Type Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes By by mikeholy

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									Type 2 Diabetes

 By: Emily Manning
                Pathophysiology
-   Insulin receptors have a
    decreased attraction for
    insulin
-   Insulin receptors signal
    the binding of the glut-4
    into the cell membrane,
    so glucose can be
    shuttled into the cell
                Pathophysiology
   The cell utilizes glucose
    to generate energy in the
    form of ATP.

   The ATP is used by all
    cells to perform
    metabolic activities.
                        Causes
   Type two diabetes
    develop when there is
    not enough insulin
    released from the
    pancreas into the
    bloodstream to lower the
    sugar level in the blood.
                    Risk Factors
   Being over weight
    (especially abdominal fat)

   Lack of exercise

   Hereditary
            Population Affected
   7.1% of non-Hispanic (whites)
   8.4% of Asian Americans
   12.6% of non-Hispanic blacks
   11.8% of Hispanics
   13 million men aged 20 years or older have
    diabetes
   12.6 million women aged 20 years or older have
    diabetes
                     Morbidity

   Prevalence of Type 2
    diabetes: Total number
    of cases
                    Morbidity

   Incidence of type 2
    diabetes: Number of
    new cases
                    Mortality
   In 2007 type two diabetes contributed to
    231,404 deaths.

   In 2010, approximately 4 million deaths were
    due to type 2 diabetes, in the age group of 20 to
    79
              Signs and Symptoms
   Common symptoms of
    diabetes include:
       Frequent urination
       Excessive thirst
       Eating more and feeling
        hungry
       Loss of weight despite
        eating more
       Tiredness
       Blurry vision
       Impotence (male)
       Vaginal yeast infections
        (female)
       Difficulty in healing of
        cuts and scrapes
           Future Complications
   Heart disease
   Stroke
   Blindness
   High blood pressure
   Kidney disease or even
    kidney failure
   Nervous system disease
   Wounds heal very slowly,
    if at all
        Treatment and Prevention
   Type 2 diabetes is treated
    with insulin. It can be
    taken orally or by
    injections.

   Prevention or delay of
    type 2 diabetes consist of
    diet, exercise, and/or
    treatment with
    metformin.
                            References
   National Diabetes Association (2011). Diabetes Statistics. March 25, 2011
    from http://diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/statistics/#NewCasesDD

   Sheen, A. (2003). Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. March 25, 2011 from
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15068125

								
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