4    5.3    215.7   1.64   3.62    62.1    49.3       94        5.0   186.1    82       2.0   82.1

 57       78         4.5         8.8        5.5   225.9    5.2    220.9   1.64   3.62    62.2    49.4       94        5.0   191.1    81       2.0   84.1

 58       78         4.7         9.0        5.5   231.4    5.2    226.1   1.64   3.62    62.4    49.5       94        4.9   196.0    80       2.0   86.1

 59       77         4.8         9.2        5.4   236.7    5.1    231.2   1.64   3.62    62.5    49.6       94        4.9   200.9    79       1.9   88.0

 60       77         5.0         9.3        5.4   242.1    5.1    236.4   1.64   3.62    62.6    49.7       94        4.8   205.7    78       1.9   89.9

 61       76         5.2         9.5        5.3   247.5    5.0    241.4   1.64   3.62    62.8    49.8       94        4.8   210.5    77       1.9   91.7

 62       76         5.3         9.7        5.3   252.8    5.0    246.4   1.64   3.62    62.8    49.8       94        4.7   215.2    76       1.8   93.5

 63       76         5.5         9.9        5.3   258.1    5.0    251.5   1.64   3.62    62.9    49.9       93        4.7   219.9    75       1.8   95.3

 64       75         5.7        10.1        5.3   263.3    4.9    256.4   1.64   3.62    62.9    49.9       93        4.7   224.6    75       1.8   97.0

 65       75         5.9        10.2        5.3   268.6    4.9    261.3   1.64   3.62    62.9    49.9       93        4.6   229.2    74       1.7   98.7
               Hy-Line W-98 Parent Performance Graph

      100 %                                                                                                                     100%


       90                                                                                                                       90


       80                                                                                                                       80


       70                                                                                                                       70

                                                    Percent Hatch of All Eggs Set Current
       60                                                                                                                       60


       50                                                                                                                       50
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50        54         58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1    2    3   4     5    6   7            8        9          10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18




       100 %                                                                                                                    100%
 48




        90                                                                                                                      90


        80                                                                                                                      80


        70                                                                                                                      70
                                                    Percent Hen-Day Production Current
        60                                                                                                                      60


        50                                                                                                                      50


        40                                                                                                                      40


        30                                                                                                                      30


        20                                                                                                                      20


        10                                                                                                                      10


         0                                                                                                                      0
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50         54        58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1   2     3    4    5    6    7           8         9         10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18
           Hy-Line Brown Parent Performance Projection
 Age      %       Female       Male          Number         Number          Female        Average           %          Number        %        Number
  in    Hen-Day     %            %           Hen-Day      Hen-Housed      Body Weight    Egg Weight      Settable     Settable      Hatch   Female Chicks
Weeks    Curr.    Mortality   Mortality       Eggs           Eggs                                                    Hen-Housed
                   Cum.        Cum.                                                            Net lb/                  Eggs
                                                                                              30 doz.
                                          Curr.   Cum.    Curr.   Cum.    kg      lb    g/egg   case                Curr.   Cum.            Curr.   Cum.
 19       11         0.1         0.3        0.8    0.8     0.8     0.8    1.53   3.37     –       –         –         –      –        –       –       –
 20       26         0.2         0.5        1.8    2.6     1.8     2.6    1.60   3.53     –       –         –         –      –        –       –       –
 21       47         0.4         0.8        3.3    5.9     3.3     5.9    1.65   3.64    47.9    38.0       –         –      –        –       –       –
 22       71         0.5         1.1        5.0   10.9     4.9    10.8    1.70   3.75    50.5    40.1       –         –      –        –       –       –
 23       80         0.6         1.5        5.6   16.5     5.6    16.4    1.72   3.79    52.1    41.3       –         –      –        –       –       –
 24       87         0.7         1.8        6.1   22.5     6.1    22.4    1.75   3.86    54.4    43.2       –         –      –        –       –       –
 25       90         0.8         2.2        6.3   28.8     6.3    28.7    1.75   3.86    55.4    44.0       85        5.3    5.3     75       2.0    2.0
 26       91         0.9         2.5        6.4   35.2     6.3    35.0    1.78   3.92    56.2    44.6       92        5.8   11.1     77       2.2    4.2
 27       91         1.0         2.8        6.4   41.6     6.3    41.3    1.79   3.95    57.0    45.2       94        5.9   17.1     78       2.3    6.5
 28       92         1.1         3.1        6.4   48.0     6.4    47.7    1.80   3.97    57.4    45.6       95        6.1   23.1     80       2.4    9.0
 29       92         1.2         3.4        6.4   54.5     6.4    54.0    1.81   3.99    58.2    46.2       96        6.1   29.2     80       2.4   11.4
 30       92         1.3         3.6        6.4   60.9     6.4    60.4    1.82   4.01    58.4    46.3       96        6.1   35.3     82       2.5   13.9
 31       91         1.5         3.9        6.4   67.3     6.3    66.7    1.84   4.06    58.9    46.7       96        6.0   41.3     82       2.5   16.4
 32       91         1.6         4.1        6.4   73.6     6.3    72.9    1.85   4.08    59.4    47.1       96        6.0   47.4     82       2.5   18.8
 33       90         1.8         4.4        6.3   79.9     6.2    79.1    1.85   4.08    59.5    47.2       96        5.9   53.3     82       2.5   21.3
 34       90         1.9         4.6        6.3   86.2     6.2    85.3    1.86   4.10    59.8    47.5       96        5.9   59.2     83       2.5   23.8
 35       90         2.1         4.8        6.3   92.5     6.2    91.5    1.86   4.10    59.9    47.5       96        5.9   65.2     83       2.5   26.3
 36       90         2.2         5.0        6.3   98.8     6.2    97.6    1.86   4.10    60.3    47.9       97        5.9   71.1     83       2.5   28.7
 37       89         2.4         5.2        6.2   105.1    6.1    103.7   1.87   4.12    60.3    47.9       97        5.9   77.0     83       2.4   31.2
 38       89         2.6         5.4        6.2   111.3    6.1    109.8   1.87   4.12    60.8    48.3       97        5.9   82.9     83       2.4   33.6
 39       88         2.8         5.6        6.2   117.5    6.0    115.8   1.87   4.12    61.0    48.4       96        5.8   88.6     83       2.4   36.0
 40       87         2.9         5.8        6.1   123.6    5.9    121.7   1.87   4.12    61.1    48.5       96        5.7   94.3     83       2.4   38.4
 41       86         3.1         6.0        6.0   129.6    5.8    127.5   1.87   4.12    61.2    48.6       96        5.6   99.9     83       2.3   40.7
 42       86         3.3         6.2        6.0   135.6    5.8    133.3   1.87   4.12    61.4    48.7       96        5.6   105.5    82       2.3   43.0
 43       85         3.5         6.3        6.0   141.5    5.7    139.1   1.87   4.12    61.6    48.9       96        5.5   111.0    82       2.3   45.2
 44       84         3.7         6.5        5.9   147.4    5.7    144.7   1.87   4.12    61.8    49.0       96        5.4   116.4    82       2.2   47.5
 45       84         3.9         6.7        5.9   153.3    5.6    150.4   1.87   4.12    61.9    49.1       95        5.4   121.8    81       2.2   49.6
 46       82         4.1         6.9        5.7   159.0    5.5    155.9   1.87   4.12    62.0    49.2       95        5.2   127.0    81       2.1   51.8
 47       82         4.3         7.1        5.7   164.8    5.5    161.4   1.87   4.12    62.1    49.3       95        5.2   132.3    80       2.1   53.8
 48       81         4.5         7.3        5.7   170.5    5.4    166.8   1.87   4.12    62.2    49.4       95        5.1   137.4    80       2.1   55.9

 49       80         4.8         7.4        5.6   176.1    5.3    172.1   1.87   4.12    62.4    49.5       95        5.1   142.5    79       2.0   57.9

 50       80         5.0         7.6        5.6   181.7    5.3    177.5   1.87   4.12    62.4    49.5       95        5.1   147.5    79       2.0   59.9

 51       79         5.2         7.8        5.5   187.2    5.2    182.7   1.88   4.15    62.6    49.7       95        5.0   152.5    79       2.0   61.9

 52       79         5.5         8.0        5.5   192.7    5.2    187.9   1.88   4.15    62.8    49.8       95        5.0   157.5    78       1.9   63.8

 53       78         5.7         8.2        5.5   198.2    5.1    193.1   1.88   4.15    62.9    49.9       94        4.8   162.3    78       1.9   65.7

 54       78         5.9         8.3        5.5   203.6    5.1    198.2   1.88   4.15    63.0    50.0       94        4.8   167.1    78       1.9   67.6

 55       77         6.2         8.5        5.4   209.0    5.1    203.3   1.88   4.15    63.0    50.0       94        4.8   171.9    78       1.9   69.4

 56       76         6.4         8.7        5.3   214.3    5.0    208.3   1.88   4.15    63.1    50.1       94        4.7   176.6    76       1.8   71.2

 57       75         6.7         8.8        5.3   219.6    4.9    213.2   1.88   4.15    63.1    50.1       94        4.6   181.2    76       1.8   73.0

 58       74         6.9         9.0        5.2   224.8    4.8    218.0   1.88   4.15    63.3    50.2       93        4.5   185.7    75       1.7   74.6

 59       72         7.2         9.2        5.0   229.8    4.7    222.7   1.88   4.15    63.3    50.2       93        4.4   190.0    75       1.6   76.3

 60       71         7.4         9.3        5.0   234.8    4.6    227.3   1.88   4.15    63.4    50.3       92        4.2   194.2    74       1.6   77.8

 61       70         7.7         9.5        4.9   239.7    4.5    231.8   1.88   4.15    63.5    50.4       92        4.2   198.4    74       1.5   79.4

 62       70         7.9         9.6        4.9   244.6    4.5    236.3   1.88   4.15    63.5    50.4       92        4.2   202.6    73       1.5   80.9

 63       69         8.2         9.8        4.8   249.4    4.4    240.7   1.88   4.15    63.6    50.5       91        4.0   206.6    73       1.5   82.4

 64       68         8.4         9.9        4.8   254.2    4.4    245.1   1.88   4.15    63.8    50.6       91        4.0   210.6    73       1.4   83.8

 65       67         8.7        10.1        4.7   258.9    4.3    249.4   1.88   4.15    63.8    50.6       91        3.9   214.5    72       1.4   85.2
               Hy-Line Brown Parent Performance Graph

      100 %                                                                                                                     100%


       90                                                                                                                       90


       80                                                                                                                       80


       70                                                                                                                       70

                                                    Percent Hatch of All Eggs Set Current
       60                                                                                                                       60


       50                                                                                                                       50
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50        54         58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1    2    3   4     5    6   7            8        9          10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18




       100 %                                                                                                                    100%
 50




        90                                                                                                                      90


        80                                                                                                                      80


        70                                                                                                                      70
                                                    Percent Hen-Day Production Current
        60                                                                                                                      60


        50                                                                                                                      50


        40                                                                                                                      40


        30                                                                                                                      30


        20                                                                                                                      20


        10                                                                                                                      10


         0                                                                                                                      0
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50         54        58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1   2     3    4    5    6    7           8         9         10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18
      Hy-Line Silver Brown Parent Performance Projection
 Age      %       Female       Male          Number         Number          Female        Average           %          Number        %        Number
  in    Hen-Day     %            %           Hen-Day      Hen-Housed      Body Weight    Egg Weight      Settable     Settable      Hatch   Female Chicks
Weeks    Curr.    Mortality   Mortality       Eggs           Eggs                                                    Hen-Housed
                   Cum.        Cum.                                                            Net lb/                  Eggs
                                                                                              30 doz.
                                          Curr.   Cum.    Curr.   Cum.    kg      lb    g/egg   case                Curr.   Cum.            Curr.   Cum.
 19       15         0.1         0.6        1.1    1.1     1.0     1.0    1.56   3.44     –       –         –         –      –        –       –       –
 20       30         0.2         1.2        2.1    3.2     2.1     3.1    1.62   3.57     –       –         –         –      –        –       –       –
 21       49         0.3         1.8        3.4    6.6     3.4     6.6    1.68   3.70    47.1    37.4       –         –      –        –       –       –
 22       68         0.5         2.6        4.8   11.3     4.7    11.3    1.72   3.79    49.0    38.9       –         –      –        –       –       –
 23       79         0.6         3.3        5.5   16.9     5.5    16.8    1.75   3.86    52.3    41.5       –         –      –        –       –       –
 24       83         0.7         4.1        5.8   22.7     5.8    22.6    1.79   3.95    55.2    43.8       –         –      –        –       –       –
 25       85         0.9         4.9        6.0   28.6     5.9    28.5    1.81   3.99    56.6    45.0       87        5.1    5.1     70       1.8    1.8
 26       88         1.0         5.8        6.2   34.8     6.1    34.6    1.85   4.08    58.5    46.4       88        5.4   10.5     70       1.9    3.7
 27       88         1.2         6.6        6.2   41.0     6.1    40.7    1.86   4.10    59.5    47.2       89        5.4   15.9     71       1.9    5.6
 28       89         1.3         7.5        6.2   47.2     6.1    46.8    1.90   4.19    60.3    47.9       90        5.5   21.4     71       2.0    7.6
 29       90         1.5         8.4        6.3   53.5     6.2    53.0    1.91   4.21    60.8    48.3       90        5.6   27.0     72       2.0    9.6
 30       91         1.6         9.4        6.4   59.9     6.3    59.3    1.91   4.21    61.0    48.4       91        5.7   32.7     73       2.1   11.7
 31       91         1.8        10.3        6.4   66.2     6.3    65.5    1.91   4.21    61.3    48.7       91        5.7   38.4     74       2.1   13.8
 32       91         2.0        11.3        6.4   72.6     6.2    71.8    1.92   4.23    61.6    48.9       92        5.7   44.2     74       2.1   15.9
 33       91         2.1        12.3        6.4   79.0     6.2    78.0    1.92   4.23    61.8    49.0       92        5.7   49.9     75       2.1   18.0
 34       91         2.3        13.3        6.4   85.3     6.2    84.2    1.92   4.23    62.3    49.4       92        5.7   55.6     75       2.1   20.1
 35       91         2.5        14.4        6.4   91.7     6.2    90.4    1.93   4.26    62.5    49.6       92        5.7   61.4     75       2.1   22.3
 36       91         2.6        15.5        6.4   98.1     6.2    96.6    1.93   4.26    62.8    49.8       93        5.8   67.1     76       2.2   24.5
 37       91         2.8        16.6        6.4   104.4    6.2    102.8   1.93   4.26    63.0    50.0       93        5.8   72.9     76       2.2   26.7
 38       91         3.0        17.7        6.4   110.8    6.2    109.0   1.93   4.26    63.1    50.1       93        5.7   78.6     76       2.2   28.8
 39       90         3.1        18.9        6.3   117.1    6.1    115.1   1.94   4.28    63.2    50.2       93        5.7   84.3     76       2.2   31.0
 40       90         3.3        20.2        6.3   123.4    6.1    121.2   1.94   4.28    63.2    50.2       93        5.7   90.0     76       2.2   33.2
 41       89         3.5        21.5        6.2   129.6    6.0    127.2   1.94   4.28    63.3    50.2       93        5.6   95.6     77       2.2   35.3
 42       89         3.7        22.8        6.2   135.9    6.0    133.2   1.94   4.28    63.4    50.3       94        5.6   101.2    77       2.2   37.5
 43       88         3.9        24.2        6.2   142.0    5.9    139.1   1.95   4.30    63.5    50.4       94        5.6   106.8    77       2.1   39.6
 44       88         4.0        25.5        6.2   148.2    5.9    145.1   1.95   4.30    63.6    50.5       94        5.6   112.3    77       2.1   41.8
 45       88         4.2        26.9        6.2   154.4    5.9    151.0   1.96   4.32    63.6    50.5       94        5.5   117.9    76       2.1   43.9
 46       88         4.4        28.3        6.2   160.5    5.9    156.9   1.96   4.32    63.8    50.6       94        5.5   123.4    76       2.1   46.0
 47       87         4.6        29.7        6.1   166.6    5.8    162.7   1.96   4.32    63.8    50.6       94        5.5   128.9    76       2.1   48.0
 48       87         4.8        31.1        6.1   172.7    5.8    168.5   1.96   4.32    64.0    50.8       94        5.5   134.3    76       2.1   50.1

 49       87         4.9        32.6        6.1   178.8    5.8    174.3   1.97   4.34    64.1    50.9       94        5.4   139.8    75       2.0   52.2

 50       86         5.1        34.1        6.0   184.8    5.7    180.0   1.97   4.34    64.3    51.0       94        5.4   145.1    75       2.0   54.2

 51       86         5.3        35.6        6.0   190.8    5.7    185.7   1.97   4.34    64.3    51.1       95        5.4   150.6    75       2.0   56.2

 52       86         5.5        37.2        6.0   196.8    5.7    191.4   2.00   4.41    64.5    51.2       95        5.4   156.0    74       2.0   58.2

 53       86         5.7        38.7        6.0   202.9    5.7    197.0   2.00   4.41    64.5    51.2       95        5.4   161.4    74       2.0   60.2

 54       85         5.9        40.3        6.0   208.8    5.6    202.6   2.00   4.41    64.6    51.3       95        5.3   166.7    73       1.9   62.1

 55       84         6.1        41.9        5.9   214.7    5.5    208.2   2.02   4.45    64.6    51.3       95        5.2   171.9    73       1.9   64.1

 56       83         6.3        43.4        5.8   220.5    5.4    213.6   2.02   4.45    64.6    51.3       95        5.2   177.1    72       1.9   65.9

 57       82         6.4        45.0        5.7   226.2    5.4    219.0   2.03   4.48    64.6    51.3       95        5.1   182.2    71       1.8   67.7

 58       82         6.6        46.6        5.7   232.0    5.4    224.3   2.03   4.48    64.6    51.3       95        5.1   187.3    71       1.8   69.5

 59       81         6.8        48.2        5.7   237.7    5.3    229.6   2.04   4.50    64.7    51.3       94        5.0   192.3    70       1.7   71.3

 60       81         7.0        49.8        5.7   243.3    5.3    234.9   2.04   4.50    64.7    51.3       94        5.0   197.2    70       1.7   73.0

 61       79         7.2        51.4        5.5   248.9    5.1    240.0   2.05   4.52    64.7    51.3       94        4.8   202.0    69       1.7   74.7

 62       78         7.4        53.0        5.5   254.3    5.1    245.1   2.05   4.52    64.8    51.4       94        4.8   206.8    69       1.6   76.3

 63       77         7.6        54.6        5.4   259.7    5.0    250.1   2.06   4.54    64.8    51.4       94        4.7   211.5    68       1.6   77.9

 64       76         7.8        56.2        5.3   265.0    4.9    255.0   2.06   4.54    64.9    51.5       94        4.6   216.1    68       1.6   79.5

 65       75         8.0        57.9        5.3   270.3    4.8    259.8   2.06   4.54    64.9    51.5       94        4.5   220.6    67       1.5   81.0
               Hy-Line Silver Brown Parent Performance Graph

      100 %                                                                                                                     100%


       90                                                                                                                       90


       80                                                                                                                       80


       70                                                                                                                       70

                                                    Percent Hatch of All Eggs Set Current
       60                                                                                                                       60


       50                                                                                                                       50
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50        54         58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1    2    3   4     5    6   7            8        9          10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18




       100 %                                                                                                                    100%
 52




        90                                                                                                                      90


        80                                                                                                                      80


        70                                                                                                                      70
                                                    Percent Hen-Day Production Current
        60                                                                                                                      60


        50                                                                                                                      50


        40                                                                                                                      40


        30                                                                                                                      30


        20                                                                                                                      20


        10                                                                                                                      10


         0                                                                                                                      0
Age in Weeks     22   26   30   34   38   42   46          50         54        58          62   66   70   74   78   82   86   90
Period            1   2     3    4    5    6    7           8         9         10          11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18
                                                                                                                                                               Phosphorus, avail., %
                                                                            Fat (ether extract), %




                                                                                                                                        Phosphorus, total, %
                                                         Crude protein, %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Linoleic acid, %

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Choline, mg/kg
                                                                                                     Crude fiber, %
                                         Dry matter, %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Potassium, %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ME, kcal/kg
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Chloride, %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ME, kcal/lb
                                                                                                                      Calcium, %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ME, MJ/kg
                                                                                                                                                                                       Sodium, %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Sulfur, %
Ingredient (as-fed basis)
Alfalfa meal (17%), dehydrated        93.0 17.0 3.0 24.0 1.30 0.23 0.23 0.08 0.47 2.40 0.21 672 1482 6.20                                                                                                                                                                             –                 1515
Barley                                89.0 11.5 1.9         5.0 0.08 0.42 0.15 0.03 0.14 0.56 0.15 1250 2756 11.54                                                                                                                                                                    –                 1027
Calcium carbonate (38% Ca)            99.5     –      –      –    38.00 –         –     0.06     –    0.06     –      –      –     –                                                                                                                                                  –                   –
Canola meal (38%)                     91.0 38.0 3.8 11.1 0.68 1.17 0.30                   –      –    1.29 1.00 960 2117 8.86                                                                                                                                                         –                 6701
Canola oil                            99.0     –    99.0     –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    4000 8820 36.92                                                                                                                                                 20.50                 –
Corn (maize)                          87.0 7.9       3.5    1.9 0.01 0.25 0.09 0.02 0.04 0.30 0.08 1540 3396 14.21                                                                                                                                                                  1.75                1103
Corn DDGS                             89.0 26.5 10.1 7.0 0.07 0.77 0.48 0.20 0.16 0.85 0.84 1256 2770 11.60                                                                                                                                                                         5.05                3254
Corn gluten feed (21%)                88.0 21.0 2.0 10.0 0.20 0.90 0.22 0.15 0.22 1.30 0.16 795 1753 7.34                                                                                                                                                                             –                 2420
Corn gluten meal (60%)                90.0 60.0 2.0         2.5 0.02 0.50 0.18 0.03 0.05 0.45 0.50 1700 3749 15.69                                                                                                                                                                    –                 2200
Cottonseed meal (41%), mech.          91.0 41.0 3.9 12.6 0.17 0.97 0.32 0.04 0.04 1.20 0.40 955 2106 8.81                                                                                                                                                                             –                 2808
Cottonseed meal (41%), solv.          90.0 41.0 2.1 11.3 0.16 1.00 0.32 0.04 0.04 1.16 0.30 915 2018 8.45                                                                                                                                                                             –                 2706
Dicalcium phosphate (18.5% P)         99.5     –      –      –    22.00 18.50 18.50 0.08         –    0.07     –      –      –     –                                                                                                                                                  –                   –
DL-Methionine                         99.5 58.1       –      –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    2277 5020 21.01                                                                                                                                                   –                   –
Fat, animal                           99.0     –    98.0     –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    3600 7938 33.23                                                                                                                                                   –                   –
Fat, animal-vegetable blend           98.0     –    92.0     –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    3800 8379 35.07                                                                                                                                                 30.00                 –
Fat, vegetable                        99.0     –    99.0     –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    4000 8820 36.92                                                                                                                                                 40.00                 –
Fishmeal (62%), menhaden              92.0 62.0 9.2         1.0 4.80 3.00 3.00 0.68 0.80 0.96 0.45 1340 2955 12.37                                                                                                                                                                    –                 3081
Fishmeal (65%), anchovy               91.0 65.0 10.0 1.0 4.00 2.85 2.85 0.88 0.60 0.90 0.54 1280 2822 11.81                                                                                                                                                                           –                 5101
Flaxseed (linseed), whole             92.0 22.0 34.0 6.5 0.25 0.50                –     0.08     –    1.50     –    1795 3958 16.57                                                                                                                                                 54.00               3150
Linseed (flax) meal (32%), exp.       90.0 32.0 3.5         9.5 0.40 0.80         –     0.11     –    1.24 0.39 700 1544 6.46                                                                                                                                                         –                 1672
Linseed (flax) meal (33%), solv.      88.0 33.0 0.5         9.5 0.35 0.75         –     0.14     –    1.38 0.39 635 1400 5.86                                                                                                                                                         –                 1760
L-Lysine·HCl                          99.5 93.4       –      –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    1868 4120 17.25                                                                                                                                                   –                   –
L-Threonine                           99.5 72.4       –      –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    1619 3570 14.94                                                                                                                                                   –                   –
L-Tryptophan                          95.0 84.0       –      –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    2653 5850 24.49                                                                                                                                                   –                   –
Meat and bone meal (50%)              93.0 50.0 8.5         2.8 9.20 4.70 4.70 0.73 0.75 1.40 0.40 1150 2536 10.61                                                                                                                                                                    –                 2000
Molasses, cane                        74.0 2.9        –      –     0.82 0.08      –     0.16 2.80 2.38 0.35 900 1985 8.31                                                                                                                                                             –                  660
Mono-dicalcium phosphate (21% P)      99.5     –      –      –    16.00 21.00 –         0.05     –    0.06     –      –      –     –                                                                                                                                                  –                   –
Oats                                  90.0 11.0 4.0 10.5 0.10 0.35 0.14 0.07 0.12 0.37 0.21 1160 2558 10.71                                                                                                                                                                           –                 1070
Peanut meal (45%), mech.              92.0 45.0 5.0 12.0 0.15 0.55 0.18                   –    0.03 1.15 0.28         –      –     –                                                                                                                                                  –                 1540
Peanut meal (48%), solv.              92.0 48.0 1.5         6.8 0.29 0.65 0.21 0.07 0.03 1.23 0.30 1000 2205 9.23                                                                                                                                                                     –                 1948
Rapeseed meal (36%), solv.            92.0 36.0 2.6 13.2 0.66 0.93 0.30 0.09                     –      –      –     805 1775 7.43                                                                                                                                                    –                 6714
Rice                                  89.0 7.3       1.7 10.0 0.04 0.26 0.09 0.04 0.06 0.34 0.10 1335 2944 12.32                                                                                                                                                                      –                 1014
Rice bran                             91.0 13.5 5.9 13.0 0.10 1.70 0.24 0.10 0.07 1.35 0.18 925 2040 8.54                                                                                                                                                                             –                 1390
Rye                                   89.0 12.6 1.9         2.8 0.08 0.30 0.10 0.02 0.06 0.46 0.15 1230 2712 11.35                                                                                                                                                                    –                   –
Safflower meal (20%), exp.            91.0 20.0 6.6 32.2 0.23 0.61 0.20 0.05 0.16 0.72 0.10 525 1158 4.85                                                                                                                                                                             –                  800
Safflower meal (22%), solv.           90.0 22.0 0.5 37.0 0.34 0.84 0.23 0.05 0.16 0.72 0.10 680 1499 6.28                                                                                                                                                                             –                  800
Salt, NaCl                            99.6     –      –      –       –      –     –    39.34 60.66 –           –      –      –     –                                                                                                                                                  –                   –
Sesame meal (42%), exp.               94.0 42.0 7.0         6.5 2.00 1.30 0.24 0.04 0.06 1.39 0.40 1025 2260 9.46                                                                                                                                                                     –                 1690
Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3            99.0     –      –      –       –      –     –    27.38 –          –      –      –      –     –                                                                                                                                                  –                   –
Sorghum, milo                         89.0 11.0 2.8         2.0 0.04 0.29 0.10 0.03 0.09 0.34 0.09 1505 3319 13.89                                                                                                                                                                    –                  678
Soybean meal (42%), exp.              89.0 42.0 3.5         6.5 0.20 0.60 0.20 0.04 0.02 1.71 0.33 1100 2426 10.15                                                                                                                                                                    –                 2673
Soybean meal (44%), solv.             90.0 44.0 0.5         7.0 0.25 0.60 0.20 0.04 0.02 1.97 0.43 1020 2249 9.41                                                                                                                                                                     –                 2743
Soybean meal (48%), solv.             88.0 47.8 1.0         3.0 0.20 0.65 0.21 0.04 0.02 1.90 0.43 1125 2481 10.38                                                                                                                                                                    –                 2851
Soybean oil                           99.0     –    99.0     –       –      –     –       –      –      –      –    4000 8820 36.92                                                                                                                                                 40.00                 –
Soybeans, full-fat, cooked            90.0 38.0 18.0 5.0 0.25 0.59 0.20 0.04 0.03 1.70 0.30 1520 3352 14.03                                                                                                                                                                           –                 2420
Sunflower meal (41%), exp.            93.0 41.0 7.6 13.0 0.43 1.00 0.25 0.20 0.01 1.00                         –    1050 2315 9.69                                                                                                                                                    –                   –
Sunflower meal (42%), solv.           93.0 42.0 2.3 13.0 0.40 1.00 0.25 0.20 0.01 1.00                         –     800 1764 7.38                                                                                                                                                    –                 2901
Wheat bran                            89.0 14.8 4.0 10.0 0.14 1.17 0.38 0.06 0.14 1.20 0.22 590 1301 5.45                                                                                                                                                                             –                  980
Wheat middlings                       89.0 15.0 3.6         8.5 0.15 0.91 0.28 0.06 0.07 0.60 0.16 950 2095 8.77                                                                                                                                                                      –                 1100
Wheat, hard                           88.0 13.5 1.9         3.0 0.05 0.41 0.12 0.06 0.07 0.50 0.10 1440 3175 13.29                                                                                                                                                                    –                  778
Wheat, soft                           86.0 10.8 1.7         2.8 0.05 0.30 0.11 0.06 0.07 0.40 0.10 1460 3219 13.48                                                                                                                                                                    –                  778
Nutrient recommendations (pages 25–37) are based on calculations using these energy and nutrient values (source: Feedstuffs Magazine).

                                                                                                                                   53
     Ingredient (as-fed basis)              Crude                     Lysine, %                                  Methionine, %                                                     Cystine, %                                     Threonine, %                                      Tryptophan, %                                                Arginine, %                                        Isoleucine, %                                                  Valine, %
                                           protein,
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Digestibility




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Digestibility
     Alfalfa meal (17%), dehydrated                17.0       0.73     59     0.43 0.28     73     0.20 0.18 40 0.07 0.75      71 0.53 0.45   75  0.34 0.75                                                                                                                                                                                          87              0.65                  0.84             77              0.65                  1.04                75              0.78
     Barley                                        11.5       0.53     88     0.47 0.18     88     0.16 0.25 88 0.22 0.36      85 0.31 0.17   69  0.12 0.50                                                                                                                                                                                          85              0.43                  0.42             90              0.38                  0.62                85              0.53
     Canola meal (38%)                             38.0       2.30     80     1.84 0.70     84     0.59 0.47 77 0.36 1.71      73 1.25 0.44   80  0.35 2.30                                                                                                                                                                                          87              2.00                  1.51             79              1.19                  1.94                79              1.53
     Corn (maize)                                   7.9       0.24     92     0.22 0.18     94     0.17 0.18 87 0.16 0.29      85 0.25 0.07   81  0.06 0.40                                                                                                                                                                                          93              0.37                  0.29             95              0.28                  0.42                92              0.39
     Corn DDGS                                     26.5       0.73     75     0.55 0.50     86     0.43 0.54 77 0.42 0.96      72 0.69 0.21   80  0.17 0.96                                                                                                                                                                                          73              0.70                  0.96             84              0.80                  1.30                81              1.05
     Corn gluten feed (21%)                        21.0       0.60     72     0.43 0.50     85     0.43 0.50 67 0.34 0.90      76 0.68 0.10   86  0.09 1.00                                                                                                                                                                                          88              0.88                  0.60             82              0.49                  1.04                84              0.87
     Corn gluten meal (60%)                        60.0       1.00     76     0.76 1.90     88     1.67 1.10 78 0.86 2.00      79 1.58 0.30   66  0.20 1.90                                                                                                                                                                                          86              1.63                  2.30             86              1.98                  2.70                85              2.30
     Cottonseed meal (41%), mech.                  41.0       1.52     65     0.99 0.55     72     0.40 0.59 74 0.44 1.30      68 0.88 0.50   80  0.40 4.33                                                                                                                                                                                          88              3.81                  1.31             71              0.93                  1.84                74              1.36
     Cottonseed meal (41%), solv.                  41.0       1.70     65     1.11 0.51     72     0.37 0.62 74 0.46 1.34      68 0.91 0.52   80  0.42 4.66                                                                                                                                                                                          88              4.10                  1.33             71              0.94                  1.82                74              1.35
     DL-Methionine                                 58.1         –       –       –   99.00 100 99.00       –   –   –      –      –   –     –    –    –    –                                                                                                                                                                                            –                –                     –               –                –                     –                  –                –
     Fishmeal (62%), menhaden                      62.0       4.70     86     4.04 1.70     86     1.46 0.50 71 0.36 2.75      80 2.20 0.50   78  0.39 3.65                                                                                                                                                                                          82              2.99                  2.40             85              2.04                  2.80                83              2.32
     Fishmeal (65%), anchovy                       65.0       4.90     86     4.21 1.90     86     1.63 0.60 71 0.43 2.70      80 2.16 0.75   78  0.59 3.38                                                                                                                                                                                          82              2.77                  3.00             85              2.55                  3.40                83              2.82
     Flaxseed (linseed), whole                     22.0       0.92     90     0.83 0.35     79     0.28 0.42 80 0.34 0.77      91 0.70 0.22   89  0.20 2.05                                                                                                                                                                                          92              1.89                  0.95             88              0.84                  1.17                86              1.01
     Linseed (flax) meal (32%), exp.               32.0       1.10     87     0.96 0.47     82     0.39 0.56 73 0.41 1.10       –   –   0.47   –    –  2.60                                                                                                                                                                                          95              2.47                  1.70             86              1.46                  1.50                83              1.25
     Linseed (flax) meal (33%), solv.              33.0       1.10     87     0.96 0.48     82     0.39 0.58 73 0.42 1.20       –   –   0.48   –    –  2.70                                                                                                                                                                                          95              2.57                  1.80             86              1.55                  1.60                83              1.33
     L-Lysine·HCl                                  93.4      78.80 100 78.80           –     –       –    –   –   –      –      –   –     –    –    –    –                                                                                                                                                                                            –                –                     –               –                –                     –                  –                –
     L-Threonine                                   72.4         –       –       –      –     –       –    –   –   –    98.50 100 98.50    –    –    –    –                                                                                                                                                                                            –                –                     –               –                –                     –                  –                –
54




     L-Tryptophan                                  84.0         –       –       –      –     –       –    –   –   –      –      –   –  98.00 100 98.00   –                                                                                                                                                                                            –                –                     –               –                –                     –                  –                –
     Meat and bone meal (50%)                      50.0       2.60     81     2.11 0.67     85     0.57 0.33 58 0.19 1.70      79 1.34 0.26   78  0.20 3.35                                                                                                                                                                                          84              2.81                  1.70             84              1.43                  2.25                83              1.87
     Molasses, cane                                 2.9         –       –       –      –     –       –    –   –   –      –      –   –     –    –    –    –                                                                                                                                                                                            –                –                     –               –                –                     –                  –                –
     Oats                                          11.0       0.40     87     0.35 0.20     87     0.17 0.21 84 0.18 0.28      84 0.24 0.18   80  0.14 0.80                                                                                                                                                                                          94              0.75                  0.53             89              0.47                  0.62                88              0.55
     Peanut meal (45%), mech.                      45.0       1.55     76     1.18 0.41     86     0.35 0.68 79 0.54 1.40      85 1.19 0.46   87  0.40 4.70                                                                                                                                                                                          91              4.28                  1.80             89              1.60                  2.60                89              2.31
     Peanut meal (48%), solv.                      48.0       1.77      –       –    0.42    –       –  0.73  –   –    1.16     –   –  0.50    –    –  4.55                                                                                                                                                                                           –                –                   1.76              –                –                   1.88                 –                –
     Rapeseed meal (36%), solv.                    36.0       2.12     80     1.70 0.67     84     0.56 0.54 77 0.42 1.60      73 1.17 0.46   80  0.37 2.04                                                                                                                                                                                          87              1.77                  1.41             79              1.11                  1.81                79              1.43
     Rice                                           7.3       0.24     80     0.19 0.14     87     0.12 0.08 84 0.07 0.27      81 0.22 0.12   86  0.10 0.59                                                                                                                                                                                          91              0.54                  0.33             85              0.28                  0.46                85              0.39
     Rice bran                                     13.5       0.50     74     0.37 0.17     77     0.13 0.10 68 0.07 0.40      69 0.28 0.10   79  0.08 0.45                                                                                                                                                                                          86              0.39                  0.39             75              0.29                  0.60                75              0.45
     Rye                                           12.6       0.40     80     0.32 0.16     79     0.13 0.20 84 0.17 0.36      78 0.28 0.14   81  0.11 0.50                                                                                                                                                                                          84              0.42                  0.53             81              0.43                  0.62                81              0.50
     Safflower meal (20%), exp.                    20.0       0.70     82     0.57 0.40     85     0.34 0.50 77 0.39 0.47      73 0.34 0.30   79 0.24 1.20                                                                                                                                                                                           84              1.01                  0.28             80              0.22                  1.00                81              0.81
     Safflower meal (22%), solv.                   22.0       0.70     82     0.57 0.33     85     0.28 0.35 77 0.27 0.50      73 0.37 0.26   79 0.21 1.90                                                                                                                                                                                           84              1.60                  0.27             80              0.22                  1.00                81              0.81
     Sesame meal (42%), exp.                       42.0       1.37     82     1.12 1.48     84     1.24 0.60 84 0.50 1.71      79 1.35 0.82   84 0.69 5.06                                                                                                                                                                                           84              4.25                  2.28             87              1.98                  2.53                88              2.23
     Sorghum, milo                                 11.0       0.27     90     0.24 0.10     89     0.09 0.20 79 0.16 0.27      83 0.22 0.09   87 0.08 0.40                                                                                                                                                                                           88              0.35                  0.60             90              0.54                  0.53                87              0.46
     Soybean meal (42%), exp.                      42.0       2.70     91     2.45 0.60     91     0.54 0.62 82 0.51 1.70      84 1.43 0.58  88  0.51 3.20                                                                                                                                                                                           91              2.92                  2.80             91              2.55                  2.20                89              1.96
     Soybean meal (44%), solv.                     44.0       2.90     90     2.61 0.65     91     0.59 0.67 82 0.55 1.70      85 1.45 0.60  89  0.53 3.40                                                                                                                                                                                           93              3.16                  2.50             89              2.23                  2.40                88              2.11
     Soybean meal (48%), solv.                     47.8       3.02     90     2.72 0.70     91     0.64 0.71 82 0.58 2.00      85 1.70 0.70  89  0.62 3.60                                                                                                                                                                                           93              3.35                  2.60             89              2.31                  2.70                88              2.38
     Soybeans, full-fat, cooked                    38.0       2.40     87     2.09 0.54     88     0.48 0.55 79 0.43 1.69      82 1.39 0.52  86  0.45 2.80                                                                                                                                                                                           90              2.52                  2.18             86              1.87                  2.02                85              1.72
     Sunflower meal (41%), exp.                    41.0       2.00     87     1.74 1.60     92     1.47 0.80 80 0.64 1.60      82 1.31 0.60  87  0.52 4.20                                                                                                                                                                                           83              3.49                  2.40             89              2.14                  2.40                87              2.09
     Sunflower meal (42%), solv.                   42.0       1.70     87     1.48 1.50     92     1.38 0.70 80 0.56 1.50      82 1.23 0.50  87  0.44 3.50                                                                                                                                                                                           93              3.26                  2.10             89              1.87                  2.30                87              2.00
     Wheat bran                                    14.8       0.60     73     0.44 0.20     80     0.16 0.30 74 0.22 0.48      74 0.36 0.30  82  0.25 1.07                                                                                                                                                                                           82              0.88                  0.60             79              0.47                  0.70                77              0.54
     Wheat middlings                               15.0       0.70     80     0.56 0.12     86     0.10 0.19 74 0.14 0.50      73 0.37 0.20  79  0.16 1.00                                                                                                                                                                                           80              0.80                  0.70             82              0.57                  0.80                77              0.62
     Wheat, hard                                   13.5       0.40     86     0.34 0.25     91     0.23 0.30 90 0.27 0.35      87 0.30 0.18  86  0.15 0.60                                                                                                                                                                                           85              0.51                  0.69             94              0.65                  0.69                90              0.62
     Wheat, soft                                   10.8       0.30     86     0.26 0.14     91     0.13 0.20 90 0.18 0.28      78 0.22 0.12  86  0.10 0.40                                                                                                                                                                                           85              0.34                  0.43             94              0.40                  0.48                90              0.43
     Nutrient recommendations (pages 25–37) are based on calculations using these nutrient values (source: Feedstuffs Magazine).
     Amino acid digestibility is standardized (true) ileal digestibility (Source: Evonik-Degussa).
                    A PUBLICATION OF
                 HY-LINE INTERNATIONAL
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           West Des Moines, Iowa 50266 U.S.A.
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         ©Copyright 2009. Hy-Line International
               (01/09) Printed in U.S.A.

								
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