Coral Reef CSI _Crime Scene Investigation_ Workshop by nyut545e2

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									                                                     COMPONENT 3D - Project 3D4


                                                            Coral reefs vulnerability


                                                                           May 2009




                                                 WORKSHOP REPORT




                                                                      NE D        O NOT
                                                           CR IME SCE
                O NOT        CROSS
CRIME   SCENE D




Coral Reef CSI (Crime Scene Investigation) Workshop
               CRIOBE, Moorea, French Polynesia
                     26 - 30 May, 2009
         Authors: Yannick CHANCERELLE, Dave GULKO, Thierry LISON DE LOMA, Serge PLANES
                                                                                    The CRISP Coordinating Unit (CCU) was integrated
                                                                                    into the Secretariat of the Pacific Community in April
                                                                                    2008 to insure maximum coordination and synergy
                                                                                    in work relating to coral reef management in the
                                                                                    region.



                                                                                    The CRISP programme is implemented as part of the
                                                                                    policy developed by the Secretariat of the Pacific
                                                                                    Regional Environment Programme for a contribution
                                                                                    to conservation and sustainable development of coral
                                                                                    reefs in the Pacific




      T     he Initiative for the Protection and Management
            of Coral Reefs in the Pacific (CRISP), sponsored
      by France and prepared by the French Development
                                                                                The CRISP Programme comprises three major compo-
                                                                                nents, which are:

      Agency (AFD) as part of an inter-ministerial project                      Component 1A: Integrated Coastal Management and
      from 2002 onwards, aims to develop a vision for the                       Watershed Management
      future of these unique ecosystems and the communi-                        - 1A1: Marine biodiversity conservation planning
      ties that depend on them and to introduce strategies                      - 1A2: Marine Protected Areas
      and projects to conserve their biodiversity, while de-                    - 1A3: Institutional strengthening and networking
      veloping the economic and environmental services                          - 1A4: Integrated coastal reef zone and watershed
      that they provide both locally and globally. Also, it is                         management
      designed as a factor for integration between deve-                        Component 2: Development of Coral Ecosystems
      loped countries (Australia, New Zealand, Japan and                        - 2A:  Knowledge, beneficial use and management
      USA), French overseas territories and Pacific Island de-                         of coral ecosytems
      veloping countries.                                                       - 2B:  Reef rehabilitation
                                                                                - 2C:  Development of active marine substances
      The initiative follows a specific approach designed to:                   - 2D:  Development of regional data base (ReefBase
      - associate network activities and fieldwork projects;                           Pacific)
      - bring together research, management and develop-                        Component 3: Programme Coordination and Deve-
      ment endeavours;                                                          lopment
      - combine the contributions of a range of scientific                      - 3A:  Capitalisation, value-adding and dissemina-
      disciplines, including biology, ecology, economics, law                          tion of CRISP results
      and social sciences;                                                      - 3B:  Coordination, promotion and development
      - address the various land and marine factors affecting                          of CRISP programme
      coral reefs (including watershed rehabilitation and                       - 3C:  Support to alternative livelihoods
      management);                                                              - 3D:  Vulnerability of ecosystems and species
      - avoid setting up any new body but supply financial                      - 3E:  Economic task force
      resources to already operational partners wishing
      to develop their activities in a spirit of regional coo-
      peration. This is why the initiative was prepared on
      the basis of a call for proposals to all institutions and                                        CRISP Coordination Unit (CCU)
      networks.                                                                                       Programme Manager: Eric CLUA
                                                                                                   SPC - PO Box D5 - 98848 Noumea Cedex
                                                                                                                New Caledonia
                                                                                                           Tel./Fax: (687) 26 54 71
                                                                                                            E-mail: ericc@spc.int
                                                                                                            www.crisponline.net


CRISP is funded by the following partners :




                                  Photos credit: Eric Clua (if no specific mention). Printed at SPC • Copyright : CRISP
                                                 INDEX

Part 1 Introduction and background ----------------------------------------------------            p3
        1.1 Objectives of the workshop ---------------------------------------------------         p3
        1.2 Site visit / site specifics --------------------------------------------------------   p4
                1.2.1 Site visited -----------------------------------------------------------     p4
                1.2.2 Scenarios --------------------------------------------------------------     p7
                1.2.3 Meetings undertaken to sensitise stakeholders to CSI ----------              p9

Part 2 Workshop implementation --------------------------------------------------------            p9
       2.1 Workshop structure and outputs ----------------------------------------------           p9
              2.1.1 Information on in-water training exercises -----------------------             p9
              2.1.2 Information on courtroom scenarios-------------------------------              p 10
       2.2 Participants / Demographics --------------------------------------------------          p 11

Part 3 Lessons Learned --------------------------------------------------------------------        p 11
        3.1 What worked well in the workshop? ----------------------------------------             p 11
        3.2 What were the challenges faced in implementation? ----------------------               p 11
        3.3 What would you do differently in the future? ------------------------------            p 12

Part 4 Follow on activities------------------------------------------------------------------      p 12
        4.1 Information on opportunities / discussions advance
                CSI locally / regionally ----------------------------------------------------      p 12
        4.2 Information on uptake and application of CSI in home countries -------                 p 12

Part 5 Acknowledgements - ----------------------------------------------------------------         p 13

Annexes --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     p 14
1. List of participants ------------------------------------------------------------------------   p 14
2. Daily Schedule ----------------------------------------------------------------------------     p 14




This document is to be cited under:
CHANCERELLE Y., GULKO D., LISON DE LOMA T., PLANES S., 2009. Coral Reef Crime
Scene Investigation (CSI) Workshop, Moorea, French Polynesia: Final Report. June 2009. UMS
2978 CNRS-EPHE, RA: 13 pp + 3 pp annexes.




                                                        2
Part 1 Introduction and background


       1.1 Background and objectives of the workshop


       Regardless of region, most coral reef ecosystems around the world are under various
levels of impact from illegal fishing, vessel groundings, destructive fishing, physical damage,
coastal pollution and runoff, overfishing, illegal international trade, over-lapping (and often
conflicting) use by various user groups, bleaching, chemical effects and endocrine disruption,
alien species-associated phase shifts, and nutrient-associated phase shifts. Few areas have trained
field investigators and well-developed natural resource programs to properly assess and handle
the wide variety of anthropogenic events occurring; in most cases, such short-term human impact
events often overwhelm the capabilities of resource managers to maximize prosecution,
mitigation, negotiation, mediation, or litigation success. This takes on even greater significance
relative to multi-country joint-investigations relative to shared coral reef impacts and illegal
trafficking in coral reef products.
The workshop held in Moorea is a unique five-day field-based training workshop designed for
coral reef and MPA resource managers, environmental assessment specialists, marine field
investigators, students and litigators on conducting coral reef enforcement and natural resource
investigations on a wide variety of anthropogenic events. Participants were trained to work as
investigative teams, using standardized marine CSI protocols and equipment to investigate a
number of field coral reef event (i.e. crime or injury scene) scenarios. The participants
investigated the crime scenes using the equipment and techniques learned during the workshop.
The scenarios are as realistic as possible and involve actual field investigations and analysis by
teams of workshop participants.
It involved lectures and demonstrations related to the relatively new field of coral reef forensic
investigations, along with hands-on field injury and crime scene investigations guided by
international professionals in wildlife enforcement, coral reef ecology, and marine natural
resource investigation. The five day training workshop was organized with background talks on
investigative strategies, field risk management, ecological risk assessment, coral reef forensic
techniques, treating data as evidence, incorporating local reef ecological issues and impacts into




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an investigation. Practice in-water field investigation sessions with staff evaluation were then
performed, using various components of a coral reef investigative toolkit.




       1.2 Site visit / site specifics


               1.2.1 Site visited


   -   The lectures / courtroom scenarios were held in CRIOBE working and outdoor facilities
       (Fig. 1).




   Figure 1. CRIOBE facilities in Moorea, French Polynesia.




                                                4
CRIOBE is located on Moorea (17o 30' S 149o 50' W), one of the Society Islands, 15 km
northwest of the main island of Tahiti, French Polynesia. It is situated in Opunohu’s bay, on the
north shore of Moorea, in the vicinity of a well developed coral reef surrounding all the island.
Historically, the Insular Research Center and Environment Observatory (CRIOBE) stems from
the establishment of a Practical School of High Studies (EPHE) station as early as 1971 in
Moorea. Initially based in the Tiahura area, the former unit moved to the Opunohu Bay following
an agreement with the French Polynesia territory in 1981. The EPHE, Practical School of High
Studies is under the administrative supervision of the National Education Ministry. It has the
public educational establishment with scientific, cultural and professional status (EPSCP) and
contributes to teach scientific knowledge and progress through applied and fundamental research.
Since its establishment in 1971, one of the main goals of the coral reefs works developed in
Moorea was to integrate long term ecosystem monitoring in a resilience context facing natural
and anthropic impacts. This is why today, the CRIOBE flaunts the longest temporal series
regarding coral ecosystem in the Pacific. More than 800 publications, 250 reports and 100 thesis
or degrees originated from the Centre (an on-going process). Organizer of many international
seminars which took place in Polynesia, the CRIOBE served as the main infrastructure in 1985
during the International Coral Reef Symposium gathering more than 700 participants. Quickly
recognized by the Marine Stations National Network and being the only overseas territories
Marine Station, the CRIOBE began a big structural modification with the CNRS (National Centre
for Scientific Research) recognition in 2006. In 2007, the CRIOBE was acknowledged, through
its environment monitoring action, under the INSU (Universe Sciences National Institute) label.
       Field work scenarios, courtroom scenarios, use of Coral Reef CSI toolkit were prepared in
CRIOBE’s library meeting facility (Fig 2.).




                                                 5
Figure 2. Lecture in CRIOBE’s library meeting room.

   -   In-water training sites :


   Day 1:
   -   Site 1: Cook’s Bay (GPS: 17° 28.818’ S / 149° 49.181’ W), situated in the lagoon, next to
       the red marker – barrier reef side, at the start of the lagoon channel (Fig. 3). Depth:
       surface to -10 m – Dive 1.


   Day 2:
   -   Site 1: Dive 2.


   Day 3:
   -   Site 2: Outside Hilton Moorea Hotel (GPS: 17° 28.703’ S / 149° 50.826’ W), situated on
       the fore reef (Fig. 2). Depth: -5 m to -20 m – Dives 3 + 4.




                                                 6
Fig. 3. In-water training sites on the north shore of Moorea.




   Day 4:
   -   Site 2: Outside Hilton Moorea Hotel (GPS), situated on the fore reef. Depth: -5 m to -20
       m – Dive 5.
   -   Site 3: Opunohu right side pass (GPS: 17° 29.299’ S / 149° 51.554’ W) situated near the
       corner of the reef, next to the red pass buoy (Fig 2). Depth: -5 m – Dive 6.


               1.2.2 Scenarios


   Day 1:
   -   Site 1: Dive 1: In-water crime scene demo: observation of instructor (Dave Gulko) on a
       marine impact event (Fig. 4). In-water tests of participants’ behaviour for dive security.




                                                 7
    Observation of deliberate mistakes made by instructor during a mock investigation and
    on-site impact assessment.




Figure 4. On-site briefing and demonstration by instructor Dave Gulko.



Day 2:
-   Site 1 – Dive 2: Pre-assessment: field exercise with measurements and impact scene
    perimeter setting. Two groups of 6 participants on two different case scenarios,
    subdivided in groups of 2 with the following duties: taking pictures of site and evidences,
    perimeter setting using floats and measurements, drawing the impact scene diagram and
    marks to position the evidences on site.




                                               8
   Day 3:
   -   Site 2: Dive 3: REA (Rapid Ecological Assessment) session. In water application of REA
       techniques taught during lectures. Evaluation of benthic and fish resources. 2 teams of 6
       participants on different case scenarios.
               Dive 4: REA session. Teams exchange scenarios and roles.


   Day 4:
   -   Site 2: Dive 5: Impact Assessment session. Full investigation procedure. Two groups of 6
       participants, subdivided into functional groups of 2. In water application of REA
       techniques taught during lectures.
   -   Site 3: Dive 6: REA session. Teams exchange scenarios and roles. Same procedure as
       previous dive, on a different site.


               1.2.3 Meetings undertaken to sensitise stakeholders to CSI


The training workshop involved participants from environmental NGOs, French Polynesia
Fishing Service and Direction of Environment employees, as well as other Pacific Island National
environmental institutions. No particular meetings was undertaken to sensitise stakeholders to
CSI, but we consider that having these people at the workshop was, in itself, a good way to
sensitise and promote CSI at the territory – state scale.




Part 2 Workshop implementation


       2.1 Workshop structure and outputs


               2.1.1 Information on in-water training exercises


All planned training exercises were prepared, carried out, and performed on-site (Fig. 5)
following the instructions taught during lectures and on-land practice sessions.




                                                   9
Figure 5. In-water exercise: labelling evidences.




A first in-water case scenario was dealing with a coral reef impacted by a fallen pass marker /
buoy. A second scenario involved concrete blocks and broken corals found in a site.
Identification, marking, and collection of evidences on site followed.




               2.1.2 Information on courtroom scenarios


No precise mock case was established. It was rather the formulation of hypothesis in order to
explain field observations of impacts. Then, a particular attention was put on the necessity of
maintaining the chain of custody. Several case scenarios were studied, and participants were
taught how easily evidences can be altered, switched or changed, underlining again the
importance of the chain of custody.




                                                10
       2.2 Participants / Demographics


A total number of 12 participants, coming from 5 different countries (cf. Annex 1), attended the
workshop. French Polynesia was well represented (59 %), Palau came second (17 %), and Fiji,
New Caledonia and Samoa came in third (8 %). Sex-ratio of participants was well balanced (50
%).




Part 3 Lessons Learned


       3.1 What worked well in the workshop?


The majority of the planned events were performed in good conditions. No organizational or
weather dependant hitch happened. Lectures were clear and very instructive, regarding the
relatively new field of CSI applied to coral reef ecology. In-water exercises were performed in
good security conditions, and scenarios were adapted to local coral reef degradations.


       3.2 What were the challenges faced in implementation?


Two main challenges, not always overcome, appeared during the preparation of the workshop.
- It seems to us that the selection procedure of the participants could have been planned on a
longer time span. E-mail exchanges with Pacific Islands sometimes take a longer time than
expected. Also, more time for this procedure would have allowed a better selection of the local
participants.
- Several visas procedural problems were encountered, even a few days prior to the scheduled
flights of some participants. Moorea (and Tahiti) is in a French overseas territory, requiring entry
visa for many Pacific Island nationals. It may be a good thing to insist, in the initial brochure, on
entry procedures, visas, and that flights have to be planned well in advance.




                                                 11
       3.3 What would you do differently in the future?


Regarding one of the point detailed previously, we would select local participants differently in
order to maximize chances to see a local and coordinated action being structured at the end of the
workshop. They would be selected in different fields of environmental institutions, in order to
cover the many areas that Coral Reef CSI encompasses. This point was hard to grasp without
having a first experience with the CSI workshop, and comes to mind more easily after having
completed the workshop.




Part 4 Follow on activities


       4.1 Information on opportunities / discussions advance CSI locally / regionally


Problems of local application of the Coral Reef CSI concept, and legal operation of investigations
were mentioned and discussed among participants (mainly local participants), but were not
studied in detail by instructors. It may be a good opportunity to discuss this point further and
figure out how to adapt Coral Reef CSI to local legal procedures.


       4.2 Information on uptake and application of CSI in home countries


Straight forward application of Coral Reef CSI in the context of French Polynesia, New
Caledonia, Samoa and Palau legal structure has been considered a considerable challenge. Local
application of laws, habits and culture tend to function quite differently in the Pacific. One of the
main criticisms at the end of the workshop was that Coral Reef CSI procedures probably work
well in a country like the USA, where the legal system is quite sharp and very functional, but
they may be harder to apply in foreign countries with different legal systems.


In case an active group of people would emerge after the workshop in one of the countries having
nationals in the Moorea workshop, with the objectives of applying Coral Reef CSI techniques to
their country, instructors offered to implement a new workshop for the specified country.



                                                 12
   5. Acknowledgements.


   We would like to thank all the participants for their open and curious attitude regarding this new
   field of Coral Reef investigation.
   Instructors are warmly thanked for the passion and professionalism they showed throughout the
   workshop.
   Thanks to all the CRIOBE staff for their help during the preparation (particularly Julie Petit and
   Pauline Bosserelle) and workshop phases.


   Annexes.

   Annex 1: Participants.
First name Name                    E-mail address                Phone n°          Institution
PARTICIPANTS
Sylvie       BRASSEUR              Syl_bra@hotmail.com           (+689) 719819     Dolphin Center Moorea
                                                                                   (FP)
Fabien         TERTRE              ftertre@hotmail.com           (+689) 749607     Service de la
                                   fabien.tertre@perli.gov.pf                      Perliculture (FP)
Caroline       VIEUX               carolinev@sprep.org           (+685) 66219      SPREP (Samoa)
Matthieu       PETIT               matoopetit@hotmail.fr         (+689) 271147     Te Mana O Te Moana
                                                                 / 564011          (NGO FP)
Mista          MOROS               rica@kororstate.org                             Koror State Rangers
                                   rorrangers@palaunet.com                         (Palau)
Soazig         LE MOUELLIC         mouellic@univ-nc.nc           (+687) 266905     University of New
                                                                                   Caledonia
Noelle         OLDIAIS             noldiais@picrc.org            (+680)            Palau
Wenty                              nwenty@yahoo.com              4886958
Loraini        SIVO                lsivo@conservation.org        (+679)            Fiji
                                                                 3301807
Mathieu        KERNEUR             aquaservices@mail.pf                            Aquaservices (FP)
Frédéric       FAANA               faana.frédéric@mail.pf        (+5255)           Service de la Pêche (FP)
                                   frédéric.faana@peche.gov.     58046493
                                   pf
Yannick        CHANCERELLE         criobe@mail.pf                (+689) 561345     CRIOBE (FP)
Elodie         LAGOUY              elodie_lagouy@hotmail.co      (+689) 757780     Reef Check (FP)
                                   m
INSTRUCTORS
Dave     GULKO                     gulkod001@hawaii.rr.com                         ICRI (Hawaii)
Patricia RAMIREZ-                  pattdf@gmail.com              (+5255)           Universidad
         ROMERO                                                  58046493          Metropolitana (Mexico)
Yannick  CHANCERELLE               criobe@mail.pf                (+689) 561345     CRIOBE (FP)



                                                    13
Annex 2: Daily schedule.

Day 1 – May 26, 2009

6.30 am      Breakfast
8.00 am      - Introduction, Make Gear, Intro to Coral Reef CSI
             A. Investigating Damage to Coral Reefs: Sections 1 – 4 (A2 through A-32)
10.00 am     Coffee break
10.30 am     - Introduction, Make Gear, Intro to Coral Reef CSI
             A. Investigating Damage to Coral Reefs: Sections 1 – 4 (A2 through A-32)
Noon         Lunch
01.00 pm     - Lecture Regional Issues, Safety Issues
             A. Investigating Damage to Coral Reefs: Sections 5 – 7 (A33 through A-48)
             - Dry Run Gear, Safety
             E. Appendices: Appendix B, Section 3
02.00 pm     - Dive 1 In-Water Crime Scene Demo
04.30 pm     Coffee break
06.30 pm     Diner
08.00 pm     - Lecture Marine Injury Investigations
             A. Investigating Damage to Coral Reefs : Section 8 – 10 (A-49 through A-56)
             B. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module I : Section 5, Module II : Section
             1


Day 2 – May 27, 2009

6.30 am      Breakfast
8.00 am      - Lecture Initiating Investigation
             C. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module I : Section I
10.00 am     Coffee break
10.30 am     - Dry Run Initiating Investigation
Noon         Lunch
01.00 pm     - Lecture Pre-Assessment
             B. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module I : Section 2, Module II : Section 1
             - Dry Run Pre-Assessment
02.00 pm     - Dive 2 Pre-Assessment
04.30 pm     Coffee break
06.30 pm     Diner
08.00 pm     Lecture Impact Assessment
             B. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module I : Section 2, Module II: Section 1


Day 3 – May 28, 2009

6.30 am      Breakfast
8.00 am      - Lecture Chain-of-Custody, Lab Sampling, Evidence Issues
             B. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module II : Sections 1-3


                                             14
10.00 am    Coffee break
10.30 am    - Dry Run Impact Assessment
11.30 am    Lunch
12.30 pm    - Dive 3 Impact Assessment
            - Dive 4 Impact Assessment
06.30 pm    Diner
08.00 pm    - Lecture Rapid Ecological Assessments (REAs)
            C. Basic Marine Investigative Tools : Module I : Section 4


Day 4 – May 29, 2009

6.30 am     Breakfast
8.00 am     - Lecture Quiz / REAs Pt II
            B. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module I : Section 4
10.00 am    Coffee break
10.30 am    - Dry Run REA
11.30 am    Lunch
12.30 pm    - Dive 5 REA
            - Dive 6 REA
            - Activity Coastal Investigation
06.30 pm    Diner
08.00 pm    - Lecture Data Analysis, Presentation, Courtroom Prep
            B. Basic Marine Investigative Tools: Module I: Section 6, Module II: Section 4
            D. Post-Investigation Tools: Module VIII


Day 5 – May 30, 2009

6.30 am     Breakfast
8.00 am     - Dry Run Data Analysis
10.00 am    Coffee break
10.30 am    - Mock Court Mock Trial
            D. Post-Investigation Tools: Module IX, Module X
            E. Diploma ceremony
Noon        Lunch




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