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					Virginia                   Campus
Polytechnic
   Virginia
Institute and
   Polytechnic Institute   Design
State
   and
UnState University
    iversity               Principles


          June 7
          2010

          Revised
          August 2010
"Now we are promised an
architectural policy which
proposes to give us a group of
buildings worthy to shelter a
great educational institution.
Already a start has been made in
this direction, and the McBryde
Building of Mechanic Arts will
serve as a type for the structures
to come later."
                  Joseph D. Eggleston, President
    1914 "Opening Number" of the College Bulletin
Campus
Design
Principles
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Blacksburg, Virginia




prepared by
Sasaki Associates

June 7, 2010
Revised August 2010
                                                                                                   CONTENTS

I.   CAMPUS                             II.   LANDSCAPE                           III.    BUILDINGS

A.   Introduction                       A.    Introduction                        A.     Introduction
B.   Historical Overview                B.    Guiding Principles                  B.     Architectural Order
     1.      Background                       1.      Landscape Structure                1.      Siting / Orientation
     2.      Collegiate Gothic /        C.    Planting                                   2.      Building Scale
             An Architecture of Stone         1.      Space Definition                           Height
C.   Guiding Vision                           2.      Scale                                      Massing
     1.      Strategic Plan                   3.      Plant Character & Fitness                  Volumetric Variation
     2.      The Campus Master Plan           4.      Tree Forms                         3.      Facades
D.   Buildings and Landscape                  5.      Pattern                     C.     Architectural Elements
     1.      An Integrated Approach           6.      Composition of Species             1.      Roof Forms
     2.      A Sense of Place                 7.      Native Plants                      2.      Doors, Portals and Passages
     3.      Goals and Objectives             8.      Meadows                            3.      Windows and Openings
                                              9.      Variety                            4.      Architectural Details
                                        D.    Specific Area Principles            D.     Building Materials
                                              1.      The Mall                           1.      Walls
                                              2.      The Drill Field                    2.      Hokie Stone
                                              3.      The Duck Pond Park                 3.      Roofs
                                              4.      The Quadrangles                    4.      Doors and Windows
                                              5.      Core Area Linkages                 5.      Ornament
                                              6.      Campus Streets              E.     Sustainable Design
                                              7.      Campus Forest Areas                1.      Approach
                                        E.    Site Structures and Furnishings
                                              1.      Lighting
                                              2.      Emergency Call Boxes
                                              3.      Structures
                                              4.      Art
                                              5.      Paving
I. C A M P U S
                                                                                                       I. C A M P U S

A. INTRODUCTION

Campus design has always been rich in influences and diverse       It is the goal of this document to establish a commitment to
in response. The physical character of the Virginia Tech           the stewardship of these finite resources and to assure that
campus reflects its chronological and stylistic development as     the balance between built and natural form is sensitively
an institution, signifying periods of history, pedagogical         developed over time in a way which respects the architectural
trends, programmatic directives and general characteristics of     language and landscape features of the campus. To do this
stylistic preference and aesthetic selectivity. Such factors       effectively, principles have been developed which outline the
have been instrumental in the definition of the Virginia Tech      history of the campus, the intricacies of its architectural
"sense of place" for which it is so well known and                 detailing, the massing of its buildings and structures and the
remembered. The predominant theme of the built                     special characteristics of landscape features, trees and plant
environment of the campus, however, has evolved with a             materials – those elements which are combined to form the
strong unifying characteristic of Collegiate Gothic architecture   physical and spatial characteristics of buildings and places.
and a consistent use of Hokie Stone as a building material.
                                                                   The intent is to have these design principles used as a
While the design of each building on a campus should reflect       companion to the university's Campus Master Plan to offer the
its own time and place, it should also reflect the enduring        most sensitive and responsible design solutions for the growth
values of elegance, quality and durability, and contribute in a    and regeneration of the campus. The resultant building and
meaningful way to form a coherent and memorable identity           landscape design solutions should strive to be flexible,
for the campus as a whole. The primary goal of this study is       creative, beautiful, respectful, sustainable and maintainable.
to reaffirm the university's design approach to the
contemporary interpretation of revival Collegiate Gothic           Additional guidance in understanding the goals and
campus architecture, including massing, scale, groupings,          expectations of the university can be found in the Virginia
arrangements, design features, colors, textures and other          Tech Design and Construction Standards. These standards
contextual design opportunities.                                   are essential in understanding the detailed requirements of
                                                                   design specifications, constructability, energy management,
Equally important to the "sense of place" at Virginia Tech is      space standards and integrated design.
the character of the open spaces, passages and outdoor
'rooms' which form such a memorable campus landscape. It           Each design team seeking work on the Virginia Tech campus
is the careful integration of buildings and open space which       shall be required to affirm in writing that they have read these
ultimately define the physical presence of a campus.               Campus Design Principles and agree contractually to adhere
                                                                   to them.




                                                        1
B. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW                           1. Background                                     2. Collegiate Gothic /
                                                                                                   An Architecture of Stone
The planning and architectural design of the     When Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical         The gifted medievalist architect Ralph Adams
Virginia Tech campus reflect the changing        College, as Virginia Tech was first known, was    Cram visited President McBryde around 1901
character of the institution over time. Future   founded, funding from Richmond was meager         and suggested Collegiate Gothic as the
buildings will likewise be a reflection of       and inconsistent. The first presidents            architectural style. As defined by Cram,
Virginia Tech’s character, its culture,          preferred to keep an architectural low-profile    Gothic was the repository of "exalted ideals of
architectural legacy, and contemporary           to avoid any appearance to the state              education and religion." This style suited
technology.                                      legislature of extravagance. In fact, the early   Virginia Tech's evolving identity perfectly,
                                                 buildings were so unadorned that Tech's fifth     providing the campus with an image
The following brief historical perspective is    president, Joseph Eggleston, compared them        harkening back to venerable British
intended to help design professionals and        to "poverty stricken textile mills."              universities such as Cambridge and Oxford.
interested university constituencies to
understand the planning and architecture of      The earliest campus buildings, built between      The Collegiate Gothic (or Gothic Revival) style
the campus in a historical context. Such an      1872 and 1905 for the Virginia Agricultural       of architecture was undergoing widespread
understanding is a critical component of any     and Mechanical College, were simple, austere      adoption on college campuses in the early
planning and design process for the university   structures. Whether Greek Revival, Georgian,      20th century. Presidents McBryde and
due to the importance of extending a             or Victorian, they shared a simplicity of         Eggleston adopted this motif in order to
meaningful continuity of spatial form, outdoor   massing, materials and fenestration. This         visually underscore their desire for the still-
spaces and architectural character for the       simplicity reflected the practical character of   young college in Blacksburg to be accepted as
campus.                                          the educational mission of Virginia Tech. For     a full-fledged institution of higher learning.
                                                 example, some buildings included foundries
                                                 for training in the mechanical arts.              The adopted stylistic approach called for the
                                                                                                   use of limestone quarried next to campus (in
                                                 In its first quarter-century, the school's        the vicinity of Derring Hall), saving on the
                                                 mission was constantly being questioned.          transport of brick and employing dozens of
                                                 Early on, President John McBryde realized         local stonecutters. Brick construction
                                                 Virginia Tech needed to establish an identity     continued on the Upper Quad, but the south
                                                 that would distinguish it as a progressive        and west areas of campus employed the local
                                                 institution providing service to the              stone. Cram liked the limestone on the YMCA
                                                 commonwealth, not as a rural, struggling          building and even suggested the older
                                                 trade school. In 1899, a group of alumni hired    buildings be refaced.
                                                 Richmond architect W.F. West to design a
                                                 YMCA for the campus. West's Romanesque-           President McBryde and his faculty became
                                                 inspired building--today's Liberal Arts           converts to what they called "our native
                                                 Building--was the first flagship building         limestone." The 1905 Chapel was Tech's first
                                                 constructed of rough limestone quarried on        Collegiate Gothic building. Facing the
                                                 campus.                                           unavailability of bricks, the builders turned to
                                                                                                   native limestone for the structure.



                                                                       2
    The Chapel was followed by the 1914
    McBryde Building (razed in 1966), which
    stood on the site of the present McBryde Hall.
    The McBryde Building, designed by the
    Richmond firm of Carneal & Johnston, set the
    standard on campus for more than a
    generation. The stone building featured a
    three-story entry tower with battlements, a
    projecting oriel window, and a lancet-arched
    passageway to an inner courtyard. Sculptures
    from its façade can be seen along the
    walkway on the west end of the second
    McBryde Hall.

    By the 1920s and 1930s, the variegated gray
    stone--dubbed Hokie Stone--had acquired its
    present appearance, and it was used for most
    major building projects. While subsequent
    construction did not preclude brick, new
    buildings around the Drill Field were erected
    in the Collegiate Gothic style, complete with
    the characteristic rough stone, lancet-arched
    doors and windows, and corner towers. The
    academic buildings on the north side of the
    Drill Field feature battlements, which work
    into the Gothic style to project the image of a
    citadel of academia.

    The early presidents' innovative 'set-in-stone'
    vision has endured, except for a brief
    departure from the style in the late 1960s
    and early 1970s. The departure followed a
    national trend, which had turned to
    modernism in architecture. Cassell Coliseum
    and Cowgill, Whittemore, and Derring halls
    are prominent examples of campus buildings
    of that time. But Hokie Stone prevailed, and
    in the 1990’s the Board of Visitors reaffirmed
    their desire for its continued usage in all
    buildings constructed from that time
    forward.
3
4 Aerial view of Virginia Tech campus showing Drill Field and Duck Pond Park
C. GUIDING VISION                                                                                   2. The Campus Master Plan
                                                                                                    The university has been proactively engaged
Whenever principles are developed as part of                                                        in the implementation and refinement of a
an institutional planning process, it is                                                            Campus Master Plan for the last 25 years.
essential that such guidance is fully                                                               The master planning process has been a key
integrated with other initiatives which provide                                                     factor in the development of a more sensitive
similar guidance as part of a comprehensive                                                         approach to the long range renovation and
approach to establishing a clear vision for the                                                     expansion of the campus.
university. Accordingly, the following
summaries are provided to establish such                                                            A key part of this process has been a series of
associations as a condition of reference for                                                        recommendations on general design
the Campus Design Principles.                                                                       principles for specific features related to
                                                                                                    landscape and building design. Within the
1. Strategic Plan                                                                                   context of the master plan, these
The 2006-2012 Strategic Plan Update,                                                                recommendations were focused on building
adopted by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors                                                      program, siting, phasing and general
in June 2006, reaffirms Virginia Tech’s                                                             architectural character. Similar features were
commitment to achieving excellence as a                                                             analyzed relative to campus landscape and
comprehensive land-grant university that          President Steger unveiling the new branding       open space preservation.
makes innovative contributions in learning,       strategy – "Invent the Future."
discovery, and engagement to the                                                                    As a 'living document' with an inherent
Commonwealth of Virginia, the nation, and                                                           obligation for updating and reconsideration,
the world.                                        During 2005 –2006, the process of updating        the master plan sequence is useful to
                                                  the plan confirmed the university’s               summarize during this first 25 year period.
Invent the Future:                                commitments to its mission and core values.       The design principles which emerge in this
Quality, Innovation, Results                      Virginia Tech values the educational              report are directly tied to multiple
The 2006 - 2012 Strategic Plan Update             contributions made by a high quality and          recommendations and values established in
reaffirms Virginia Tech’s commitment to           diverse student body, faculty, and staff who      these planning efforts. All landscape and
achieving excellence as a comprehensive           contribute to the robust exchange of ideas.       building projects must be carefully integrated
land-grant university that makes innovative                                                         with both the Master Plan and Campus Design
contributions in learning, discovery, and         The updated plan introduces the terms             Principles suggestions.
engagement to the Commonwealth of                 learning, discovery, and engagement to
Virginia, the nation, and the world. The          articulate an updated understanding of the
priorities expressed in the 2006 - 2012           complexities of the university’s integrated and
Strategic Plan Update demonstrate Virginia        multi-disciplinary Scholarship Domain areas.
Tech’s ongoing commitment to transform            An important component of the plan is the
itself as a 21st century university capable of    commitment to link strategic goals to
responding effectively to opportunities           financial planning and outcomes in order to
presented in a dynamic and diverse domestic       increase Virginia Tech’s accountability to a
and global environment.                           variety of important stakeholders.


                                                                           5
2006 Master Plan Update




                          6
1983 Master Plan                            1994 Master Plan Update                            •   The “town edge” affords a diverse
The first master plan effort in 1983        The frame of reference for the 1983 Master             and energetic environment for retail,
revealed a strong development pattern       Plan was 10 years. In 1994, a Master Plan              food service, residential and
on campus structured by the Drill Field,    update was commissioned by the university.             entertainment activity that lends to
the Alumni Mall and a system of             While many of the basic principles of the              the life of the campus. The 1994
academic and residential quadrangles. It    1983 plan were confirmed and reinforced,               Master Plan calls for program infill
was also noted that this spatial            the 1994 Update developed a series of                  and urban design improvements that
organization was ignored, for a short       additional recommendations which were                  will add to the vitality and amenities
while, in the planning and design of the    intended to address further preservation of            on the downtown side of the campus.
campus. During the late 1960s and early     the heritage and core campus values of the
1970s, buildings such as Derring Hall and   institution. A summary of the key                  Quadrangles and Courtyards
Cowgill Hall were constructed on the        considerations includes:                           • The Virginia Tech campus is
periphery of the academic core with no                                                           organized as an interconnected
relation or ties to the existing spatial    Ridges and Valleys                                   system of quadrangles and
structure. The trend during this period     • The campus is laid out in accordance with          courtyards following the traditional
was to construct object buildings that         a well-defined pattern of ridges and              Oxford model that many American
consumed space rather than buildings           valleys. The central “valley” is the              institutions have adopted. This
that defined space.                            Stroubles Creek drainage basin in which           system of pedestrian spaces (or,
                                               the Drill Field and the Duck Pond are             more pertinently, the policy of siting
The 1983 plan sought to reverse this           located. The basin, which is largely an           buildings to shape such spaces) is an
trend and integrate buildings such as          open landscaped area, is flanked on the           appropriate framework that lends to
Derring Hall and Cowgill Hall into the         north and the south by ridges on which            the unity and amenity of the campus.
campus structure. To that end, the plan        much of the core campus development             • The 1994 Master Plan emphasizes the
initiated the infill concept. The infill       has taken place.                                  creation of new quadrangles and
concept called for refocusing campus        • The 1994 plan reinforces the pattern of            courtyards and the enhancement of
development in the core by concentrating       development and infill on the ridge areas         existing ones by building, siting and
new development in and around existing         and maintenance of the open space                 landscape improvements. The over-
buildings.                                     environment (park-like open land, play            arching conclusion of the 1994 Master
                                               fields and agricultural fields) in the valley     Plan, based on the determinants
Consequently, the concept was                  areas.                                            summarized above, is that the next
instrumental in resurrecting the                                                                 generation of campus development
quadrangle building approach and added      Town Fabric                                          should continue to be concentrated in
a contemporary sensibility regarding        • The campus and the Town of Blacksburg              and around the core area.
preservation of existing buildings. In        come together in a relatively seamless
addition to repairing the campus spatial      way in the downtown area along streets
structure, the concept was also intended      such as College Avenue, Otey Street,
to address a variety of other planning        Main Street and Stanger Street. That is,
issues such as conserving campus land,        the scale, texture and intensity of
maintaining a pedestrian-scale campus,        development in these areas is such that
leveraging investment in existing             the campus and town blend with and
infrastructure, and allowing for flexible     complement one another.
increments of development.
                                                                   7
    Long Range Land Use
    Master Plan Update




8
2006 Master Plan Update                           Design Tenets
The same ten year horizon was applied to the
1994 Master Plan update. In 2006, the next        •   The dominant exterior building material
update was completed to initiate another ten          will continue to be the local dolomite
year vision. Similar reinforcement of the             limestone (Hokie Stone) set in a random
original planning guidelines was provided. Of         ashlar pattern.
particular interest was a restatement of the
strategic goals of the master plan as well as     •   New building placement should help
several key design tenets to guide future             define outdoor campus space.
projects. These are summarized as follows:
                                                  •   Building heights should primarily range
Master Plan Strategic Goals                           from two to four stories, appropriate in
                                                      scale with the adjacent outdoor spaces.
•   Support the University Strategic Plan by
    providing for development of physical         •   Building design should compliment the
    resources which accommodate the                   character of the core campus
    strategic vision and program directions           architecture, integrating simple building
    articulated in the plan.                          massing with simply ordered and well
                                                      articulated facades.
•   Preserve the core qualities of the campus
    while nurturing growth.

•   Plan for the long range highest and best
    use of the university’s significant land
    assets.

•   Plan transportation and infrastructure
    systems to anticipate growth rather than
    react to demand.

•   While the master plan will propose
    solutions based on current data, it is
    understood that a plan should be a ‘living’
    document and therefore allow for future
    change within its framework.

•   Celebrate the unique Virginia Tech
    Campus as PLACE.



                                                                                                  2006 Master Plan Detail
                                                                         9
                      D. BUILDINGS AND LANDSCAPE                         The design of the monumental open space
                                                                         spine including the Mall, Drill Field, and Duck
                      1. An Integrated Approach                          Pond is a strong composition that artfully
                      The system of quadrangles and plazas which         exploits the existing terrain. It achieves
                      characterize the academic and residential          campus unity through centrality and
                      areas of the core campus creates a strong          dominance, with the buildings creating a
                      repetitive theme that results in a pleasing        framework to enclose the landscape.
                      sense of order subordinate to the larger
                      monumental spaces. The varied geometry,            There are several primary aspects of form
                      orientation, landscape treatment and               that account for the basic spatial structure of
                      elevations of the quadrangles add a welcome        the core campus. These include the bowl
                      element of variety and complexity to the           shaped topography upon which the campus
                      campus that complement the singular unity          rests, the arrangement of buildings in upland
                      and simplicity of the Drill Field. A majority of   areas in groups with similar size, shape,
                      the quadrangles and plazas are well defined        materials and alignment, and the central,
                      spatially though the quality of their landscape    unifying design of the Mall, Drill Field and
                      treatment varies.                                  Duck Pond open spaces. Collectively, these
                                                                         aspects of form create a campus that has an
                      The character of the architecture which            overall unity and coherence – a balance and
                      encloses and bounds the various landscape          artful dialogue between building and
                      elements is equally important to the definition    landscape.
                      of these campus spaces. The architectural
                      language of the major campus buildings is          The developed design principles must utilize
                      somewhat more dominant than the landscape          these key attributes as a starting point in the
                      features due to its stylistic character and        recommendations for future renovation,
                      scale.                                             growth and expansion plans. The successful
                                                                         interrelationship between built forms and
                      The balance of landscape and building,             landscape represents a key component of
                      however, is one of the attributes which makes      campus design integration.
                      the campus environment so memorable.
                      There is a continuous dialogue between the
                      buildings and the landscape which needs to
                      be kept in equilibrium as the campus
                      develops and changes. The design principles
                      will help to both define and expand the nature
                      of this integration.




Main Eggleston Hall

                                             10
 2. A Sense of Place                              3. Goals and Objectives                           Sense of Place
Campus buildings and outdoor spaces play a        The expectation in providing these design         •  Strive to make the campus a distinctive
major role in helping to define institutional     principles for the renovation, expansion and         and memorable place for students,
image and the unique campus ambiance              growth of campus buildings is to work in an          faculty, staff, visitors and the surrounding
which is so unique to Virginia Tech. The          integrated fashion with the Campus Master            community. Accommodate renovations,
quality of landscape and building design has      Plan to provide an overall vision and                expansions and new building projects in a
profound implications, not only for visual        framework to guide such development in a             way that strengthens the overall
appearance of the campus, but also for how        coherent fashion, ensuring that each future          appearance, spatial organization and
the university and the surrounding                project fits appropriately within the larger         functionality of the campus.
community are perceived and integrated.           vision and character of the campus.               •  Recognize that the campus is a working
The qualities and physical attributes that                                                             partner with the surrounding community,
make a place special or unique are                These principles are intended to assist design       with special attention paid to the
interwoven with those characteristics that        professionals, campus planning groups,               development of sensitive landscape and
foster a sense of authentic human attachment      campus staff and individual building                 building solutions at the active interface
and belonging to form the unique 'sense of        committees to make informed decisions as             between town and gown.
place' that is Virginia Tech.                     projects progress through various stages of
                                                  planning, design and construction. The            Campus Context
The 'sense of place' of a campus has a major      resultant landscape and building solutions will   •  Accommodate new building projects in a
influence on how social interactions originate,   reflect the values of the university, its            way which is respectful of the existing
how people move about campus, how safety          tradition of design excellence, respect for its      campus fabric and built environment,
and security are perceived, and how the           heritage and its relationship to the                 supporting the Campus Master Plan
campus environment contributes to the             surrounding environment and sense of place.          policies for compact, efficient
inspirational aspect of campus life. The 'sense                                                        development patterns.
of place' attribute defines how the physical      The primary goals and objectives of the           •  Develop landscape solutions which
and academic environments support the             Campus Design Principles have been                   enhance the visual quality and user
human psyche.                                     developed in support of several related              enjoyment of key open spaces on campus.
                                                  planning studies and design standards,
As such, 'sense of place' is also a significant   including the Campus Master Plan Updates of       Campus Wayfinding & Orientation
framework for the memories of students,           1994 and 2006, as well as the university's        •  Improve campus wayfinding, orientation
faculty, staff and alumni. The unique             Design and Construction Standards. The               and visual coherence by better defining
qualities of the physical environment of the      consensus of this related documentation              campus spaces, iconic features,
Virginia Tech campus have a profound impact       suggests that the design principles for              circulation corridors, outdoor spaces, and
on the total academic experience. It is           Landscape and Buildings support several key          entranceways.
critical that the nature of the campus be         initiatives which are integrally linked to the
understood fully in terms of the integration of   vision of the university and its goals as an      Sustainability
space, landscape, building fabric and physical    academic institution.                             •  Embrace the tenets of sustainable design,
character. Such an understanding provides                                                              incorporating design approaches which
the formative basis for developing                                                                     stress resource conservation, energy
appropriate design principles for the future                                                           efficiency and the promotion of building
growth and development of the campus.                                                                  and landscape durability.


                                                                        11
12
I I. L A N D S C A P E
                                                        I I. L A N D S C A P E
A. INTRODUCTION

The following principles set forth design        While there has never been a formal
strategies and standards for the campus          landscape plan for the Virginia Tech campus,
landscape. The purpose of these principles is    the landscape is widely considered to be one
to encourage unity in the design of the          of the greatest assets of the university.
landscape over time, while simultaneously        During the 19th Century, when newly planted
allowing flexibility for positive innovation.    trees were small, the campus landscape was
These principles do not prescribe specific       open and indistinguishable from the
design solutions. They are a set of ideas        surrounding agrarian landscape. During the
intended to define a direction and positively    university's early history, individuals including
influence those who design and manage the        President McBryde and Professor Smyth were
landscape.                                       strong advocates of campus beautification.

The goal is to achieve an integrated campus      They were largely focused on planting trees
design in which all of the parts relate to one   and shrubs to bring “shade and dignity to
another, regardless of when they are built.      areas once bleak and barren.” The informal
The areas addressed in the landscape             style adopted by McBryde and Smyth was the
principles include planting, site structures,    romantic style of the great 19th Century
and exterior lighting. The emphasis of the       American parks, with large lawns and trees
principles in each of these areas is on design   informally arranged for aesthetic enjoyment.
issues and the steps that should be taken to     The landscape was seen as a symbol of
ensure the continuity of desired landscape       civilization, education and culture in the midst
effects into the future. Issues related to the   of forests and farms. This style has generally
care and maintenance are not addressed in        been followed by subsequent generations,
depth, however, the principles are based on      and typifies much of the campus landscape
the goal of simplifying the long-term            today.
maintenance requirements of the campus
landscape.                                       As the campus context has become
                                                 increasingly developed in the last 40 years,
                                                 the campus landscape has assumed new
                                                 meanings. The campus landscape has
                                                 become a naturalistic, pedestrian oasis in the
                                                 context of expanding development, roads and
                                                 parking lots. Rather than being a symbol of
                                                 the human settlement of nature, it has
                                                 become a symbol of the rapidly disappearing
                                                 natural environment and our attachment to it.
                      15
B. GUIDING PRINCIPLES                              Reinforce the Green Spine of the Core             Reinforce and Extend the Existing
                                                   Campus and Extend it to the West                  Pattern of Residential and Academic
1. Landscape Structure                                                                               Quadrangles
                                                   •   Improve the spatial definition of the
It is the general intent of the Master Plan that       Alumni Mall by planting formal trees along    •   Establish stronger enclosure of the Patton
the existing structure of the campus                   each roadway.                                     Quadrangle.
landscape be reinforced and built upon. This
is particularly true in the urbanized campus       •   Continue to rehabilitate the tree planting    •   Improve tree and shrub plantings in all
core area, which is composed of a green                around the perimeter of the Drill Field and       the campus quadrangles to establish a
spine of large parklands (the Alumni Mall, the         protect the Drill Field open space as the         richer variety and greater seasonal
Drill Field, and the Duck Pond), a series of           dominant landmark of the campus.                  interest, including colorful spring and
quadrangle and plaza spaces, and a network                                                               summer flowers and fall foliage.
of pedestrian linkage spaces and vehicular         •   Rejuvenate and enrich the planting of the
streets.                                               Duck Pond Park and The Grove area,            •   Employ quadrangles as the organizing
                                                       maintaining this area as a naturalistic           element for campus expansion north and
The parklands, quadrangles and corridors of            park for the enjoyment of natural                 west of Cowgill Hall, and at the corner of
the core campus are elements which require             scenery. It is increasingly important to          West Campus Drive and Washington
enrichment, improved definition and                    protect and maintain this park area as the        Street.
differentiation; they need to become more              campus continues to urbanize. It is also
truly urban in their relationships and                 important to improve the Duck Pond and
refinement. In the less densely developed              Stroubles Creek bank conditions by
areas surrounding the core, reforestation is           establishment of native aquatic plant
proposed as a means of developing a spatially          edges
cohesive setting and regionally appropriate
image which also creates a more sustainable        •   Extend the qualities of the Duck Pond
relationship between the university and the            Park to the west, creating a green
natural environment of which it is a part. The         corridor extending from Main Street to
traditionally rural area surrounding the core          Route 460.
campus requires redefinition to become more
cohesively ordered and symbolically
representative of the purposes of the
institution; it should become more truly rural
rather than the victim of continued sprawl.




                                                                         16
Enhance the orderly strength of all major         Redefine the interstitial landscape areas         Reforestation
campus streets by planting large canopy           that serve as the major pedestrian
trees along them.                                 circulation routes of the campus.                 The campus landscape should be unified
                                                                                                    through the reforestation of approximately
The campus should be remembered for great         These least-attended-to areas of the campus       350 acres of land of which approximately 80
avenues of trees as much as it is for the Drill   should be planted with assemblages of woody       acres are now maintained in turf grass.
Field or its architecture.                        native plants to improve their spatial
                                                  definition, clarity and consistency; to assign    Implementation of the reforestation concept
West Campus Drive, Washington Street, Kent        them a regionally fitting character; to benefit   requires careful study and fine tuning to
Street and Stanger Street are particularly        from ecosystem functions such as erosion          ensure that key views of the regional
important in this regard because they serve       control, water quality improvement, air           landscape, campus open space, and campus
as an inner edge of campus along which all        purification and cooling; and to reduce the       landmarks are preserved. Perimeter campus
visitors travel.                                  long-term maintenance requirements of the         lawn areas not used for casual activities,
                                                  campus landscape. Select areas should be          especially steeper sloped areas are the most
                                                  reforested.                                       desirable areas for reforestation.

                                                                                                    These reforested areas will also carry the
                                                                                                    benefits of ecosystem functions such as
                                                                                                    erosion control, water quality improvement,
                                                                                                    air purification and cooling; and to reduce the
                                                                                                    long-term maintenance requirements of the
                                                                                                    campus landscape. Therefore, reforestation
                                                                                                    should be considered an integrated
                                                                                                    component of Virginia Tech’s overarching
                                                                                                    commitment to improve campus
                                                                                                    sustainability.




                                                                        17
18
C. PLANTING                                                                                         2. Scale


There are a number of principles that               These statements are made with the              The size of trees, shrubs and plant beds
generally pertain to all areas of the campus,       recognition that spatial order and quality is   should be considered with respect to their
and which should form the basic framework           indeed that with which campus design is         scale relationship to campus buildings, roads
for thinking about the landscape.                   centrally concerned. The buildings, trees and   and spaces.
                                                    defining elements assume broader meanings
1. Space Definition                                 only by virtue of the way they are arranged      In general, plantings should be simple,
                                                    and the order of the positive spaces they       rather than overly intricate, and be conceived
The spatial organization of the campus              define. While individual buildings or plants    in broad strokes that are appropriately scaled
landscape is primarily determined by three          may possess characteristics that are            to the campus. Smaller, garden scale
major components: buildings, topographic            attractive in themselves, the emphasis of       plantings and flower beds are important to
form, and woody plants consisting of trees          campus design should be on the larger           the campus; however, they need to be
and shrubs. Paths and roads also play an            relationships of formative elements to space.   related to the campus through proper
important organizing function; however, their                                                       hierarchies.
role is subordinate to the three-dimensional
strength of buildings, land, trees and shrubs.                                                      For example, the flower beds in front of
                                                                                                    Burruss Hall work well because they are part
 The limits, emphasis, and character of all                                                         of an ensemble of steps, walls and paved
views within and around the campus are                                                              terraces that are arranged and sized to fit
defined largely by these elements. Trees and                                                        with the building and the surrounding
shrubs, therefore, should not be understood                                                         landscape.
merely as superficial decorative objects to be
arbitrarily set out on the campus grounds, but
rather as elements that define the basic
spatial order of the campus which, in turn,
significantly affects the quality of campus life.

Trees and shrubs should be used purposefully
to achieve desired functions and spatial
effects such as limiting or directing views,
creating microclimates, creating overhead
enclosure for greater intimacy, framing
spaces to create compositional closure, or to
define and reinforce major spaces and
pathways of the campus.




                                                                         19
3. Plant Character and Fitness

The plants selected for use on the campus         The natural forms of plants should be
should possess visual traits that are             retained through proper pruning. This is
representative of or similar to the character     particularly noteworthy when considering
of plants indigenous to the southwest Virginia    shrubs. Shrubs should be planted in
region, and that are appropriately long-lived     arrangements that allow for their natural
and refined to reflect the enduring quality of    shape to be retained through periodic renewal
the institution. Plants that are highly exotic    pruning.
in their visual aspect should generally not be
used on campus even though they may be in         There are many instances on campus now in
fashion from time to time.                        which shrubs have been severely sheared to
                                                  limit their size because they have not been
Exceptions to this rule should only be            provided adequate space to grow. The result
permitted in very special circumstances, and      is an unintentional design of sheared plants
such exceptions should be few. There is           that is unattractive, often detracts from
great intrinsic beauty in the native flora, and   campus architecture and is relatively
it should be the guiding purpose of the           expensive to maintain.
campus planting design to capitalize on it.
The design of campus planting should be           Tree pruning should be started early in the
simple and seek to evoke a mood of                life of campus trees to ensure that a proper
tranquility similar to that found in nature.      form is established and the canopy is
The design should be kept free of distracting     established sufficiently high to provide clear
elements. Such an approach will yield a           visibility beneath the trees and to allow
campus that is unique, dignified, and practical   adequate light to the grass areas below.
to maintain.
                                                  Significant large trees (over 20” diameter)
                                                  should be mulched to their drip line with
                                                  waste wood chips to reduce competition with
                                                  turf grasses, and to build a looser, more
                                                  forest-like rooting zone.




                                                                         20
4. Tree Forms                                    5. Pattern                                        In the past, shrubs have been used as
                                                                                                   foundation plantings at campus buildings,
The dominant form of trees on the campus is      The general pattern of tree groups on the         often with single plants dotted along the
rounded as distinct from conical, weeping or     campus is almost entirely informal and non-       foundation wall mimicking the repetitive
upright trees. The rounded forms of the trees    geometric. As a rule, this practice should        pattern of walls and windows. Such patterns
create soft continuous lines between land and    continue. An informal planting pattern has        should be avoided in the future because the
sky and a general sense of calmness.             the advantage of being able to accept losses      result is a planting design that lacks interest
                                                 and additions while maintaining compositional     and is often out of scale with large campus
The round-headed trees also complement the       wholeness. In several locations, regular rows     buildings.
massiveness and severe lines of the campus       of trees have been used successfully, and
architecture. The primary round-headed           historically “Lover’s Lane” was a beautiful elm   The preferred approach to foundation
trees include oak, beech, sugar maple, tulip-    allé.                                             plantings is to employ large continuous
tree, elm, and planetree. It is recommended                                                        masses of plants that create a unified
that round-headed trees continue to be the       Likewise, symmetrical patterns of trees and       composition properly scaled to the size of the
primary type of tree used, and that conical,     shrubs have been used appropriately in            building. The yew hedge on the north side of
weeping and upright trees be used with           association with buildings and roads such as      Holden Hall is a good example. The Holden
restraint and only in circumstances where        the Princeton American elms at Eggleston          Hall hedge would be even more successful if
they remain subordinate to the dominant          Quadrangle, the oaks north of Burruss Hall,       it were lowered to the height of the window
unity of round-headed trees.                     the planetrees along the Mall, and the            sills behind it.
                                                 symmetrical plantings that flank the War
For example, the soft outline of hemlocks,       Memorial. The limited use of formal patterns      6. Composition of Species
larch, Austrian pine, and white pine make        should continue as a subordinate design
them relatively easy to compose with round-      approach to the dominant naturalistic             The most successful group plantings on the
headed trees, and their continued use in         approach to the grounds. The proper               campus are those composed of single species
groups as evergreen accents is encouraged.       opportunities to use geometrically arranged       or multiple species which share a high degree
                                                 plants are along streets, along major axial       of visual similarity. Such groups evoke a
Spruces, however, present a more rigid form      walkways and in courtyards and plaza spaces       peacefulness that derives from their visual
that does not blend as well with round-          regularly defined by architecture.                balance and unity, yet they contain sufficient
headed trees. It is suggested that they be                                                         variety of branching, spacing and silhouette
used only in groups where the individual                                                           to sustain interest.
forms are less pronounced. The two spruces
in front of Burruss Hall are anomalies that in                                                     Good examples include the elms east of
the long term will increasingly conflict with                                                      Owens and Eggleston and the sugar maples in
the beech trees and other round-headed trees                                                       the Williams Quadrangle. The idea of
that also flank the central tower. Future use                                                      creating strong groups of single species or
of conifers as individual specimens should be                                                      multiple species with similar form
discouraged.                                                                                       characteristics should be continued, both in
                                                                                                   naturalistic and geometric plantings.




                                                                       21
The pattern of tree groups on campus should continue to be primarily informal.                  Considerations of landscape maintenance are paramount in the design process.




Plants should be used in broad strokes that are in keeping with the scale of the campus.        Spotty placement of foundation planting should be avoided.




                                                                                           22
7. Native Plants                                  8. Meadows                                      9. Variety

To the practical extent possible, tree and        Select areas of perimeter lawn, especially      Campus planting should be sufficiently
shrub plantings should consist of species that    steeply sloping lawn, may be converted into     diverse both in species and age of plants to
are native to the Appalachian Mountain            meadows where this treatment provides a         maintain resilience in the event of unforeseen
region. This will in most cases enhance the       transition to a more natural rural landscape.   changes in the environment, such as disease
possibility for long term adaptation of plants    Meadows may be established by:                  or severe climate stress that may target
to the campus environment and create a                                                            plants of a specific type.
visual setting that harmonizes with the           1) allowing existing turf to grow without
characteristic beauty of southwest Virginia.      mowing,                                         Simultaneously, however, visual unity should
                                                  2) allowing turf to grow without mowing and     be fostered. Variety within unity can be
The preferred tree and shrub species are          supplementing with native grass and flower      achieved by planting in groups of similar
specified in the attached Campus Tree and         seed, or                                        species and by avoiding clashing forms and
Shrub List. If it is deemed that plants of        3) removing the turf and seeding with native    colors among the various planting areas on
other origin are preferable to native plants in   grasses and flowers.                            campus.
certain situations, they should only be used if
the plants have been demonstrated to be           Several meadow areas have been established      In the past there has been a tendency to
non-invasive.                                     on the campus perimeter.                        exclusively plant single species in certain
                                                                                                  planting conditions. While this practice leads
The use of non-invasive, non-native plants                                                        to visual unity and consistency, if taken to an
may serve educational purposes and visually                                                       extreme, it can be visually monotonous and
enrich the campus landscape; however, the                                                         possibly renders the plantings more
fundamental planting strategy should be to                                                        vulnerable to insects or disease.
employ long-lived native trees and shrubs
that are adapted to the local climate and                                                         A preferred approach for large flowering
soils.                                                                                            shrubs would be to employ a variety of
                                                                                                  viburnum species along with native
Ultimately, the use of indigenous plants will                                                     rhododendrons and shrub dogwoods in
help create a distinctive, identifiable and                                                       circumstances that require large shrubs.
imageable campus landscape.




                                                                        23
24
D. SPECIFIC AREA PRINCIPLES

1. The Alumni Mall

The planting objectives for the Mall should be
to transform this street into a canopied
boulevard. It should be a graceful shaded
street; the historical and symbolic entrance to
the university. It should be lined with large
stately trees that when mature will possess
symbolic value for the university as a whole.

The Mall should be planted with four rows of
trees of the same species: two rows in the
median, plus the existing rows of planetrees
that flank the parking lanes.

The advantages of using London planetrees to
accomplish the plantings are that the two
outer rows are already in place, the planetree
is relatively fast growing, it can withstand the
urban limitations of the Mall environment and
it can attain sufficient stature to canopy the
Mall.

Alternatively, native trees that are tolerant of
urban conditions could be used, leaving the
existing healthy London planetrees in place.
Future plantings should be protected from
mower damage through the use of
appropriately sized mulch rings.




                                                   25
2. The Drill Field

The planting objective for the Drill Field         Understory trees should be added where              Nyssa sylvatica -- Black Tupelo
should be to maintain a frame of native            opportunities allow in low-traffic, low-use         Amelanchier Canadensis -- Shadblow
deciduous trees on the slopes along the inside     areas where a high branched canopy is not           Serviceberry
of Drill Field Drive, and keep the center of the   essential. Large deciduous canopy trees most        A.laevis -- Allegany Serviceberry
space as open lawn.                                suitable for use around the Drill Field include:    A.grandiflora -- Apple Serviceberry
                                                                                                       A. arborea -- Downy Serviceberry
The suggestion in the 1983 Master Plan of          Quercus alba -- White Oak                           Cornus florida - Dogwood
planting trees in fingers reaching from the        Q. coccinia -- Scarlet Oak                          Hamamelis virginiana -- Witch-hazel
perimeter towards the center of the Drill Field    Q. lyrata – Overcup Oak                             Oxydendron arborea -- Sourwood
should not be followed beyond what has             Q. velutina -- Black Oak                            Sassafras albidum -- Sassafras
already been started in the southwest              Q. macrocarpa -- Bur Oak                            Prunus serotina -- Wild Black Cherry
quadrant of the lawn.                              Q. borealis -- Red Oak                              Carpinus caroliniana -- American Hornbeam
                                                   Q. palustris - Pin Oak                              Ostrya virginiana -- Eastern Hop-hornbeam
The simplicity of the Drill Field space should     Celtis occidentalis – Hackberry                     Cladrastis kentuckea -- Yellowwood
be retained and the perimeter planting             Ulmus Americana – American Elm
reinforced to become a more complete frame.        (Dutch Elm Disease resistant cultivars)             The 2007 master plan prepared by a
The wide unplanted opening at Burruss Hall         Liriodendron tulipifera -- Tulip Tree               Arboretum Committee subcommittee should
should remain.                                     Magnolia acuminate – Cucumber Magnolia              be implemented over a 25 year period to
                                                   Tilia Americana -- Basswood                         avoid large scale simultaneous tree loss
In addition to the large deciduous tree frame,     Acer saccharum -- Sugar Maple                       caused by even-age forest conditions.
accent masses of conifers should be                Gymnocladus dioicus -- Kentucky Coffeetree
maintained at their existing locations. The
existing conifer groupings should be               All of these trees will make enduring, majestic
reinforced, and the groups should generally        specimens. Less durable trees such as ash,
be arranged in front of the deciduous trees as     sycamore, red maple should not be used
viewed from the interior of the Drill Field.       extensively on the Drill Field if at all. Smaller
This will create a pattern in which groups of      trees suitable for use around the Drill Field
conifer will form peninsulas or “promontories”     include:
projecting slightly into the Drill Field, with
deciduous trees forming the “coves.”

Conifers on the north facing slopes on the
south side of the Drill Field should be
western cedar, arborvitae, and fir, while the
hotter south slopes should be planted with
red cedar.




                                                                          26
3. The Duck Pond Park

The planting objective for the Duck Pond Park     Plant material should be authenticated and      On the northern slopes, American holly, sugar
and the area surrounding the President’s          formally accessioned so that it has value for   maple and other shade tolerant forest trees
House should be to maintain parklands and         teaching and research purposes. While other     can continue to be encouraged. The use of
woodlands in their present extent and general     parts of the campus may also be incorporated    native rhododendrons should be extended in
composition of species. The parkland area,        into the arboretum, the Duck Pond and The       the northern exposures. The canopy and
consisting of tree plantings in lawns should be   Grove area should serve as its core.            understory should be managed to encourage
rejuvenated. Old trees in poor condition                                                          native plants, and remove invasive exotic
should be pruned or removed, and new trees        Under no circumstances should the campus        plants as they may arise.
should be planted to establish a replacement      become a test area for plant hardiness,
generation.                                       morphology studies, or other horticultural      An overall master plan should be developed
                                                  research that may require plants to be          that restores the garden paths, stone steps
The replacement planting should be diverse,       selected or composed in ways that would         and walls, the landscape around the rest
to create a parkland with visual richness, and    violate the landscape design principles.        rooms, and establishes a native aquatic plant
to foster the use of the parkland as an                                                           edge around the ponds
arboretum for educational purposes. Ideally,      The woodland areas around The Grove and in
a long range planting plan should be              the Duck Pond Park should be managed as a
developed that would establish goals for an       natural assemblage of native canopy trees
arboretum that are consistent with the            and woody and herbaceous understory plants.
campus landscape design principles.               The primary canopy trees should continue to
                                                  be oaks.




                                                                       27
4. The Quadrangles                                 scarlet oak, sugar maple (improves with age),   of proper scale, and illustrate how shrubs can
                                                   and tulip trees. Lindens, horsechestnut,        be successfully used inside of the perimeter
The quadrangles are all planted slightly           European beech, ginko and most of the           walkway rather than simply confined to the
differently; however, they all consist of lawn     conifers are examples of trees that branch      area between the sidewalk and the building.
areas in which trees are planted. Shrubs are       low to the ground and do not typically create
used to varying degrees, and are typically         spaces below their canopies, or do so only in   The selection of shrubs and understory trees
located around the perimeter as foundation         old age.                                        for each quadrangle should be based on
planting.                                                                                          developing a characteristic theme for each
                                                   The idea of using one or two dominant           and should seek to provide visual interest for
The planting objective for the quadrangles         characteristic tree types for each courtyard    more than one season of the year.
should be to develop for each quadrangle a         should continue, and the pattern of locating
characteristic plant assemblage that will          trees around the edges of the quadrangles in    For example, one courtyard may develop a
foster a distinct identity for the quadrangle      rows or informal groups should continue. In     viburnum theme, another may be devoted to
and add to the overall variety of the campus       quadrangles where there is significant          deciduous azaleas and dogwood trees, and
landscape. The quadrangles represent a             topographic change, informal groupings of       another to large leaf rhododendrons or
smaller, intimate type of campus space,            trees should be favored.                        hollies. The shrub and small tree themes
different from the civic scale campus spaces                                                       should be selected with an understanding of
which include the Mall, the Drill Field and the    The quadrangles whose terrain, shape and        the soils and microclimate of each
Duck Pond Park.                                    size support a formal planting are Payne Hall   quadrangle, and may, where possible, create
                                                   Quad, Eggleston Quad and the Newman             a logical association with the canopy trees.
Tree planting in the quadrangles is essential      Quad. In these quadrangles, single rows of
to provide overhead spatial containment, the       trees framing the four sides of the space are   In each case, the planting theme should be
sensory interest that biomorphic forms offer       a successful approach. The trees should be      simple; a single strong idea carried out with
in a dominantly architectural setting, and the     planted on the inside of the perimeter          excellence rather than a complexity of ideas
environmental benefits of wind protection,         sidewalk.                                       from which nothing emerges with clarity. As
shade, cooling, and improved air quality.                                                          each quadrangle is framed by large buildings
                                                   Shrub layer and understory trees should         with singular architectural expressions, so too
Trees with high branching canopies that form       continue to be planted around the perimeter     the plantings should adopt a practical
a space beneath them should be preferred           areas. Openness at the centers of the           simplicity to avoid being trivial by
over trees that are densely branched at a low      quadrangles should be retained. In general,     comparison.
level and are more object-like. This will          shrubs should not be planted in small groups
prevent the quadrangle plantings from              or complicated configurations, but rather in    The quadrangles are excellent areas to
becoming too massive and preserve an               broad strokes and simple patterns.              develop herbaceous ground layer plantings
openness which is desired for visibility and to                                                    including spring flowering bulbs. These
allow sunlight to reach the lawns.                 For example, the yews along the north wall of   should also be conceived in simple patterns
                                                   Miles Hall would be much more successful as     that relate properly to the scale of campus
Elms are the best example of canopy trees          a single continuous hedge along the sidewalk    buildings, walks and other plantings.
that create a space beneath them. Other            rather than in their present configuration.
trees that are suitable for this purpose include   The shrubs in the Agriculture Quadrangle are
white oak, red oak, black oak, bur oak,            a good example of an informal arrangement


                                                                         28
The tendency toward residential scale            Payne                                            Eggleston
gardening with fussy combinations of plants      Maintain existing conditions.                    The original American elms should be
should be avoided. The simple patterns and                                                        protected, and the Princeton elms
composition of natural landscapes should         Campbell                                         maintained. The trees should be kept in
serve to guide the spirit of campus plantings.   Retain the American beech theme with             formal rows along the perimeter walks. This
                                                 informal layout and open ground plane. Re-       quadrangle does not require a shrub planting
Turf areas of high use, such as residential      evaluate shrub planting and rejuvenate and       except along the east and west sides where
quadrangles should be closely monitored with     enrich shrub layer.                              sidewalks are close to windows, and an
management plans developed as required to                                                         intervening layer of shrubs would enhance
maintain quality turf.                           Ambler-Johnston                                  separation. The hedges should be
                                                 Interplant large red maples with native trees.   rejuvenated and supplemented. The small
As stormwater management continues to            Rejuvenate and enrich shrub plantings to         flowering trees along the edges near doors or
increase in complexity and scope, it is          frame pedestrian circulation and new plaza       portals should be maintained.
important that responses are site appropriate.   spaces
Urbanized areas will require more structured,                                                     Newman
artful responses, while other areas are more     Dietrick- Cassell                                The theme of formally arranged trees should
natural in design. ICTAS 2 and New Hall West     Retain the oak and beech plantings and add       continue on all four sides of the quad. At the
are examples of successful site / storm water    shrub masses to frame pedestrian circulation     building lines the yew plantings should be
management approaches.                           and plaza spaces. The declining pine masses      replaced with hedges backed with flowering
                                                 should be replaced with red cedar, and the       trees, or simply beds with flowering trees.
General observations and planting                birch plantings should be retained and
recommendations regarding the campus             reinforced, as should the viburnum hedge.        Upper Quad
quadrangles are as follows:                      The larger existing shade trees should be        The south side of Lane Hall should be
                                                 mulched with waste wood chips to improve         generally maintained in its present
Patton                                           long term tree health. A turf management         configuration of informal trees and hedges.
The use of ash should be discontinued in         plan should be developed due to heavy use        The hedges should not be sheared, but should
favor of native oaks. Informal placement of      by resident students.                            receive periodic renewal pruning. To the
trees is recommended. Rejuvenation of                                                             north of Lane Hall, landscape areas made
shrub plantings as previously completed at       Pritchard                                        available as a result of the Upper Quad
Patton and Holden should be continued.           The existing informal tree planting should be    Conversion and the subsequent removal of
Garden development at Norris should be of        maintained. Replacements should be made          the existing tennis courts, should be studied
proper scale and respect the structure of the    as required to maintain the frame effect that    in greater detail to determine appropriate
quad.                                            is sought. Strong wooded trees such as           landscape treatments and furnishings. In
                                                 sugar maple or oaks should be planted.           general, it is recommended that the area
Williams                                         Larger trees should receive waste wood chip      consist of lawns and informally planted trees
The sugar maple theme should be retained         mulch. The building entrance shrub layers        with potential for development of small edge
and new trees should be high-branched            should be rejuvenated.                           plazas.
specimens. As the trees continue to mature,
waste wood chip mulch may need to replace
the turf under the shade of the Maples.


                                                                       29
5. Core Area Linkages                                                                               6. Campus Streets

The planting treatment of linkage spaces          It is recommended that initial plantings be       The planting objective for the streets of the
should be designed to make these areas more       dense enough to establish shade to limit          core campus area should be to define the
consistent and unified so that the pedestrian     grass and weed growth. This will typically be     campus streets as continuous spatial
experience of moving through the campus is        denser than the desired long term density.        corridors and to create a uniform appearance.
more coherent. It is recommended that turf        Relatively small size plants should be used to    This will help to control the variation of
grass be reduced and that ground cover and        enhance acclimation, and limit the cost of        landscape and building conditions that
naturalistic shrub and wooded areas be            dense plantings.                                  currently exist along most streets. Uniform
developed similar to those already planted                                                          rows of trees are recommended to minimize
between Dietrick Hall and Slusher Hall. Grass     Species such as sassafras, sweetgum, red          the differences in building set-backs,
should be retained in areas where it is           maple, black cherry and chokecherry are           alignment, materials and style.
valuable for informal use, and along the          suggested as suitable trees for creating a
edges of paths where slopes permit easy           canopy fairly rapidly in the proposed             As a general rule, campus streets should be
mowing. In steeply sloping areas, or small        naturalized areas.                                planted with deciduous canopy trees that will
areas that are impractical to maintain as turf,                                                     provide foliage at a height from fifteen to
assemblages of native plants should be            Examples of successful linkage spaces are the     forty or sixty feet above the ground, while
planted to replace the grass.                     corridor between Campbell Hall and War            allowing open vision below the branches. The
                                                  Memorial Hall planted with Kentucky               trees should be on both sides of the street
The long term goal of these areas should be       coffeetree and native hollies, and the            and the species should be the same along a
to reduce their maintenance requirements to       embankment on the northeast end of Payne          given street.
only periodic pruning and thinning. The           Hall planted with red fescue.
specific plants for each area should be                                                             Changes in species should be coordinated
determined by soils, exposure, use, and           Other linkage spaces that may be naturalized      with logical changes in street alignment or at
space available at the location. The planting     are the north side of the Dietrick Hall service   intersections. Arbitrary changes in species or
and management plans for various areas may        yard; the south side of Whittemore Hall; the      mixing a variety of species on a given street
also allow for the long-term succession of        upper quad corridor from McBryde to Turner        should be avoided in the interest of
initial plantings to quite different ones. It     Street; the embankments west of Owens             maximizing visual continuity. Exceptions to
may be accepted, for example, that oak            Hall; the embankment south of the Owens           this can be entertained if the mixed species
seedlings be allowed to colonize a short-leaf     Hall service yards and the mounded area           have very similar size, form and texture
pine planting; or indeed the plan may specify     immediately west of Burke Johnston Student        characteristics.
that acorns be planted at a given stage of the    Center.
life cycle of a planting.

A mass shrub planting of gray dogwood or
fragrant sumac used for bank stabilization
may be purposefully and gradually replaced
by a tree planting after the shrubs begin to
naturally decline. The management process
should be flexible and opportunistic.


                                                                        30
7. Campus Forest Areas                            In balancing these objectives, it should be       The preferred method of forest establishment
                                                  recognized that in areas of high visual           in areas of high public visibility is to plant
The proposed campus forest areas consist of       sensitivity along roadways, the aesthetic         canopy trees at densities and proportions of
existing wooded areas and open areas              quality of the forest should be given priority.   species similar to their final desired
proposed for reforestation. There are four        Research activities that may result in            configuration, and to allow and encourage
long-term objectives for the forest areas.        “unattractive” landscapes or the dominance of     invasion by understory species as the forest
                                                  invasive exotic species over extended periods     canopy develops.
•   The first is to maintain stands of large      of time should be located in areas with limited
    native trees with associated understory       public exposure.                                  Examples of the canopy trees that would be
    and ground layer plants that will provide                                                       included in the initial canopy plantings are
    a regionally fitting visual theme for         The forest areas along roadways should be         listed below. The list will require refinement
    beautifying and unifying the university       designed and managed to enhance and unify         based on more detailed studies that would
    owned areas surrounding the core              the campus image over the long-term with a        address issues of plant availability in required
    campus.                                       minimum of short-term unattractiveness            sizes, species transplant characteristics, and
                                                  during periods of canopy establishment. The       the matching of tree types to field conditions.
•   The second is to provide the                  detailed planning of reforestation initiatives
    environmental benefits of cooling, carbon     should also include, as an overarching design     Acer saccharum -- Sugar Maple
    capture, enhanced storm water                 parameter, the maintenance of campus safety       Acer rubrum -- Red Maple
    management, erosion control and water         and security, and the preservation of             Betula Lenta -- Sweet Birch
    quality protection, increased species         significant views.                                Carya sp -- Hickory
    diversity and reduced water consumption                                                         Fagus grandifolia -- American Beech
    and energy expenditure for grounds            The forest areas should not be designed as        Fraxinum americana -- White Ash
    maintenance.                                  strict restorations of the forest communities     Juniperus virginiana – Eastern Red Cedar
                                                  that naturally occur or occurred in the region    Liquidambar styraciflua – Sweet Gum
•   The third is to provide areas for research,   during previous times. Rather, the forest         Liriodendron tulipifera -- Tuliptree
    education, and passive recreation in close    areas should be designed to stimulate the         Nyssa sylvatica -- Black Tupelo
    proximity to the campus.                      general structure and ecosystem functions of      Prunus serotina -- Black Cherry
                                                  naturally occurring forest communities of the     Pinus rigida -- Pitch Pine
•   The fourth is to provide an example of        region, with a composition of species that        Pinus strobus -- White Pine
    environmental responsibility that will        may not necessarily replicate the original        Pinus echinata -- Short-leaf Pine
    serve to heighten public awareness of the     forests of the area.                              Quercus alba -- White Oak
    relationship between human society and                                                          Q. coccinea -- Scarlet Oak
    the natural environment.                      The designs and the management methods            Q. lyrata – Overcup Oak
                                                  for each forest area should respond to the        Q. macrocarpa – Burr Oak
All of these objectives are supportive of the     existing vegetation soils, hydrology,             Q. prinus -- Chestnut Oak
Virginia Tech Climate Action Commitment and       exposure, size, shape and context of each         Q. borealis -- Northern Red Oak
Sustainability Plan. The university should        site.                                             Q. shumardii – Shumard Oak
investigate the establishment of forest                                                             Q. velutina -- Black Oak
easements as a means of gaining stormwater        The methods for establishing new forests          Tilia americana -- Basswood
management credits.                               should be adapted to the site conditions and
                                                  budget available for each site.
                                                                        31
In the interest of minimizing the period for       •   Planting fast-growing pioneer tree and
canopy establishment and increasing their              shrub species at medium to high densities
immediate visual effect, trees should be               to rapidly establish a canopy followed by
planted at the largest sizes practical. Weed           inter-planting with longer lived shade
and grass competition should be reduced in             tolerate canopy species. Variations of
the immediate area around the planted trees            these methods are also feasible.
until such time that the new planting can
successfully compete.                              The planting of fast growing temporary
                                                   shelter belts and hedgerows may also be
Existing grass and forbes should be allowed        desirable to provide protection for the new
to grow without mowing in the remainder of         forests during the first several decades of
the project area, until they are ultimately        their establishment. In proposed forest areas
shaded out and colonized by woody plants.          along the edges of large parking areas it
The grass should be removed if rodent control      would be desirable to include a large
becomes necessary to protect young trees           proportion of conifers for visual and wind
from girdling.                                     screening.

To maintain a neat edge along roadways, a
narrow strip of lawn, free of trees, may be
maintained during the establishment years,
and later be phased out or maintained as a
grass shoulder.

Other methods of planting may be employed
in situations where less immediate visual
effects are acceptable, or where soil
conditions, exposure or the project budget
will not allow planting large canopy trees at
ultimate densities. These methods include:

•   Planting desired canopy trees at lower
    densities in loose savanna configurations
    that will, over time, naturally close or can
    be supplemented with future planting.

•   Planting desired canopy trees at higher
    than ultimate densities (probably with
    smaller size planting stock for cost
    reasons) to increase the rate of canopy
    establishment and the opportunity for
    development of an understory layer.
                                                                        32
CAMPUS TREE AND SHRUB LIST                        Canopy Trees                                              Understory Trees and Shrubs

Preferred woody plants for use on the Virginia    Abies fraseri—Fraser Fir                                  Amelanchier arborea—Downy Serviceberry
Tech campus. This is not an exhaustive list of    Acer rubrum—Red Maple                                     Amelanchier canadensis—Shadblow Serviceberry
all acceptable plants. Other plants that follow   Acer saccharum—Sugar Maple                                Amelanchier laevis—Allegany Serviceberry
the design principles may be used.                Betula luteau—Yellow Birch                                Carpinus caroliniana—American Hornbeam
                                                  Betula nigra—River Birch                                  Clethra alnifolia—Summersweet Clethra
                                                  Fagus grandifolia—American Beech                          Cercis canadensis—Redbud
                                                  Fraxinus Americana—White Ash                              Cornus florida—Flowering Dogwood
                                                  Carya glabra—Pignut Hickory                               Cornus amomum—Silky Dogwood
                                                  Carya ovata—Shagbark Hickory                              Cornus racemosa—Gray Dogwood
                                                  Carya alba—Mockernut hickory                              Hamamelis virginiana—Common Witch-hazel
                                                  Carya cordiformis—Bitter-nut Hickory                      Ilex opaca—American Holly
                                                  Liriodendron tulipifera—Tuliptree                         Kalmia latifolia—Mountain Laurel
                                                  Liquidamber styraciflua—Sweetgum                          Ostrya virginiana—Hop-Hornbeam
                                                  Magnolia acuminate-- Cucumber Magnolia                    Oxydendrum arboretum—Sourwood
                                                  Nyssa sylvatica—Black Tupelo                              Prunus pennsylvanica—Chokecherry
                                                  Picea rubens—Red Spruce                                   Rhododendron calandulace—Flame Azalea
                                                  Pinus strobus—White Pine                                  Rhododendron catawbiense—Catawba Rhododendron
                                                  Pinus echinata—Short-leaf Pine                            Rhododendron maximum—Rosebay Rhododendron
                                                  Plantus occidentalis--American Sycamore                   Sassafras albidum—Sassafras
                                                  Prunus serotina—Black Cherry                              Vaccinium corymbosum—Highbush Blueberry
                                                  Quercus alba—White Oak                                    Viburnum dentatum—Arrowwood
                                                  Quercus bicolor—Swamp White Oak                           Viburnum lentago—Nannyberry
                                                  Quercus coccinia—Scarlet Oak                              Viburnum prunifolium—Blackhaw
                                                  Quercus palustris—Pin Oak                                 Virbunum trilobum—American Cranberrybush
                                                  Quercus prinus—Chestnut Oak                               Xanthoriza simplicissima—Yellowroot
                                                  Quercus rubra—Northern Red Oak                            Crataegus viridis– Winter King Hawthorne
                                                  Quercus velutina—Black Oak                                Ilex glabra -- Inkberry
                                                  Tilia americana—Basswood                                  Ilex verticillata -- Inkberry
                                                  Thuja plicata – Western Cedar                             Viburnum cultivars
                                                  Quercus lyrata – Overcup Oak                              Fothergilla major – Large Fothergilla
                                                  Gymnocladus dioica – Kentucky Coffeetree                  Halesia carolina – Carolina Silverbell
                                                  Ulmus americana – Dutch Elm Disease resistant cultivars   Aronia arbutifolia – Red Chokeberry
                                                  Quercus macrocarpa – Burr Oak                             Aronia melanocarpa – Black Chokeberry
                                                  Quercus nuttallii- Nuttall Oak                            Fothergilla gardenia – Dwarf Fothergilla
                                                  Platanus acerifolia – London Planetree
                                                  Thuja occidentalis – American Arborvitae
                                                  Celtic occidentalis – Hackberry
                                                  Juniperus virginiana – Eastern Red Cedar


                                                                             33
34
E.    SITE STRUCTURES                               3. Structures                                    Pavilions should be designed as enjoyable
                                                                                                     places to sit and as gateways along paths
1. Lighting
                                                    Walls                                            that frame views or mark a transition from
                                                    Site walls should be designed to be a direct     one place to another. The pavilion at the
The present system of standard light poles
                                                    extension of the architecture they are most      Duck Pond, for example, is inviting and
and fixtures should continue to be applied in
                                                    immediately associated with. Materials and       attractive because of its design and siting.
new areas of the campus. The layout of
                                                    finishes shall match those of the adjacent
fixtures should continue to follow the regular
                                                    architecture. Seat height walls located in       4. Art
patterns of walks, roads and buildings so that
                                                    association with building entrances and other
the main lines of the campus structure are
                                                    natural gathering places are encouraged. The     The use of elements of sculpture, relief and
revealed by the layout of lights.
                                                    seat walls should have smooth cut stone or       ornament in the development of the campus
                                                    precast caps to encourage sitting, rather than   landscape is encouraged. Any such work of
•    New building-mounted lights should be
                                                    rough Hokie Stone or brick.                      art, be it free standing sculpture, a fountain
     low glare fixtures and employ lamps with
                                                                                                     or an ornamental pattern in a plaza
     good color rendition, particularly at
                                                    The cheek walls that contain steps should be     pavement, should always be carefully
     building entrances.
                                                    designed to be nearly flush with surrounding     integrated with the landscape immediately
                                                    lawns or plant beds, rather than projecting      surrounding it. The art and its setting should
•    Bollards, well lights and fixtures
                                                    above the adjacent grade level.                  be developed together so that the art is a
     embedded in walls or steps should not be
                                                                                                     harmonious part of the landscape rather than
     used. These types of lights are prone to
                                                    Bike and Bus Shelters                            a foreign or free element in the landscape.
     failure in exterior applications and require
                                                    The transparent shelters presently used on
     a high level of maintenance.
                                                    the campus should continue as the campus         The Visual Arts Properties Committee has
                                                    standard.                                        been established to evaluate and control the
•    Pole-mounted or wall-mounted fixtures
                                                                                                     design and placement of art on the campus.
     consistent with the standard campus
                                                    Pavilions and Trellises                          The committee works with the campus
     fixture should be used.
                                                    Several opportunities exist on campus to add     planning staff to identify locations for
                                                    trellis or small pavilion structures to enrich   commissioned or gifted sculpture.
•    Wall-mounted fixtures may adopt the
                                                    the campus landscape. One opportunity is in
     style of the architecture on which they
                                                    the Agriculture Quadrangle on top of the
     are mounted rather than follow the
                                                    existing concrete slab that overlooks the
     campus standard pole-mounted fixture.
                                                    lawn. Another is at the top of the steps
                                                    between Brodie Hall and Major Williams Hall.
2. Emergency Call Boxes

                                                    In each case the structure should be designed
The existing emergency call boxes should be
                                                    to be compatible in style and materials with
located in all academic and residential areas
                                                    the surrounding architecture. For example,
as well as highly traveled remote areas of the
                                                    the rustic wood pavilion at the Duck Pond, as
campus. The Virginia Tech Police Department
                                                    appropriate as it is in that setting, would be
shall be consulted regarding placement of the
                                                    out of place within the built campus, where
phones and to verify the phone model and
                                                    stone, metal or more finished wood
proper programming to function with the
                                                    construction would be appropriate.
existing system.
                                                                          35
5. Paving                                        Pedestrian Pavements
                                                 The pavement material for pedestrian walks
Street and Parking Lot Paving                    should continue to be broom finished cement
The pavement material for vehicular streets      concrete. Score joints typically should be
and parking lots should continue to be asphalt   tooled and perpendicular to the tangent or arc
concrete.                                        length of the walk. The alignment of walks
                                                 shall follow smooth continuous curves and
All paint markings on parking lot and road       tangents, free of kinks and misaligned curve-
pavements should be white, not yellow,           tangent intersections.
except where required by VDOT standards.
                                                 The preferred pavement for pedestrian plazas
                                                 and terraces immediately adjacent to
                                                 buildings is cut stone, or a unit paver of brick
                                                 or concrete. The use of concrete on plazas
                                                 and terraces is also acceptable.

                                                 To reduce glare, add interest, and provide
                                                 color consistency, colored concrete may be
                                                 used. The design of the plaza surface should
                                                 be treated as an integral part of the
                                                 surrounding architecture.

                                                 The pavement should meet adjacent buildings
                                                 walls, steps in a planned way; as an interior
                                                 floor would deliberately meet the walls of a
                                                 building. Drainage inlets should be
                                                 compatible with the adjacent architectural
                                                 detailing.

                                                 Curbing
                                                 Street curbing shall be cast-in-place, or
                                                 precast concrete.




                                                                        36
I I I. B U I L D I N G S
                                                                                          I I I. B U I L D I N G S


A. INTRODUCTION

These building design principles are a companion to the           In undertaking the requisite planning and design tasks,
Campus Master Plan and are meant to assist architects in          several considerations are paramount to the guidance of the
understanding the design and planning characteristics which       design concepts, including:
make the Virginia Tech campus a special place. The
architectural appearance and overall aesthetic quality of the         •   A consistent use of the principles of design order,
Virginia Tech campus are important university and community               such as building orientation, scale, massing and
resources which deserve special care and attention to assure              proportion.
continuity.
                                                                      •   A careful integration of the architectural elements
The image of the university's architecture and building forms             which are key factors in the defining characteristics of
should convey long term stability while encouraging an                    the Virginia Tech architectural language, including
atmosphere for creative thinking. The majority of campus                  walls, roofs, windows, doors, openings and building
buildings should work essentially as groupings or compositions            materials.
rather than as individual buildings both functionally and
aesthetically. The architectural style of new buildings may           •   An appropriate response to the campus context
vary to reflect current technology and program                            through respect for the protection of views, setbacks
accommodation. Any such innovations, however, must                        and development patterns described in the Master
maintain a harmonious, aesthetic connection with existing                 Plan.
campus structures.
                                                                      •   Accommodation of projected growth and development
New buildings and their associated outdoor spaces must                    in a manner which strengthens the overall
provide varied experiences while reflecting the existing                  appearance, spatial organization and
heritage and character of the established campus                          functionality of the campus.
architecture. Building elements must exhibit permanence, a
human scale, visual richness and pleasing proportions.                •   A meaningful commitment to design strategies which
                                                                          embrace sustainability and are compatible with the
In order to extend the architectural fabric of the campus,                regional environment and conservation of natural
building materials must be carefully integrated in a manner               resources.
which is compatible with the historic existing buildings. In
addressing the design of renovations, additions or new
construction, designers are required to find the proper balance
between individual expression and overall contextual
conformity.


                                                       39
B. ARCHITECTURAL ORDER                            The following outline identifies specific 'siting'
                                                  considerations for review:
1. Siting / Orientation
The siting of new buildings and the location of   1. Buildings shall be sited to reinforce and
building additions must be carefully                  enhance the spatial structure of the
considered with respect to several key                campus and its circulation patterns.
considerations, including the master plan         2. Building entries shall be clear and
principles, existing landscape features, site         coordinated with circulation patterns
utility infrastructure and solar orientation.         and landscaping elements.
                                                  3. Ground level uses shall consider the
New structures are to be placed to help define        harmony of interior and exterior
outdoor campus spaces. Their locations and            activities.
groupings, as illustrated in the Master Plan,     4. Building placement should be oriented to
express this intention. While specific program        shield utilitarian components (parking,
requirements will necessitate adjustments to          loading, trash areas, and utility boxes)
these parameters, the space-making                    from the most prominent campus view
intentions of the Master Plan are to be               'corridors.'
honored.                                          4. Coordinate shared facilities as feasible,
                                                      including walkways and parking areas.
A precinct plan, developed during the concept     5. Locate buildings to develop a network of
design phase of each project, will help               varied open spaces that facilitate both
maintain a focus on campus master planning            formal and informal interactions.
issues such as spatial definition, circulation,   6. Site buildings so as to create human-
building entries, and ground level uses.              scaled spaces with spatial sensibilities
                                                      that relate to the mass, proportion, and
The location of entries, arcades, and ground          size of surrounding buildings.
level internal activities can do much to          7. Locate buildings to reduce impacts on the
animate campus spaces. Where possible,                land and environment.
these functions should be incorporated into       8. Arrange building forms to make the
the building’s design. Spaces should be               campus inviting and transparent with a
activated with the addition or relocation of          strong sense of arrival and clarity of
entry points. Designers are to consider how           orientation.
views into or from a building will create a       9. Promote compact development to
connection between the new building and               preserve the campus’ greatest asset — its
outdoor areas. A window frame can be                  land — for future opportunities.
thought of as a frame for a vignette of           10. Orient buildings to maximize passive
campus life, or as a frame for a view of a            solar opportunities and allow active
building’s internal life.                             solar technology.




                      40
2. Building Scale                                  Massing                                           Volumetric Variation
The design of the original campus buildings        While many of the buildings on campus are         Variation in the massing of buildings may be
was influenced by a broad range of factors         simple in their overall massing, there is wide    accomplished in several ways. The following
that generated specific attributes of building     use of smaller scale individual elements such     considerations are recommended strategies
size, organizational structure and volume.         as bay projections and porches. These             for developing expression in the basic volume
Many of these influences related to                elements are used to suggest special internal     of new building forms.
construction technology and available building     functions, draw attention to important areas
systems with respect to structure and              like entrances, and provide visual                •   Bays, porches, towers, and other minor
mechanical systems. For example, a desire          and compositional balance. These elements             adjustments to massing are encouraged.
for natural ventilation was a particularly         help to provide the visual and psychological
important factor in determining building width     cues necessary for an understandable              •   Some expression of the building structure
in the historic campus structures.                 architecture. Their inclusion in new designs is       is encouraged in the design and rhythm
                                                   encouraged.                                           of the facade, including options such as
The building design principles promote new                                                               piers, buttresses and modulation of the
design strategies which reflect the building's     Simple massing allows constrained budgets to          wall plane.
site, programmatic function, site                  be focused on higher quality materials and
considerations, surrounding environment, as        careful detailing. The traditional buildings on   •   Openings in the masonry wall should
well as their place in time.                       campus exemplify how richness can be                  have some level of correspondence to the
                                                   achieved through the use of durable materials         building's structural rhythm, either in
Height                                             and fine detail within the context of simple          continuous openings or by combinations
To maintain the sense of scale currently           massing.                                              of smaller openings within the bays.
experienced in major spaces on campus, it
will be important to controlling the height of                                                       •   Iconic structures, while an exception to
buildings, particularly in the core area of                                                              the rule, are welcome as important
campus.                                                                                                  campus landmarks. Substantial review
                                                                                                         and discussion should be held regarding
•   Generally, buildings are to be three to                                                              the appropriateness of such proposals.
    five floors in height above grade.
•   If more than four floors above grade are                                                         Of particular interest in understanding the
    needed, the upper floors and penthouses                                                          preferred massing and spatial character of
    must be set back.                                                                                buildings in the campus landscape, please
•   Taller exceptional elements are to be                                                            refer to the Agriculture Quadrangle for
    designed and located in response to                                                              reference. The following renderings illustrate
    particular opportunities outlined in the                                                         the range of building volumes and
    campus master plan, including landmark                                                           architectural language found in the
    locations described in the 2006 Master                                                           quadrangle.
    Plan update.
•   Buildings of three and four stories in
    height should be subdivided into a base,
    body, and top. This delineation may be
    accomplished through changes in building
    plane, differentiation in material, or both.
                                                                         41
Hutcheson Hall        Smyth Hall




  Price Hall          Seitz Hall
                 42
                                   Renderings by B. Edwin Talley, Jr.
3. Facades                                          Additionally, the following principles are
The traditional buildings on the campus have        provided for more specific façade design
simply ordered and well articulated facades.        considerations:
Clearly delineated bases, middles and tops are
the rule. In many cases, facades are                •   Buildings are to address primary campus
symmetrical with the central and end bays               spaces with main facades.
pulled forward and emphasized with towers,
pediments, or raised parapets.                      •   Facades are to incorporate primary or
Bays and large order windows help organize the          symbolic building entrances.
facades and, in some cases, indicate special
interior spaces. Doors with carved surrounds,       •   Main facades are generally more formal,
stairways, and wing walls clearly mark entries          elaborate, and make use of symmetry.
and often project several feet beyond the main
facade.                                             •   Facades are to be divided into a base, a
                                                        middle and a top.
When considering the key design considerations
for building facades, the following principles      •   Facades will incorporate repetitive façade
identify specific considerations for review:            bays in accordance with their siting and
                                                        scale.
1. Facades shall be simple and well ordered.
2. General fenestration patterns shall be           •   Repetitive bays are to be vertical in
   regular. Some vertical hierarchy is                  proportion.
   appropriate. Where affordable, cut stone
   window surrounds are preferred to precast        •   Facades will have differentiated or
   concrete. Window openings shall be                   emphasized ends.
   subdivided to create a vertical proportion
   where they form horizontal groupings.            •   Facades will be designed with three
3. The use of bays, giant order elements, or            dimensional relief.
   special accents to provide a large overall
   order is acceptable and encouraged.              •   Facades may incorporate decorative
4. Special detailing ornament and materials at          elements as appropriate to their style and
   significant locations are acceptable and             importance.
   encouraged.
5. Window frames and glass shall be set back
   approximately 6” to provide weather
   protection. Sills and heads shall be detailed
   to shed water and alleviate the possibility of
   unattractive weathering patterns.




                        43
 Main Eggleston Hall       Newman Library      Saunders Hall




Bioinformatics Building   East Campbell Hall      Holden Hall




                            44
C. ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS                           Stacks, exhaust hoods, and vents should be
                                                    grouped and incorporated into the
1. Roof Forms                                       architectural composition of the buildings
Special attention must be paid to the               they serve. Since such appurtenances are
arrangement and design of building roofs and        often visible from a considerable distance, it
various attached appurtenances. Roofs must          is important that they be designed with a
be organized and designed as carefully as the       high degree of uniformity so that the distant
other primary elements of a building.               image is harmonious and composed.
Equipment must be integrated into the
building form or placed within enclosures well      If traditional forms of construction such as
integrated with the roofscape.                      these are to be used, they should be carefully
                                                    reviewed. The choice of color, size, and
In most cases, both sloped and flat roof            pattern of roof tiles are important design
solutions can be successful. Sloped roofs,          decisions. Standing seam metal roofs allow
parapets, and dormers are all extant on the         for a similar range of options including
campus. When successful, they are integral          material, color, patterning, and method of
elements of the design and provide individual       seaming. Other details, such as snow clips,
character to a particular building. Sloped          ridge and valley flashing, and vents are all
roofs provide the opportunity for                   essential elements and should be consciously
individualizing a building that is simple in plan   evaluated.
and elevation.                                                                                           War Memorial Hall
                                                    Where parapets occur on the campus, they
Executed in slate or standing seam metal,           are most successful when trimmed in precast
sloped roofs are attractive in appearance and       concrete or cut limestone. A full range of
durable. Asphalt shingles, which have a             design and detailing possibilities may be
shorter life span, and a less formal                considered for copings. The specific slope of a
appearance, are not appropriate for central         roof, whether it is hipped or gable-ended, and
campus use.                                         the incorporation of both functional and
                                                    ornamental details, such as scuppers and
                                                    gargoyles, add character and individuality to
                                                    a building.

                                                    These traditional details also improve the
                                                    weathering of a building and its appearance
                                                    over time. Where copings are used and
                                                    simplified to express their modernity, a
                                                    consideration of their traditional function is
                                                    beneficial. Dormers provide a lively accent
                                                    along the tops of several existing buildings on
                                                    campus. They provide a sense of the life
                                                                                                      Career Services Building
                                                    within a building not unlike bay projections.
                                                                          45
Norris Hall   Main Campbell Hall   Main Eggleston Hall




                     46
2. Doors, Portals and Passages                     The following basic considerations must be
Entries should be logically placed to relate to    taken into account in the design of door and
building function and must be clearly              entry conditions for new buildings:
recognizable by users. They must be open
and inviting, well lit, and should provide a       •   Primary and symbolic entrances will
sense of security. The scale of building entries       receive elaboration and emphasis.
must be proportioned to clearly identify their
location and importance while maintaining a        •   Entrances will be clear, prominent, and
human-scale relationship.                              aligned to the major space upon which
                                                       the building fronts.
This requires that multi-story entries must
have single-story element sets within. The         •   The outdoor space at the entrance, the
entry may be used as an organizing tool for            entry portal, and the building lobby are to
the entire facade, and may also be referenced          be parts of a unified pedestrian
by a feature such as a balcony at a higher             experience.
floor.                                                                                               Main Campbell Hall
                                                   •   The building entrance is elaborated and
Another key element found in the more iconic           celebrated by both architectural and
buildings on campus is the presence of                 landscape elements.
outdoor spaces and passages which are
integrated into the campus circulation plan        •   The design will extend the exterior public
and specific entrance requirements for                 space seamlessly into the building, and
individual buildings. The interiors of passages        provide informal gathering and meeting
through buildings which connect outdoor                spaces near the building entrances using
rooms and campus spaces have integrated                a combination of paving, planting beds,
seating ledges and wood beamed ceilings,               low walls, benches, trees and steps.
creating a sense of place. Opportunities for
such 'portal' conditions should be carefully       •   Service entrances are to be unobtrusive.
reviewed for each project, particularly in
conjunction with the Campus Master Plan.




                                                                                      Harper Hall

                                                                         47
48
3. Windows and Openings                             The use of windows promotes campus vitality.      Individual panes of glass must be vertical or
Windows are anticipated to be placed visually       Windows allow people on the outside to be         square. Window units may be linked together
in balanced compositions, both vertically and       connected to activities within, while providing   with a multi-segment mullion system. Large
horizontally. Their sizes sometime vary from        interest for people inside. At night, windows     horizontal masonry openings can be achieved
floor to floor to create a sense of hierarchy       allow interior activities to illuminate and       through the connection of many lites of
and order. They are generally vertically            animate the public spaces outside and also        glazing. Skylights and clerestories should be
proportioned singly or through intermittent         provide a sense of security.                      constructed from vertically oriented planes of
mullions, when arranged into horizontal                                                               glass and should be illuminated so that they
groups.                                             Natural light may be appropriate for many         may be seen both night and day.
                                                    teaching uses, and when combined with
Finished stone with surrounds (heads, jambs         blinds or curtains, classrooms may still have     •   Typical windows are to be 'punched'—as
and sills) give a finely crafted quality to the     enough flexibility for computer or projection         individual rectangular openings in the
buildings and allow window frames to meet           use. Glazing is very important along arcades          masonry walls.
the otherwise rough, split-faced Hokie stone.       and at building entries. Offices located at the   •   Typical windows are to be vertical in
This finer finishing of materials at openings in    exterior should have windows whenever                 proportion.
the facade reveals an intelligent                   possible.                                         •   Windows are to be set deep within the
understanding and sensitivity to the reality of                                                           thickness of the wall, not flush with its
construction and the nature of materials.           Skylights help animate the interior of a              outer surface.
                                                    building by providing natural light and color.    •   Larger areas of glazing, where they occur,
In most cases, windows and doors in exterior        They create an element of visual activity on          are to consist of grouped windows, not
walls should be recessed to represent a             the roof that can be seen on the skyline. Used        undifferentiated curtain walls and should
'punched' or 'cut-out' expression of the            as an icon or marker, a skylight system can           be located to express aspects of the
openings which one would expect in a solid          help give the campus identity and texture.            buildings’ circulation system, lobbies,
masonry wall. Windows and openings might                                                                  stairs, and major public rooms.
also be grouped in larger configurations as a       The original campus buildings have been           •   Operable windows are encouraged in
counterpoint to large areas of masonry              perceived as not having enough glass. Some            private rooms, subject to the need to
construction.                                       of the newer buildings have more glass than           meet energy consideration and LEED
                                                    the originals.                                        Silver requirements.
The placement and proportion of windows                                                               •   Glass is to be clear (low-e coefficient),
must respect solar orientation, views and                                                                 not noticeably tinted. Reflective glass is
daylighting potentials, as well as the historical                                                         not allowed.
precedent of window forms within the older                                                            •   Glazed areas are to be subdivided by true
historic buildings of the campus. The use of                                                              mullions.
oversized windows, common in some of the                                                              •   Window mullion patterns will be designed
older buildings on campus, is encouraged on                                                               so as to enrich the reading of the façade.
appropriate façade locations as long as
configurations are integrated with a strong
sustainable/solar design strategy. In general,
larger openings should be used to signal
principal entries, gateways or atrium
features.
                                                                           49
                          Bioinformatics Building




West Campbell Hall


                     50
     4. Architectural Details
      Architectural details play an important role in
     the development of campus architecture.
     Buttresses, water courses, belt (string)
     courses, and copings help order these facades
     both horizontally and vertically. These
     elements increase the play of light and
     shadow on the facades. Many also enhance
     the buildings’ weathering capabilities. In fact,
     the term ‘weathering’ is a traditional name for
     elements such as sills, copings and other
     water –shedding architectural details.

     These architectural elements have evolved
     over centuries and are profoundly
     sophisticated. They shed water effectively due
     to their geometry. They also create shadow
     lines, highlights, and ridges, which help
     visually organize the facade.

     Their functional purpose may also direct the
     inevitable and unavoidable residue of the
     weathering process into patterns which
     attractively reinforce the architectural order
     of the facade. Ironically, this type of low-tech
     traditional response to the natural
     environment is often a better technological
     solution than a ‘high-tech’ reliance on
     chemically exotic caulking.




51
D. BUILDING MATERIALS                           1. Walls
                                                For buildings in the Academic Core of the
The vocabulary of materials for the campus      campus there is a strong mandate to consider
built environment is a vital element in         the use of Hokie Stone for the facades of all
contributing to the special character of the    new buildings and expansion projects. Each
Virginia Tech campus. Hokie Stone, brick and    project must be reviewed in terms of its
architectural concrete are the dominant         program, location, prominence and place
building materials on campus. Their use         within the Campus Master Plan to determine
generally follows a clear pattern. The Drill    the appropriate palette of materials, assuring
Field and its surrounding quadrangles are       that the selection and quality of materials
Hokie Stone. The buildings surrounding the      used in the construction of buildings,
inner Collegiate Gothic core along the Alumni   associated facilities, and site elements should
Mall, College Avenue, and the west side of      be honest to their form and function.
West Campus Drive are brick. Architectural
cast-in-place and pre-cast concrete mixed       In most cases, masonry walls should have an
with brick occur along the north edge of        expression of materials that provide a sense
campus and in parts of south campus.            of solidity, texture, and a sense of human
                                                scale and proportion. To further enhance
Where areas of different material-use           these qualities of scale and proportion, strong
interface, an evaluation must be made as to     consideration should be given to emphasizing
which materials or what blend of materials      the thickness of exterior walls to create
ought to be employed. Johnston Student          shadows on the façade.
Center and Hancock Hall illustrate the use of
Hokie Stone buildings in an area of material-   Hokie Stone should continue the tradition of
use interface. The insertion of these           having split-faced units in a random ashlar
stone buildings effectively bridges between     pattern with flush mortar joints. Smooth
the two areas, creating a quadrangle and        limestone is used most appropriately for trim
transforming Cowgill Hall into a positive       and ornament.
accent. In fact, stone-clad buildings are
planned or have been built in most campus       The incorporation of stone trim, accents, and
precincts with the intention of extending the   ornamental elements in brick masonry
architectural character of the campus core to   campus buildings is encouraged. Pre-cast
these outlying areas.                           concrete, and cast stone can be aesthetically
                                                acceptable and cost-effective substitutes for
                                                limestone.




                                                                      52
Career Services Building   Newman Library




Bioinformatics Building       Davidson Hall




                                        53
54
2. Hokie Stone
Virginia Tech was born as a land-grant
college, and appropriately, its distinctive
buildings have been constructed from the
product of Southwest Virginia geology.
Virginia Tech's Hokie Stone, set in the
dignified Collegiate Gothic architectural style,
embodies the identity the university set out
to establish a century ago. Few alumni realize
this progressive university began as a spartan
technical college that adopted the Collegiate
Gothic style in an effort to elevate its austere,
utilitarian image.

The university mines the distinguishing
limestone at its own quarry on the fringes of
Blacksburg. Originally called “our native
stone,” the rock has become known more
familiarly — and more affectionately — as
Hokie Stone. These ancient stones are
extracted and shaped by ancient methods —
by humans as well as machines. Arms and
hands, hammers and chisels craft the raw
stone into building blocks.

In addition to the iconic Burruss Hall, every
building around the Drill Field employs the
material. The character and symbolic quality
of Hokie Stone as a major building material
has become synonymous with the Virginia
Tech campus image. All new buildings in the
Academic Core of the campus, including new
precinct development, will consider Hokie
Stone as a primary building material.




                                                    Hokie Stone details on corner of Saunders Hall


                                                           55
3. Roofs                                             The following outline identifies specific
Roofing materials need to be of equally high         recommendations with respect to roof design
quality. Sloped roofs, as previously stated,         considerations:
should be slate, high quality artificial slate, or
tern-coated stainless steel or weathered zinc.       1.   Well-developed and articulated rooflines
                                                          are encouraged.
Flat roofs need to be evaluated for their visual
appearance to the degree they are visible            2.   Sloped roofs and flat roofs are both
from above or can be utilized as terraces. In             acceptable.
these cases, roofing pavers, vegetated roof
covering systems and ballast stone need to           3.   Parapets shall be well articulated and
be reviewed for their aesthetic appearance.               trimmed with pre-cast or cut stone.
Careful consideration needs to be given to                Profiles, scuppers, and other ornamental
organizing and screening rooftop mechanical               devices are acceptable and encouraged.             Payne Hall

equipment
                                                     4.   Dormers and pediments are also
                                                          acceptable and encouraged as are
                                                          cupolas, chimneys, and other traditional
                                                          roofing embellishments. Their intersection
                                                          with the main roof must be well detailed
                                                          and will receive careful scrutiny. These
                                                          elements shall not be viewed purely as
                                                          ornamental elements without functional
                                                          attributes.




                                                                                                             Lane Hall




                                                                                                       Bioinformatics Building


                                                                            56
     4. Doors and Windows
     Doors and door hardware are important as
     they are constant points of contact between
     people and buildings. They denote much
     about the character and durability of a
     building. They also provide an opportunity to
     personalize a building and welcome users in a
     gracious manner.

     Wood, metal, and glass can all be used
     acceptably on the Virginia Tech campus.
     Combinations may occur where inner and
     outer doors form a vestibule. Attention should
     be given to visibility through doors for safety
     and convenience.

     Windows should be of high quality, durable
     construction. Profiles and mullions should
     respond to the delicate quality of the
     traditional casements. Window glass should
     appear as clear as possible within good
     energy management requirements.




57
Traditional and modern interpretations of ornamentation in stone masonry walls


                                                                                 58
                      4. Ornament
                      Ornament arranged into a coherent, topical         This invention is therefore an important and
                      and idiosyncratic program can enhance and          meaningful aspect of campus architecture.
                      elevate a building’s design. It can speak to       The existing ornamental programs on campus
                      people on a symbolic and emotional level and       provide a basis upon which to start. Future
                      help provide the Vitruvian “delight” so often      programs should encourage the inclusion of
                      missing in modern buildings.                       ornament in innovative and symbolic ways for
                                                                         all of its buildings. Basic principles in support
                      Architectural ornament exists on the campus        of this position include:
                      but has not been consistently addressed or
                      implemented as a key design feature. Where         1.    The campus currently has minimal
                      it exists, it provides the type of individuality         ornament reflective of its lengthy
Saunders Hall 1931    and expressiveness which make a campus                   history. Future buildings shall have
                      memorable and unique. Heraldic shields,                  well-developed ornamental programs
                      plant and animal imagery, and graphic                    appropriate to a university with such a
                      designs can be integrated into an ornamental             broad contemporary mission.
                      program in any traditional or contemporary
                      building.                                          2.    Heraldry, plant, animal, and
                                                                               geometric motifs are all acceptable
                      The creative use of unadorned construction               and encouraged in a coordinated
                      elements can also produce a type of abstract             program.
                      ornament. Employing new methods for the
                      production of ornament can suggest the             3.    Building identification integrated into
                      eloquent advancement of technology. The use              building facades are key elements of an
                      of scientific knowledge to invent methods –              ornamental program.
                      technologies – whereby ornament becomes
Eggleston Hall 1935
                      feasible within the constraints of                 4.    The use of new technologies to
                      contemporary resources comes close to                    economically produce ornamental
                      defining the very mission of Virginia Tech.              elements is acceptable and encouraged.

                      Particular reference is made to the newly          5.    The creative use of masonry
                      published "A Catalog of Architectural                    patterning is also acceptable as an
                      Ornament" prepared by the University                     ornamental strategy.
                      Planning, Design and Construction
                      Department in conjunction with the School of
                      Architecture and Design. This comprehensive
                      photographic reference provides an invaluable
                      documentation of the history of
                      ornamentation on campus.
Holden Hall 1940


                                             59
60
E. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN

1. Approach                                        The following design principles support the    Promote Transportation Options
The initiative to strongly support sustainable     achievement of fiscally sound and              Motivate individuals’ commitment to walking,
design strategies in building design continues     environmentally responsible development and    bicycling and public transit by ensuring
its long-standing commitment to the                the proactive stewardship of all campus        convenient alternative transit and a quality
principles that establish a sustainable            resources.                                     outdoor campus experience. Create a mix of
community — which can be defined as a place                                                       uses and locate destination points to provide
of interconnectivity of all things where           Integrate Environments                         a safe and attractive campus realm. Think
attention is paid to how the physical              Recognize the basis of sustainable planning    first of the pedestrian experience while
development of the campus can be sustained         and design by integrating concerns for the     realizing effective transportation systems that
over time.                                         social, economic and environmental realms.     rely on human-powered and energy efficient
                                                   Express this commitment in plans and           systems.
In conjunction with the policies outlined in the   designs that reflect community goals, engage
Campus Master Plan, a broad-based                  stakeholders, work with nature and             Manage Materials for a Healthy Earth
sustainable approach involves how building         perpetuate community heritage.                 Employ materials management practices that
development occurs, land is used,                                                                 promote environmental health and contribute
transportation is managed, natural resources       Design for Renewable Energy Systems            to the economy through diversification of
are respected, conservation technologies are       and a Clean Atmosphere                         manufacturing and disposal practices. Design
practiced, and social and economical issues        Promote human health and comfort. Reduce       for longevity and materials reuse and specify
are prioritized.                                   the reliance on non-renewable energy           non-toxic materials. Select products that are
                                                   systems through conservation, emphasis on      locally extracted, harvested and
                                                   natural energy sources such as sun and wind    manufactured, fortifying the local economy
                                                   and the integrated use of renewable clean      and a commitment to design that embraces
                                                   fuels.                                         local cultures

                                                   Champion Natural Habitats
                                                   Enhance habitat diversity through open space
                                                   preservation and the selection of native
                                                   vegetation. Redevelop sites to regenerate
                                                   natural habitats.

                                                   Enhance Water Resources
                                                   Limit the need for inter-basin or inter-
                                                   watershed transfers and plan for efficient
                                                   water consumption and critical watershed
                                                   protection strategies. Prevent toxins from
                                                   entering the water supply and, through
                                                   redevelopment of contaminated sites, restore
                                                   polluted water resources.

                                                                        61
62
Virginia
Polytechnic
Institute and State
University

				
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