Docstoc

Addressing E-911 Compliance with VoIP SystemsPDF

Document Sample
Addressing E-911 Compliance with VoIP SystemsPDF Powered By Docstoc
					Addressing E-911 Compliance
     with VoIP Systems
   Gene Malone & Herb Congdon

         Tyco Electronics
                Preview
             y q              pp
• Review key requirements of applicable
  ordinances
• Compare traditional and modern methods
  for compliance
• Provide guidance on other aspects of IP
  asset management
                         work
   How it is supposed to work…
• Pick up any phone
  – even “disconnected” phones
• Dial 9-1-1
• Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) answers
  – Sees phone # and exact location
• Appropriate first responders dispatched
• Help arrives in a timely manner
• Everyone lives happily ever after
                  9-1-1
• Started in 1968
• Connects the caller to the local police
  station
• Did not identify caller or location
  Provided          to
• P id d access t emergency services    i
          Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911)
• Started in 1970
• Connects the caller to a Public Safety Answering Point
  (PSAP)
   – Associates a physical address with the calling party's telephone
      u be , and ou es e call o e os appropriate S
     number, a d routes the ca to the most app op a e PSAP for    o
     that address
   – The source number is used to look up the Emergency Service
     Number (ESN) of the appropriate call center (PSAP) in a
     database and connect the call
• Provides access to the caller location information (CLI)
  of emergency calls
   – Street map display
   – Nearest available emergency responders
   – Other relevant information (fire hydrants, hazardous materials,
     etc.)
        Enhanced 9-1-1 (E911)
• A caller's telephone number and location
  information is gathered by mapping the calling
  phone number to an address in a database
   Automatic Location Identification (ALI)
  –A t   ti L    ti Id tifi ti
• The database is generally maintained by the
                   company,
  local telephone company under a contract with
  the PSAP
• Each telephone company has its own standards
  for the formatting of the database
               VOIP and 9-1-1
• Call routing established by service provider
  – May go to a non-emergency number at the PSAP
    based on billing or service address
  – May not go anywhere at all


          d t         b l       d into
• A VOIP adapter can be plugged i t any
  broadband internet connection
  – The caller could be thousands of miles away from the
    billing address - not the actual location of the call
                  VOIP and 9-1-1
• Most VOIP users who dial 9-1-1 are connected to a call
  center owned or contracted by their provider
• The operators are there to connect the caller to the
  appropriate emergency service or PSAP, usually one in
  the         l
  th general area
• A 9-1-1 operator at that PSAP must then determine the
                        g     y,                 p       y,
  location of the emergency, and either send help directly,
  or transfer the caller to the appropriate PSAP
   – In April 2008, an 18-month-old boy in Alberta died after a VoIP
     provider's 9-1-1 operator had an ambulance dispatched to the
     family's previous address in Ontario
Applicable Ordinances
              VOIP and 9-1-1
• In March 2005, a commercial Internet telephony
  provider was sued by a state attorney general,
  alleging they did not make it clear enough that
                   9-1-1
  the provision of 9 1 1 service was not done in
  the traditional manner

• In May 2005, the FCC issued an order requiring
  VoIP providers to offer 9-1-1 service to all their
  subscribers
        Applicable Ordinances
• Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act
  of 1999
  – VoIP E911 is not required; customers may opt-out
      VoIP E911 information is only accurate if subscribers are
       diligent
  – Burden of responsibility upon the subscribers and not
    the providers
• Communications Assistance for Law
  Enforcement Act of 1994
  – Lumped common carriers, facilities-based broadband
    I t    t            id       d     id     f
    Internet access providers, and providers of
    interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
    service as “telecommunications carriers” and must
                              CALEA.
    meet the requirements of CALEA
       Applicable Ordinances
• In 2005, the FCC issued “E911
  Requirements for IP-Enabled Service
                q     g      providers to:
  Providers”, requiring VOIP p
  – Provide Enhanced 911 service
                 y
  – Disclose any limitations on their E-911
    functionality to their consumers
                                  g
  – Obtain affirmative acknowledgements of
    these disclosures from all consumers
       Applicable Ordinances
• The New and Emerging Technologies 911
  Improvement Act of 2008
  – Removes obstacles to full 9-1-1
    i t        ti
    interconnection
     VoIP service providers must interconnect with the
               p           ,
      911 telephone trunk, which is owned and
      controlled by their competitors
  – Granted interconnection rights to
    interconnected VoIP services
     VoIP over broadband that interconnects with the
      public switch telephone network
        Applicable Ordinances
• The New and Emerging Technologies 911
  Improvement Act of 2008
  I         tA t f
  – Other proposed features are intended to allow
        p                     g      p          p
    telephone callers from large corporate telephone
    networks, on both traditional and VoIP PBXs, to be
    located down to the specific office on a particular floor
                g
    of a building
  – The Commission may delegate authority to enforce
    the regulations issued under subsection (c) to State
    commissions or other State or local agencies or
    programs with jurisdiction over emergency
    communications
       Applicable Ordinances
                  p
• State and Municipalities
  – Examples:
      Chicago
        First to establish “location within 90 feet” requirement
      Virginia
        Established the “location of the phone”
  – “Location” not clearly defined
      “On the same floor” may be implied, but is not
        On             floor         implied
       specifically stated
      Uncertainty up to +/- 8 floors
        Applicable Ordinances
• E911 locates building
  – Relies on individual (representative) to identify to
    locate actual space
  – Requirements for a building representative
      How many do you assign/train?
      How do you ensure one is available at all times?
      How do they get the phone location (office) information?
          How do you ensure it is accurate?
                           we
  – Advise employees that “we may not be able to find
    you”
      Labels on phones?
                     Legacy PBX
• Commercial buildings with traditional landline
  phones
  – E911 can identify main extension and maybe building
    location
  – Gets first responders to the main entrance
  – Need local representative to find specific location
      Relies on multiple communication efforts
          A greeter/responder at the facility
      Hi h i b ildi uncertainties
       High-rise building    t i ti
      Large campus uncertainties
                Legacy PBX
• Locations are assigned to the outlet at the patch
  panel
• Phone numbers stay at the outlet and don’t
  follow the phone
  – Phones are unassigned devices and are considered
    mobile
• Easier to control the process of changing the
  phone number
  – PBX personnel familiar with the process
                           q                    p
  – Lines that are moved require documentation updates
                   VOIP PBX
                    g
• Commercial buildings with VOIP Phone
  Systems
     VOIP systems need upfront programming
       Zone IP addressing
     Since phone numbers stay with the IP phone,
      VOIP phones need to stay in assigned locations
     Zone control of IP, subnet and patch assignments
      to switch ports require more regulated
      administration to change locations
       Unlike traditional phones
                    VOIP PBX
• Phones are assigned devices
     But ft t t d           bil d i
   – B t often treated as mobile devices
• Locations are not assigned
       y
   – May be tracked in a database
• Phone numbers are assigned to the VOIP
  device
                  moves,
   – If the phone moves the number moves
• Phone is not tied to a specific location
              (       )                y
   – Location (90 feet) is determined by the IP address,
     not the phone
• Building representative may still be necessary
                        VOIP PBX
• Traditional E911 Solutions for VOIP
  – Quadrant assignment and dedicated port patching
        Inefficient use of IP addresses (switches)
                                     zone
         Dedicated port patching by ‘zone’
        More complexity in IP addressing – none of it is standardized
        Reduces efficiency of VOIP system
  – Lock down the floor - only specific subnets are
    assigned to IP addresses
  – Separate switchgear for VOIP system
• Only helps to generalize the location
How can you find the IP Phone
         location?
          IP Phone Location
• Manual database
  – Moves and add-ons still require manual
    database updates


• IP Address and Zone Management
  – Identifies the zone - then search from there
          IP Phone Location
               g
• Asset Tracking vs. Manual Database
  – Automatically updates with an IIM System
     Consistently accurate
  – Accuracy of location improvements
     Zone assignments may not be that specific
  – Can overlay with access to the floor plan
         p
  – Soft phones in PCs
     Placing E911 calls from laptops
 IIMS,
 IIMS VOIP and E911 Processes
• IIM Systems can support E911 with various
  levels of Integration
  – Full Integration: Software to Software
  – Data Integration: Data pushed to VOIP Mgmt
  – Manual Look-up: Stand-alone IIM
• Information can be shared:
  – In real time as the VoIP asset moves
  – On-demand when the 911 call is made
  – Physically on manual look-up (Drawing or escort)
  Each              t i                 d
• E h process present unique concerns and
  requirements
IIMS,
IIMS VOIP and E911 Automation
                              p
• The level of automation and processes is
  driven by a number of factors
  – E911 Call center technology gy
  – VOIP Management Platform
  – IIM System software
  – Site specific labeling of Phones, Outlets,
    offices, etc.
           ,
  – Cost of integration
  – Desired output
         IIMS,
         IIMS VOIP and E911
• For a VOIP PBX Emergency Call
  – Company response personnel receive notification
    with room number


• How? Processes range from:
    On-Demand manual l k
  –O D          d       l look-up
  – VOIP PBX queries IIMS database with MAC address
                                          pop,
  – The IIM System sends an alert (screen pop text
    message and/or email) to the response staff with
    caller’s room/cube number and location
         IP Asset Management
• VOIP Phone one example of IP devices

• Security
           y              g
  – Identify and locate rogue devices on network
      device and data


• Capital Expense
  – IP devices cost money

• Servicing
  – Finding devices for service and preventive
    maintenance
      IP Asset and Infrastructure
            Management
• Regulatory Compliance
• Forensic enabling
• Process improvement
    MACs
  – MAC
      Work orders for VOIP phone deployments
          matches locations and MAC/phone# addresses
          Removes the human error factor
  – Documentation accuracy = reliability
      Improves problem resolution
      Reduces overall IT downtime
  – Remote location visibility
    Troubleshoot and Recovery
            y
• Reliability
  – Better control and management of the
    physical layer
  – Recovery
      Corrective steps
  – Assurance
  – Alerts
      Notification Hierarchy
        Escalation until response detected
    Troubleshoot and Recovery
• Redundancy
   – Database backups
   – Cold/Hot standby with access to database


• No one system should hamstring the response

• Appropriate location identities
   – Structural references
   – Graphical
           IIM Systems Beyond VOIP
• Physical location awareness
   –       t/ h     t ki
       asset/phone tracking
   –   automatic updates
   –   room information (outlet)
   –       hi l          t ti
       graphical representation
• Improved utilization of network equipment
   – Not limited in network configurations
   – Not limited in IP address assignments
• Troubleshooting and service
• Deployment efficiency and accuracy
• Legacy PBX outlet to phone number documentation
             Liability Issues
          p     g
• Tied to polling interval
  – set by user
                                     p
  – trade-off between timeliness and performance


• Zone setup
             Looking Ahead
• Next-generation 911 services allow for
                 ll from non-phone d i
  emergency calls f           h               h
                                   devices such
  as security cameras, alarms and consumer
  electronics in automobiles

                                   g
• Ideas were under discussion during the
  commission's December meeting

• 911 Systems are less sophisticated than the
  devices that connect to them
               Conclusion
        p            y
• VOIP phones and systems create
  challenges for emergency response

• Legislation continues to evolve to level the
  playing field between PBX and VOIP with
  respect to 9-1-1 services
                Summary
• IIM Systems provide mechanisms for
  specific location identification and phone
  tracking that can supplement and improve
     i ti      h i
  existing mechanisms

• IIM Systems provide additional features
  and benefits that enhance the security and
  efficiency                 physical layer
  efficienc of the entire IP ph sical la er
  infrastructure

				
DOCUMENT INFO