Addressing E-911 Compliance with VoIP SystemsPDF

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					Addressing E-911 Compliance
     with VoIP Systems
   Gene Malone & Herb Congdon

         Tyco Electronics
             y q              pp
• Review key requirements of applicable
• Compare traditional and modern methods
  for compliance
• Provide guidance on other aspects of IP
  asset management
   How it is supposed to work…
• Pick up any phone
  – even “disconnected” phones
• Dial 9-1-1
• Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) answers
  – Sees phone # and exact location
• Appropriate first responders dispatched
• Help arrives in a timely manner
• Everyone lives happily ever after
• Started in 1968
• Connects the caller to the local police
• Did not identify caller or location
  Provided          to
• P id d access t emergency services    i
          Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911)
• Started in 1970
• Connects the caller to a Public Safety Answering Point
   – Associates a physical address with the calling party's telephone
      u be , and ou es e call o e os appropriate S
     number, a d routes the ca to the most app op a e PSAP for    o
     that address
   – The source number is used to look up the Emergency Service
     Number (ESN) of the appropriate call center (PSAP) in a
     database and connect the call
• Provides access to the caller location information (CLI)
  of emergency calls
   – Street map display
   – Nearest available emergency responders
   – Other relevant information (fire hydrants, hazardous materials,
        Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911)
• A caller's telephone number and location
  information is gathered by mapping the calling
  phone number to an address in a database
   Automatic Location Identification (ALI)
  –A t   ti L    ti Id tifi ti
• The database is generally maintained by the
  local telephone company under a contract with
  the PSAP
• Each telephone company has its own standards
  for the formatting of the database
               VOIP and 9-1-1
• Call routing established by service provider
  – May go to a non-emergency number at the PSAP
    based on billing or service address
  – May not go anywhere at all

          d t         b l       d into
• A VOIP adapter can be plugged i t any
  broadband internet connection
  – The caller could be thousands of miles away from the
    billing address - not the actual location of the call
                  VOIP and 9-1-1
• Most VOIP users who dial 9-1-1 are connected to a call
  center owned or contracted by their provider
• The operators are there to connect the caller to the
  appropriate emergency service or PSAP, usually one in
  the         l
  th general area
• A 9-1-1 operator at that PSAP must then determine the
                        g     y,                 p       y,
  location of the emergency, and either send help directly,
  or transfer the caller to the appropriate PSAP
   – In April 2008, an 18-month-old boy in Alberta died after a VoIP
     provider's 9-1-1 operator had an ambulance dispatched to the
     family's previous address in Ontario
Applicable Ordinances
              VOIP and 9-1-1
• In March 2005, a commercial Internet telephony
  provider was sued by a state attorney general,
  alleging they did not make it clear enough that
  the provision of 9 1 1 service was not done in
  the traditional manner

• In May 2005, the FCC issued an order requiring
  VoIP providers to offer 9-1-1 service to all their
        Applicable Ordinances
• Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act
  of 1999
  – VoIP E911 is not required; customers may opt-out
      VoIP E911 information is only accurate if subscribers are
  – Burden of responsibility upon the subscribers and not
    the providers
• Communications Assistance for Law
  Enforcement Act of 1994
  – Lumped common carriers, facilities-based broadband
    I t    t            id       d     id     f
    Internet access providers, and providers of
    interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    service as “telecommunications carriers” and must
    meet the requirements of CALEA
       Applicable Ordinances
• In 2005, the FCC issued “E911
  Requirements for IP-Enabled Service
                q     g      providers to:
  Providers”, requiring VOIP p
  – Provide Enhanced 911 service
  – Disclose any limitations on their E-911
    functionality to their consumers
  – Obtain affirmative acknowledgements of
    these disclosures from all consumers
       Applicable Ordinances
• The New and Emerging Technologies 911
  Improvement Act of 2008
  – Removes obstacles to full 9-1-1
    i t        ti
     VoIP service providers must interconnect with the
               p           ,
      911 telephone trunk, which is owned and
      controlled by their competitors
  – Granted interconnection rights to
    interconnected VoIP services
     VoIP over broadband that interconnects with the
      public switch telephone network
        Applicable Ordinances
• The New and Emerging Technologies 911
  Improvement Act of 2008
  I         tA t f
  – Other proposed features are intended to allow
        p                     g      p          p
    telephone callers from large corporate telephone
    networks, on both traditional and VoIP PBXs, to be
    located down to the specific office on a particular floor
    of a building
  – The Commission may delegate authority to enforce
    the regulations issued under subsection (c) to State
    commissions or other State or local agencies or
    programs with jurisdiction over emergency
       Applicable Ordinances
• State and Municipalities
  – Examples:
      Chicago
        First to establish “location within 90 feet” requirement
      Virginia
        Established the “location of the phone”
  – “Location” not clearly defined
      “On the same floor” may be implied, but is not
        On             floor         implied
       specifically stated
      Uncertainty up to +/- 8 floors
        Applicable Ordinances
• E911 locates building
  – Relies on individual (representative) to identify to
    locate actual space
  – Requirements for a building representative
      How many do you assign/train?
      How do you ensure one is available at all times?
      How do they get the phone location (office) information?
          How do you ensure it is accurate?
  – Advise employees that “we may not be able to find
      Labels on phones?
                     Legacy PBX
• Commercial buildings with traditional landline
  – E911 can identify main extension and maybe building
  – Gets first responders to the main entrance
  – Need local representative to find specific location
      Relies on multiple communication efforts
          A greeter/responder at the facility
      Hi h i b ildi uncertainties
       High-rise building    t i ti
      Large campus uncertainties
                Legacy PBX
• Locations are assigned to the outlet at the patch
• Phone numbers stay at the outlet and don’t
  follow the phone
  – Phones are unassigned devices and are considered
• Easier to control the process of changing the
  phone number
  – PBX personnel familiar with the process
                           q                    p
  – Lines that are moved require documentation updates
                   VOIP PBX
• Commercial buildings with VOIP Phone
     VOIP systems need upfront programming
       Zone IP addressing
     Since phone numbers stay with the IP phone,
      VOIP phones need to stay in assigned locations
     Zone control of IP, subnet and patch assignments
      to switch ports require more regulated
      administration to change locations
       Unlike traditional phones
                    VOIP PBX
• Phones are assigned devices
     But ft t t d           bil d i
   – B t often treated as mobile devices
• Locations are not assigned
   – May be tracked in a database
• Phone numbers are assigned to the VOIP
   – If the phone moves the number moves
• Phone is not tied to a specific location
              (       )                y
   – Location (90 feet) is determined by the IP address,
     not the phone
• Building representative may still be necessary
                        VOIP PBX
• Traditional E911 Solutions for VOIP
  – Quadrant assignment and dedicated port patching
        Inefficient use of IP addresses (switches)
                                     zone
         Dedicated port patching by ‘zone’
        More complexity in IP addressing – none of it is standardized
        Reduces efficiency of VOIP system
  – Lock down the floor - only specific subnets are
    assigned to IP addresses
  – Separate switchgear for VOIP system
• Only helps to generalize the location
How can you find the IP Phone
          IP Phone Location
• Manual database
  – Moves and add-ons still require manual
    database updates

• IP Address and Zone Management
  – Identifies the zone - then search from there
          IP Phone Location
• Asset Tracking vs. Manual Database
  – Automatically updates with an IIM System
     Consistently accurate
  – Accuracy of location improvements
     Zone assignments may not be that specific
  – Can overlay with access to the floor plan
  – Soft phones in PCs
     Placing E911 calls from laptops
 IIMS VOIP and E911 Processes
• IIM Systems can support E911 with various
  levels of Integration
  – Full Integration: Software to Software
  – Data Integration: Data pushed to VOIP Mgmt
  – Manual Look-up: Stand-alone IIM
• Information can be shared:
  – In real time as the VoIP asset moves
  – On-demand when the 911 call is made
  – Physically on manual look-up (Drawing or escort)
  Each              t i                 d
• E h process present unique concerns and
IIMS VOIP and E911 Automation
• The level of automation and processes is
  driven by a number of factors
  – E911 Call center technology gy
  – VOIP Management Platform
  – IIM System software
  – Site specific labeling of Phones, Outlets,
    offices, etc.
  – Cost of integration
  – Desired output
         IIMS VOIP and E911
• For a VOIP PBX Emergency Call
  – Company response personnel receive notification
    with room number

• How? Processes range from:
    On-Demand manual l k
  –O D          d       l look-up
  – VOIP PBX queries IIMS database with MAC address
  – The IIM System sends an alert (screen pop text
    message and/or email) to the response staff with
    caller’s room/cube number and location
         IP Asset Management
• VOIP Phone one example of IP devices

• Security
           y              g
  – Identify and locate rogue devices on network
      device and data

• Capital Expense
  – IP devices cost money

• Servicing
  – Finding devices for service and preventive
      IP Asset and Infrastructure
• Regulatory Compliance
• Forensic enabling
• Process improvement
  – MAC
      Work orders for VOIP phone deployments
          matches locations and MAC/phone# addresses
          Removes the human error factor
  – Documentation accuracy = reliability
      Improves problem resolution
      Reduces overall IT downtime
  – Remote location visibility
    Troubleshoot and Recovery
• Reliability
  – Better control and management of the
    physical layer
  – Recovery
      Corrective steps
  – Assurance
  – Alerts
      Notification Hierarchy
        Escalation until response detected
    Troubleshoot and Recovery
• Redundancy
   – Database backups
   – Cold/Hot standby with access to database

• No one system should hamstring the response

• Appropriate location identities
   – Structural references
   – Graphical
           IIM Systems Beyond VOIP
• Physical location awareness
   –       t/ h     t ki
       asset/phone tracking
   –   automatic updates
   –   room information (outlet)
   –       hi l          t ti
       graphical representation
• Improved utilization of network equipment
   – Not limited in network configurations
   – Not limited in IP address assignments
• Troubleshooting and service
• Deployment efficiency and accuracy
• Legacy PBX outlet to phone number documentation
             Liability Issues
          p     g
• Tied to polling interval
  – set by user
  – trade-off between timeliness and performance

• Zone setup
             Looking Ahead
• Next-generation 911 services allow for
                 ll from non-phone d i
  emergency calls f           h               h
                                   devices such
  as security cameras, alarms and consumer
  electronics in automobiles

• Ideas were under discussion during the
  commission's December meeting

• 911 Systems are less sophisticated than the
  devices that connect to them
        p            y
• VOIP phones and systems create
  challenges for emergency response

• Legislation continues to evolve to level the
  playing field between PBX and VOIP with
  respect to 9-1-1 services
• IIM Systems provide mechanisms for
  specific location identification and phone
  tracking that can supplement and improve
     i ti      h i
  existing mechanisms

• IIM Systems provide additional features
  and benefits that enhance the security and
  efficiency                 physical layer
  efficienc of the entire IP ph sical la er