1997 North American Conference on the
Reunión de América del Norte en 1997 sobre la
Roundtable Discussions and Priority Actions
November 10 –14, 1997
Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
Mesas Redondas y Acciones Prioritarias
10 al 14 de noviembre de 1997
Morelia, Michoacán, México
1997 North American Conference on the
Reunión de América del Norte en 1997 sobre la
Roundtable Discussions and Priority Actions
November 10–14, 1997
Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
Mesas Redondas y Acciones Prioritarias
10 al 14 de noviembre de 1997
Morelia, Michoacán, México
A C K N OW L E D G M E N T S
As a result of the Council resolution signed in August 1996, the Secretariat of the Commission for Environmental
Cooperation formed an Organizing Committee for the North American Conference on the Monarch Butterﬂy.
Members of the Organizing Committee include:
Commission for Environmental Cooperation Leticia Merino
Irene Pisanty Regional Center for Multidisciplinary Research, National
Conference Coordinator Autonomous University of Mexico, and the Mexican Civil
Leticia Villeneuve Council for Sustainable Forestry
Coordination of special events Alberto Rojas
Rachel Vincent SEMARNAP, Morelia State Ofﬁce
Communications Roberto Solís
Tara Wilkinson Special Biosphere Reserve for the Monarch Butterﬂy,
Coordination assistant National Institute of Ecology
Canada Direction General of Regional Programs, SEMARNAP
Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada United States
Steven Price Maria Araujo
World Wildlife Fund Texas Department of Parks and Wildlife
Phil Schappert Ellen Murphy
York University U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Interior
Steve Wendt Angelica Narvaez
Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada U.S. Embassy–Mexico City
México University of Minnesota
Pedro Alvarez Icaza Herb Raffaele
Direction General of Ecological Planning and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of Interior
Environmental Impact, National Institute of Ecology
Mexican Network of Small-scale Forester Organizations
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
Maria Eugenia Ayala
Ofﬁce of the Secretary, Events Coordination, SEMARNAP
Javier de la Maza
Coordination Unit for Natural Protected Areas,
National Institute of Ecology
National Institute of Ecology
SEMARNAP, Morelia State Ofﬁce
Embassy of Mexico, Ottawa, Canada
This volume, the second part of two, was prepared by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Ofﬁce of International Affairs in
conjunction with members of the Organizing Committee. The ﬁrst volume, published by the Commission on Environmental
Cooperation, contains papers presented at the conference.
TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S
A C K N OW L E D G M E N T S
P R E FAC E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
I N T RO D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
I. Resource Management and Biodiversity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
II. Social Participation and Sustainable Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
III. Sustainable Development and Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
IV. Biological Research Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
V. Policies and Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
VI. Communication and Outreach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
P R I O R I T Y F O L LOW - U P A C T I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
H I G H L I G H T S O F C LO S I N G S E S S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
A. Original Action Items. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
B. List of Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
P R E FAC E
“Much research has been done, The Monarch Butterﬂy has attracted much
mostly on the biology of the interest because it is unique not only among
Monarch…but what we lack is insects, but among all living things. The
research that will allow us to largest Monarch population emerges in the
(understand) the interaction central and northeastern United States and
between the butterﬂy, man and the Canada and ﬂutters its way south several thou-
forest. We cannot limit research to sand kilometers to remote ﬁr forests in the
biology of the Monarch.” central mountains of Mexico. There they
overwinter in about twenty compact
J U L I A C A R A B I A S L I L LO , colonies—sometimes numbering in the tens
OPENING REMARKS of millions—often within a stone’s throw of
local subsistence farms sustaining Mexican
campesinos (small-scale farmers) and indige-
“The conservation of this butterﬂy is nous peoples. In the spring, the northward
clearly an effort shared by Canada, trek begins, often with an additional genera-
Mexico and the United States.” tion being required to reach the northern U.S.
and Canadian countryside to complete the
B RU C E B A B B I T T, migratory cycle.
“We all share the stewardship of the
Monarch Butterﬂy…All three
countries will have to be prepared
to do their part…”
K A R E N K R A F T S LOA N , Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
C LO S I N G R E M A R K S
Meanwhile, the Monarch population West of primarily on its biology. Organizers of the
the Rocky Mountains, of a few hundred thou- Morelia conference felt that more could be
sand, overwinters in more than 200 colonies achieved if other important, yet often over-
along the coast of California. These overwin- looked stakeholders could be involved. The
tering sites increasingly are found in areas proximity to the Mexican overwintering sites
threatened by real estate development. offered the unique opportunity to invite the
landowners who reside in and around the
In November 1997, the North American Monarch overwintering sites in the states of
Conference on the Monarch Butterﬂy was Mexico and Michoacán. While it can be
held in Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico, to argued that Monarch Butterﬂy conservation
address various conservation issues regarding efforts are needed everywhere along its migra-
the Monarch Butterﬂy. The conference, which tory route, since 1983 the International Union
produced recommendations for action, for the Conservation of Nature has deemed
summarized in this document, builds upon conservation efforts in the overwintering habi-
two previous meetings on the same theme: tats in both Mexico and the US to be crucial.
The Symposium on the Biology and Millions of monarchs, concentrated in small
Conservation of Monarch Butterﬂies patches of ever-dwindling forest, make these
(Morelos, Mexico, 1981) and The Second areas a top priority of all parties interested in
International Conference on the Monarch the long-term protection and conservation of
Butterﬂy (Los Angeles, CA, 1986). this regal insect’s unique migratory
Although the ﬁrst two conferences were
successful in attracting wide attention to the To ensure participation of the people directly
Monarch Butterﬂy, their content focused affected by the presence of overwintering
Monarch Butterﬂies, representatives from
communities located in and around the
Special Biosphere Reserve for the Monarch
Butterﬂy were extended special invitations to
attend the conference. Their participation for
the ﬁrst time at such a gathering brought
socio-cultural and economic issues into a
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
dialogue that had previously focused largely on
the scientiﬁc and technical questions related to
the Monarch Butterﬂy.
2 P R E FA C E
I N T RO D U C T I O N
Recognizing the importance of the migratory The primary objectives of this conference
phenomenon of the Monarch Butterﬂy across were to:
North America, its tri-national character and
the need for the establishment of an integrated 1. Contribute to the understanding of the
and international strategy for its conservation, migratory phenomenon of the Monarch
scientists, and representatives from academic Butterﬂy and of the requirements for its
institutions; federal, state, and local govern- conservation along its entire migratory
ment agencies; non-governmental and social route from tri-national and multi-
organizations; small-scale farmers and indige- disciplinary perspectives.
nous groups; and others interested in the
conservation of the Monarch Butterﬂy met in 2. Provide a forum for dialogue among indi-
Morelia, Michoacán, in November, 1997 to viduals, institutions, and groups from
participate in the North American Conference Canada, the US, and Mexico interested in
on the Monarch Butterﬂy. the conservation of the Monarch Butterﬂy.
Nearly 300 attendees gathered for a week to 3. Identify and propose actions that permit
discuss conservation and development issues the conservation of the Monarch Butterﬂy
pertaining to this extraordinary migratory through a framework for sustainable
insect, which has become a symbol of the development.
increased social and economic ties that bind
the three countries. The importance of this These objectives were addressed in three
meeting was emphasized by the presence of stages. Treatment of the ﬁrst objective spanned
Mexico’s Secretary of Environment, Natural days one and two of the conference and
Resources and Fisheries, the Honorable Julia involved the presentation of papers and poster
Carabias Lillo; Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the displays on a broad range of topics relevant to
U.S. Department of the Interior; Karen Kraft the conservation of the Monarch Butterﬂy.
Sloan, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister These topics included the biology of the
of the Environment of Canada; and Governors Monarch Butterﬂy; conservation; develop-
from the State of Michoacán, Víctor Manuel ment and sustainability; use of natural
Tinoco Rubí, and the State of Mexico, César resources and conservation; and environ-
Camacho Quiroz. mental education. Papers presented at the
conference are contained in Part I of two
This volume, Part II of the conference While overwintering sites in Mexico are being
proceedings, presents the results achieved lost to increased logging, overwintering sites
during days three and four which focused on in the US are being lost to real estate develop-
the second and third objectives. Conference ment and, across North America, summer
participants met in various roundtables each habitats are threatened by the increasing use
led by a moderator and a panel of of herbicides and pesticides. Under these
commentators. circumstances, it should not be surprising
that conservation efforts are met with little
Achievement of the third objective was enthusiasm, unless the involvement of all
ﬁnalized during the ﬁfth day. Conference stakeholders is guaranteed. Clearly, in all three
participants prioritized actions for future countries, effective involvement and coopera-
follow-up and identiﬁed gaps in the present tion of all stakeholders will prove to be the
implementation of those actions. basis for effective conservation of the Monarch
Butterﬂy throughout North America.
Of particular note were the special efforts
made to integrate the diverse perspectives This conference focused much discussion on
present at the meeting into a tri-national the plight of local stakeholders and their needs
dialogue. While biologists are interested in the which must be addressed if they are to be
Monarch Butterﬂy for its value as an evolu- enthusiastic in conserving the Monarch over-
tionary, behavioral and physiological model, wintering habitat. Participants came to realize
local Mexican communities are concerned that conservation of the overwintering sites in
with the limitations placed on their use of Mexico and California as well as breeding and
natural resources–limits established by the migrating habitat in Canada and the US, will
current management plan for the butterﬂy. depend as much on the resolution of local
Local inhabitants, scientists, nongovernmental economic and contextual issues as on under-
representatives and government ofﬁcials came standing the needs of the Monarch.
together as equals in an effort to achieve a new
level of understanding taking into considera- If the conference served but one purpose it
tion their frequently different interests and was to achieve open and frank discussion
needs while maintaining their common goal of among all stakeholders. Communication
long-term conservation of the Monarch. barriers were brought down and bridges to
enhance open discussion and cooperation were
The importance of local participation in built. By conference end, it was clear that our
conservation efforts cannot be overempha- challenge now is to develop conservation
sized. Although it has long been understood initiatives which are in the interest of local
that the participation of local stakeholders is inhabitants while still incorporating good
absolutely necessary to achieve conservation science.
goals that beneﬁt local communities, in and
around Mexican and US Monarch overwin-
tering sites conservation and development
have often limited the involvement of local
R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
“It seems to me that the main The primary functions of the roundtables were
value of this meeting is the to expose conference attendees to the breadth
communication between the of perspectives represented by the diversity of
different sectors–campesino, participants present at the meeting and to
scientiﬁc, academic, government, discuss the relative importance of potential
non-government, which until this actions to be prioritized by the participants.
time has not occurred.” All conference participants were invited to
attend six different roundtable discussions, led
J Ü RG E N H OT H by a moderator and a panel of commentators.
Following a brief introduction and comments
by each panelist the ﬂoor was open for
questions and comments from the audience.
A succession of themes was discussed, each
with its own panel. The roundtable themes
1. Resource Management and Biodiversity
2. Social Participation and Sustainable
Jürgen Hoth von der Meden
3. Sustainable Development and
4. Biological Research Priorities
5. Policy and Law
6. Communication and Outreach
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
Several hours were dedicated to each theme so
as to maximize in-depth discussion. After each
roundtable, participants completed their
prioritization forms identifying each item as
either high, medium or low priority. Please see
the next section dedicated to action items.
Brief summaries of panelist presentations at
each roundtable follow. Summaries of other
speakers in the discussions are not included
due to space limitations.
“The oral tradition and customs
of the communities are the best
6 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
R O U N D TA B L E I
R E S O U RC E M A N A G E M E N T A N D
“…working with communities and Steve Wendt began the discussion by
people at the local level, in what I reminding panelists and audience alike of the
call ‘working landscapes,’ allows theme of the Roundtable (environmental
you to achieve protection at the management) and all that it encompasses–
same time as you work to protect general resource management, forest and
your lifestyle.” habitat management; issues of deforestation,
reforestation, food plants and nectar-
D AV I D G AU T H I E R , producing plant conservation. Dr. Wendt
K E Y N OT E A D D R E S S stated that all are part of the greater theme of
Panel Members: David Gauthier pointed out that there are
William Calvert, Texas Monarch many ways to view the issues that relate to
Watch, USA biodiversity. Gauthier believes that we must
David Gauthier, Canadian Plains determine the indicators appropriate for
Research Center measuring how the long-term health of an
Kingston Leong, California Polytechnic
ecosystem can be balanced against short-term
State University, USA priorities such as employment and regional
economic prosperity. He emphasized that if
Xavier Madrigal Sanchez, University of
Michoacán de San Nicolas de Hidalgo,
North America is to achieve a sustainable
Mexico future in environmental as well as in social and
economic terms, early warning indicators are
Pascual Sigala, Advisor, Alianza, A.C.,
needed along with measures of progress and
decline of the environment as well as of the
Jorge Soberón, Mexican National economy.
Commission on Biodiversity
Matt Wagner, Texas Department of Having studied the relationship between forest
Parks and Wildlife, USA structure, microclimate, butterﬂy mortality,
Moderator: Steve Wendt, Canadian and what affects their reproductive success,
Wildlife Service, Environment Canada Bill Calvert expressed the need to ﬁgure out
how to manage the forests to prevent the
massive die-offs of the Monarch Butterﬂy
colonies that have been predicted if we disturb
the forests. Dr. Calvert also emphasized that
we must ﬁgure out a way to be fair to the
R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S 7
campesinos who live in the region and who Representing the campesino sector, Pascual
are affected by the presence of the Monarch Sigala stated that an integrated management
Butterﬂy. approach of the reserve is needed to protect
the biodiversity of the overwintering area of
Matt Wagner believes that Texas and Mexico the Monarchs, based on a framework of social
share land management issues and that they justice. To create this framework, the ﬁrst step
can learn from each other in this area. While should be the revision of the Decree which
concerned with wildlife diversity management, should include the active participation of the
Texas must also be prepared to manage area’s agrarian groups and other stakeholders.
cultural diversity as well due to a major shift He also emphasized the belief that it is critical
in demographics. In conservation biology, to consider compensation for the campesinos
biologists work with economists, private and that a government service ofﬁce must be
landowners and other resource managers to opened in the area to meet the speciﬁc needs
develop solutions, through partnerships. He of the campesinos of the region.
stressed that public and private partnerships
are the key to success where wildlife, such as Madrigal Sanchez was concerned about the
the Monarch Butterﬂy, is a public resource. manner in which the information that is
available will be organized and used by all the
Dr. Jorge Soberon emphasized that there are stakeholders. A structure is needed to bring
three basic conditions necessary to make any research, technology and society together
sustainable practice possible: and to avoid working with different agencies.
He believes that the most pressing problem
1) a good knowledge of the dynamics of the in the area in need of immediate attention is
resource of interest; soil conservation and that for the forest to
be revitalized we should add agroforestry as
2) a sufﬁcient and correct deﬁnition of the an approach to solving the problems. He
relationship between the speciﬁc resource and also stated that there is a critical need for
the entire ecosystem; and, basic information on the ﬂora and fauna of
3) recognition and the participation of the
different components of the social sector.
However, even though all these elements
have been identiﬁed in the Monarch region,
Dr. Soberón insists that it is not possible to “The northerners believe we must
sustainably manage both the conservation of conserve the Monarch’s habitat and
the Monarch and use of wood in these forests that the Achilles heel is here in this
because of the enormous demographic country…We do not believe that.
pressures of the region. In the absence of a Rather, we think that all we have
resolution to this problem alternatives must to do is carry out conservation
be sought from sectors other than the projects linked to sustainable
forestry sector. development.”
8 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
R O U N D T A B L E II
S O C I A L P A RT I C I PAT I O N A N D
S U S TA I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T
“…without signiﬁcant amounts of Carlos Toledo started the discussion
local control, no conservation reminding everyone that the focus of this
program can effectively succeed.” roundtable would be to relate social participa-
tion with sustainable development. The
B RO O K S Y E AG E R economic aspects of sustainable development
pertain to a later roundtable.
Panel Members: Mia Monroe debunked several myths
Silvano Aureoles Conejo, Advisor, regarding the Monarch situation in California:
Alianza, A.C., Mexico ﬁrst, everything about the Monarch is not
Mia Monroe, Muir Woods National known; second, the Monarch Butterﬂy is
Monument, California, USA NOT protected and they do not all go to
Mélida Tajbakhsh, U.S. Fish &
Paciﬁc Grove; third, the public does NOT
Wildlife Service have access to the Monarchs. However,
through extensive work throughout the state
Moderator: Carlos Toledo Manzur,
such as surveying and monitoring programs,
progress is being made on the development of
a useful information base on the California
population of Monarchs.
Mélida Tajbakhsh reported on the interna-
tional conservation program of the U.S. Fish
& Wildlife Service and the current training
program supported in the area of the Monarch
Reserve. This natural resource management
training program is aimed at local communi-
ties to develop skills in agroforestry, soil and
water conservation, as well as in other areas
Jürgen Hoth von der Meden
that the community members have suggested.
R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S 9
Silvano Aureoles began his remarks by
pointing out that what we are looking for is
sustainability, but that in order to attain it,
economic, social and environmental problems
must be resolved. Eleven years (the time
elapsed since the decree that gave origin to the
Reserve) is a very long period for those that
have nothing. The discomfort and frustration
of the campesinos can be an advantage if it is
directed towards development of social partici-
pation. Aureoles believes that the owners of
the resources must actively participate in the
decisions made about their land. The social
agents must be taken into consideration in a
serious and permanent manner and must be
recognized as an important part of the process.
In the Monarch region it is necessary to
consolidate the social organizations, making
authorities supervising and coordinating enti-
ties, but not decision makers.
“Lack of good campesino organiza-
tion? We disagree because we think
we are well organized, not just
recently but for a very long time.
It is culturally based….”
Jürgen Hoth von der Meden
10 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
R O U N D T A B L E III
S U S TA I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T A N D
C O N S E RVAT I O N
“Sustainable development and Homero Gomez Gonzalez began the presenta-
conservation today is a problem of tion portion of this roundtable by highlighting
marketing and ﬁnancing, with real a few points important to the campesinos: the
numbers and real mechanisms– campesinos are keenly aware of the pressures
not of good intentions.” placed on their natural resource base and
believe that alternative economic opportuni-
R O B E RTO S O L I S ties must be provided to communities in the
region for conservation efforts to succeed; they
are cognizant of the natural resources at their
Panel Members: disposal which have numerous marketing
Robert Aiken, Concordia University, possibilities but they need help in developing
Canada these alternative economic opportunities; the
Homero Gomez Gonzalez, decree must be revisited with the input of the
Representative of the Campesino communities affected.
Fred Johnson, International Model Robert Aiken expressed his concerns that two
Forest Network, Canada very different perspectives exist on the concept
Leticia Merino, Mexican Civil Council
of sustainable development. He stressed that
for Sustainable Forestry (CRIM), proponents of sustainable development must
UNAM, Mexico be convinced that economic growth itself
Victor Toledo Mansur, UNAM, Mexico
carries major implications for nature. He
suggests that the concept of eco-development
Moderator: David B. Bray, Florida wherein the ends as well as the means of devel-
International University, USA
opment are considered is the better approach
Leticia Merino stressed the importance of local
people beneﬁtting from conservation efforts in
order to make conservation itself viable and of
local communities actively participating in
decision-making regarding their forest
resources. Dr. Merino believes that in order to
succeed in conservation of the local forests, the
people must live as a result of good forest
maintenance and practices. She also offered
the suggestion that consideration must be
given to the idea of payment to the local David Bray agreed with Victor Toledo on the
communities for environmental services such importance of the successful sustainable devel-
as maintenance and upkeep of the forest. opment experiences throughout Mexico. It is
his belief that there are important advances in
Victor Toledo discussed the concept of Mexico in community management of natural
sustainable development further adding that resources, advances which do not exist in other
ethical considerations, such as the creation of countries. But he cautioned that while
consciousness and the theme of control, are campesino organization is not the only solu-
the deﬁning aspects of true sustainable devel- tion to the problems within the Monarch
opment. Dr. Toledo also highlighted sustain- Reserve, it is the one solution without which
able development successes all over Mexico, there can be no other.
demonstrating that the conditions in and
around the Monarch Reserve are not unique
and can be surmounted. He stressed the
importance of groups sharing their successful
experiences with the communities of the
Monarch Reserve, especially in terms of how “We are not lacking in ideas, we
they have achieved the combination of tradi- have many alternatives, even
tional culture with modern values. projects we created ourselves.
And, we have done this without
Fred Johnson stressed the importance of the North American assistance.”
knowledge that local people and communities
can provide to the development of projects ANONYMOUS
and programs on non-timber forest products.
He reiterated the importance of community
involvement in the design and development of
any projects that would affect them.
Jürgen Hoth von der Meden
12 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
R O U N D T A B L E IV
B I O L O G I C A L R E S E A RC H P R I O R I T I E S
“First, human life. Steven Malcolm presented a mission statement
And then, butterﬂies.” that the panelists had prepared for the round-
table and for the meeting: To achieve sustain-
ANONYMOUS able conservation of the Monarch Butterﬂy,
Monarch breeding habitat, migration, migra-
tory habitat and overwintering habitat in
Panel Members: North American within the context of socio-
Karen Oberhauser, University of logical, economic, legislative, political and
Minnesota, USA environmental realities. Six goals which target
Roberto de la Maza Elvira, National the mission include: 1) a review of published
Institute of Ecology, Mexico research to establish the current knowledge
Steven Malcolm, Western Michigan
base; 2) an understanding of the resource
University, USA dynamics on which Monarchs depend; 3) use
of the current knowledge base to develop
Alfonso Alonso Mejia, Smithsonian
resource management plans for overwintering
habitat, breeding habitat and migratory
Dennis Frey, California Polytechnic resources; 4) identiﬁcation of gaps in the
State University, USA
knowledge base and new research priorities;
Manuel Sanchez, Ejido La Mesa, 5) implementation of a management plan; 6)
Mexico development the Monarch Butterﬂy as an
Moderator: Phil Schappert, York environmental indicator species.
Alfonso Alonso stated that we already have a
great deal of biological information but it is
little used. More information is needed and
must be distributed for everyone’s use. There
are many topics for more research especially in
the buffer zones around the core overwintering
areas. Dr. Alonso thinks that the Model Forest
Program offers good methodology to carry out
some of the needed activities.
Karen Oberhauser emphasized the importance Representing the campesinos, Manuel Sanchez
of the ecosystem approach for understanding stated that the campesinos are not against
where the Monarch lives throughout its life. conducting studies on the Monarch, in fact
Dr. Oberhauser stated that whenever possible, such studies are well received. Many
scientists should utilize experimental studies, campesinos want and need to know the results
not just correlative and observational studies, of the many research programs to fully under-
and whenever possible scientists should engage stand what’s happening in their region, why it
in collaborative research to maximize the range is regarded as important, why there is so much
of expertise and resources. Lastly, she stated interest and how they can participate in
that research must be applicable to conservation activities. However, too often,
conservation. research that takes place in this region, even
with the help of the campesinos and based on
Dennis Frey stated the differences between direct information provided by them, is
overwintering sites in California and Mexico published in languages that are totally
as 1) butterﬂies number in the 100 thousands unknown to them.
in California and in the millions in Mexico;
and 2) overwintering sites are widely dispersed Roberto de la Maza stated that the most
throughout California while in Mexico they important area for research related to the
are concentrated in a very small area. Because Monarch is how to achieve an equilibrium
the Monarch Butterﬂies are concentrated in a between the overwintering sites and the areas
limited area in Mexico, this population is at surrounding them in Mexico, and to balance
much greater risk. the Monarch’s presence with employment for
the local residents. De la Maza also suggested
speciﬁc topics for research on the Monarch
including: determining how many sub-species
actually exist in Mexico; deﬁning the eastern
route of the Monarchs in Mexico; evaluating
how the Monarchs interact with those of the
Yucatan Peninsula; determining what other
butterﬂy species are found in the Monarch
Reserve and how these can also be protected.
“There are many areas for
research…(like) the mobile nature
Jürgen Hoth von der Meden
of the (Monarch) colonies.”
J O RG E S O B E R Ó N ,
14 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
R O U N D TA B L E V
P O L I C Y A N D L AW
“The problem is that the legislation Steve Wendt believes that Canada is looking
and regulations are the formal more to partnerships and co-management for
expression of a set of political the protection of community needs as well as
interests where the campesino of individual needs. Dr. Wendt stated that
organizations have little locally driven needs, scientiﬁc and conserva-
political power.” tion needs should always be considered when
establishing co-management and partnerships.
R O S E N D O C A RO Canada works more with policies than with
laws and is learning that without local partici-
pation and acceptance, no law or policy will be
Panel Members: effective which is probably true for every
Jesús Manuel de Jesús, Felipe de los country and place. In Mexico there are struc-
Alzati, Zitácuaro, Michoacán tures to seek the proper development of poli-
Roberto Solís, Director of the Special cies. The Model Forest can be one of them.
Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch
Butterﬂy, Mexico Brooks Yeager stated that the U.S. recognizes a
Steve Wendt, Canadian Wildlife role that has to be played domestically because
Service, Environment Canada the U.S. is the country which the Monarchs
Brooks Yeager, United States
traverse in their migration. The many activities
Department of Interior in governmental and non-governmental
groups have helped a lot, and are a proof of
Moderator: Pedro Alvarez Icaza,
National Institute of Ecology, Mexico
the great interest Americans have in the
process. It will be important for the federal
government to deﬁne how its role in
conserving the migration phenomena should
be constructed. Yeager also stated that more
recently the U.S. has been working with part-
nership programs to encourage regional or
sub-regional policies, as well as providing
encouragement through economic and tax
incentives. The abundance and wide distribu-
tion of Monarchs and the emerging under-
standing of the migration provide an unusual
opportunity to take action in the form of
Jesus Manuel de Jesus stated that the Roberto Solís began his remarks saying that it
campesinos in attendance at this conference is not enough to declare that we need to
have learned a lot about what is done in the conserve the migration of the Monarchs in a
region in terms of research and they are happy sustainable way. He went on to say that action
to welcome their northern friends but he agreements, laws and regulations that allow
emphasized that the campesinos are really the identiﬁcation of the environmental
present to be included in the decision-making hazards along the three migratory routes to
process for the region. The campesinos would conserve the migration phenomenon are
like regulation of the sanctuaries, without necessary.
forgetting that Monarchs, communities and
ejidos are equally important. Pedro Alvarez Icaza, addressed campesinos as
the stewards of the land and discussed
De Jesus expressed appreciation for the interest ecological policies established by the govern-
of Americans and Canadians, but asked that ment. He acknowledged the limited effec-
northern friends take real steps for the conser- tiveness of the 1986 Presidential Decree
vation of Monarchs in their own countries, because it did not consider the local stake-
too. He invited the establishment of an adopt- holders. Campesino participation at this
a-sanctuary program as well as a solid interna- conference proves that they are aware of the
tional reforestation program. De Jesus importance of conserving monarchs and
concluded his remarks inviting everyone to their habitats. Icaza went on to afﬁrm that
visit the sanctuaries. there is an urgent need to revisit the decree.
He suggested that land use planning is a
helpful instrument to see the big picture for
what can be done in a region especially
because there is a lack of consistency between
the real and the declared sanctuaries. All
aspects need to be considered in a discussion
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
with campesinos and other stakeholders in
order to create a new decree. He said that we
must face the fact that there can be no
conservation without development and no
development without conservation. He
ended his comments stating that the Mexican
government would like to discuss a strategy
with the people from this region, at least with
the 54 communities that own land in the
Reserve, early in 1998.
“The decree must be revised based
on a complete study considering
H O M E RO G O M E Z
16 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
R O U N D T A B L E VI
C O M M U N I C AT I O N A N D O U T R E A C H
“Whatever communication The discussion at this table began with presen-
mechanism or process is used tations by Oscar Montero and Luis Felipe
should be more formative than Crespo, describing programs already in place
informative because only in at the Monarch Reserve including a joint
that way can adequate linkages communications project under the direction
be established.” of the Reserve administration and the Centre
for Educational Television Training (CETE) to
ANONYMOUS develop the communications capacity of local
inhabitants especially in audiovisual produc-
tion methods, and the Reserve administration’s
Panel Members: own program to train local communications
Luis Felipe Crespo, Special Biosphere specialists to develop and manage an internet
Reserve of the Monarch Butterﬂy, network of telecenters within the Reserve.
Don Davis, Friends of Presqu’ile, Panelists Chip Taylor and Elizabeth Donnelly
Canada presented information about their educational
Francisco Garcia, Commissioner of San programs for children focusing on the
Francisco de los Reyes de Michoacán, Monarch Butterﬂy. They emphasized the
Mexico possibilities of Reserve residents connecting to
Jean Lauriault, Canadian Museum of these programs and services which offer many
Nature, Canada educational tools that can be adapted for the
Oscar Montero, Educational Television
beneﬁt of the schoolchildren of the Reserve.
Training Center, Mexico
Other panelists offered ideas to consider in
Chip Taylor, Monarch Watch, USA
projects that combine sustainable develop-
Chair: Elizabeth Donnelly, Journey ment with conservation efforts. Francisco
North, USA Garcia, speaking on behalf of the Ejido San
Francisco de los Reyes de Michoacán, empha-
sized the importance of communicating infor-
mation about the Monarch to local people,
through school and other organized programs.
Don Davis told of school-to-school efforts to
collaborate on projects such as Canadian
school children raising funds for the needs of
schoolchildren within the Reserve.
Jean Lauriault from the Canadian Museum of
Nature in Ottawa, emphasized the following
1. All projects should be initiated and directed
by the community.
2. Projects should be adapted to the speciﬁc
needs of the community.
3. Projects should maximize community
4. All projects should respect the community’s
“We who are the campesinos are
disposed to continue the dialogue…
We all want the information shared
here to become a reality–not just
M A N U E L S A N C H E Z G A RC I A
Jürgen Hoth von der Meden
18 R O U N D TA B L E D I S C U S S I O N S
P R I O R I T Y F O L LOW - U P A C T I O N S
“I believe the ﬁnancial means, the Conference announcements invited partici-
technology and people exist to pants and nonparticipants alike to suggest
make these things happen.” Action Items for consideration at the confer-
ence. A comprehensive list of action items,
D O N D AV I S gleaned from existing scientiﬁc literature, was
developed and distributed at the conference by
the Conference Steering Committee.
The two days of roundtable discussion were
aimed at highlighting priority action items
on this list to better inform participants.
Following each roundtable discussion the
attendees were invited to submit their priori-
tized action items to produce a consensus list
of the high priority actions. The response of
Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca
attendees was excellent. The 53 actions on the
following pages, divided among ﬁve categories,
reﬂect the opinions of a majority of partici-
pants. In some instances the campesinos and
indigenous groups caucused in order to unify
their position on priority actions.
Those items identiﬁed as the top ten or so
most important actions requiring immediate
attention were presented at the ﬁnal session
for: 1) further discussion; 2) listing of groups
already working on these actions; and, 3) iden-
tiﬁcation of entities which might begin work
on selected actions. The prioritized action
items are presented in the pages that follow.
The original lists from which the ﬁnal choices
were selected can be found in Appendix “A” of
It is important to note the inherent difﬁculties Sustainable Development and Conservation
that encumbered the process of identifying
1. Strengthen organizational capacity of local
and prioritizing action items, such as the prob-
able mistranslation of at least a few items or
differing interpretations in meaning, among 2. Provide technical support.
others. However, despite these obstacles, the 3. Create a permanent training program for
conference organizers believe that this priority campesinos addressing use and manage-
setting exercise successfully laid the founda- ment of biodiversity.
tion for future progress.
4. Incorporate local priorities in workshops
While the roundtables served as the mecha- and training.
nism to expose conference participants to the 5. Promote exchange of experience among
broad gamut of perspectives, the priority communities.
setting exercise served to build consensus on
items requiring action in both the short and 6. Encourage school, state, local and private
long-term. The ultimate objective of the participation.
priority setting was to identify those impor- 7. Promote a regional development program
tant actions which are not receiving adequate for alternative sources of employment
attention so that individuals or organizations within the communities.
can step forward to ﬁll the void.
8. Showcase alternative economic projects.
9. Provide economic incentives to encourage
Resource Management and Biodiversity local protection of reserves.
1. Review reserve management plan with 10. Generate an intensive program on refor-
local participation. estation with direct participation of the
2. Develop alternative income and fuel campesinos.
sources for forest dependent communities. 11. Establish a campesino council within the
3. Identify land use potential at the ejido and reserve to determine actions that institu-
community level. tions carry-out and endorse investment
4. Promote/encourage reforestation.
12. Create an information and consultation
5. Identify legal, social and practical impedi-
center regarding the monarch butterﬂy.
ments to resource management.
13. SEMARNAP should open a local ofﬁce to
6. Conduct biodiversity threat analysis to
deal with permits regarding forest.
determine conservation needs.
14. Revise the decree which created the
7. Decrease soil erosion.
Monarch Sanctuary in direct consultation
8. Develop a program to train and employ with the communities, ejidos and small-
people in a permanent forest industry. scale land owners.
15. Develop compensation programs.
20 P R I O R I T Y F O L LOW- U P AC T I O N S
Biological Research Priorities 5. Increase enforcement.
1. Study the role of overwintering site char- 6. Develop a framework for channeling
acteristics on butterﬂy presence and funds.
7. Promote participatory land-use planning.
2. Experimentally study Oyamel ecosystem
8. Establish a local coordinating committee
succession and watershed function.
3. Monitor Monarch distribution and abun-
9. Convene a conference of resource
dance and encourage public participation
4. Study environmental effects on distribu-
10. Establish new reserves.
tion and abundance.
5. Use remote sensing techniques to study Communication and Outreach
the temporal and spatial distribution of 1. Establish community training project(s)
overwintering sites and Monarch abun- for sustainable development.
dance and dynamics.
2. Develop outreach initiatives to inform the
6. Study the variation in butterﬂy condition public of trans-border collaboration.
during the overwintering season and its
effects on behavior and survival. 3. Incorporate local and regional priorities
into workshops and training.
7. Study the impact of milkweed cultivation
and butterﬂy gardening on Monarch 4. Establish a network of organizations
distribution and abundance. involved in environmental education
8. Study sources of mortality during all life
stages. 5. Recognize and publicize reserves,
successful initiatives and demonstration
9. Monitor milkweed resource distribution, projects.
abundance and diversity.
6. Promote a Canada-Mexico student
10. Study the use of the Monarch Butterﬂy exchange program.
and its migration as an environmental
indicator. 7. Ensure that training courses contain
Policy and Law 8. Improve communication between local
1. Seek alternative funding mechanisms. communities and outside players.
2. Review and assess laws, policies, actions 9. Establish Monarch Butterﬂy internet
and the decree which created the clearing house on information and current
Monarch Sanctuary. research.
3. Promote the reduced use of pesticides. 10. Strengthen the educational experience of
visitors to the Reserve.
4. Develop a strategy for long-term political
support and national councils in all
P R I O R I T Y F O L LOW- U P AC T I O N S 21
HIGHLIGHTS OF THE
C LO S I N G S E S S I O N
Throughout the ﬁrst four days of the confer- 3. The small-scale farmers and indigenous
ence, in the presentations as well as during the people in Mexico who live in the region
round tables, a great many themes and where the Monarch Butterﬂy overwinters,
subjects related to the conservation and have known and lived with the Monarch
protection of the Monarch Butterﬂy in all for many generations, and for this reason it
three countries were discussed, such as the is important to recognize the efforts which
sustainable development of the regions in they undertake for its conservation.
which the overwintering habitats are located
in both Mexico and the United States. The 4. The Mexican Secretary of the
government representatives that had the Environment, Natural Resources and
opportunity to speak during the Closing Fisheries will initiate a joint effort with the
Session highlighted the following points as stewards of the natural resources on the
central to the conference: overwintering grounds, the local govern-
ment authorities and all interested parties,
1. The protection and conservation of the to revise the decree which created the
Monarch’s migratory phenomenon is the Special Biosphere Reserve of the Monarch
shared responsibility of all three countries Butterﬂy, to determine the best alternatives
of North America and as such represents an for conservation and sustainable develop-
excellent opportunity for trinational coop- ment in the region.
eration and the development of closer ties
between each government and its citizens. 5. The local communities should beneﬁt
directly from the environmental and
2. To facilitate cooperation and coordination, economic services that result from conser-
a trinational strategy should be developed vation efforts and the migratory phenom-
for the conservation and protection of the enon, and new mechanisms should be
Monarch’s migratory phenomenon from explored through which funds can be
the environmental hazards which place it in directly channeled to the communities and
danger in the various habitats that it local organizations.
A P PE N D I X A:
ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS
I T E M S A D D E D B Y PA RT I C I PA N T S AT T H E
C O N F E R E N C E A R E I N C LU D E D
I. Resource Management and Biodiversity 14. Decrease soil erosion.
1. Assess current activities, trends, experi- 15. Provide incentives to decrease use of
ences, opportunities. harmful pesticides, increase use of beneﬁ-
2. Identify legal, social, practical impedi- cial pesticides.
ments to management of the Reserve. 16. Establish subsidy and compensatory
3. Revise the decree that gave origin to the systems for the region’s inhabitants.
Reserve. 17. Establish environmental accounts, with
4. Revise agricultural techniques that can be products returning to the campesino
damaging soils thus creating pressure on communities. Combined sources of
forest resources. income should be identiﬁed and oriented
for reforestation of disturbed areas.
5. Conduct biodiversity threat analysis to
determine conservation needs. 18. Identify and protect signiﬁcant host plant
and nectar resources.
6. Review Reserves management plan and
local participation plan requested by 19. Decrease invasive plant species.
World Bank. 20. Compare and evaluate public and private
7. Promote model sustainable development conservation approaches.
plans that emphasize community 21. Identify and promote low-impact eco-
participation. tourism opportunities that meet
8. Establish multidisciplinary programs for Environmental Impact Assessment
forest protection, involving all stakeholders. requirements.
9. Decrease habitat loss caused by 22. Provide incentives to start such programs.
deforestation. 23. Establish eco-tourism network to share
10. Apply remote sensing data to determine information about such programs.
rate of deforestation. 24. Identify appropriate public and private
11. Develop alternative income and fuel roles.
sources for forest-dependent communities 25. Ensure that training courses contain prac-
12. Encourage reforestation. tical,”how to information.
13. Protect known breeding areas from adverse 26. Include investor’s perspective—business
development. aspects, regulations, etc.
27. Facilitate development of tourist control 8. Improve communication between local
policies. communities and outside players.
28. Launch a national or international 9. Repair local resentment over previous
program to educate potential visitors to habitat protection efforts.
10. Invite local input over past misunder-
29. Investigate alternative funding mechanisms. standings and how they can be avoided in
30. Develop strategy for securing long-term the future.
political support and funding. 11. Determine how to minimize resentment in
31. Determine funding priorities. future habitat protection efforts.
32. Determine appropriate framework for 12. Emphasize beneﬁts of integrating conser-
channeling funds into priority actions. vation and sustainable development.
33. Determine speciﬁc action plans for U.S., 13. Conduct follow-up to ensure communities
Canada, Mexico. support action plans.
34. Identify aspects of concern to all three 14. Develop demonstration projects to show-
governments. case and duplicate successes.
35. Create a program for the adoption of 15. Identify community organization and
reserves, through a system of funds and social and cultural impediments.
actions oriented to each particular reserve. 16. Incorporate local priorities into workshops
36. Deﬁne agreements at the tri-national level and training.
for cooperative protection actions and at 17. Encourage best practices such as sanctuary
the national level that recognize the representatives and model communities.
campesino priority of revising the Decree.
18. Provide incentives to encourage local
protection of reserves.
II. A. Social Participation and
Sustainable Development 19. Provide incentives to decrease use of
harmful pesticides, increase use of beneﬁ-
1. Assess current activities, trends, experi-
ences and opportunities.
20. Identify and promote low-impact eco-
2. Recognize and publicize reserves,
tourism opportunities that meet
successful initiatives and projects.
Environmental Impact Assessment
3. Encourage school, state, local, and private requirements.
participation in conservation.
21. Provide incentives to start such programs.
4. Identify potential promotional events
22. Establish eco-tourism network to share
(e.g., poster contest, postage stamp,
information about such programs.
23. Identify appropriate public and private
5. Inaugurate community training project for
24. Ensure that training courses contain prac-
6. Incorporate local input into action plans.
tical, how to information.
7. Provide educational technical support.
24 ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS
25. Include investors perspective—business 38. Develop an agrarian center for each
aspects, regulations, etc. reserve. Perhaps the existing reserve
26. Facilitate development of tourist control committees could provide advice.
policies. 39. Create campesino councils for the devel-
27. Launch a national or international opment of the reserves, and more broadly,
program to educate potential visitors to initiate a regional development program
the Reserve. that would beneﬁt them.
28. Investigate alternative funding 40. Ensure that technicians and professionals
mechanisms. of the region are employed and work to
ensure that they become trained and more
29. Develop strategy for securing long-term experienced. In other words, not just
political support and funding. people from outside.
30. Determine funding priorities. 41. Invite municipal, state and federal govern-
31. Determine appropriate framework for ment representatives from all levels to
channeling funds into priority actions. participate in the programs, and not just
environmental departments but other
32. Determine speciﬁc action plans for U.S., departments including social services and
Canada, Mexico. education.
33. Identify aspects of concern to all three
governments. II. B. Sustainable Development and
34. Community committees of cross-sectoral
representatives in each country would be 1. Assess current activities, trends, experi-
useful for the Monarchs. ences, opportunities.
35. All tours should have local guides 2. Build organizational capacity of local
involved. Sometimes tours do not, but the organizations.
point was made that they always should. 3. Promote model sustainable development
36. Professionals must ﬁnd a way to pass on plans that emphasize community
their knowledge to local people. We must participation.
involve locals in monitoring, not just have 4. Decrease habitat loss caused by
technical people come in on a transient deforestation.
basis, and then leave. This is a way to
involve people locally, and improve their 5. Apply remote sensing data to determine
knowledge of the forest and the programs rate of deforestation.
needed to conserve it. 6. Develop alternative income and fuel
37. Find ways to train or assist local organiza- sources for forest-dependent communities
tions to have images that they can use on 7. Encourage reforestation.
articles they sell, and earn royalties back to
8. Protect known breeding areas from adverse
the community, that could support
conservation and development work.
9. Decrease soil erosion.
ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS 25
10. Provide incentives to decrease use of 28. Provide incentives to start such programs.
harmful pesticides, increase use of beneﬁ-
29. Establish eco-tourism network to share
information about such programs.
11. Compare and evaluate public and private
30. Identify appropriate public and private
12. Incorporate local input into action plans.
31. Ensure that training courses contain prac-
13. Provide educational technical support. tical, how to information.
14. Improve communication between local 32. Include investors perspective—business
communities and outside players. aspects, regulations, etc.—in training.
15. Determine how to minimize resentment in 33. Facilitate development of tourist control
future habitat protection efforts. policies.
16. Emphasize beneﬁts of integrating conser- 34. Launch a national or international
vation and sustainable development. program to educate potential visitors to
17. Conduct follow-up to ensure communities the Reserve.
support action plans. 35. Investigate alternative funding
18. Develop demonstration projects to show- mechanisms.
case and duplicate successes. 36. Develop strategy for securing long-term
19. Identify community organization and political support and funding.
social and cultural impediments. 37. Determine funding priorities.
20. Identify opportunities for sustainable 38. Identify aspects of concern to all three
development and private conservation governments.
39. Advisory councils should be established
21. Incorporate local priorities into workshops involving both technical people and local
and training. people from the reserves.
22. Encourage best practices such as sanctuary 40. Payment for ecological services that are
representatives and model communities. rendered by forest protection should be
23. Provide incentives to encourage local provided.
protection of reserves. 41. Restoration should be conducted in both
24. Encourage school, state, local, and private an economic and ecologic sense.
participation in conservation. 42. Trust funds to support restoration should
25. Identify potential promotional events be established.
(e.g., poster contest, festivals, etc.). 43. Value added development should be
26. Inaugurate community training project for promoted.
sustainable development. 44. Self-management of lands should be
27. Identify and promote low-impact eco- promoted.
tourism opportunities that meet 45. A fund for forest communities involving
Environmental Impact Assessment locals in project design should be
26 ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS
46. Scholarships should be offered, especially 10. Identify where biological corridors are
for indigenous people. needed between the different reserves
47. Shared risk joint ventures should be exam- (which are part of the original forest).
ined as a new way of promoting conserva- When necessary, make sure corridors are
tion and development. established.
48. Tools and planning that could help 11. Conduct a formal evaluation of the envi-
communities to capture tourism should be ronmental impact of tourism on the
developed. different ecosystem components and not
only on the monarchs.
49. Higher fees should be charged, where
appropriate, which may generate trust 12. Recognize Monarchs as indicators of
funds for projects. ecosystem health and environmental
quality, and of climatic change.
50. Forest certiﬁcation should be promoted.
13. Describe the watershed to which the
III. Biological Research Priorities Reserve belongs, in order to have an
1. Deﬁne subspecies and identify Eastern
routes and refuges, and identify other 14. Understand the dynamics of the resources
species and their conservation needs. the Monarchs depend on.
2. Determine the real size of colonies, so 15. Establish a regional library for local inhab-
population dynamics can be monitored itants and visitors; all scientiﬁc papers
and the success of conservation measures dealing with this region shall be available
can be evaluated. in a Spanish version
3. Determine the annual mortality rate so 16. Organize participative forums to direct
averages mortality can be known and and ensure the continuity of research and
massive mortality events can be properly of decisions based on its results.
evaluated in population terms. 17. Create a Council for the Conservation of
4. Establish minimal conditions for each Monarchs. It should be a trilateral entity,
colony. with a National Council in each of the
three North American countries.
5. Identify effects of pesticides on Monarchs,
particularly on their survival and repro- 18. Establish and administer a fund for
duction rates (ﬁtness). research, that could be part of, or linked
to, the Council for the Conservation of
6. Understand the community dynamics of Monarchs. A “ﬁdeicomiso” could also be
the forests. considered in order to ﬁnance research
7. Identify predators and their dynamics. projects.
8. Prepare exhaustive inventories of plants 19. Researchers must make sure their results
and animals. are available for everyone in the regional
9. Identify risk factors for other species of the
region having a “protected” status. 20. Training mechanisms must be established
so those campesinos who want to can
participate in research projects.
ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS 27
21. Mechanisms must be established that 39. Study geographical variation trends for
guarantee participation of campesino patterns.
communities in the selection of research
40. Study the relationship between weather/
subjects when necessary, since communi-
climate patterns and patterns of migration
ties frequently need new knowledge for
the better management of their resources.
41. Study the relationship between annual
22. Fees for ecological services must be
variation in host plant phenology, abun-
dance and net primary production.
23. Assess existing research.
42. Study the pattern of variation in mating
24. Obtain basic information on habitat, phenology.
biology and ecology.
43. Study the role of feeding and nectar
25. Determine research priorities. sources during migrations.
26. Coordinate work in priority areas. 44. Study the role of feeding and nectar
27. Develop comprehensive strategy to sources at overwintering sites.
include forest ecology (in addition to 45. Study the extent and impact of predators
biology). on both overwintering and spring/summer
28. Establish hemispheric monitoring monarch abundance population dynamics.
program. 46. Study the extent and impact of para-
29. Evaluate need for more tagging to deter- sitoids/parasites on both overwintering
mine overwintering behavior. and spring/summer monarch abundance.
30. Explore implications of global warming. 47. Study the extent and impact of infectious
diseases on both overwintering and spring/
31. Identify important sites along the migra- summer monarch abundance.
48. Study the variation in overwintering sites
32. Investigate alternative funding mortality due to local and regional
mechanisms. weather/climate patterns.
33. Develop strategy for securing long-term 49. Study the role of speciﬁc habitat character-
political support. istics that might ameliorate mortality.
34. Develop strategy for securing long-term 50. Study the pattern of both intra-site and
funding support. inter-site movement at overwintering sites
35. Determine appropriate framework for and their role in conservation strategies.
channeling funds into priority actions.
IV. Policy and Law
36. Identify aspects of concern to all three
governments. 1. Identify aspects of concern to all three
37. Identify areas for research.
2. Investigate alternative funding
38. Study the phenology of overwintering mechanisms.
3. Develop strategy for securing long-term
political support and funding.
28 ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS
4. Determine funding priorities. 22. Collaboration on projects in Mexico’s
5. Determine appropriate framework for Reserve.
channeling funds into priority actions. 23. Consider mechanisms for long-term
6. Determine speciﬁc action plans for U.S., funding of conservation efforts.
Canada, Mexico. 24. Assess current programs.
7. Actions to assist Mexico. 25. Establish hemispheric monitoring
8. Conduct training initiative. program.
9. Assist in building funding partnerships. 26. Create hemispheric umbrella program to
recognize and publicize public and private
10. Lend political weight to new initiatives. initiatives.
11. Purchase remote sensing devices to 27. Increase number and contributions of
improve available science. partners.
12. Fund on-site Reserve personnel to work in 28. Increase information sharing and coordi-
conservation and development. nation among partners.
13. Survey federal, province, state and local, 29. Publicize Conservation Directory and
private land managers. CEC repository for published
14. Conference of state, province and federal information.
managers. 30. Develop Internet resources.
15. Consider establishing monarch program 31. Emphasize global approach.
or reserves in U.S.
32. Implement comprehensive management
16. Develop systematic assessment and consul- plans with low administrative/program
tation process to evaluate potential new cost ratio.
33. Designate or create umbrella organization
17. For potential sites that meet assessment to collect and disseminate information and
criteria, establish new reserves through coordinate partner participation in plan-
Federal declarations, partnerships with ning and implementation.
states, or umbrella program that recognizes
various public and private initiatives. 34. Ensure continuity of initiatives.
18. Systematically survey U.S. monarch V. Communication and Outreach
1. Assess current activities, trends, experi-
19. Cooperative strategy with the Commission ences, opportunities.
on Environmental Cooperation, US Fish
2. Develop outreach initiative to inform
& Wildlife, Trilateral Committee.
public of trans-border collaboration.
20. Department of Interior participation in
3. Establish a network of organizations
involved in environmental education
21. Commission on Environmental projects.
Cooperation co-hosting of symposium.
4. Identify aspects of concern to all three
ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS 29
5. Recognize and publicize reserves, 22. Identify appropriate public and private
successful initiatives and projects. roles.
6. Encourage school, state, local, and private 23. Ensure that training courses contain prac-
participation in conservation. tical, “how to” information.
7. Identify potential promotional events 24. Include investors perspective—business
(e.g., poster contest, festivals, etc.). aspects, regulations, etc.
8. Inaugurate community training project for 25. Facilitate development of tourist control
sustainable development. policies.
9. Develop outreach initiative to inform 26. Launch a national or international
public of trans-border collaboration. program to educate potential visitors to
10. Establish a network of organizations the Reserve.
involved in environmental education 27. Investigate alternative funding
11. Determine how to minimize resentment in 28. Develop strategy for securing long-term
future habitat protection efforts. political support and funding.
12. Emphasize beneﬁts of integrating conser- 29. Determine funding priorities.
vation and sustainable development.
30. Determine appropriate framework for
13. Conduct follow-up to ensure communities channeling funds into priority actions.
support action plans.
31. Determine speciﬁc action plans for US,
14. Develop demonstration projects to show- Canada, Mexico.
case and duplicate successes.
32. Increase entrance fees for foreign visitors
15. Identify community organization and that can be tied to the establishment of a
social and cultural impediments. trust fund which could support commu-
16. Identify opportunities for sustainable nity projects.
development and private conservation 33. A tax or fee on the guiding companies
efforts. which bring visitors to the area which
17. Incorporate local priorities into workshops could also give support to community
and training. projects.
18. Encourage best practices such as sanctuary 34. The tagging system used on butterﬂies
representatives and model communities. needs a protocol related to minimizing
damage to butterﬂies and improving their
19. Identify and promote low-impact eco- safety.
tourism opportunities that meet
Environmental Impact Assessment 35. Channel should be opened for classrooms
requirements. to send funds directly to the Reserve.
20. Provide incentives to start such programs. 36. Establish a popular magazine to commu-
nicate research results.
21. Establish eco-tourism network to share
information about such programs. 37. Establish an exchange program for
30 ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS
38. Establish small restaurants in the Reserve 50. Find, identify and create international
area. ﬁnancing mechanisms for regional and
39. Prepare a directory of those schools inter- local activities considering always that
ested in Monarch Butterﬂies. shared resources represent also shared
40. Establish foreign language training
programs. 51. Find mechanisms of ﬁnancial support for
the campesinos that don´t disturb the
41. Provision of equipment for schools. forest.
42. Establish an avenue/vehicle to take prod- 52. Establish programs for capacity building
ucts to the international market place that and technical education.
are produced locally.
53. Promote by any possible means social
43. Establish in each country a committee, participation for the conservation.
involving the different stakeholders, that
raises and administers funds, and that 54. Establish formal agreements promoting
assesses projects. tri-national conservation actions.
44. Establish mechanisms for decision making 55. Put the actual participation pyramid up
in the agrarian nuclei and their commis- side down, strengthening observation and
sioners (representatives) through the training teams.
Technical Council of the Reserve. 56. Generate economic alternatives as
45. Start reviewing the Decree that originated payment of environmental services, which
the Reserve in the eighties, particularly of demands the revision of the Decree and of
its eighth chapter, which limits the access all the activities related to the reserves in
to the nucleus area. Mexico and with the summer habitats of
the Eastern population, as well as those of
46. Create campesino development councils the Western one.
for the Reserve.
47. Create programs of regional support in
order to develop employment and give
priority to the inhabitants of the region.
48. Establish permanent education programs
in each of the three countries.
49. Evaluate economic instruments that can
help ﬁnding solutions to the deteriorated
economy of the families of the Monarch
region, favoring mechanisms like ecolog-
ical accounts, payments for diversity, etc.
David B. Bray
ORIGINAL ACTION ITEM LISTS 31
A P PE N D I X B:
L I S T O F C O N F E R E N C E PA RT I C I PA N T S
Canada Vincent, Rachel Angulo Carrera, Alejandro Betancourt, Jose L.
Commission for PROFEPA INE
Environmental Cooperation Apolinar de Jesus, Bernando Bocco, Gerardo
Wassenaar, Leonard PROFEPA Inst.Ecol. y Fac.Ciencias,
Environment Canada Arevalo Navarro, Patricia UNAM
International Model Forest
Network Secretariat Wendt, J. Stephen Particular Bolanos, Guido
Canadian Wildlife Service Arevalo Navarro, Raquel World Wildlife Fund
Davis, Donald A.
The Friends of Presqu’ile Park Wilkinson, Tara UMSNH Calvo Estrada, Ireri
Commission for Argueta Contreras, Damar PROFEPA
Environmental Cooperation Ejido El Rosario Caro, Rosendo A.
Canadian Wildlife Service
Argueta, Federico SEMARNAP, Michoacán
Emery, Rosie Mexico
Rainbow Road Tour Ejido Ocampo Castaneda P., Javier
Adame Cisneros, Jorge Aureoles, Silvano World Wildlife Fund
Canadian Plains Research Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM Mexican Network of Small- Castillo, Alicia
Center, University of Regina Aguilar Delgado, Ruth scale Forester Organizations Castrejon, Marco Brito
Hobson, Keith Confederacion Nacional Ayala Luna, Jose Efrain SEMARNAP
Environment Canada Campesina Sria. de Desarrollo Cendejas Guizar, Joseﬁna
Alcantara, Francisco Urbano y E. UMSNH
International Model Forest Ejido El Encino Ayala, Maria Eugenia Chaparro, Cristino
Network Secretariat, Alfaro Mercado, Deyanira Ofﬁce of the Secretary, Events S. J. Ixtapa
International Development Particular Coordination, SEMARNAP
Research Centre Alfredo, Jose Baca Diaz, Antonio Ponente
Lauriault, Jean Ejido S. J. Ixtapa COPROMO
Canadian Museum of Nature Alonso Olvera, Lucia Baeza, Roberto Ejido S. J. Zitacuaro
Maxwell, Colin Yolanda Ejido C. Cardenas Secc. G. V.
Correa Perez, Jorge
Canadian Wildlife Federation Instituto Nacional de Barkin, David CONACYT
Patry, Marc Ecologia Univ. Autonoma
Metropolitana Correa Quintana, Teodulfo
Eastern Ontario Model Forest Alva de la Colina, Eduardo
Network UAEM Barrios, Hiram
PROFEPA Correa, Guadalupe
Price, Steve Alvarez Icaza, Pedro
World Wildlife Fund Direction General of Bello Guevara, Jorge
Ecological Planning and Fernando Covarrubias D., Alfonso
Schappert, Phil SEMARNAP
York University Environmental Impact, Sria. de Educacion Ambiental
National Institute of Ecology Crespo, Luis Felipe
Stoub, Jeffery Benavides Z., Beatriz
Alvarez Nava, Pedro INE REBMM y Org. Cult. Int.,
Commission for A.C.
Environmental Cooperation Ejido R. P. Amarillo
Bernal Gallegos, Maricela
Alvarez-Alcala, Jose Luis Municipal de Ocampo Cruz Merlos, Alfredo
Villeneuve, Leticia Triple SSS
Commission for La Cruz Habitat Protection
Environmental Cooperation & Reforestation Project Cruz, Raul
Angeles, Santos San Juan Xoconusco
de Jesus, Jesus Manuel Flores, Francisco Gómez-Tagle, Alberto Jimenez, Alfredo
C.I. S. F. Alzati Ejido P. Nvo. Solís UNAM Ejido A. de Juárez
de la Maza, Javier Gabriel, Antonio Gonzalez Jacome, Maria Juarez Ochoa, Ivonne
Coordination Unit for Ejido S. J. Totoltepec Ofelia Particular
Natural Protected Areas, Galas Salazar, J.Fernando Particular Leocadio, David
National Institute of Ecology Servicios Tecnicos Forestales Gonzalez, Francisco C.I. S. P. Malacatepec
de la Maza Elvira, Roberto Garcia Gonzalez, Raul C.I.. Fco. Serratos Leon, Cuauhtemoc
Instituto de Ecologia Ejido El Rosario Granados Delgado, Karen Colegio de Mexico
de la O, Jaime Garcia de la Paz, Daria UMSNH Leticia Navarios, Alejandra
C.i. S. Ma.y Sus Barrios Ejido San Juan Xoconusco Grenon Cascales, Graciela Facultad de Biologia
del Rio, Guadalupe Garcia Garcia, Francisco Noemi Leyva Lopez, Juan Antonio
IMERNAR Ejido de San. Fco. de Lo. R UAEM PROFEPA
Delgadillo Ramirez, Joel Garcia Garrido, Grobet Vallarta, Luciano Lopez, Esteban
Sria. de Ecologia Victor Hugo SEMARNAP Ejido San Juan Xoconusco
Diaz Vazquez, Jaime SEMARNAP Guridi Gomez, Lydia Isabel Lopez G., Erna Martha
Red MOCAF García-Rendón, Magdalena UMSNH UMSNH
Diaz, Jeronimo National Institute of Ecology Gutierrez H., Hector Lopez Hernandez,
Ejido S. J. Ixtapa Garcia S., Guadalupe Particular Rigoberto
Diaz, Joaquin Com. Ind. San Cristobal Guzman, Federico Parque Nacional “Barranca
Ejido la Rosa Garcia Vazquez, Mariano Ejido El Asoleadero del Cupat”
Diaz, Jose Guardianes de la Monarca, Guzman, Lorenzo Lopez Miranda, Rosalia
Ejido S. J. Ixtapa A.C. Ejido El Asoleadero ISSSTE
Diaz, Martín Garcia, Antonio Hernandez D., Salvador Lopez Mora, Juan Daniel
Ejido S. J. Ixtapa Alianza de Ejidos y SEMARNAP UMSNH
Diaz, Rafael Comunidades Hernandez Lopez, Velia Lopez Sanchez, Edilberto
Ejido S. J. Ixtapa Garcia, J Socorro UMSNH SEMARNAP
Dominguez Cardenas, Raul C.I. C. Morales Hernandez Mondragon, Lopez, Antonio
Comision Forestal Garcia, Jaime Maria Ejido San Xoconusco
Duran Galvez, Blanca C.I. San Cristobal UMSNH Lopez, Frine
PROFEPA Garcia, Juan Hernandez, Helia Espacio Autonomo
E. Saldana, Lizzett Araceli Ejido Pbo. Nvo. Solis Ponente López, Jesus
C.b.tis 149 Garcia, Marcelino Hernandez, Juan C.I. S. J. Xoconusco
Echaniz, Paula C.I. D. Ojeda Ejido El Encino Macaria Mejia, Maria
GIRA, A.C. Garcia, Miguel Hernández, Teresa Ponente
Escalante Linares, Omar Ejido P. Nvo. Solis Ejido Arroyo Seco Madrigal Uribe, Delﬁno
UMSNH Garduno, Raul Hinojosa, Alfredo Fac. de Geograﬁa, UAEM
Espino Garcia, Angel Ejido San Felipe de Jesus Ejido R. Ahorcados Madrigal, Teresa C.
ONG Garza, Maximo Hoth von Der Meden, Comision Forestal
Espinoza Nunez, Beatriz SEMARNAP, Edo. de Mexico Jürgen Madrigal, Xavier
Abigail Gausin, Baltazar Embajada de Mexico En UMSNH
SEDESOL Ejido Contepec Canada
Magana Mendoza, Jose L.
Esquivel, Ana Elena Gomez Flores, Alberto Inigo, Eduardo UMSNH, Fac.Biologia
Centro Educativo, Morelia UNORCA Fondo Mundial Para la
Naturaleza Maldonado Hdez., Carlos
Estrada Rodriguez, Maria Gomez Gonzalez, Homero Desarrollo Urbano
Cruz Ejido El Rosario Jeronimo, Juan
Ejido Contepec Martinez Ramirez, Nereida
CEDUE Gomez Gutierrez, German ITM
Estrada, Faustino SEMARNAP Jimenez C., Maria de
Lourdes Martinez Rangel, Seraﬁn
Ejido El Capulín Gomez Tagle, Agustín Servicios Tecnicos Forestales
Sria. de Turismo
Flores, Avelino INE Deleg.Zitacuaro Martinez Tapia, Miguel
Ejido Sta. Ana PROFEPA
L I S T O F C O N F E R E N C E P A R T I C I PA N T S 33
Martinez, Alejandro Mora Alvarez, Blanca Pena Aguilar, Estela Saldivar, Neri
Ejido Angangueo REBMM Peralta, Martin P.p. S. J. Ixtapa
Martinez, Carmen Mora Garcia, Miguel Angel Ejido S. Ma. Ahogada Saldivar, Salome
Ejido Coprieto SEMARNAP Perez O., Antonio P.p. S. J. Ixtapa
Martinez, Odilon Morales, Berenice Banco de Mexico Sanabria, Bernabe
Ejido El Paso Ejido Rincon de S. Pisanty, Irene Ejido C. Cárdenas Secc. G. V.
Mas Porras, Javier Moreno Cuiniche, Salvador Comision para la Sanchez Brito, Carlos
COPROMO SEP Cooperacion Ambiental INIFAP
Masera, Diego Moreno Flores, Shayuri Priego, Karla Sanchez Garcia, Manuel
GIRA,A.C. UAM SEMARNAP Ejido la Mesa, Mpio. San
Mata Garcia, Elizabeth Moreno Ramos, Quintero, Ruben Felipe
Srtria. de Fomento Cuauhtemoc Expositor Sanchez P., Ramiro
Economico SEMARNAP Ramos Solorio, Guillermo UMSNH
Maya, Alfredo Moreno, Julio Instituto Nacional Indigenista Sanchez, Florentino
C.I.Carpinteros Ejido Cerro Prieto Rendon, Eduardo Ejido N. Romero
Medina, Gervasio Muniz, Ana María UNAM, Inst.Biologia Sanchez, Gabriel
Ejido Chincua E. Z. IMERNAR Revuelta, Milagros IMERNAR
Mejia Medina, Abel Munoz, Pena Orquidario de Morelia Sanchez, Xavier Madrigal
Ejido Senguio Vive Mexico, A.C. Reyes Dominguez, de Jesus Univ.of Michoacán, Sn
Mejia Ramirez, Saul Navia Antezan, Jaime F. Alianza de Ejidos y Nicolas de Hidalgo
UMSNH GIRA, A.C. Comunidades Santacruz R., Armando
Mejia Torres, Alfonso Ochoa Blackaller, Cecilia Reyes, de Jesus Parque Nacional “Barranca
UMSNH Sria. de Desarrollo Soc. Ejido 2ª. F. Calabozo del Cupat”
Meltis, Fabio Coahuila Rivera Moctezuma, Santiesteban, Nena Cortes
Ponente Olivares Gonzales, Ana Honorio Ecomorelia
Mendera Cantu, Manuel Maria Particular Santos, Esteban
Instituto de Ecologia Conservacion y M. por Rodriguez, Jose Luis Ejido N. Romero
Recursos Ejido S. Fco. Reyes Saucedo, Noe
Mendieta Vargas, Victor
Manuel Olivares Gonzalez, Isabel Rojas, Alberto Ejido Contepec
Ejido San Juan Xoconusco Particular SEMARNAP, Morelia State Sigala, Pascual
Mendoza Hernandez, del Ordonez, Antonio Ofﬁce Advisor, Alianza, A.C.
Pilar Benjamin Rojas C., Hector Andres Smialkoski, Lelia
Instituto de Ecologia, UNAM Instit.de Ecologia, UNAM UMSNH Particular
Merino, Leticia Orduna Trejo, Constantino Rosete Verges, Fernando Soberón, Jorge
Regional Center for INIFAP Antonio Mexican National
Multidisciplinary Research, Orizaba Sandoval, Ranulfo SEMARNAP Commission on Biodiversity
National Autonomous SEMARNAP Ruiz Garcia, Pedro Solis Hernandez, Miriam
University of Mexico, and the Ortega, Moisés Ejido Varechiquichuca Andreli
Mexican Civil Council for Ejido El Encino Centro Educativo de Morelia
Sustainable Forestry Ruiz Vazquez
Ortiz, Eliseo SEMARNAP Solis, Guadalupe
Miranda, Roberto C.I. S. J. Zitácuaro Ciidir Ipn Mich
Ejido J. de N. Saavedra Pelaez, Fernando
Pallaros, Eugenia CONAPO Solís, Roberto
Missrie, Monica Sierra Madrigal El Aire Special Biosphere Reserve for
Traductora Sada Zambrano, Andres M.
Parra, Cármen the Monarch Butterﬂy,
Mondragon, Maria Saenz Reyes, Trinidad National Institute of Ecology
El Aire,Centro de Arte INIFAP
Ejido Los Remedios Suarez Medina, Jose
Pavon Romero, Sergio Salazar, Benigno
Montecinos, Eneida Humberto UMSNH
UAEM Suarez, Lupita
Montero, Oscar Salazar, Fernando Coord. Edecan
Pelaez, Alejandro Ejido Cto. Cardenas G.V.
Educational Television SEMARNAP
34 L I S T O F C O N F E R E N C E P A R T I C I PA N T S
Tapia, Silverio Vergara, Guillermo Cherubini, Paul Rashin, Ed
Ejido J. Nazareno Ejido S.J. Corrales Dockx, Christina La Cruz Habitat Protection
Tellez, Abel Vieyra, Samuel University of Florida & Reforestation Project
Ejido Santa Ana Ejido H. y Plancha Donnelly, Elizabeth Rice, John
Tellez, Angel Villa Castillo, Benjamin Journey North Associated Press
Ejido E. Z. (San Juan) Villanueva Villanueva, Frey, Dennis Small, Robert L.
Toledo B., Abdias Lorena California Polytechnic State La Cruz Habitat Protection
C.f.e. Geotermia UMSNH University & Reforestation Project
Toledo, Carlos Villasenor R., Francisco Gendron, Bobby Solensky, Michelle J.
Direction General of Regional Javier University of Minnesota
Programs, SEMARNAP INIFAP University of Florida Stell, Gary
Toledo, Victor Manuel Vinicio Meza, Jesus Monarch Garden
Inst. de Ecologia, UNAM SEMARNAP University of Minnesota Stifel, Doris
Toribio, Martin Wing Martinez, Marco Nature Conservancy
Ejido Buenavista C. Antonio Audubon Magazine Tajbakhsh, Melida
Torres Garcia, Alejandro Comis.prom.p/desarrollo de la US Fish and Wildlife Service
Mm Hamlin, Sandra
Instituto de Ecologia, UNAM Audubon Society/Monarch Talesfore, Michael
Torres Gonzales, Seraﬁn Yanez C., L. Watch Magical Beginnings Butterﬂy
Presidente Municipal Ejido Rondanilla Farms
Angangueo Yanez, Cecilia Taylor, Orley R.
Ejido R. de Soto Lane, John University of Kansas
Torres Morales, Victor
Manuel Zepeda Castro, Hugo Leong, Kingston Tufts, Craig
Alianza de Ejidos UMSNH California Polytechnic State National Wildlife Federation
Torres, Faustino Van Hook, Tonya
Ejido Senguio United States Malcolm, Steven B. University of Florida and Tall
Western Michigan University Timbers Research Station
Trevino, Rocío Aguilar, Mary Alice
PROFAUNA, A.C. Manion, Christian Vasconsellos, Jeff
Redding Intermediate School
Monarch Program Naturalist
Urbina, Tomás Alonso, Leeanne
Ejido la Mesa Marks, Jane Wagner, Matt W.
USAID Texas Parks and Wildlife
Valdez, Cesar Alonso, Mejia Alfonso
San Juan Ixtapa Marriott, David Department
Monarch Program Weiss, Stuart B.
Vanegas, Bonifacio Altizer, Sonia
Com. Ind. Cristobal Meitner, C.J. Stanford University
University of Minnesota
Hiawatha National Forest Wijesuriya, Kumari
Vargas Garcia, Angelo, Christine
Carlos Ricardo Meitner, Gary H. California Polytechnic State
SDAF Monroe, Mia University
Vavarrete, Juan Castillo Muir Woods National Yeager, Brooks
UNAM Monument US Department of the
Bray, David Interior
Vega Ruiz, Primitivo Oberhauser, Karen
Ejido S Felipe Los Alzati University of Minnesota
Oberhauser, Peter Australia
Vega, Arevalo Brower, Lincoln
Central Nacional Campesina University of Florida and Oberhauser, Suzanne Zalucki, Myron Phillip
Sweet Briar College Univeristy of Queensland
Velazquez, Alejandro Perez, Sandra M.
Velazquez, Fidencio Calvert, William H. University of Arizona
Ejido Varechiquichuca Texas Monarch Watch Prysby, Michelle
Venegas, Alvaro Castillo de Ramos, Isabel University of Minnesota
Ejido 1ª. F. Calabozo WRI Raffaele, Herbert A.
Venegas, Angel Chavarria, Gabriela US Fish and Wildlife Service
Ejido Donasio National Fish and Wildlife
L I S T O F C O N F E R E N C E P A R T I C I PA N T S 35
N OT E S