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20790431-Applications-of-steel

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									                                APPLICATIONS

                                     SS 301
An austenitic stainless steel, which because of its ability to attain high strength
    and ductility through moderate or serve cold working, can be used for
automobile trims, conveyor belts, transportation cars such as railway coaches,
 metal fixtures for construction purposes, roof drainage products, strong door
                              frames and tableware.

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                                        SS 304
 It is the most widely used austenitic stainless steel. Popularly known as 18/8
         stainless steel, it has excellent corrosion resistance and forming
 characteristics. Used in chemical, petrochemical and fertilizer industries, and
as equipment in dairy, food processing, pharmaceutical industries, in hospitals,
 households as kitchenware, cryogenic vessels and as heat exchangers in air
  conditioning refrigeration, for machinery in paper, pulp and textile beverage
                                        sectors.

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                                     SS 304L
An austenitic stainless steel similar to SS 304 with less carbon (0.03% max). It
used in place of SS304 for improved resistance to intergranular corrosion. It is
used for parts and structures which cannot be heat treated for stress relieving
                                  after welding.

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                                SS 309/ SS 309S
 There are austenitic stainless steels which are strong and tough. Because of
   their higher nickel and chromium content, these are used for applications
requiring high scaling resistance. They find their use for air heaters, annealing
boxes, Chemical Composition oven equipment, boiler baffle plates carburising
  boxes, chemical processing equipment, dryers, exhaust manifolds, furnace
  parts, gas turbine parts, heat exchangers, jet engine parts, oil burner parts,
              oven equipment, petroleum refining equipment, etc.

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                               SS 310/SS 310S
   These are austenitic types with higher chromium and nickel content than
  309/309S. Because of their relatively high creep strength and mechanical
properties at higher temperatures these steels find their applications for higher
 temperatures and severe service conditions. Used for air heaters annealing
boxes, ovens carurising boxes, fire box sheets, furnace linings, furnace stacks
     and dampers, gas turbine parts, heat exchangers, kiln linings, nozzle
   diaphragm assemblies for turbo jet engines, oil burners parts, paper mill
          equipment, oil refinery equipment, recuperates and so on.

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                                     SS 316
  An austenitic stainless steel with 2.0 to 3% Mo. which improves corrosion.
  resistance and imparts hot strength characteristics. Used for applications
requiring resistance to pitting corrosion. and in halogen atmospheres. Typical
   applications : architectural trims, marine exteriors, chemical processing
   equipment, food processing equipment, petroleum refining equipment,
    pharmaceutical equipment, photographic equipment, pulp and paper
            processing equipment, textile finishing equipment, etc.

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                                     SS 316L
 An austenitic stainless steel. Modification type SS 316 contain a maximum of
   0.03 percent carbon) with reduced tendency towards carbide precipitation
without addition of a stabilising element. Recommended for parts which cannot
                          be heat treated after welding.

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                                 SS 317 / SS317L
 These are austenitic stainless steels which are modifications of type SS 316 /
  SS 316L and offer increased chromium, nickel and molybdenum ranges for
 improved corrosion. resistance. The steels were developed to resist attack of
sumptuous acid compounds. They resist pitting in phosphoric and acetic acids.
 Applications includes paper pulp handling equipment, process equipment for
      producing photographic chemicals, bleaching solutions and handling
 sulphurous, acetic, formic, citric and tartaric acids. They have best corrosion.
  resistance to body acids and blood and are recommended for surgical bone
                                    applications.

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                                       SS 321
  An austenitic stainless steel similar to SS 304 but stabilised with titanium to
    avoid inter-granular corrosion. Type SS 321 resists scaling and vibration
 fatigue. It is used for aircraft exhaust stacks and manifolds, pressure vessels,
large mufflers for diesel engines, carburetors, expansions belows, stack liners,
                                 fire walls, etc.

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                                     SS 347
 An austenitic stainless steel similar to SS 321 but stablilised by Columbium
    which does not appreciably reduce the overall corrosion. resistance.
   Recommended in the range of 420 Degree Centigrade to 900 Degree
Centigrade for parts fabricated by welding and which cannot be subsequently
  annealed. Applications include airplane exhaust stacks, welded tanks for
    chemicals, heat resistors, jet engine parts, expansions bellows, etc.

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                                     SS 409
 It is the lowest alloyed straight Chromium ferritic stainless steel. It replaces
carbon steels where some amount of heat or corrosion. resistance and higher
strength are required and where appearances secondary. It is used for fins in
    heater tubes, transformer and capacitor cases, dry fertilizer spreaders,
 automotive exhaust systems including mufflers, resonators, silencers, pipes
 and emission control units, high pressure agricultural spray tanks, culverts,
                     shipping containers and firm equipment.

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                                   SS 410/410S
SS 410 is the most commonly used 12% Chromium martens tic stainless steel.
 Excellent combination of toughness and strength can be developed through
    proper heat treatment. This steel has better corrosion. resistance in the
     hardened condition. It is a good choice when good formability and high
strength are required and the end use demands resistance to mildly corrosive
  environment. It is used for furnace parts and burners operating below 650
 Degree Centigrade, micrometer parts, tray supports, caps and vaporizers in
  petroleum fractionating towers, lining for reaction chambers, coal screens,
   fishing tickles, keys, lamp brackets, rules and tapes, wall screens, steam
turbine buckets, blades, bucket covers, pump parts, petrochemical equipment
   and press plates. Type SS410 S is a low carbon modification of SS 410.

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                                      SS 420
This steel contains min. 0.15 % C and 12% Cr. It can be thermally hardened to
  develop very high strength. Extremely useful for cutlery. Other applications
include vegetable choppers, scissors, shears, tweezers, hand tools, dental and
                            surgical instruments, etc.

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                                    SS 430
 SS 430 with 19% Cr. is inferior to SS 304 as regards deep drawablity. Though
it does not have good corrosion resistance properties as Cr-Ni steels, it is used
under less corrosive atmospheres for chemical processing equipment, furnace
     parts, heat exchangers, oil burner parts, petroleum refining equipment,
  pyrometers, protection tubes, recuperates, rubber plant machinery, scientific
   apparatus, storage vessels, tubing, television cones, electrical appliances,
    solar water heaters, air conditioners, kitchenware, household appliances,
                decorative trims, parts for washing machines etc.

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                                        SS 434
A ferritic stainless steel similar to SS 430 but containing about Mo. It has better
   corrosion resistance than SS 430. It is widely used for exterior automotive
 moulding and trims and applications where improved corrosion. resistance to
             pitting attack from various de-icing chemicals is required.

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