Catamount Ski Area Wind Project by fdh56iuoui

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									       Catamount Ski Area Wind Project
            Technical Analysis for On-site Wind Generation




                          Prepared by:
             Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc.



                       Wednesday, June 28, 2006




Funded by the Green Buildings Initiative of the Renewable Energy Trust.
                            Notice and Acknowledgements

This report was prepared by Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc in the course of
performing work co-sponsored by the Renewable Energy Trust (RET), as administered by
the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (MTC) pursuant to grant number CII-FS-05-11.
The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect those of MTC or the
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and reference to any specific product, service, process, or
method does not constitute an implied or expressed recommendation or endorsement of it.

Further, MTC, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the contractor make no warranties
or representations, expressed or implied, as to the fitness for particular purpose or
merchantability of any product, apparatus, or service, or the usefulness, completeness, or
accuracy of any processes, methods or other information contained, described, disclosed, or
referred to in this report. MTC, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and the contractor
make no representation that the use of any product, apparatus, process, method, or other
information will not infringe privately owned rights and will assume no liability for any loss,
injury, or damage directly or indirectly resulting from, or occurring in connection with, the
use of information contained, described, disclosed, or referred to in this report.

SED would like to acknowledge the contributions of Richard C. Gross, Inc., the company
responsible for performing Section 4 – Electrical System Impact Study and Boreal
Renewable Energy Development, who to prepared Section 6.1 – Permitting Regulations.
                                           Abstract
This report presents the findings of SED’s Technical Assessment for On-Site Wind
Generation at Catamount Ski Area that began in August 2005 and ended in May 2006. The
project assessed and quantified the site’s ability to utilize an on-site wind power installation.
Key aspects of wind project development were examined including: wind resource
assessment; energy yield analysis; financial modeling; on-site electrical system study;
buildability and access road-survey; permitting; capital cost assessments; and potential
project ownership scenarios. The assessment identified that the major impediments to an on-
site wind project would be accessing the site with project equipment and the local permitting
process. The additional costs necessary to access the site should be made up for by the well-
above-average wind speeds and the high cost of electricity. The permitting process will
certainly require expenditures of time and energy but there do not appear to be any
unconquerable obstacles in this arena. The results of this study indicate that many of the
aspects necessary for the successful development of an on-site wind project are present.
Development should proceed at a regulated pace, tackling the most pressing issues at the
onset, before development dollars are spent on engineering, equipment or construction
activities.




                                          Keywords


Onsite                                 Energy                                 Catamount
Wind                                   Renewable                              Feasibility
Turbine                                Power                                  Study
Ski                                    Sustainable                            Distributed
Mountain                               Development                            Generation
                               Table of Contents

1.0     Wind Resource Assessment                                    3
        1.1     Methods                                             4
        1.2     Results                                             5
2.0     Energy Yield                                                8
        2.1     Energy Yield Analysis                               9
        2.2     Maintenance                                         10
3.0     Turbine Electricity Value and Utility-Derived Costs         12
4.0     Electrical System Impact Study                              18
        4.1     Existing Electrical Supply                          18
        4.2     Proposed Wind Turbine Generator Electrical
                Interconnection Plan                                19
        4.3     Operation of the Wind Turbine Generator             24
        4.4     Wind Turbine Generator Electrical Interconnection
                Equipment                                           25
        4.5     Cost Estimate for Interconnection Equipment         28
5.0     Buildability                                                31
6.0     Permitting                                                  37
        6.1     Regulations                                         37
        6.2     Recommendations                                     43
7.0     Development Budget, Timeline and Capital Costs              45
        7.1     Development Budget and Timeline                     45
        7.2     Capital Costs                                       51
8.0     Visual Impact Assessment                                    53
        8.1     Methodology                                         53
        8.2     Photomontages                                       56
9.0     Economic Analysis                                           57
10.0    Financing, Ownership, Operations                            59



                                      Figures
1-1            Map of Data Sources                                  3
1-2            Measured Wind Data                                   5
1-3            Wind Rose                                            6
1-4            Monthly Mean Wind Speeds                             7
2-1            Potential Turbine Location Map                       9
2-2            Annual Energy Output and Capacity Factor             10
2-3            Maintenance Budgets                                  11
3-1            Electric Consumption, Jan.-Dec. 2005                 12
3-2            Projected Electrical Consumption                     13
3-3            Projected Electricity Rates                          14
3-4.1          Demand vs. Production - 250kW                        15
3-4.2          Demand vs. Production - 600kW                        16
3-4.3          Demand vs. Production - 600kW                        16
3-5            Wind Generated Electricity Value                     17
4-1            Existing Electrical Supply Diagram              19
4-2            Proposed Electrical Interconnection Plan        23
5-1            Proposed Routes and Electrical Infrastructure   31
6-1            Local Applicable Regulations – Town of Egremont Zoning
               By-Law                                          38
6-2            State Applicable Regulations and Policies       39
6-3            Federal Applicable Regulations                  42
7-1            Development Budget                              45
7-2            Project Timeline                                46
7-3            Capital Costs                                   52
8-1            Photomontage Picture Locations                  54
8-2            Picture and Turbine Location with Line of Sight 55
9-1            Cash Flow Analysis Summary                      58
10-1           Third Party Owner Cash Flow Summary             61


                                    Pictures

Picture 1      Impassable Changes in Grade                          33
Picture 2      Insufficient Turning Radius                          33
Picture 3      Excessive Lateral Slope                              34
Picture 4      Narrow Road                                          34
Picture 5      Exposed Bedrock                                      35
Picture 6      Road Near Potential Turbine Location                 36


                                  Appendices
A – Meteorological Tower Commissioning Form
B – Output of Financial Models
C - Photomontages

                            Wind Resource Data

Raw, validated, and verified data can be found with the electronic version of this
report.
                                       Report Summary
The Catamount Ski Area, located in S Egremont, Massachusetts appears to be a developable
wind generation site based on the prevalence of positive characteristics detailed by the analyses
performed. Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. (SED) recommends continued development
of the project beginning with application for the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative
(MTC) Design and Construction Grants in August of 2006.


The average wind speed at the potential wind turbine site for the projected hub height is 7.4
meters per second (16.5 mph) at 75 meters above ground level (agl). This is considered a very
strong wind resource for the development of any type or scale of wind power project. In
combination with the high costs of electricity in this area, the wind speed should provide
favorable economic returns for Catamount.


Based on the examination of annual energy output and load-matching characteristics used to
maximize on-site use of wind-generated electricity, a wind turbine in the 600kW size range
appears to offer the greatest economic benefit. SED used the power curve and equipment costs
for the Fuhrländer 600 kW (FL600) in this study. This machine’s estimated total installed cost
would be $2.16 million and would produce approximately 1,700,000 kWh per year.


SED used the wind turbine’s electrical output in combination with Catamount’s electrical
consumption data in order to determine how much of the wind-generated electricity would be
used by Catamount and the resulting effect to the value of wind-generated electricity. These
calculations were input into a financial model to determine the financial returns (savings,
payback period, internal rate of return) of an on-site wind project at the Catamount Ski Area.
Using this process, three turbine sizes (250kW, 600kW and 1000kW) were examined and the
results were then analyzed for sensitivity to the inflation of electricity prices. The most
beneficial project economics were for the 600kW wind turbine, independent of the rate of
electricity cost inflation, with paybacks ranging from 7 to 8 years, internal rates of return from 8-
15% and 25-year savings from $1.4 to 6.5 million.



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The two significant issues of concern are accessing the site with project equipment and gaining
local permitting approvals. Transportation of project equipment to the ridge-top site will
necessitate increased construction costs, however this expenditure can be made up for
considering the high wind speeds and increasing costs of electricity. In terms of permitting, the
local authority does not have any specific regulations regarding wind power so the process will
likely require significant effort to successfully navigate. In addition, the approval process
specific to a location in the Berkshire region may draw the attention and energies of several non-
governmental organizations active in the region.


This project appears to have many of the aspects necessary for the successful development of an
onsite wind project. However, development should commence at a regulated pace, tackling the
most pressing issues at the onset, before development dollars are spent on engineering,
equipment or construction activities. Specifically, the support and approval from the local
population and permitting authorities should be attained.




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                             WIND RESOURCE ASSEMENT
                                             Section 1

An estimate of the site’s long-term, mean wind speed has been obtained by correlating the
measured data with a virtual annual wind measurement data set supplied by AWS Truewind.
The AWS Truewind data were created using on-site data collected at Brodie Mountain, MA and
other proprietary data from a site located in Western Massachusetts. The correlation results in an
estimated 82-feet (agl) long-term wind speed of 13.04 mph(5.83 m/s) at the Catamount
measurement tower. Figure 1 displays the location of the measurement tower at Catamount and
the location represented by the virtual data set at Jiminy Peak.

Figure 1-1 Map of Data Sources




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1.1 METHODS

To monitor winds at the Catamount peak, an existing lattice tower, (lat: 0625575, long: 4668471)
was instrumented, on October 21, 2005, with three anemometers at 82 ft. (25m), two wind vanes
at 77 ft (23.5m) and two temperature sensors. The anemometers have a generic or consensus
calibration applied to them. Until May 4th, 2006, the following data parameters were sampled
every two seconds, averaged every ten minutes, and stored at 10-minute intervals:

            Mean wind speed at 82 ft (three anemometers)
            Mean wind direction at 77 ft (two wind vanes referenced to True North)
            Temperature at 6.5 ft and 82 ft

All measured data were examined through validation procedures. Validation tests consist of
consistency checks, range tests, relational tests and trend tests. Invalid data are removed to
create a validated data set.

The meteorological equipment used throughout the measurement program has been supplied by
NRG Systems and consists of: Symphonie Data Logger with I-Pack, Maximum Type 40
anemometers, 200P wind vanes, and thermistor-type temperature sensors housed in a naturally-
aspirated radiation shields. A commissioning sheet for this tower configuration can be found in
Appendix A.

Data Recovery

The data recovery for each anemometer on the measurement tower for the period 10/21/2005 to
5/4/2006 is 98.0% (82 ft. ENE), 97.5% (82 ft. SSW), and 96.9% (82 ft. NNW). Icing, sensor-
to-sensor shading, and tower-to-sensor shading are the major causes of data loss. The purpose of
installing redundant sensors is to ensure that even in the event of a sensor failure, data are still
being collected at that level.




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1.2 RESULTS

Figure 1-2 displays the mean wind speed and turbulence intensity for all anemometers on the
measurement tower during the measurement period from 10/21/2005 to 05/04/2006.

Figure 1-2. Measured Wind Data
Height (ft.)      Mean Wind Speed (mph)              Turbulence Intensity
    82 ESE                     14.29                            0.203
   82 SSW                      14.13                            0.204
   82 NNW                      14.56                            0.197
Note: Turbulence Intensity is calculated with wind speeds greater than 7.8 mph

Figure 1-3 displays the wind power and wind frequency by direction during the measurement
period from 10/21/2005 to 05/04/2006.




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Figure 1-3. Wind Rose




Figure 1-4 displays the monthly mean wind speeds at a height of 82 ft. above ground level at the
measurement tower location. The months of December through April represent measured wind
speeds. The remaining monthly wind speeds are created through correlations with the virtual
data set. Measured wind speeds for the months of May and October are not included due to low
data recovery.




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Figure 1-4. Monthly Mean Wind Speeds
        Month           Mean Wind Speed (mph)
       January                     15.35
       February                    15.12
        March                      14.65
         April                     14.43
         May                       12.46
         June                      10.98
         July                       11.1
        August                      9.59
      September                    11.74
       October                     12.68
      November                     15.12
      December                     13.39
Estimated Annual Mean              13.04




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                                       ENERGY YIELD
                                              Section 2

Based upon the electrical usage of the facility and the goal of developing an economically
beneficial project, SED has examined three potential wind turbines’ energy yield in the measured
and predicted wind climate. Due to the size of the electric load being serviced, the lack of
physical infrastructure at the potential turbine location, as well as available and suitable
locations, SED did not identify any siting constraints.


The three wind turbines that were chosen for examination in this study are Fuhrländer 250kW
(FL250), Fuhrländer 600kW (FL600) and Fuhrländer 1000kW (FL1000 Plus). The annual
energy output of the three wind turbines is shown in Figure 2-2. In addition, SED examined
several other wind turbines including the Suzlon 350kW (S.33) and a GE 1.5MW – the results of
which are not presented in this report due to these machines lack of availability to the US market
or otherwise failure to produce economically beneficial project returns. SED plans to examine
the newly available mid-sized Vestas wind turbines however, pricing, availability and production
data were not available for this analysis.




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Figure 2-1. Potential Turbine Location Map




2.1 ENERGY YIELD ANALYSIS

Figure 2-1 is a site map with the potential turbine location and observed wind data tower. The
energy yield for each of the analyzed wind turbines was calculated using the following set of
assumptions:


    •   Average wind shear at hub height will be .19-.22
    •   Hub height turbulence is estimated at 18%
    •   Losses will be 7.5%:
            o Availability (2%) – maintenance, turbine down time


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            o Electric Line (3.5%) - resistive losses transferring power from turbines to grid
                connection
            o Icing (1%) - shut down due to imbalance in weight of blades when more ice
                collects on one blade than others
            o Other losses (1%) - imperfect controls (delayed adjustment), delay in restart after
                high winds and/or blade soiling


Using the monthly wind speeds from Figure 1-4 in combination with the power curves supplied
by the wind turbine manufacturers the energy yield of each wind turbine, before losses, can be
calculated. This calculation was then de-rated (for each month) for the losses described above.


The annual energy output presented in Figure 2-2 is the total amount of wind-generated
electricity produced in one year and the capacity factor represents the amount of time in a year
when the wind turbine will produce at peak output. A wind turbine at this location will produce
power more than 90% of the year but not necessarily at peak output.

Figure 2-2. Annual Energy Output (Minus Losses) and Capacity Factors

                     Wind Turbine                 Annual Energy Capacity Factor
                                                  Output (kWh)
            Fuhrländer 250kW (FL250)                 443,807         20%
            Fuhrländer 600kW (FL600)                1,731,543        30%
            Fuhrländer 1000kW (FL1000)              2,175,395        25%



2.2 MAINTENANCE

In order to quantify maintenance issues for this project, SED assigned a budgetary figure of
$0.008 per kilo-watt-hour of electricity produced by the wind turbine. This budgeting for
maintenance will allow the project to adequately account for routine and scheduled maintenance
activities as well as to prepare for the potential of major replacements. This cost, as well as the
estimated downtime due to wind turbine maintenance, was determined through examination of
the wind turbines’ operating history, experience in the wind industry and discussions with wind
turbine maintenance experts. The estimated budgetary figures for maintenance that is built into

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the financial models for the three wind turbines examined can be found in Figure 2-3. The
figures below represent the first year of operation and are scheduled to inflate at 3% annually.

Figure 2-3. Maintenance Budgets


                            Wind Turbine              Annual Maintenance
                                                      Budget (Year 1)
                   Fuhrländer 250kW (FL250)                    $3,900
                   Fuhrländer 600kW (FL600)                   $13,900
                   Fuhrländer 1000kW (FL1000)                 $18,800




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             TURBINE ELECTRICITY VALUE AND UTILITY-DERIVED
                          ELECTRICITY COSTS
                                                       Section 3
SED analyzed cumulative consumption data for the Catamount Ski Area for the 12 months
leading up to January 2006 (see Figure 3-1). In addition, the project team had discussions
regarding the possibilities for increasing the site’s electrical use based on infrastructure growth in
the future and made conservative assumptions in order to understand the site’s electrical usage
over the projected 25-year lifespan of a wind turbine (see Figure 3-2).

Figure 3-1. Electric Consumption, January - December 2005

                                               Month1     Usage (kWh)
                                         January                410,200
                                         Feb                    334,600
                                         March                  159,600
                                         April                   38,500
                                         May                     23,100
                                         June                    21,700
                                         July                    23,100
                                         August                  19,600
                                         September               22,400
                                         October                 21,700
                                         November                36,400
                                         December               634,900
                                         2005 Total Usage     1,745,800



With an understanding of previous electrical consumption, current expansions and the facility’s
plans for growth, the project team projected that in 2006 the facility will be using 160,000 kWh
more than in 2005 and then will increase its electrical use by 3% every five years after that over
the 25-year lifespan of the wind turbine. This increase was developed assuming a conservative
level of expansion in combination with a steady increase in energy efficiency. Figure 3-2 details
the projected annual cumulative consumption for Catamount for the life of the wind turbine.




1
    Catamount does not track daily or hourly electricity usage as originally assumed.
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Figure 3-2. Catamount’s Projected, 25-year Electrical Consumption

                                 Year     Projected Consumption (kWh)
                                 2005               1,745,800
                                 2006               1,905,800
                                 2011               1,962,974
                                 2016               2,021,863
                                 2021               2,082,519
                                 2026               2,144,995
                                 2031               2,209,345


The value of wind-generated electricity and the resulting project economics will in part be
dependent upon the arrangement that is negotiated to sell excess wind-generated electricity.
SED has recognized two possible scenarios for excess power sales that will range from sale to
the utility grid operator or sale to a non-utility power off-taker. SED will use its experience in
navigating this process with these same options acquired during the final phases of the Jiminy
Peak Wind Project to inform these avenues at Catamount. For the financial analysis portions of
this study, SED assumed that any excess power is valued at the wholesale rate.


For the purpose of this analysis, SED has used Catamount’s January 2005 through April 2006
average retail cost of electricity of $0.08863 for the value of electricity produced by the wind
energy generating facility that is consumed by Catamount. The wholesale or market pricing
used for all excess electricity that is pushed back onto the grid is the mean of the average hourly
day-ahead zone load-based market price (AvgDALMP) for each month from March 2003 to
April 2006 determined to be $0.06172 per kilo-watt-hour.


SED calculated Catamount’s retail rate for electricity through examination of the facility’s
energy (Constellation Energy) and distribution (Mass Electric/National Grid) bills. The
wholesale or market price used in this analysis was determined by examining the monthly
historical AvgDALMP from January 2003 through April 2006. This data is available through
ISO New England Inc. (http://www.iso-ne.com/markets/hstdata/znl_info/monthly/index.html).


In order to project the retail and wholesale costs of electricity for Catamount over the 25-year
lifespan of the wind turbine SED examined three potential growth rates: 1) Conservative - 0%;

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2) Standard Inflation – 3%; and 3) Historical – 8% (based on the average increase in
AvgDALMP over the first four months of each year from 2003-2006). The rates used for the
economic analysis are detailed by year in Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-3. Projected Electricity Rates
                            Projected Retail Rate ($/kWh)      Projected Wholesale Rate ($/kWh)
                       0% Inflation 3% Inflation 8% Inflation 0% Inflation 3% Inflation 8% Inflation
             2006      0.13568      0.13568       0.13568      0.06172      0.06172      0.06172
        0    2007      0.13568      0.13975       0.14653      0.06172      0.06357      0.06665
        1    2008      0.13568      0.14394       0.15825      0.06172      0.06547      0.07199
        2    2009      0.13568      0.14826       0.17091      0.06172      0.06744      0.07774
        3    2010      0.13568      0.15270       0.18459      0.06172      0.06946      0.08396
        4    2011      0.13568      0.15729       0.19935      0.06172      0.07155      0.09068
        5    2012      0.13568      0.16200       0.21530      0.06172      0.07369      0.09794
        6    2013      0.13568      0.16686       0.23252      0.06172      0.07590      0.10577
        7    2014      0.13568      0.17187       0.25113      0.06172      0.07818      0.11423
        8    2015      0.13568      0.17703       0.27122      0.06172      0.08053      0.12337
        9    2016      0.13568      0.18234       0.29291      0.06172      0.08294      0.13324
       10    2017      0.13568      0.18781       0.31635      0.06172      0.08543      0.14390
       11    2018      0.13568      0.19344       0.34165      0.06172      0.08799      0.15541
       12    2019      0.13568      0.19924       0.36899      0.06172      0.09063      0.16784
       13    2020      0.13568      0.20522       0.39851      0.06172      0.09335      0.18127
       14    2021      0.13568      0.21138       0.43039      0.06172      0.09615      0.19577
       15    2022      0.13568      0.21772       0.46482      0.06172      0.09904      0.21143
       16    2023      0.13568      0.22425       0.50200      0.06172      0.10201      0.22835
       17    2024      0.13568      0.23098       0.54216      0.06172      0.10507      0.24662
       18    2025      0.13568      0.23791       0.58554      0.06172      0.10822      0.26635
       19    2026      0.13568      0.24505       0.63238      0.06172      0.11147      0.28765
       20    2027      0.13568      0.25240       0.68297      0.06172      0.11481      0.31067
       21    2028      0.13568      0.25997       0.73761      0.06172      0.11825      0.33552
       22    2029      0.13568      0.26777       0.79661      0.06172      0.12180      0.36236
       23    2030      0.13568      0.27580       0.86034      0.06172      0.12546      0.39135
       24    2031      0.13568      0.28407       0.92917      0.06172      0.12922      0.42266
       25    2032      0.13568      0.29260       1.00351      0.06172      0.13310      0.45647


The next step in determining the value of wind-generated electricity was to establish how much
of the electricity the wind generating facility produced would be used by Catamount and how
much would be put back on the Mass Electric system on a monthly basis for the entire 25-year
life of the project. The projected consumption for Catamount is provided above in Figure 3-2.
SED calculated Catamount’s average monthly demand figures from January 2005 through April
2006 in combination with estimated maximum demand in order to calculate the percentage of
wind-generated electricity that would not be used by Catamount and the ensuing total value of
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wind-generated electricity. The relationship between the facility’s electrical demand and the
average monthly wind turbine output describes the amount of electricity that would be used on-
site versus that which would be put onto the grid (Figures 3-4.1, 3-4.2, 3-4.3) SED used
conservative assumptions to perform this analysis because hourly and daily electricity demand
data is not kept by Catamount that would be necessary to create a more precise model for these
scenarios. At the bottom right of each table below is the percentage of power generated by each
of the wind turbines that will be used by Catamount, on-site.

Figure 3-4.1. Electrical Demand vs. Production for 250kW Wind Turbine

                                     250kW



                            Average   Percent of  Percentage of
              Average      Production Production Total Production
             Demand at    from 250kW Consumed at Consumed at
    2005   Catamount (kW)     (kW)    Catamount    Catamount
  January       551            73       100%           12%
  February      498            78       100%           12%
   March        215            66       100%           11%
    April        53            66        50%            5%
    May          31            43        47%            3%
    June         30            31        65%            3%
    July         31            30        64%            3%
   August        26            19        82%            3%
 September       31            39        58%            4%
  October        29            47        49%            4%
 November        51            73        44%            5%
 December       853            53       100%            9%
                                                     Total              74%




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Figure 3-4.2. Electrical Demand vs. Production for 600kW Wind Turbine

                                      600kW



                 Average          Average        Percent of  Percentage of
                Demand at        Production      Production Total Production
                Catamount       from 600kW      Consumed at  Consumed at
    2005           (kW)             (kW)         Catamount    Catamount
  January           551              238           100%           11%
  February          498              267           100%           11%
   March            215              235            48%            5%
    April           53               228            18%            2%
    May             31               157            13%            1%
    June            30               122            62%            3%
    July            31               113            19%            1%
   August           26                74            30%            1%
 September          31               142            23%            1%
  October           29               167            20%            2%
 November           51               250            18%            2%
 December           853              189           100%            9%
                                                    Total                50%


Figure 3-4.3. Electrical Demand vs. Production for 1000kW Wind Turbine

                                     1000kW



                 Average          Average   Percent of  Percentage of
                Demand at       Production  Production Total Production
                Catamount      from 1000kW Consumed at  Consumed at
    2005           (kW)            (kW)     Catamount    Catamount
  January           551             366        71%            8%
  February          498             406        63%            7%
   March            215             351        33%            4%
    April            53             344         9%            1%
    May              31             228         9%            1%
    June             30             166        20%            1%
    July             31             159        20%            1%
   August            26             101        14%            0%
 September           31             207        18%            1%
  October            29             246        16%            1%
 November            51             380        15%            2%
 December           853             280        82%            7%
                                               Total         35%

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The total value of the wind-generated electricity equals the amount of wind-generated electricity
that is put onto the Mass Electric grid multiplied by the wholesale rate plus the amount of wind-
generated electricity that is used on-site multiplied by Catamount’s retail rate. In order to
determine the amount of wind-generated electricity that will be put onto the grid, SED calculated
the difference between Catamount’s monthly electricity consumption and the wind turbine’s
monthly production as shown in Figure 2-3. If the amount of wind-generated production is
greater than the facility’s consumption, this difference yields the amount of electricity that will
certainly be put onto the grid and an amount of electricity that may or may not be used on-site
dependent upon the time of electrical use by Catamount. The value of the electricity that will
certainly be put onto the grid equals this number of kilo-watt-hours multiplied by the wholesale
rate. If the amount of wind-generated electricity is less than the facility’s consumption, the
amount used on-site versus that put onto the grid must be determined by examining the
difference between the facility’s average demand and the wind turbine’s average capacity factor
in addition to estimations of daily peak demand.

Figure 3-5. Wind-Generated Electricity Value

                      Wind Turbine              % Output               2006 Value
                                                Used On-site            ($/kWh)
            Fuhrländer 250kW (FL250)                 74%                  .1164
            Fuhrländer 600kW (FL600)                 50%                  .0987
            Fuhrländer 1000kW (FL1000)               35%                  .0876




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On-site Wind Generation at
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                     ELECTRICAL SYSTEM IMPACT STUDY
                                             Section 4

4.1 EXISTING ELECTRICAL SUPPLY

As shown in Figure 4-1 below, the Catamount Ski Area receives its electrical power supply from
National Grid (NGrid) distribution circuit #1109W2. Circuit #1109W2 is an overhead, three
phase, four wire, 13.8 kV distribution circuit that is supplied by NGrid’s 23 kV – 13.8 kV
Risingdale Substation in Great Barrington, MA. The 13.8 kV NGrid supply voltage is
transformed to the Catamount Ski Area utilization voltage by four (4), three phase, padmount
distribution transformers and one (1), single phase, pole top distribution transformer.


The NGrid supply circuit is terminated at a three pole, group operated, 13.8 kV disconnect
switch at Massachusetts Electric Co. (MECo) Pole #5 on the Catamount Ski Area property.
MECo Pole #5 also includes primary (13.8 kV) revenue metering equipment that consists of
three (3) potential transformers, three (3) current transformers, and a transformer-rated revenue
meter to measure the electrical usage of Catamount Ski Area


Catamount’s padmounted distribution transformers are supplied by underground, 15 kV class
cables that are connected to the overhead, 13.8 kV supply circuit through fused cutout switches.
The 1000 kVA lift transformer is supplied from Riser Pole “T left” and the rest are supplied from
Riser Pole “T right” via a padmounted sectionalizing cabinet. There is also a single phase, pole
top distribution transformer on MECo Pole #7.


All of Catamount’s distribution transformers are connected to the overhead, 13.8 kV supply
circuit through fused cutout switches. The fused cutout switches include a fuse that will melt
open when the current flowing through the fuse is higher than normal such as during short
circuits on the underground, 15 kV class cables.




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On-site Wind Generation at
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Figure 4-1. Existing Electrical Supply Diagram



                                                 Catamount Ski Area
                                          Existing Electrical Supply Diagram

       National Grid Distribution Circuit #1109 W2
           13.8 kV, Three Phase , Four Wire


                               Three pole , group operated
                               13.8 kV disconnect Switch
                                    (MECo Pole #5)


                                 National Grid Revenue Metering
                                         (MECo Pole #5)


                                       Three (3), single pole,
                                       Fused Cutout Switches             15 kV Class
                                                                      Underground Cable

                                                                                             Lift transformer
            Riser Pole                                                                           1000 kVA
         (labeled “T left” )                                                              13.8 kV – 480/277 volt
                                                         Padmounted
                                                     Sectionalizing Cabinet

                                                                                          Compressor transformer
                                                                                                  750 kVA
                                                                                           13.8 kV – 480/277 volt
            Riser Pole
        (labeled “T right” )

                                                                                             Lift #5 transformer
                                                                                                   300 kVA
                                                                                           13.8 kV – 480 /277 volt

                                         One (1), single pole ,
                                         Fused Cutout Switch
                                                                                             Pump transformer
                                                                                                 1000 kVA
                                                                                           13.8 kV – 480 /277 volt
        Dead-end Pole
       (MECo Pole #7)

                                   Single phase transformer
                                           100 kVA
                                       (MECo Pole #7)




4.2 PROPOSED WIND TURBINE GENERATOR ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTION
PLAN

The proposed wind turbine generator electrical interconnection plan is shown in Figure 4-2
below. The wind turbine generator is proposed to be connected to the existing Catamount Ski


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On-site Wind Generation at
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Area 13.8 kV supply circuit behind the NGrid revenue meter to allow Catamount Ski Area the
opportunity to displace retail power purchases.


The electrical interconnection plan is based on a three-phase wind turbine generator with a
maximum power output rating of 1,500 kilowatts (“kW”) and a rated output voltage of 575 volts.
Therefore, in order to connect the wind turbine generator to the 13.8 kV supply circuit, a three-
phase generator step-up transformer will be utilized to convert the 575 volt generator voltage to
the 13.8 kV supply circuit voltage. The generator step-up transformer must be capable of
carrying the maximum power output of the wind turbine generator (1,500 kW) plus an additional
margin for the current associated with the generator reactive power consumption/production.
Therefore, the generator step-up transformer will be rated 1,750 kVA with a voltage rating of
13.8 kV – 575 volts.


Please note that the same interconnection concept would apply for a wind turbine generator with
a different maximum power output rating or for a wind turbine generator with a different rated
output voltage. The kVA and secondary voltage rating of the generator step-up transformer and
the size of the interconnection circuit would be changed to be consistent with the wind turbine
generator ratings.


The generator step-up transformer will be located in close proximity to the wind turbine
generator. A three phase, 15 kV class interconnection circuit will be installed to connect the
primary of the generator step-up transformer to the existing Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply
circuit.


The distance from the generator step-up transformer to the existing Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV
supply circuit is approximately 3,900-4,200 feet. The 13.8 kV interconnection circuit is
proposed to be installed underground and to consist of three (3) 15 kV class insulated cables in a
buried underground conduit. It is recommended that the 15 kV class cables be installed in an
underground conduit for physical protection rather than being directly buried. This is
particularly important on mountaintops where it may be difficult to achieve the burial depths
necessary for safety and code compliance.
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On-site Wind Generation at
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The current carrying requirement of the 13.8 kV interconnection circuit is based on the
maximum generator output multiplied by a rating factor of 125%. This calculation yields an
amperage of approximately 90 amperes per phase which can be accommodated by a three phase,
15 kV class, underground cable circuit that consists of three, single conductor, 15 kV class, #2
AWG, aluminum cables (one 15 kV class, #2 AWG, aluminum cable per phase).
The 13.8 kV interconnection circuit will be connected to a type of 13.8 kV circuit breaker
referred to as a “13.8 kV Recloser” at the point of connection to the existing Catamount Ski Area
13.8 kV supply circuit. The function of the 13.8 kV Recloser is to provide a controllable
switching point between the wind turbine generator and the existing Catamount Ski Area 13.8
kV supply circuit that can be either automatically or manually operated.


The 13.8kV Recloser will be capable of interrupting the maximum fault current that is available
from the NGrid 13.8 kV supply circuit (which is generally much greater than the fault current
available from the wind turbine generator). The 13.8 kV Recloser will automatically open upon
a signal from protective relays that are required by NGrid for interconnection of generation to
their distribution circuit. The protective relays can detect abnormal 13.8 kV circuit conditions
that would require the wind turbine generator to be disconnected from the rest of the 13.8 kV
circuit. The protective relays that NGrid will likely require include over/under voltage relays,
over/under frequency relays, and overcurrent relays. NGrid may also require the 13.8 kV
Recloser to open for certain NGrid circuit conditions as sensed by protective relays within the
NGrid electrical system. This remote open command is referred to as a “transfer trip” command.
The interconnection facilities will also include a 13.8 kV, three pole, gang-operated, disconnect
switch. The 13.8 kV disconnect switch provides an obvious point of disconnection that can be
verified by visual observation. NGrid operations personnel will need access to manually open
and padlock this disconnect switch in the open position to guarantee that the wind turbine
generator will not energize their 13.8 kV distribution circuit while they are working on it or
when they otherwise deem it necessary. NGrid may decide to utilize the 13.8 kV disconnect
switch on MECo Pole #5 for this purpose.




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On-site Wind Generation at
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The arrangement of Catamount’s existing 13.8 kV supply system and metering is anticipated to
be ideal for the interconnection of the wind turbine generator. The wind turbine generator is
proposed to be connected to the existing Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply circuit behind the
NGrid revenue meter to allow Catamount Ski Area the opportunity to displace retail power
purchases. Catamount already has primary metering so the wind turbine generator can be
interconnected without the need to relocate the existing metering equipment. It is anticipated
that NGrid will require the meter itself to be replaced but the metering instrument transformers
on MECo Pole #5 are anticipated to be adequate.


The new revenue meter will have to be bi-directional (capable of measuring electrical power that
flows in both directions). The revenue meter will measure: (1) power supplied by the NGrid
13.8 kV distribution system to Catamount Ski Area during periods when the Catamount Ski Area
power consumption exceeds the wind turbine generation; and, (2) power supplied to the NGrid
13.8 kV distribution system during periods when the wind turbine generator production exceeds
the consumption. Metering will also have to be installed directly at the wind turbine generator to
measure the wind turbine generator output for REC purposes.


The final configuration of the wind turbine generator interconnection equipment will be subject
to NGrid’s review and analysis of the wind turbine generator impact on their distribution system.
Catamount will need to prepare an interconnection application and submit it to NGrid with the
required application fee. NGrid will review the application for completeness and prepare a
proposal and cost estimate to perform an initial feasibility study. NGrid will perform the initial
feasibility study review and, if the results are acceptable, NGrid will prepare a proposal and cost
estimate to perform a subsequent impact study and detailed facility study. NGrid may also
require Catamount to pay for modifications to the NGrid distribution system that are determined
to be necessary to interconnect the wind turbine generator.




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On-site Wind Generation at
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Figure 4-2. Proposed Electrical Interconnection Plan
                                                        Catamount Ski Area
                                                Proposed Wind Turbine Generator
                                                Electrical Interconnection Diagram
        National Grid Distribution Circuit #1109 W2
            13.8 kV, Three Phase , Four Wire


                                Three pole , group operated ,
                                13.8 kV Disconnect Switch
                                     (MECo Pole #5)


                                  National Grid Revenue Metering
                                          (MECo Pole #5)


                                           Three (3), single pole,
                                                                           15 kV Class
                                           Fused Cutout Switches
                                                                        Underground Cable

                                                                                                                   Lift transformer
            Riser Pole                                                                                                 1000 kVA
         (labeled “T left” )                                                                                    13.8 kV – 480/277 volt
                                                           Padmounted
                                                       Sectionalizing Cabinet

                                                                                                               Compressor transformer
                                                                                                                       750 kVA
                                                                                                                13.8 kV – 480/277 volt
             Riser Pole
         (labeled “T right” )

                                                                                                                   Lift #5 transformer
                                                                                                                         300 kVA
                                                                                                                 13.8 kV – 480 /277 volt

                                            One (1), single pole ,
                                            Fused Cutout Switch
                                                                                                                   Pump transformer
                                                                                                                       1000 kVA
                                                                                                                 13.8 kV – 480 /277 volt
         Dead-end Pole                                   Single phase transformer
        (MECo Pole #7)                                           100 kVA
                                                             (MECo Pole #7)


    New 13.8 kV overhead                                                            New Electrical Equipment for the Interconnection
                                                                                    of the Wind Turbine Generator (1500 kW shown)
     tap to MECo Pole #7

                                                             New 15 kV Class
                                                          Underground Cable
                                                         3 - #2 AWG Aluminum
                                                                                                       GENERATOR CIRCUIT
                                                                                                     BREAKER AND CONTACTOR

         New Electrical
          Utility Pole
                                 13.8 KV GANG        13.8 KV
                                  OPERATED       RECLOSER WITH                                                         WIND TURBINE GENERATOR
                                 DISCONNECT      NGRID REQUIRED                 WIND TURBINE GENERATOR                    1500 KW, 575 VOLTS
                                    SWITCH         PROTECTIVE                    STEP-UP TRANSFORMER
                                                    RELAYING                       13.8 KV – 575 VOLTS
                                                                                         1750 KVA




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4.3 OPERATION OF THE WIND TURBINE GENERATOR

Under normal electrical grid conditions and with sufficient wind, the wind turbine generator will
automatically start and connect to the NGrid 13.8 kV supply circuit through the generator step-
up transformer and the 13.8 kV interconnection circuit. The wind turbine generator will begin to
generate power and will ramp up towards full output as a function of the wind speed. The
generated power will flow from the generator, through the generator step-up transformer and the
13.8 kV interconnection circuit, and to the existing Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply circuit
behind the NGrid revenue meter.


The operation of the wind turbine generator will supply a portion or all of Catamount’s power
depending on the generator output and the amount of power being consumed. When the
generator output exceeds the amount of power that Catamount is consuming, the excess power
will flow into NGrid’s 13.8 kV distribution system and effectively supply some of NGrid’s
customers in unison with the NGrid supply system. However, the wind turbine generator is not
intended nor allowed to operate independently from NGrid. If the NGrid supply shuts off for
any reason, the wind turbine generator must immediately stop generating and disconnect from
the Catamount electrical supply system.


As the wind subsides or becomes too excessive, the wind turbine generator will automatically
stop generating and disconnect from the Catamount electrical supply system. Once wind
conditions are favorable again, the wind turbine generator will automatically start and resume
generation.


The wind turbine generator is only intended to operate when it is connected to an energized
electrical grid. It is not intended to be a source of standby electrical power in the event of a
power outage. The wind turbine generator includes sensors and protective relays that will detect
abnormal circuit conditions as measured at the point of interconnection to the generator step-up
transformer. The sensors and protective relays will cause the generator to automatically stop
generating and shutdown until conditions return to normal.

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Abnormal conditions on the NGrid 13.8 kV supply circuit will also be sensed by the protective
relay system associated with the 13.8 kV Recloser. This protective relay system will cause the
13.8 kV Recloser to automatically open and disconnect the wind turbine generator from the
Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply circuit. Upon the restoration of the NGrid 13.8 kV supply
circuit, the 13.8 kV Recloser must be manually reset and manually closed. The wind turbine
generator will not start until the 13.8 kV Recloser is manually closed to energize the generator
interconnection circuit and the generator step-up transformer. NGrid will establish operating
protocols that dictate when the 13.8 kV Recloser can be reset and manually closed.


The proposed wind turbine generator interconnection plan allows all electrical equipment
associated with the wind turbine generators to be completely disconnected from the rest of the
Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply circuit at any time. The proposed interconnection plan also
allows the wind turbine generator to be interconnected with minimal disruption to Catamount Ski
Area’s operations.

4.4 WIND TURBINE GENERATOR ELECTRICAL INTERCONNECTION
EQUIPMENT

Generator Step-up Transformer

The primary voltage rating of the transformer shall be consistent with the nominal voltage of the
NGrid distribution supply circuit to Catamount Ski Area that is 13.8 kV. To allow flexibility for
local voltage deviations that may exist on the NGrid distribution system at the Catamount Ski
Area point of interconnection, the transformer primary winding shall be equipped with five (5)
fixed taps to change the primary voltage rating +/- 5% from nominal voltage in 2 ½ %
increments. The secondary voltage rating shall be consistent with the wind turbine generator
voltage, which for the wind turbine generator shown in the interconnection diagram is 575 volts.


The three-phase power rating of the transformer (expressed in kVA) shall be consistent with the
wind turbine generator power rating (expressed in kW) and increased for the allowable generator
power factor. The power rating of the wind turbine generator shown on the interconnection
diagram is 1,500 kW. If it operates at a 90% lagging power factor, the generator step-up
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transformer must have a minimum continuous rating of 1,667 kVA. This rating requirement is
met by a padmount transformer rated 1,750 kVA, which is the next highest standard transformer
rating.


The transformer is proposed to be a three-phase, padmount type, oil filled, and self-cooled
transformer. The three-phase construction is consistent with the three-phase wind turbine
generator. Padmount construction is consistent with the existing infrastructure and offers the
preferred option of dead-front construction. Catamount Ski Area may prefer less flammable oil
at a price premium of approximately 10% or environmentally safe, seed-based, oil at a price
premium of approximately 20%.

Power Cable and Conduit

The electrical connection from the primary of the wind turbine generator step-up transformer to
the 13.8 kV overhead circuit interconnection point is proposed to consist of power cables
installed in underground conduit. The power cables shall be specified for 15 kV class insulation
and consist of three, single conductor cables with aluminum conductors. A conductor size of #2
AWG Aluminum is sufficient for the 13.8 kV interconnection of the 1,500 kW wind turbine
generator.


The power cables from the wind turbine generator step-up transformer to the 13.8 kV
interconnection point are proposed to be installed in underground conduit. The conduit shall be
either Schedule 40 PVC that is encased in concrete or galvanized rigid steel conduit. One (1)
additional conduit for communications and control of the wind turbine generator should also be
included in the conduit system.


The length of the proposed 13.8 kV underground circuit from the wind turbine generator step-up
transformer to the 13.8 kV interconnection point is approximately 3,000 linear feet. Four (4) pull
boxes are anticipated to be required for intermediate cable pulling points to prevent cable
damage and exceeding maximum cable pulling tensions/sidewall pressures.




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13.8 kV Recloser

The 13.8 kV Recloser is a three-phase device that is capable of interrupting normal generator
current and the maximum available fault current as contributed by the NGrid distribution system.
A standard interrupting rating for the 13.8 kV Recloser is 12,500 amperes of symmetrical fault
current. The 13.8 kV Recloser shall be rated for a normal continuous current carrying rating of
560 amperes which is a standard rating.


The 13.8 kV Recloser shall be electrically closed by a high voltage closing coil on the source
side of the recloser and capable of automatic and manual tripping by a self-contained recloser
control package and external trip signals. The 13.8 kV Recloser control system shall be powered
by a 24 volt DC battery and charger system that is included with the recloser. An external 120
volt AC supply circuit will be provided to the recloser to supply the battery charger and recloser
auxiliaries.


The 13.8 kV Recloser is proposed to be installed on a new electric utility pole that will be
located on Catamount Ski Area’s property within close proximity to the existing Catamount Ski
Area 13.8 kV supply circuit.

Protective Relay Scheme

The required protective relays will be specified by NGrid based on the results of their system
impact study. Based on a review of the NGrid Interconnection Requirements, it is anticipated
that the protective relay scheme for the interconnection of the wind turbine generators will
include over/under frequency relays, over/under voltage relays, and overcurrent relays. All
relays shall monitor all three phases and the overcurrent protection should include ground
overcurrent relaying. Upon sensing conditions that exceed allowable operating limits, the
protective relay scheme shall send a trip signal to the 13.8kV Recloser, which shall cause the
recloser to open and isolate the wind turbine generators from the rest of the 13.8 kV system.


NGrid may also require that the protective relay scheme include transfer trip capability. In this
scheme, the 13.8 kV Recloser will receive a trip signal upon the opening of one or more NGrid
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distribution system switching devices to prevent the wind turbine generator from energizing an
isolated portion of the NGrid system (referred to as an “island” condition). The transfer trip
signal may be communicated by either radio or fiber optic communications from the NGrid
equipment to the 13.8 kV protective relay scheme which will cause the 13.8 kV Recloser to
open.

Gang-operated 13.8 kV Disconnect Switch

The Gang-operated 13.8 kV Disconnect Switch shall be a manually operated, three pole switch.
The switch shall be rated 600 amperes continuous current with a momentary rating of 40,000
amperes.


The gang-operated disconnect switch will provide a visible open point between the wind turbine
generator and the Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply circuit. The operating handle of the 13.8
kV disconnect switch shall be capable of being padlocked by NGrid’s lock in the open position.
The position of the disconnect switch blades shall be capable of being visually observed to allow
positive determination of the electrical connection between the wind turbine generators and the
rest of the 13.8 kV system.


The 13.8 kV disconnect switch may be installed overhead on a new electric utility pole in close
proximity to the existing Catamount Ski Area 13.8 kV supply circuit and the new 13.8 kV
Recloser. The 13.8 kV disconnect switch must be accessible to NGrid personnel at all times.



4.5 COST ESTIMATE FOR INTERCONNECTION EQUIPMENT

The following planning accuracy cost estimates have been developed for use in the feasibility
analysis. The planning accuracy cost estimates are based on conceptual interconnection plans for
the wind turbine generator and are generally expected to be within an accuracy of +/- 25%. The
cost estimate is based on recent project experience and vendor quotes and could change based on
the final design and construction conditions. The total planning accuracy cost estimate for the
electrical interconnection of the 1500 kW wind turbine generator is $339,000 as detailed in the
following cost categories:

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Generator Step-up Transformer
The installed cost for the padmount generator step-up transformer and foundation is estimated to
be $25,000.

Power Cable and Conduit
The installed cost for the 15 kV class power cable and conduit based on 3,000 circuit feet for the
electrical connection from the generator step-up transformer to the 13.8 kV recloser is estimated
to be $200,000.


13.8 kV Recloser
The installed cost for the 13.8 kV pole-mounted recloser (including the pole, pole hardware,
guying, and grounding) is estimated to be $25,000.


Protective Relay Scheme
The installed cost for the protective relaying scheme including testing is estimated to be $8,000.


Gang-Operated 13.8 kV Disconnect Switch
The installed cost for the pole-mounted, manually operated, 13.8 kV, 600 amp, gang-operated
disconnect switch (including pole, pole hardware, fused cutouts, guying, and grounding) is
estimated to be $8,000.


Primary Metering Equipment
The installed cost for a new bi-directional revenue meter including any required NGrid meter
testing is $5,000.


Balance of Interconnection System Plant
The balance of the interconnection system plant and miscellaneous 13.8 kV components includes
surge arresters, cable terminations, control wiring, and start-up testing. The balance of the
interconnection system plant and miscellaneous 13.8 kV components are estimated at 25% of the
total installed cost for the major 13.8 kV interconnection system components listed above. The
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On-site Wind Generation at
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balance of the interconnection system plant and miscellaneous 13.8 kV components is estimated
to be $68,000.




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                                           BUILDABILITY
                                                  Section 5
Figure 5-1. Map of Proposed Routes and Electrical Infrastructure




The initial intention of the buildability portion of this report was designed to analyze the
foundation type necessary for the Catamount Wind Project with the thought that this cost could
impact the feasibility of the project. SED has used the experience gained from developing the
wind project at Jiminy Peak Mountain Resort to determine that the foundation is not a question
of project feasibility but rather a question better left to the design stage of project development.2
Therefore, SED viewed the road as a more critical issue to the feasibility of the Catamount wind
project and shifted efforts towards this aspect of the project. This section of the report will

2
 Jiminy Peak is located approximately 48 kilometers from Catamount, on similar topographic and geologic features
with exposed bedrock prevalent at both turbine locations.
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discuss SED’s findings in surveying two potential access routes (identified in Figure 5-1 in red
and blue) for the transportation of the wind turbine and cranes to the installation site.

The goal of this analysis was to determine a cost effective road upgrade plan that will allow for
the transport of the wind turbine and erection equipment to the installation site with minimal
expenditure and road construction. In addition, this survey aimed to establish which of the two
existing routes is best suited for the project’s equipment transportation needs. Through the
Jiminy experience it has been understood that the use of special, off-road transport vehicles
called Goldhofer Trailers will allow project equipment to be transported up grades in excess of
23%. Furthermore, the crane equipment can be towed up the mountain’s steep grades using a
fleet of DC-9 bulldozers. Overall, neither of the existing transport routes will has gradients that
are too steep to access, therefore it will be more critical to create solutions for the following
issues: Significant changes in the grade over distances less than 100 feet (example of impassable
grade change seen in Picture 1); The radius of all turns must be equal to or greater than 98 ft. for
the entire route (example of inadequate turn in Picture 2); The lateral slope of the road must be
minimal if not zero (example of impassable lateral slope in Picture 3); The width of the road
must be adequate all project equipment3 (example of a road section requiring widening in Picture
4); and Exposed bedrock (Picture 5).




3
    The site access road at Jiminy is being constructed to a minimum width of 20 feet.
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Picture 1 – Impassable Changes in Grade




Picture 2 – Insufficient Turning Radius




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Picture 3 –Excessive Lateral Slope




Picture 4 – Narrow Road




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SED performed a road survey of both access routes using spot checks for grade changes,
measurements for turning radius, and measurements for road width issues. The road survey
revealed that transport route one (depicted in Figure 5-1 in red) has a better overall grade for the
transport of the equipment to the site, but will require a more expensive upgrade to account for
short distance slope changes and side-to-side slope issues which are readily apparent for more
than half of the total road distance. Most of these changes will be experienced as the existing
work road transfers from the Upper Promenade Trail to the Ridge Run Trail. From this
transition to the installation site this route will require significant upgrades. The upper portion of
this transportation route is an area that is largely exposed to bedrock, which will increase the cost
and difficulty of making the necessary upgrades (see Picture 5).




Picture 5 – Exposed Bedrock




Transport route two (Figure 5-1 in blue) has a greater overall slope than the other option, but has
fewer issues with slope changes over short distances and side to side slope changes. The slope is
the greatest through the bottom half of this route as the work road travels from the base of the
mountain up the Holiday Trail. Neither access route appeared to have significant turning radius

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issues that could not be handled without the removal of a small number of trees. Both routes
meet at the top of the ridge and this last, shared section of transport route to the potential wind
turbine site will require a significant upgrade for short distance slope changes (see Picture 6).

Picture 6 – Road Near Potential Turbine Location




As the Catamount wind project moves forward it will be imperative to consult with crane and
rigging companies in order to confirm their ability to move the equipment up the grades on either
transport route. In the event that both routes are deemed passable it is likely that transport route
2 (Figure 5-1 in blue) will be less expensive to upgrade because the Goldhofer Trailers can
navigate this roads steep slopes with fewer upgrades necessary whereas route 1 will require
upgrades to make the significant changes of slope over short distances (present on Ridge Run
trail) navigable.




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                                         PERMITTING
                                              Section 6

6.1 REGULATIONS
The Catamount wind turbine project will involve review and permitting by a variety of local,
state and federal officials. Local jurisdictional approvals are the most significant for this project
because most state permits (with the exception of Mass Highway review) are not applicable,
since site disturbances can be minimized to avoid their applicability. See Figure 6-2, 6-3, and 6-4
for a summary of these findings.


The MassHighway parameters are exceeded by two of the three wind turbines being examined
for the site as seen in the table below. However, exceptions are allowable granted the proper
procedure is followed in regards to receiving MassHighway approvals. In these regards it is
important to note that all of the wind turbines examined are smaller than wind turbines currently
being transported throughout Massachusetts for utility-scale wind farms.


Based on Boreal’s review of the Town of Egremont’s Zoning By-Laws (As Amended July 18,
2005) and conversations with Ms. Eileen Vining, Egremont’s Chair of the Planning Board
(telephone conversation of March 15, 2006) the Egremont Zoning By-Laws Use Regulations, no
clear conclusions can be drawn regarding local permitting. The By-Laws may provide the ability
to build and operate a modern utility-scale wind turbine if it is considered as an accessory use
and is incidental to the main operation of the ski area. However, Catamount is considered an
existing non-conforming use and it was present prior to the adoption of many of the existing By-
laws so its zoning path forward relating to wind energy is uncertain.


A building permit from the Town most likely would be required. If the electricity from the wind
turbine would provide the proposed new Catamount development that is located in New York
State with power, the wind turbine most likely would not be considered an accessory use to its
operation and may be precluded.


The Town of Egremont when reviewing the wind turbine application may use as a guide
regulations created for cellular towers in Egremont. Among these provisions are the requirement
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                    37
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
for a balloon test for visibility (see 4.8.8.8 (e)) and that wireless towers will not have an undue
adverse impact on historic resources, scenic views or residential property values (See 4.8.11.3).
One stakeholder in Egremont, the Appalachian Trail Conservancy, is currently concerned over
the ridgeline placement of cellular towers because of their scenic and aesthetic impacts. This
aspect and concern associated with cell towers will be relevant to the design and placement of
wind turbines in Egremont. Local legal representation is recommended to develop a strategy to
obtain Town approval of this project.


In terms of potential impacts to wetlands, Boreal has assumed that less than one acre of wetlands
would be impacted either on a temporary or permanent basis, therefore this project should be
exempt from Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The "Section 404" program is the principal
way by which the federal government protects wetlands and other aquatic environments. The
program's goal is to ensure protection of the aquatic environment, while allowing for necessary
economic development.


Boreal has prepared permitting tables to identify the local, State and Federal requirements, the
authority and citation, and permit approval time frame as is outlined below:

Figure 6-1 - Local Applicable Regulations – Town of Egremont Zoning By-Law4
Regulation/Permit        Authority         Citation               Approval    Comments
                                                                  Time
Egremont Zoning          Town of           Section 4.2.7 –                    If wind turbine is
Bylaws                   Egremont          Accessory Use                      considered an
                                                                              accessory use, the
                                                                              existing bylaws
                                                                              would allow its
                                                                              construction and
                                                                              operation.
Order of                 Town                                                 Possibly
Conditions               Conservation                                         applicable. This
                         Commission                                           permit is required
                                                                              if wetlands will be
                                                                              altered in any way.
                                                                              The permit
                                                                              application is
                                                                              called a Notice of
4
    As Amended July 18,2005
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                    38
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
Regulation/Permit        Authority           Citation                Approval       Comments
                                                                     Time
                                                                                    Intent and is also
                                                                                    sent the Mass.
                                                                                    Dept. of
                                                                                    Environmental
                                                                                    Protection. See
                                                                                    also Notice of
                                                                                    Intent below in
                                                                                    State section.
                                                                                    If an area of less
                                                                                    than 5000 sq. ft. of
                                                                                    wetland is altered,
                                                                                    then the OOC also
                                                                                    serves as the
                                                                                    project’s Section
                                                                                    401 Water Quality
                                                                                    Certificate. (see
                                                                                    below)



Figure 6-2. State Applicable Regulations and Policies5
Regulation/Permit        Authority           Citation            Approval       Comments
                                                                 Time
MEPA                     Executive           MEPA                N/A –          Jurisdictional authority
Determination:           Office of           Regulations,        Documen        occurs when State
Notice of Intent         Environmental       301 CMR             t MEPA         provides financial
and Environmental        Affairs             11.00               threshold      assistance; Unlikely
Notification Form                                                status via     that any of the various
(ENF)                                                            letter or      MEPA thresholds are
                                                                 email6         triggered requiring an
                                                                                Environmental Impact
                                                                                Report (EIR);
MEPA:                                  MEPA                                     Not applicable
Environmental                          Regulations,
Impact Review                          301 CMR
                                       11.00
NPDES                    Mass          Joint                                    Required if more than
Stormwater               Department of State/Federal                            one acre of land is
General Permit           Environmental Program under                            disturbed. May be
Notice of Intent         Management & the CWA                                   required.

5
  Notes: Portions adapted from Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst -
Community Wind Power Fact Sheet #7 ;
6
  Per conversation with Deerin Babb-Brott MA EoEA’s MEPA Director 3-21-06
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                           39
On-site Wind Generation at
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Regulation/Permit    Authority        Citation        Approval   Comments
                                                      Time
                   US EPA
Wetlands Program Massachusetts        310 CMR                    For development in
Policy: Activities Department of      10.00. March               buffer zones adjacent
In The Buffer Zone Environmental      1999                       to wetlands. See also:
Under The          Protection                                    Bordering Vegetated
Wetlands                                                         Wetland Delineation
Protection Act                                                   Criteria and
Regulations -                                                    Methodology

                                                                 http://www.state.ma.us
                                                                 /dep/brp/ww/files/bvw
                                                                 .htm

                                                                 Limited Projects:
                                                                 Access Roadways or
                                                                 Driveways (DWW
                                                                 Policy 88-2)

                                                                 http://www.state.ma.us
                                                                 /dep/brp/ww/files/acro
                                                                 ad.htm

Massachusetts        Massachusetts    310 CMR                    Must be obtained if
Water Quality Act    DEP              10.00                      any activity alters
Section 401 Water                                                more than 5000 SF of
Quality                                                          wetlands.
Certification
Notice of Intent     Mass. Natural    321 CMR                    Awaiting response.
                     Heritage and     10:00
                     Endangered
                     Species
                     Program
Conservation and     Mass. Natural    321 CMR                    Most likely not
Management           Heritage and     10:00                      applicable - Protects ~
Permit               Endangered       Massachusetts              190 species of
                     Species          Endangered                 vertebrate and
                     Program          Species Act –              invertebrate animals
                                      required if a              and 258 species of
                                      “take” is                  native plants that are
                                      required                   listed as Endangered,
                                                                 Threatened or of
                                                                 Special Concern in
                                                                 Massachusetts

Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                           40
On-site Wind Generation at
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Regulation/Permit    Authority        Citation          Approval    Comments
                                                        Time
Massachusetts        Mass             (304 CMR                      Exempt – see 11.02 3
Forest Cutting       Department of    11.00) require                (e)
Practices            Environmental    reviews of
Regulations          Management       forest cutting
                                      plans and
                                      potential
                                      impacts on rare
                                      species.
General Access    Massachusetts                                    Needed if road
Permits           Department of                                    modifications to State
                  Highways                                         roads must occur
Wide Load Permits Massachusetts                                    Route approval
                  Department of                                    required; Road limits
                  Highways                                         may require funding of
                                                                   separate road survey
                                                                   by a Civil Engineering
                                                                   firm.
Project              Massachusetts    MGL Ch. 9         30 days    Any new construction
Notification Form    Historical       Sections 27-32               projects etc. that
                     Commission                                    require funding,
                     (MHC)                                         licenses, or permits
                                                                   from any state, federal
                                                                   agencies must be
                                                                   reviewed by MHC for
                                                                   impacts to historic and
                                                                   architectural
                                                                   properties. Purpose is
                                                                   to protect important
                                                                   historical and
                                                                   architectural assets of
                                                                   Commonwealth.
Noise control        Massachusetts    MGL 310           criteria   At nearest property
policy               Department of    CMR 7.09 -                   line or residence: No
                     Environmental    7.10                         increase by more than
                     Protection                                    10 dB(A) above
                                                                   ambient; or no “pure
                                                                   tone” condition.
Site approval        Energy Facility M.G.L. c. 164,     Not        Primarily concerned
                     Siting Board    §69H               applicable with plants over 100
                     (EFSB)                                        MW; new
                                                                   transmission lines over
                                                                   1 mile long or over 69
                                                                   kv
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                            41
On-site Wind Generation at
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Regulation/Permit         Authority              Citation            Approval       Comments
                                                                     Time
Request for               Mass                                       Not            MAC should be
Airspace Review           Aeronautics                                applicable     notified if projects are
                          Commission                                 – no           over 200ft tall
                                                                     formal
                                                                     permit
                                                                     required
NEPOOL                    RTO-NE (a/k/a                              None –         For projects under 5
Interconnection           ISO-NE)                                    informati      MW the submittal of
System Impact                                                        onal only      form 18.4 does not
Study & Facility                                                                    trigger a system
Study                                                                               impact study. It
                                                                                    provides information
                                                                                    to RTO-NE for system
                                                                                    planning purposes.7

                                             8
Figure 6-3. Federal Applicable Regulations
Regulation/Permit         Authority      Citation                   Approval            Comments
                                                                    Time
Notice of Proposed        Fed            14 CFR Part 77             At least 30         Required for
Construction or           Aviation                                  days                crane erection
Alteration                Admin.                                                        and tower
                                                                                        structure. All
                                                                                        structures above
                                                                                        199 ft will need
                                                                                        lighting
Service Interim           Fish &         May 13, 2003        Guidance                   No avian
Guidance on               Wildlife       http://www.fws.gov/ Only                       impact
Avoiding and              Service        r9dhcbfa/wind.pdf                              assessment
Minimizing                                                                              performed
Wildlife Impacts
from Wind
Turbines
Habitat                   Fish &         Endangered Species                             Will be initiated
Conservation &            Wildlife       Act                                            during design
Incidental Take           Service
Permit
Migratory Bird            Fish &         Migratory Bird             Prohibits the       Enforcement

7
  These rules are currently under review by FERC. One likely outcome is that if any energy is sold back to the grid
the project will become FERC jurisdictional, and ISO-NE will become more involved in the interconnection
process.
8
  Notes: Portions adapted from Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts at Amherst -
Community Wind Power Fact Sheet #7 ;
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                                 42
On-site Wind Generation at
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Regulation/Permit     Authority    Citation               Approval          Comments
                                                          Time
Treaty Act            Wildlife     Treaty Act             taking, killing   potential
                      Service                             possession
                                                          etc. of
                                                          migratory
                                                          birds
Golden Eagle       Fish &    Golden Eagle                                   Enforcement
Protection Act     Wildlife  Protection Act                                 potential
                   Service
FERC Certification Federal   18 CFR Sec. 8.11             10 business       http://www.ferc
as Qualifying      Energy                                 days              .gov/industries/
Facility (QF)      Regulator                                                electric/gen-
                   y                                                        info/qual-
                   Commissi                                                 fac.asp
                   on



6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

SED’s experience at Jiminy Peak suggests that the best policy to move swiftly and efficiently
through the permitting process is to engage the community wherever possible. The Jiminy
project did not require zoning variances or local public hearings, however, the Jiminy Peak
project team took it upon themselves to engage the community, meet with local people of
influence and wind energy opponents and seek their support for the project. Catamount should
proceed in a similar fashion both on its own and within the structure of the local permitting
process. The Catamount project team should identify local individuals and/or groups that may
oppose a wind turbine project and engage them in a two-way dialogue about the project. This
dialogue should be prefaced by the performance of environmental studies of the Catamount
project including but not limited too avian, rare and endangered species studies as well as an
understanding of the basic wind energy issues like noise, ice, and visual impact as they apply to
Catamount. The goal of these meetings should be to avoid heated debate in public forum and to
approach the community with the necessary information and studies with which to refute wild
misconceptions.




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                 43
On-site Wind Generation at
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SED further recommends that Catamount engage the Berkshire Regional Planning Council about
its project. The Council’s guidelines for wind energy do not apply to single turbine projects,
however, engaging this group to assure them that Catamount is taking the appropriate steps to
mitigate any potential environmental impacts is a good measure to secure positive community
relations. Similarly the project team should engage the local historical commission and adhere to
their guidelines to appease their concerns of the project having an adverse impact on local
historical sites. Although the decision lies with the Massachusetts Historical Commission, the
local group is often relied upon for the decision making process at the State Level.




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On-site Wind Generation at
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DEVELOPMENT BUDGET, TIMELINE AND TOTAL CAPITAL COSTS
                                           Section 7

7.1 DEVELOPMENT BUDGET AND TIMELINE

The following Budget (Figure 7-1) and Schedule (Figure 7-2) are designed to be conservative
estimates of the development process for a wind project at the Catamount Ski Area based upon
experience with similar projects in the region. These projections should be updated on a
continual basis as onsite work commences. Please view the attached documentation as
preliminary.

Figure 7-1. Development Budget
               Design Tasks                                               Total
               1.0 Project Milestones
                 1.1 Project Progress Briefing                                $2,000
                 1.2 Final Report                                             $5,000
               2.0 Permitting Toolbox
                 2.2 Avian Impact Assessment                                 $12,000
                 2.3 Environmental and Wildlife Impact Assessment             $6,000
               3.0 Public Outreach
                 3.1 Public Forums/hearings                                  $10,000
               4.0 Permits and Regulatory Filings
                 4.1 Building Permit Filed                                    $2,500
                 4.2 Conditional Use Permit Filed                             $2,500
                 4.3 MEPA Filed                                               $1,000
                 4.4 FAA Filed                                                 $500
                 4.5 FCC Filed (if required)                                   $500
               5.0 Interconnection Application                               $10,000
               6.0 Project Design
                 6.1 Civil Design                                            $30,000
                 6.2 Electrical Design                                       $45,000
                 6.3 Select and Hire Electrical and Civil Contractors         $2,000
               7.0 Capital Cost Estimates
                 7.1 Wind Turbine Inquiry                                     $5,000
                         7.1.1 Finalize Wind Turbine Purchase Agreement       $5,000
                 7.2 Capital Cost Estimates                                  $15,000
               8.0 Green Marketing                                            $1,000
               9.0 Project Financing
                  9.1 Finalize Project Financing                             $15,000
                                                                          Total
               Total Project Cost                                          $170,000

               Total Project Cost                                         $170,000
               Total Payment from MTC                                      $75,000
               Cash Payment from Jiminy Peak                               $95,000

Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                45
On-site Wind Generation at
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  Figure 7-2. Project Timeline

  Design Tasks                                                               Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Winter 07-08   May-08 Jun-08   Jul-08 Aug-08
  1.0 Project Milestones
    1.1 Project Progress Briefing
    1.2 Final Report
  2.0 Permitting Toolbox
    2.1 Avian Impact Assessment
    2.2 Environmental and Wildlife Impact Assessment
  3.0 Public Outreach
    3.1 Public Forums/hearings
  4.0 Permits and Regulatory Filings
    4.1 Building Permit Filed
    4.2 Conditional Use Permit Filed
    4.3 MEPA Filed
    4.4 FAA Filed
    4.5 FCC Filed (if required)
  5.0 Interconnection Application
  6.0 Project Design
    6.1 Civil Design
    6.2 Electrical Design
    6.3 Select and Hire Electrical and Civil Contractors
  7.0 Capital Cost Estimates
    7.1 Wind Turbine Inquiry
            7.1.1 Finalize Wind Turbine Purchase Agreement
    7.2 Capital Cost Estimates
  8.0 Green Marketing
  9.0 Project Financing
     9.1 Finalize Project Financing

  Construction Tasks                                                         Nov-06 Dec-06 Jan-07 Feb-07 Mar-07 Apr-07 May-07 Jun-07 Jul-07 Aug-07 Sep-07 Winter 07-08   May-08 Jun-08   Jul-08 Aug-08
  1.0 Construction Period 1: Wind Turbine, Tower, and Transformer Purchase
  2.0 Construction Period 2: Balance of Plant
    2.1 Access Road and Crane Pad
    2.2 Trenching and Excavation
    2.3 Foundation and Tower Insert Installation
    2.4 Wire Run
    2.5 Interconnection and Metering Setup
  3.0 Construction Period 3 - Wind Turbine Installation and Comissioning
    3.1 Cranes to Site
    3.2 Unload Equipment
    3.3 Wind Turbine Erection
    3.4 Final Electrical Terminations
    3.5 Comissioning Step 1 Startup and Shakedown
    3.6 Comissioning Step 2 Electrical Comissioning




Final Report - Technical Assessment for On-site Wind Generation at Catamount Ski Area                                                                                                                    46
The following is a line-by-line detail of the budgetary and schedule tasks listed in Figures 7-1
and 7-2.


Task 1.0 Project Milestones
There will be two milestones built into the budget and timeline to report on the process.


       Subtask 1.1 Project Progress Briefing
       At the halfway point of the project development a Project Progress Briefing will be
       submitted to give the current status of the project including any needed updates to the
       budget and timeline.


       Subtask 1.2 Final Report
       At the commencement of development tasks a final report will be submitted to present all
       findings.


Task 2.0 Permitting Toolbox
It is important that the potential environmental impacts of a wind turbine at Catamount Ski resort
are fully understood early in the development process. This way potential fatal flaws can be
identified and addressed before a great deal of time and money is spent on project development.


       Subtask 2.1 Avian Impact Assessment
       Due to the perceived interaction between wind turbines and avian life, a Phase 1 Avian
       Risk Assessment will need to be performed and the project team should consult the local
       US Fish and Wildlife Service as well as the local chapter of the Audubon Society. An
       accurate understanding of the potential interaction between local avian life, migrating
       avian life and the wind power project should be determined


       Subtask 2.2 Environmental and Wildlife Impact Assessment




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On-site Wind Generation at
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       The project team should hire a contractor to perform an impact assessment of non-avian
       wildlife and general environmental impact including but not limited to public safety,
       cultural impact, sedimentation, runoff and watershed implications.


Task 3.0 Public Outreach
This project will have to go through the local permitting authority so it is important we build into
the development budget and timeline adequate public outreach.


       Subtask 3.1 Public Forums and Hearings
       To secure public support for the Catamount project, the project management team should
       host several public forums to allow for open discussion of the project and to gather public
       input into the development process. There may also be required public hearing during
       the local permitting process.


Task 4.0 Permits and Regulatory Filings
The project team will need to apply for and secure all necessary permits and approvals required
for project construction and completion. These approvals will include but are not limited to:
Local Building Permit; Conditional Use Permit; MEPA; FAA and FCC Notice of Proposed
Construction.


       Subtask 4.1 Building Permit Filed


       Subtask 4.2 Conditional Use Permit Filed


       Subtask 4.3 Massachusetts Environmental Protection Act Filed


       Subtask 4.4 FAA Filed
       By default, any obstruction over 200 feet above ground level, needs to be filed with the
       FAA to determine if it meets appropriate setbacks from runways and to determine what
       type of lighting is needed.


Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  48
On-site Wind Generation at
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        Subtask 4.5 FCC Filed (if required)
        It may be necessary to file for an FCC permit. For this task, potential interference with
        government and commercial communication will need to be analyzed.




Task 5.0 Interconnection Application
Project team will need to perform a system impact study to research and understand the
implications of interconnecting a new wind energy facility in parallel with the Massachusetts
Electric (ME) grid. Any technical fatal flaws associated with the location or size of the
interconnection should be understood before significant time is invested into the interconnection
process.


Task 6.0 Project Design
The project team will need to work with consulting engineers to design the balance of the wind
energy plant. The design will be focused on working within the confines of site constraints,
environmental concerns, and regulatory decisions. All project design will be performed with the
intent of hiring suitable contractors to construct all aspects of the project.


        Subtask 6.1 Civil Design
        A local engineering firm should be hired to design major civil balance of plant items
        including turbine foundations, transformer pads, roads, staging areas, electrical trenches
        and crane pads. Civil design will also include a site survey and geo-technical assessment
        of the site.


        Subtask 6.2 Electrical Design
        A local engineering firm should be hired to design major electrical balance of plant items
        including interconnection equipment, central collection system, SCADA communication
        equipment, and wind turbine transformers.


        Subtask 5.3 Select and Hire Electrical and Civil Contractors


Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  49
On-site Wind Generation at
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        Once the appropriate engineering is performed electrical and civil contractors will be
        evaluated and hired for the construction phase of the project.


Task 7.0 Capital Cost Estimates
Design work in conjunction with a wind turbine inquiry should be used to firmly understand the
entire cost structure of the project.


        Subtask 7.1 Wind Turbine Inquiry
        All wind turbine vendors with competent technology should be offered the opportunity to
        bid on the wind turbine supply contract for this project. Project details will need to be
        assembled in a request for bids and the responses evaluated to determine the best wind
        turbine for the Catamount project.


            Subtask 7.1.1 Finalize Wind Turbine Purchase Agreement
            Once the best wind turbine for the project is selected any tasks required by the turbine
            vendor to solidify a wind turbine purchase agreement will be completed.


        Subtask 7.2 Capital Cost Estimates
        Project design work should be provided to local contractors to bid on the construction of
        the project.


Task 8.0 Green Marketing
Based on the total project cost and the energy yield prediction, the project team will need to
secure a marketer for the Renewable Energy Credits associated with the project.


Task 9.0 Project Financing
The project team will need to identify the appropriate debt and equity project financing options
and determine which is the most suitable for the owners of Catamount.


        Subtask 9.1 Finalize Project Financing


Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                   50
On-site Wind Generation at
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       Once the ideal financing arrangement is identified, it will be utilized and the turbine order
       shall be made.



7.2 TOTAL CAPITAL COST

The capital costs and life cycle costs for a wind energy generating facility have been compiled
based on best practices and SED’s experience with other projects in the US. Each set of costs is
based on individual site conditions as detailed throughout this report. Figure 7-3 breaks the
Capital Costs into three main categories and shows the “all-in” cost for a project located at any
of the three locations.




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  51
On-site Wind Generation at
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Figure 7-3. Capital Costs

Construction Tasks                                             1000kW              600kW                250kW
Project Development                                                $95,000             95000                95000
Project Management                                               $112,500             $90,000               70000
1.0 Construction Period 1: Wind Turbine and Tower*              $1,385,000           $993,300            $509,250
   1.1 Transport To Site                                           $88,000            $80,000             $40,000
2.0 Construction Period 2: Balance of Plant
   2.1 Access Road and Crane Pad                                    $250,000            $200,000            $200,000
   2.2 Trenching and Excavation                                      $25,000             $15,000             $10,000
   2.3 Foundation and Tower Insert Installation                     $100,000             $75,000             $50,000
   2.4 Wire Run                                                     $150,000            $125,000            $100,000
   2.5 Interconnection, Transformers and Metering Setup             $100,000            $100,000             $80,000
3.0 Construction Period 3 - Wind Turbine Installation and
Commissioning
   3.1 Cranes to Site, Unload, Erection                           $400,000            $300,000           $150,000
   3.2 Final Electrical Terminations                               $88,000             $50,000             $30,000
   3.3 Commissioning Step 1 Startup and Shakedown              Included           Included             Included
   3.4 Commissioning Step 2 Electrical Commissioning           Included           Included             Included
4.0 Miscellaneous Costs                                            $40,000             $40,000               40000
                                                            Total              Total                Total
Total Construction Cost                                         $2,833,500             $2,163,300           1374250



Total Project Cost                                            $2,833,500          $2,163,300 $1,374,250
MTC Grant                                                      -$500,000           -$500,000          -$375,000
Total Capital Needed                                          $2,333,500          $1,663,300           $999,250




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On-site Wind Generation at
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                              VISUAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
                                             Section 8

One part of a wind project, which cannot easily be quantified, are the aesthetics and how people
within site of the project will view the wind turbine. Most wind turbines reach high into the air
and have potential to be visible from the surrounding area. For this reason it is important to
create an accurate photo simulation or photomontage of what the turbine will look like from a
few vantage points. These pictures could also be used in the permitting process if needed. For
sizing we used the height and blade diameter for a 600kW turbine since it produced the best
economics for this project.


8.1 METHODOLOGY
It is important to choose the vantage points and day that the pictures are taken carefully.
Particular considerations are:


   •   Densely populated areas should be considered first since that is where the most people
       will be able to see the turbine.
   •   Distance needs to be considered. If a picture is taken from too far away, the turbine will
       barely be visible.
   •   Weather is very important. Pictures should be taken in weather that most accurately
       depicts the weather in the area. If there is no particular prominent weather in an area a
       clear day should be used so the turbine will be most visible.
   •   Historical and or pristine areas should be considered to demonstrate how the turbine
       would or would not impinge on the backdrop.
   •   Local topography and tree cover has potential to limit picture sites to ones where the
       actual turbine would be visible.


One of the largest considerations in choosing sites to take the pictures from was the local
topography and ground cover. Tall trees cover a vast majority of the surrounding area and most
roadways are in valleys making a vantage point where the turbine would be visible particularly
limited. In addition, the densely populated areas around the mountain are too far away to

Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                   53
On-site Wind Generation at
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      effectively view the turbine. In consulting with the Staff at Catamount SED determined 3 spots
      to take the pictures from. Figure 8-1 is a list of these 3 spots.

      Figure 8-1. Photo-Simulation Locations (Coordinates are UTM 18T)

                                                                                       Camera      Camera
Picture                                                                   Elevation
                        Description                   Lat      Long                   Direction     Angle
Number                                                                      (feet)
                                                                                      (degrees)   (degrees)
  1       Field at Corner of East and West Street 625702 4665892            1597         12           3
  2       Pond Where Routes 31 and 41 intersect 630268 4668184              729          282          3
  3       Farm on Baldwin Hill                    628943 4671355            1000         259          3



      Picture 1: This location was chosen because it provided a good vantage point to view the
      turbine. It was one of the few locations along Mount Washington Road and East Street where
      the turbine could be viewed.


      Picture 2: This pond provides a large clearing of trees enabling a view of the turbine location.
      The Catamount staff also told us that artists frequently use this particular spot to paint the
      scenery.


      Picture 3: This location was chosen because it is on top of a small hill surrounded by farmland
      providing a clean look at the front of Catamount.


      Figure 8-2 is a map of the area surrounding Catamount with the turbine location and 3 picture
      locations identified. Lines were added to show the line of sight for each picture.




      Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                     54
      On-site Wind Generation at
      Catamount Ski Area
Figure 8-2. Picture and Turbine Location with Line of Sight




One of the most difficult parts of creating an accurate photomontage of a wind turbine is making
sure that the hub location and blade lengths are correct. In order to create the most accurate
results a 12-foot long by 6-foot diameter helium blimp was floated at the proposed location of
the turbine. The blimp was maintained at a height of 229 feet, which is the hub height of the
600kW turbine to be superimposed on the images. Using the hub height location from the blimp
and a radio tower next to the blimp as an additional frame of reference, the correct sizing for the
turbine could be determined. Once the turbine was sized correctly and place on the picture some
finishing effects were used to make it look more realistic.
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  55
On-site Wind Generation at
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8.2 PHOTOMONTAGES

SED has completed one of the three photomontages. The picture used for the completed visual
assessment in Appendix C was taken on a day that was not particularly clear and a light haze can
be seen in Version 1 that makes the wind turbine difficult to see. This is the most realistic view
for that day but in the interest of making the wind turbine more clearly recognized SED
manipulated the background colors in Version 2. The photomontages from the other two
locations are attached separately and larger versions of the pictures can be found in the electronic
version of this report.




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  56
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
                                     ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
                                                 Section 9

Most of the factors used to determine the economic effects of a wind energy generating facility at
the Catamount Ski Area have been detailed earlier in the report.


    •   Capital Costs (Figure 7-3)
    •   Wind-Generated Electricity Value (3-5)
    •   Energy Yield (Figure 2-2)
    •   Electricity Consumption (Figures 3-1 and 3-2)


The final step of the economic analysis is to combine these findings to perform a cash flow
analysis of each potential wind turbine examined. In addition to the assumptions detailed
elsewhere in this report the following assumptions will be applied to the cash flow analysis:


    •   Catamount will pay cash down for 100% of the project cost
    •   Operation, Maintenance and Insurance costs will increase with standard inflation of 3%
    •   Operation, Maintenance and Insurance costs will be reflective of the amount of
        turbulence in the wind at each site


A summary of the cash flow analysis is provided as Figure 9-1. The output of the cash flow
model for each potential wind turbine is attached as Appendix B. As can be seen from the cash
flow analysis the 600kW wind turbine shows the quickest and highest return on investment
independent of the rate of electricity rate inflation.




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  57
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
Figure 9-1. Cash Flow Analysis Summary
                                                                   0% Inflation of Rates
Turbine         Estimated Total         Gross Output      IRR %        Payback Term        25-Year
 Size            Installed Cost             (kWh)      (equity only)       (Years)        Savings
250kW              $999,250*               443,807          2%                19          $143,000
600kW             $1,663,300*             1,601,677         8%                8          $1,531,878
1000kW            $2,333,500*             2,175,395         7%                 8         $1,648,680
          * includes full MTC funding
                                                                   3% Inflation of Rates
                                                          IRR %        Payback Term        25-Year
                                        Turbine Size   (equity only)       (Years)        Savings
                                          250kW             4%                15          $543,000
                                          600kW            11%                7          $2,747,555
                                          1000kW           10%                8          $3,113,704

                                                                   8% Inflation of Rates
                                                          IRR %        Payback Term       25-Year
                                        Turbine Size   (equity only)       (Years)        Savings
                                          250kW             9%                11         $1,800,000
                                          600kW            15%                6          $6,635,282
                                          1000kW           14%                7          $7,798,845




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                  58
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
                    FINANCING, OWNERSHIP, OPERATIONS
                                            Section 10

Detailed below are the two most feasible and beneficial scenarios for ownership of a wind
turbine project at Catamount.


Ownership Scenario 1: Catamount Financed, Owned and Operated
This scenario would be similar to that used by Catamount for current expansions and capital
projects such as the installation of a new ski lift. Catamount would determine the most
advantageous financing terms with its lending institutions and would own, operate and be
responsible for the wind turbine. Utilizing this scenario Catamount could gain additional
revenue from the Federal Production Tax Credit for all excess generation, 100% of the RECs,
and equipment depreciation. This scenario would provide Catamount with the highest returns
but likewise requires a higher upfront investment. The cash flow analysis summary presented in
Figure 9-1 details the economic benefits of this scenario. Catamount staff would likely take care
of day-to-day operations in addition to remote monitoring by either a qualified maintenance firm
or otherwise the wind turbine’s manufacturer. Catamount staff could be trained as “first
responders” and a qualified maintenance firm would be contracted to perform scheduled
maintenance, parts replacements and to provide emergency service.


Ownership Scenario 2: Third Party Financed, Owned and Operated
In this scenario Catamount would pay a third party owner/operator a predetermined rate for the
electricity produced by the wind turbine hosted by Catamount. The electricity rate paid would be
based on the terms of a power purchase agreement to be negotiated with a third party. This rate
would likely be less than Catamount’s current retail electricity costs and would increase at a
predetermined rate. The third party owner would be responsible for the majority, if not all of the
costs associated with financing the remaining development tasks, equipment purchase,
construction, operations and maintenance.


The third party owner would be able to take advantage of the Federal Production Tax Credits
associated with the sale of 100% of the wind turbine’s electrical output in addition to equipment
depreciation and REC sales. These benefits have made on-site wind projects more attractive to
Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                   59
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
financiers and SED has established relationships with several companies that have expressed
interest in pursuing the third-party ends of this type of model. The economic benefit to
Catamount would be the price hedge against rising electricity costs in the form of a long-term
power purchase agreement.


Figure 10-1 demonstrates the annual cash flow summary for Catamount with a 600kW wind
turbine owned by a third party. This model employed the following assumptions:
           o Catamount would sign the power purchase agreement with a fixed rate set at
               Catamount’s retail electricity rate for 2006
           o Both wholesale and retail electricity rates will increase at 3%
           o Renewable Energy Credits would be valued at $0.03/kWh for the first 10 years of
               the project
                  o REC value would be divided with 75% to the owner and 25% to
                      Catamount
           o The third party owner would pay and be responsible for all remaining costs
               including development tasks, equipment, construction, operations and
               maintenance.




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                                60
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
Figure 10-1. Catamount Financial Summary for 600kW Third Party Scenario
Year Energy Savings from Utility Energy Payment to Third Party Green Tag Revenue Annual Cash Flow
  1            $158,338.44                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $12,012.58
  2            $163,088.60                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $16,762.73
  3            $167,981.25                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $21,655.39
  4            $173,020.69                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $26,694.83
  5            $178,211.31                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $31,885.45
  6            $183,557.65                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $37,231.79
  7            $189,064.38                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $42,738.52
  8            $194,736.31                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $48,410.45
  9            $200,578.40                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $54,252.54
 10            $206,595.75                     -$158,338.44             $12,012.58   $60,269.89
 11            $212,793.63                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $54,455.18
 12            $219,177.44                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $60,838.99
 13            $225,752.76                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $67,414.32
 14            $232,525.34                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $74,186.90
 15            $239,501.10                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $81,162.66
 16            $246,686.14                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $88,347.69
 17            $254,086.72                     -$158,338.44               $0.00      $95,748.28
 18            $261,709.32                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $103,370.88
 19            $269,560.60                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $111,222.16
 20            $277,647.42                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $119,308.98
 21            $285,976.84                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $127,638.40
 22            $294,556.15                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $136,217.70
 23            $303,392.83                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $145,054.39
 24            $312,494.62                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $154,156.17
 25            $321,869.45                     -$158,338.44               $0.00     $163,531.01




Final Report - Technical Assessment for                                         61
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
                                APPENDIX A
                   Meteorological Commissioning Form




Final Report - Technical Assessment for
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
                                   MET TOWER COMMISSIONING SHEET                                                                        Site: CSA
                          State: Massachusetts                               Tower Type: Rohn free-standing, aprox. 90ft.          Date Installed: Oct. 21, 2005
           Township/County: Egremont                                        Cell Provider: XXX                                       Installed By: SED
               Project Name: Catamount Ski Area Wind Project                Logger Cell #: XXX                                 Data Retrieval By: SED
         Logger Type & S/N Symphonie               XXX                       Calling To #: XXX                                              Tel #: 315.524.9010
                          ESN: XXX                                        Tower Lat/Long: 18T 0625591; 4668678                     Local Contact: Bill Gilbert, Catamount Owner-413.528.1262 x 104
               Landowner(s): Catamount Ski Area                              Map Datum: UTM                                        Tower Cotact: Jim Scholefield, WAMC-800.323.9262 x152
                          Tel #:                                                   Elevation: 559 meters                      Lock Combination: XXX

         Instrument                Instrument            Instrument
                                                                                                 NOTES                                      Sensor Replacement
            Type                    Height (m)           Orientation
        (ch# / sensor)              (measured)      (deg from True N)                     (slope/offset, etc.)                        (date/time, height/orientation, ect.)
  1 / #40 anemometer                    25.1968             106         standard
  2 / #40 anemometer                    25.3746            338.5        standard
  3 / #40 anemometer                    25.8064            215.5        standard


  7 / 200P wind vane                    23.62200           215.5        standard
  8 / 200P wind vane                    23.46960           338.5        standard


  9 / #110S temperature                 25.37460            North       standard
10 / #110S temperature                   1.8288             North       standard


            Notes:                                                                                                           Notes for data retrieval
Photographs Attached-photos taken from the tower at approximately 23 meters above ground level                               Earthlink Login: XXX@earthlink.net
Tower Dimensions-tower face measured .83820 meters at instrumented levels                                                    Earthlink Password:                   XXX
Booms-113" total length NRG booms; extend 80 inches from tower;




            Lead Technician: Ernest A. Pritchard, SED                                  Date:                 21-Oct-05




Catamount Commissioning Sheet-for MTC                                                Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc.
                                APPENDIX B

                           Output of Financial Models




Final Report - Technical Assessment for
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
1MW Wind Turbine on 70m Tower
                         Prepared for:
                                Date:        6/28/2006
                                                                                                                   Self Financed
Assumptions (Inputs)                                                 Annual Cash Flow Model
                     Project Size (MW):                       1                                                                                                                                                                                                             Electricity Inflation Rates
                  Total Installed Cost ($):          $2,333,500                                                                                                                                              Production    Income       Interest                  0%                    3%                  8%
             Allocation to Business (%):                       100                                     Net            REC              O&M       Insurance    Principal     Interest       Net      Deprec         Tax        Tax     Adjustment       Annual          Total                Total                Total
           Annual Energy Output (kWh):                   2,175,395            Year                  Energy           Sales            Costs          Costs   Payments     Payments      Deprec.      Value       Credit      Value         Value    Cash Flow      Cash Flow            Cash Flow            Cash Flow
                    PPA Value ($/kWh):                    $0.0873              0                        0%                                                                                                                                         ($2,333,500)   ($2,333,500)         ($2,333,500)         ($2,333,500)
                     PPA Escalator (%):                         0
      Energy Value at Facility ($/kWh)                    0.136
                   Percent to Grid (%)                       65                 1                 $190,815         $65,262         ($17,403)     ($10,000)        -              0     $933,400   $308,022     $26,866    ($75,462)          $0      $488,100     ($1,845,400)         ($1,845,400)         ($1,845,400)
         Energy Value to Grid ($/kWh)                     0.061                 2                 $190,815         $65,262         ($17,925)     ($10,300)        -              0     $560,040   $184,813     $27,672    ($75,191)          $0      $365,146     ($1,480,254)         ($1,476,419)         ($1,470,027)
     Green Tag or REC Value ($/kWh):                    $0.0300                 3                 $190,815         $65,262         ($18,463)     ($10,609)        -              0     $336,024   $110,888     $28,502    ($74,912)          $0      $291,484     ($1,188,771)         ($1,177,149)         ($1,157,269)
  Length of Green Tag Contract (Years)                       10                 4                 $190,815         $65,262         ($19,017)     ($10,927)        -              0     $201,614    $66,533     $29,357    ($74,624)          $0      $247,399       ($941,371)           ($917,895)           ($876,667)
             Green Tag Ownership (%)                        100                 5                 $190,815         $65,262         ($19,587)     ($11,255)        -              0     $120,969    $39,920     $30,238    ($74,327)          $0      $221,065       ($720,306)           ($680,785)           ($609,515)
              Loan Downpayment (%):                         100                 6                 $190,815         $65,262         ($20,175)     ($11,593)        -              0           $0         $0     $31,145    ($74,022)          $0      $181,432       ($538,874)           ($478,990)           ($368,080)
                   Down Payment ($):                 $2,333,500                 7                 $190,815         $65,262         ($20,780)     ($11,941)        -              0           $0         $0     $32,080    ($73,708)          $0      $181,728       ($357,146)           ($272,452)           ($111,322)
                  Amount of Loan ($):                        $0                 8                 $190,815         $65,262         ($21,404)     ($12,299)        -              0           $0         $0     $33,042    ($73,384)          $0      $182,033       ($175,113)            ($61,031)            $161,970
                     Interest Rate (%):                     8.5                 9                 $190,815         $65,262         ($22,046)     ($12,668)        -              0           $0         $0     $34,033    ($73,050)          $0      $182,347          $7,234             $155,422             $453,105
                   Loan Term (Years):                        12                10                 $190,815         $65,262         ($22,707)     ($13,048)        -              0           $0         $0     $35,054    ($72,706)          $0      $182,670        $189,904             $377,056             $763,495
                       Month Installed:                       0                11                 $190,815              $0         ($23,388)     ($13,439)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($50,816)          $0      $103,172        $293,076             $524,196           $1,014,831
             Net Federal Tax Rate (%):                       33                12                 $190,815              $0         ($24,090)     ($13,842)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($50,451)          $0      $102,432        $395,508             $675,750           $1,287,507
               Net State Tax Rate (%):                        8                13                 $190,815              $0         ($24,813)     ($14,258)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($50,076)          $0      $101,669        $497,177             $831,852           $1,583,269
                  PTC Value ($/kWh):                      0.019                14                 $190,815              $0         ($25,557)     ($14,685)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($49,689)          $0      $100,884        $598,061             $992,636           $1,904,000
                    PTC Inflation (%)                         3                15                 $190,815              $0         ($26,324)     ($15,126)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($49,291)          $0      $100,075        $698,136           $1,158,243           $2,251,738
                 O & M Cost ($/kWh):                     $0.008                16                 $190,815              $0         ($27,114)     ($15,580)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($48,880)          $0       $99,242        $797,377           $1,328,819           $2,628,683
              O & M Inflation Rate (%):                       3                17                 $190,815              $0         ($27,927)     ($16,047)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($48,458)          $0       $98,384        $895,761           $1,504,512           $3,037,215
               Insurance Cost ($/MW)                      10000                18                 $190,815              $0         ($28,765)     ($16,528)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($48,022)          $0       $97,500        $993,261           $1,685,476           $3,479,902
           Insurance Inflation Rate (%)                       3                19                 $190,815              $0         ($29,628)     ($17,024)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($47,574)          $0       $96,589      $1,089,850           $1,871,869           $3,959,521
                                                                               20                 $190,815              $0         ($30,517)     ($17,535)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($47,112)          $0       $95,652      $1,185,502           $2,063,854           $4,479,073
                                                                               21                 $190,815              $0         ($31,432)     ($18,061)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($46,636)          $0       $94,686      $1,280,188           $2,261,598           $5,041,798
                                                                               22                 $190,815              $0         ($32,375)     ($18,603)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($46,146)          $0       $93,691      $1,373,879           $2,465,274           $5,651,200
                                                                               23                 $190,815              $0         ($33,346)     ($19,161)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($45,642)          $0       $92,666      $1,466,545           $2,675,061           $6,311,061
Results                                                                        24                 $190,815              $0         ($34,347)     ($19,736)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($45,122)          $0       $91,611      $1,558,156           $2,891,141           $7,025,471
                                                                               25                 $190,815              $0         ($35,377)     ($20,328)        -              0          $0                      $0    ($44,586)          $0       $90,524     $1,648,680           $3,113,704           $7,798,845
Loan Payments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IRR                  IRR
                    Monthly Payment ($):                      $0 Blue shading indicates a column that shows a tax value not a cash transaction                                                                                                                                                 9.8                 14.2
          Value of Interest Deduction ($):                    $0
               Net Monthly Payment ($):                       $0
                                                                 Internal Rate of Return
Ave. Monthly Savings on Bill                                                   Years 1 - 25:          7.1%
                         Year 1 ($):                     $15,817
                             Year 10 ($):                $15,817
                             Year 20 ($):                $15,817
                             Year 25 ($):                $15,817
600kW Wind Turbine on 75m Tower
                         Prepared for:
                                Date:        6/28/2006
                                                                                                                   Self Financed
Assumptions (Inputs)                                                 Annual Cash Flow Model
                      Project Size (MW):                      0.6                                                                                                                                                                                                            Electricity Inflation Rates
                  Total Installed Cost ($):          $1,663,300                                                                                                                                              Production    Income       Interest                          0%                     3%                  8%
             Allocation to Business (%):                       100                                     Net            REC              O&M       Insurance    Principal     Interest       Net      Deprec         Tax        Tax     Adjustment       Annual          Total                Total                 Total
           Annual Energy Output (kWh):                   1,601,677            Year                  Energy           Sales            Costs          Costs   Payments     Payments      Deprec.      Value       Credit      Value         Value    Cash Flow      Cash Flow            Cash Flow             Cash Flow
                    PPA Value ($/kWh):                    $0.0985              0                        0%                                                                                                                                         ($1,663,300)   ($1,663,300)         ($1,663,300)          ($1,663,300)
                     PPA Escalator (%):                         0
      Energy Value at Facility ($/kWh)                    0.136
                   Percent to Grid (%)                       50                 1                 $158,338         $48,050         ($12,813)      ($6,000)        -              0     $665,320   $219,556     $15,216    ($61,900)          $0      $360,447     ($1,302,853)         ($1,302,853)          ($1,302,853)
         Energy Value to Grid ($/kWh)                     0.061                 2                 $158,338         $48,050         ($13,198)      ($6,180)        -              0     $399,192   $131,733     $15,672    ($61,714)          $0      $272,703     ($1,030,150)         ($1,026,967)          ($1,021,663)
     Green Tag or REC Value ($/kWh):                    $0.0300                 3                 $158,338         $48,050         ($13,594)      ($6,365)        -              0     $239,515    $79,040     $16,143    ($61,522)          $0      $220,090       ($810,059)           ($800,416)            ($783,920)
  Length of Green Tag Contract (Years)                       10                 4                 $158,338         $48,050         ($14,002)      ($6,556)        -              0     $143,709    $47,424     $16,627    ($61,324)          $0      $188,558       ($621,502)           ($602,022)            ($567,810)
             Green Tag Ownership (%)                        100                 5                 $158,338         $48,050         ($14,422)      ($6,753)        -              0      $86,225    $28,454     $17,126    ($61,121)          $0      $169,674       ($451,828)           ($419,033)            ($359,894)
              Loan Downpayment (%):                         100                 6                 $158,338         $48,050         ($14,854)      ($6,956)        -              0           $0         $0     $17,639    ($60,911)          $0      $141,307       ($310,521)           ($260,829)            ($168,797)
                   Down Payment ($):                 $1,663,300                 7                 $158,338         $48,050         ($15,300)      ($7,164)        -              0           $0         $0     $18,169    ($60,695)          $0      $141,398       ($169,123)            ($98,845)              $34,861
                  Amount of Loan ($):                        $0                 8                 $158,338         $48,050         ($15,759)      ($7,379)        -              0           $0         $0     $18,714    ($60,473)          $0      $141,492        ($27,631)             $67,034              $252,080
                     Interest Rate (%):                     8.5                 9                 $158,338         $48,050         ($16,232)      ($7,601)        -              0           $0         $0     $19,275    ($60,244)          $0      $141,588        $113,956             $236,922              $483,940
                   Loan Term (Years):                        12                10                 $158,338         $48,050         ($16,719)      ($7,829)        -              0           $0         $0     $19,853    ($60,008)          $0      $141,687        $255,644             $410,942              $731,609
                       Month Installed:                       0                11                 $158,338              $0         ($17,220)      ($8,063)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($43,908)          $0       $89,147        $344,790             $536,574              $943,702
             Net Federal Tax Rate (%):                       33                12                 $158,338              $0         ($17,737)      ($8,305)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($43,658)          $0       $88,639        $433,429             $665,974            $1,173,610
               Net State Tax Rate (%):                        8                13                 $158,338              $0         ($18,269)      ($8,555)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($43,400)          $0       $88,115        $521,544             $799,257            $1,422,782
                  PTC Value ($/kWh):                      0.019                14                 $158,338              $0         ($18,817)      ($8,811)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($43,134)          $0       $87,576        $609,120             $936,538            $1,692,788
                    PTC Inflation (%)                         3                15                 $158,338              $0         ($19,381)      ($9,076)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($42,861)          $0       $87,021        $696,140           $1,077,937            $1,985,319
                 O & M Cost ($/kWh):                     $0.008                16                 $158,338              $0         ($19,963)      ($9,348)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($42,579)          $0       $86,449        $782,589           $1,223,579            $2,302,206
              O & M Inflation Rate (%):                       3                17                 $158,338              $0         ($20,562)      ($9,628)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($42,289)          $0       $85,859        $868,448           $1,373,590            $2,645,426
               Insurance Cost ($/MW)                      10000                18                 $158,338              $0         ($21,179)      ($9,917)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($41,990)          $0       $85,253        $953,701           $1,528,101            $3,017,114
           Insurance Inflation Rate (%)                       3                19                 $158,338              $0         ($21,814)     ($10,215)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($41,682)          $0       $84,628      $1,038,329           $1,687,247            $3,419,580
                                                                               20                 $158,338              $0         ($22,468)     ($10,521)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($41,365)          $0       $83,984      $1,122,312           $1,851,168            $3,855,316
                                                                               21                 $158,338              $0         ($23,142)     ($10,837)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($41,039)          $0       $83,321      $1,205,633           $2,020,007            $4,327,016
                                                                               22                 $158,338              $0         ($23,837)     ($11,162)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($40,702)          $0       $82,638      $1,288,271           $2,193,910            $4,837,590
                                                                               23                 $158,338              $0         ($24,552)     ($11,497)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($40,356)          $0       $81,934      $1,370,205           $2,373,031            $5,390,182
Results                                                                        24                 $158,338              $0         ($25,288)     ($11,842)        -              0           $0                     $0    ($39,999)          $0       $81,210      $1,451,415           $2,557,525            $5,988,190
                                                                               25                 $158,338              $0         ($26,047)     ($12,197)        -              0          $0                      $0    ($39,631)          $0       $80,463     $1,531,878            $2,747,555           $6,635,282
Loan Payments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IRR                   IRR
                    Monthly Payment ($):                      $0 Blue shading indicates a column that shows a tax value not a cash transaction                                                                                                                                                  11.3                15.6
          Value of Interest Deduction ($):                    $0
               Net Monthly Payment ($):                       $0
                                                                 Internal Rate of Return
Ave. Monthly Savings on Bill                                                   Years 1 - 25:          8.6%
                         Year 1 ($):                     $13,147
                             Year 10 ($):                $13,147
                             Year 20 ($):                $13,147
                             Year 25 ($):                $13,147
250kW Wind Turbine on 50m Tower
                        Prepared for:
                               Date:        6/28/2006
                                                                                                        Self Financed
Assumptions (Inputs)                                               Annual Cash Flow Model
                    Project Size (MW):                      0.25                                                                                                                                                                                             Electricity Inflation Rates
                Total Installed Cost ($):               $999,250                                                                                                                                   Production    Income        Interest                0%                 3%                  8%
            Allocation to Business (%):                      100                           Net             REC           O&M       Insurance        Principal     Interest       Net     Deprec          Tax         Tax    Adjustment       Annual         Total              Total              Total
          Annual Energy Output (kWh):                    443,807       Year             Energy            Sales         Costs          Costs       Payments     Payments      Deprec.     Value        Credit      Value         Value    Cash Flow    Cash Flow          Cash Flow          Cash Flow
                   PPA Value ($/kWh):                    $0.1173        0                   0%                                                                                                                                            ($999,250)   ($999,250)         ($999,250)         ($999,250)
                    PPA Escalator (%):                         0

     Energy Value at Facility ($/kWh)                      0.136
                  Percent to Grid (%)                         25        1              $52,116         $13,314        ($3,550)       ($2,500)            -              0    $399,700   $131,901      $2,108    ($19,595)           $0     $173,793    ($825,457)         ($825,457)          ($825,457)
        Energy Value to Grid ($/kWh)                       0.061        2              $52,116         $13,314        ($3,657)       ($2,575)            -              0    $239,820    $79,141      $2,171    ($19,535)           $0     $120,975    ($704,482)         ($703,435)          ($701,689)
   Green Tag or REC Value ($/kWh):                       $0.0300        3              $52,116         $13,314        ($3,767)       ($2,652)            -              0    $143,892    $47,484      $2,236    ($19,474)           $0      $89,258    ($615,224)         ($612,050)          ($606,620)
Length of Green Tag Contract (Years)                          10        4              $52,116         $13,314        ($3,880)       ($2,732)            -              0     $86,335    $28,491      $2,304    ($19,410)           $0      $70,203    ($545,021)         ($538,610)          ($527,349)
           Green Tag Ownership (%)                           100        5              $52,116         $13,314        ($3,996)       ($2,814)            -              0     $51,801    $17,094      $2,373    ($19,345)           $0      $58,743    ($486,279)         ($475,485)          ($456,019)
             Loan Downpayment (%):                           100        6              $52,116         $13,314        ($4,116)       ($2,898)            -              0          $0         $0      $2,444    ($19,277)           $0      $41,582    ($444,696)         ($428,341)          ($398,049)
                  Down Payment ($):                     $999,250        7              $52,116         $13,314        ($4,239)       ($2,985)            -              0          $0         $0      $2,517    ($19,208)           $0      $41,515    ($403,182)         ($380,050)          ($336,042)
                  Amount of Loan ($):                         $0        8              $52,116         $13,314        ($4,367)       ($3,075)            -              0          $0         $0      $2,593    ($19,136)           $0      $41,445    ($361,737)         ($330,578)          ($269,672)
                    Interest Rate (%):                         0        9              $52,116         $13,314        ($4,498)       ($3,167)            -              0          $0         $0      $2,670    ($19,063)           $0      $41,373    ($320,363)         ($279,890)          ($198,586)
                  Loan Term (Years):                           0        10             $52,116         $13,314        ($4,633)       ($3,262)            -              0          $0         $0      $2,751    ($18,987)           $0      $41,299    ($279,064)         ($227,949)          ($122,404)
                      Month Installed:                         0        11             $52,116              $0        ($4,772)       ($3,360)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($14,515)           $0      $29,470    ($249,594)         ($186,471)           ($52,468)
            Net Federal Tax Rate (%):                         33        12             $52,116              $0        ($4,915)       ($3,461)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($14,434)           $0      $29,306    ($220,288)         ($143,748)            $23,336
              Net State Tax Rate (%):                          8        13             $52,116              $0        ($5,062)       ($3,564)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($14,351)           $0      $29,138    ($191,150)          ($99,744)           $105,485
                 PTC Value ($/kWh):                        0.019        14             $52,116              $0        ($5,214)       ($3,671)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($14,266)           $0      $28,964    ($162,186)          ($54,419)           $194,494
                    PTC Inflation (%)                          3        15             $52,116              $0        ($5,370)       ($3,781)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($14,178)           $0      $28,786    ($133,400)           ($7,735)           $290,922
                 O & M Cost ($/kWh):                      $0.008        16             $52,116              $0        ($5,531)       ($3,895)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($14,087)           $0      $28,602    ($104,798)           $40,350            $395,371
             O & M Inflation Rate (%):                         3        17             $52,116              $0        ($5,697)       ($4,012)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,994)           $0      $28,412     ($76,386)           $89,877            $508,491
              Insurance Cost ($/MW)                       10000         18             $52,116              $0        ($5,868)       ($4,132)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,898)           $0      $28,217     ($48,169)          $140,890            $630,986
          Insurance Inflation Rate (%)                         3        19             $52,116              $0        ($6,044)       ($4,256)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,799)           $0      $28,016     ($20,152)          $193,434            $763,616
                                                                        20             $52,116              $0        ($6,226)       ($4,384)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,697)           $0      $27,809       $7,657           $247,553            $907,201
                                                                        21             $52,116              $0        ($6,413)       ($4,515)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,592)           $0      $27,596      $35,253           $303,297          $1,062,629
                                                                        22             $52,116              $0        ($6,605)       ($4,651)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,484)           $0      $27,376      $62,629           $360,712          $1,230,857
                                                                        23             $52,116              $0        ($6,803)       ($4,790)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,372)           $0      $27,150      $89,779           $419,851          $1,412,920
Results                                                                 24             $52,116              $0        ($7,007)       ($4,934)            -              0          $0                     $0    ($13,258)           $0      $26,917     $116,696           $480,763          $1,609,937
                                                                        25             $52,116              $0        ($7,217)       ($5,082)            -              0         $0                      $0    ($13,139)           $0      $26,677     $143,373           $543,502          $1,823,115
Loan Payments                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       IRR                IRR
                 Monthly Payment ($):            #NUM!             Blue shading indicates a column that shows a tax value not a cash transaction                                                                                                                              4.40%                 9%
       Value of Interest Deduction ($):          #NUM!
            Net Monthly Payment ($):             #NUM!
                                                                   Internal Rate of Return
Ave. Monthly Savings on Bill                                         Years 1 - 25:         1.5%
                        Year 1 ($):                      $4,336
                            Year 10 ($):                 $4,336
                            Year 20 ($):                 $4,336
                            Year 25 ($):                 $4,336
                                APPENDIX C
                  Photomontage from Baldwin Hill Road




Final Report - Technical Assessment for
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
     Photomontage from Baldwin Hill Road - Version 1. Non-
                    Manipulated Photograph




Final Report - Technical Assessment for
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area
         Photomontage from Baldwin Hill Road – Version 2.
          Manipulated Colors to Increase Turbine Visibility




Final Report - Technical Assessment for
On-site Wind Generation at
Catamount Ski Area

								
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