Morale, Welfare and Recreation FORT SILL Fit for Life! T The decision to quit smoking is a tough one. Most smokers have tried to quit-- some have failed once and some have failed many times. Others manged to quit “cold turkey” and many who successfully “kicked the habit” got help through medication. It doesn’t matter how you quit--as long as you quit. There are plenty of reasons you should quit smoking. Even smokers know Raising it’s a very unhealthy habit. Even the tobacco companies offer advice about the hazards of smoking and how to quit. Health Do you know your body gets more than nicotine when you smoke? There are more than 4,000 chemicals in cigarette smoke. Some of them are also in wood varnish, the insect poison DDT, arsenic, nail polish remover and rat poison. The ashes, tar, gases and other poisons in cigarettes harm your body over time. They damage your heart and lungs. They also make it harder for you to You CAN taste and smell things and fight infections. Surveys show that four out of five smokers want to quit. It quit smoking is estimated that half of adult smokers in the past five years have quit. Nicotine is a highly addictive drug, which accounts for people trying to quit unsuccessfully. It’s okay if you can’t do it the first It isn’t easy and it isn’t time you try--most people make two or three attempts before pleasant, but it IS an they’re successful. Each time you try and fail, you’ll learn what does and doesn’t work for you. Using proven cessation programs important goal to reach will double your chances for success. for a healthier you. The benefits of kicking the habit are immediate: You’ll feel better, you’ll look better and you’ll enjoy a much healthier lifestyle once you’re free from the chains of smoking. This publication is not intended to replace medical advice. The information collected and presented is offered for the convenience of the reader and its contents does not endorse any individual, product or service. Current and future research may differ from its current content. Information is collected from government, media and medical sources, but should not replace the advice of professional medical consultation. The authors and publishers dislaim any liability arising directly or indirectly from the use of this newsletter. This newsletter may not be posted on a website, reproduced in whole or in part, or distributed without express permission from the publisher. EXERCISE RAISING N UT R IT I O N HEALTH L I F E ST Y L E ATT IT U D E BOD Y & MIND The Down Side of Smoking Smoking harms nearly every organ of Plan to quit the body, causing many diseases and reducing the health of smokers in general. Quitting smoking has immediate as well as long-term benefits, reducing risks for diseases caused by smoking and improving health. The list of diseases caused by smoking includes smoking START Just thinking about quitting may make you anxious. You’re abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute myeloid leukemia, cataract, not alone. Smokers report elevated anxiety about quitting cervical cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, pneumonia, and especially during the withdrawal period. Your chances will periodontitis and stomach cancer. These are in addition to be better if you get ready first. Before you quit, START by diseases previously known to be caused by smoking, including bladder, taking these five important steps: esophageal, laryngeal, lung, oral and throat cancers, chronic lung diseases, coronary heart and cardiovascular diseases, as well as reproductive effects and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Set a quit date. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer. In If you smoke at work, quit on the weekend or during a day the United States, about 90 percent of lung cancer deaths in men and off. That way you’ll already be cigarette-free when you return. almost 80 percent of lung cancer deaths in women are due to smoking. Think about choosing a special day: People who smoke are 10 to 20 times more likely to get lung cancer or die from lung cancer than people who do not smoke. The longer a person smokes and the more cigarettes smoked each day increases a Your birthday or wedding anniversary person’s risk for developing lung cancer. New Year’s Day People who quit smoking have a lower risk of lung cancer than Independence Day (July 4) if they had continued to smoke, but their risk is higher than people who never smoked. World No Tobacco Day (May 31) Smoke from other people’s cigarettes, known as secondhand The Great American Smokeout (the third Thursday of smoke, causes lung cancer as well. There are more than 4,000 chemicals each November). in secondhand smoke. More than 50 of these chemicals cause cancer in people or animals. Every year, about 3,000 nonsmokers die from lung cancer due to secondhand smoke. Tell family, friends and co-workers you plan to quit. Quitting smoking is easier with the support of others. Tell What to do when you the people you care about exactly how they can help. Ask everyone to understand your change in mood. If someone REALLY want a cigarette you know smokes, ask them to quit with you. If you take medications, be sure to ask your doctor or pharmacist about The urge to smoke will come and go. Try to wait it out. People any possible drug reactions. who have successfully quit report they still “have the urge” even years later. Smoking is a habit--and all habits are hard to break. Anticipate and plan for the challenges you’ll face while quitting. Keep other things around instead of cigarettes. Try carrots, pickles, Most people who go back to smoking do it within three sunflower seeds, apples, celery, raisins or sugarfree gum. months--this will be the hardest time for you. Know situations when you are tempted to smoke and plan how to Wash your hands or the dishes when you want a cigarette very badly. deal with the urge before it hits. Expect withdrawal Or take a shower. symptoms--and expect them to subside in time. Learn to relax quickly by taking deep breaths. Take 10 slow, deep Remove all tobacco products from your home, car and work. breaths and hold the last one. Then breathe out slowly. Try yoga, Getting rid of things that remind you of smoking will also meditation or relaxation methods such as: help you get ready to quit. Make things clean and fresh at work, in your car and at home. Throw away cigarettes, Picture a soothing, pleasant scene. lighters, matches and ashtrays, including in your car. Have Think only about that peaceful image and nothing else. your dentist clean your teeth to get rid of smoking stains-- you’ll love the look. Light incense or a candle instead of a cigarette. Talk to your doctor about getting help to quit. Where you are and what is going on can make you crave a cigarette. Quitting “cold turkey” isn’t your only choice. Talk to your A change of scene can really help. Go outside or to a different room. You doctor about other ways to quit. Your doctor can suggest can also try changing what you are doing. medicine to help with withdrawal, either over-the-counter or prescription. Or go to your local pharmacy to get the No matter what, don’t think, “just one won’t hurt.” It will. nicotine patch, nicotine gum or nicotine lozenge. Read the instructions to see if the medicine is right for you. If you’re Trying something to beat the urge is always better than trying nothing. not sure, ask the pharmacist. EXERCISE RAISING N UT R IT I O N L I F E ST Y L E HEALTH ATT IT U D E BOD Y & MIND Today is the first day of the rest of your life... Today is the big day. You’ve followed the steps Do you miss having a cigarette in your hand? Hold for planning to quit and now the day has arrived. Be something else. Try a pencil, a paper clip, a marble or a sure to remind friends, family and co-workers that water bottle. Hold anything else! today is the day you quit--and lean on them for the Spend as much free time as you can where smoking support and encouragement you’ll need. It’s very helpful to exercise and keep yourself busy. Remind isn’t allowed. yourself how tough this will be--and think about Do you miss having something in your mouth? Try how much better you’ll feel when you quit. Think toothpicks, cinnamon sticks, lollipops, hard candy, about why you want to stop in the first place, sugarfree gum or carrot sticks. whether it’s for your health, because of illness, for your children, pregnancy--whatever the reason for Drink a lot of water and fruit juice. Avoid drinks quitting, think about that today. It’s crucial that you like wine, beer and coffee--they can trigger you to smoke. stay away from temptation. If you enjoy smoking Stay away from things that you connect with with coffee, don’t drink coffee. Avoid situations smoking. Do it today and for the next few weeks. where you enjoy smoking--and concentrate on Stay near non-smokers as much as you can. resisting the temptation in situations you can’t avoid. Withdrawal: The hardest part Kicking the habit for good When you quit smoking, you may feel strange at first. You may feel dull, tense and just “not yourself. “ These are signs that Tobacco use in the United States causes more than 450,000 your body is getting used to life without nicotine. It usually only lasts a deaths each year. 170,000 are from cancer. few weeks. Many people just can’t handle how they feel after they quit. After you’ve quit, you’ve added healthy, full days to each year They start smoking again to feel better. Maybe this has happened to of your life. You’ve greatly lowered your risk of death from you. Most people slip up in the first week after quitting. This is lung cancer and other diseases including: when feelings of withdrawal are strongest. Heart disease. Stroke. Common feelings of smoking withdrawal include: Chronic bronchitis. Feeling depressed. Emphysema. Not being able to sleep. At least 13 other kinds of cancer. Getting cranky, frustrated or mad. You’ve also cut back on dangerous second-hand smoke for Feeling anxious, nervous or restless. your loved ones. Finally, by quitting smoking, you’re setting a Having trouble thinking clearly. good example. You’re showing young people that a life without cigarettes is a longer, healthier, happier life. Beating an addiction Feeling hungry or gaining weight. to nicotine takes a lot of will power and determination. You should feel great about yourself for making it so far--focus on Not everyone has feelings of withdrawal. You may have one or many sticking with it. of these problems and they may last different amounts of time. Everyone is Your body has changed since you began to smoke. Your brain different, therefore, have different reactions. This is where either prescription has learned to crave nicotine. That’s why you should never take a or over-the-counter medications can be especially helpful. Using medicines puff again, no matter how long it has been since you quit. At first, to help you quit will double your chances of quitting for good. Medicine you may not be able to do things as well as when you were alone can’t do all the work. It can help with cravings and withdrawal, but smoking. Don’t worry. This won’t last long. Your mind and body quitting will still be hard at times. If you are pregnant, be sure to get your just need to get used to being without nicotine. doctor’s approval before taking any medicine. Be sure to follow instructions As you go through the first days and weeks without smoking, in taking any type of medication. keep a positive outlook. Don’t blame or punish yourself if you do have a cigarette. Take it one day at a time. Nicotine gum, patches, inhalers, sprays and lozenges are called A mistake that ex-smokers sometimes make is thinking that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) because they take the place of nicotine they have not smoked in so long that they are no longer from cigarettes. NRT can help with withdrawal and lessen your urge to “addicted”–that they can have a cigarette. This is like “playing with smoke. You need a prescription to buy the inhaler and nasal spray, but you fire” and it can set you up for relapse. If you do slip and have one can buy nicotine gum, nicotine patches and nicotine lozenges on your own. cigarette, there are things you can do. Look at the situation and These medicines can cause side effects in some people. Having one or two what led up to smoking. Use it as a learning experience. cigarettes while you use the gum, patch, nasal spray, inhaler or lozenge is not Most people worry about gaining weight when they quit. Many dangerous, but your goal is to quit smoking for good. Use NRT only when people who gain weight after smoking gain only small amounts. you are ready to stop smoking. If you do slip up and smoke a cigarette or Chances are that this is what they would have weighed if they had two, don’t give up on NRT. Keep trying. Don’t skip or forget to use your never smoked. There may be other things going on that are NRT after you first stop smoking. Slowly use less and less, but don’t stop causing you to eat more. Sometimes the reasons that people completely until you’re ready. Acidic foods and drinks can keep nicotine gums smoke are also the reasons that they over-eat. and inhalers from working. Acidic foods and drinks include tomato sauce, For more help, get the “Forever Free” booklet online at http:// tomatoes, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, coffee, soda, orange juice and grapefruit www.smokefree.gov/pubs/FFree8.pdf. The booklet is available at juice. Avoid them. Keep some of the medicine after you’ve quit--just in case no cost. Also see advice at http://www.smokefree.gov/index.asp. of a future emergency! Your exercise program should include something from each of the four basic fitness Developing the right components. Each workout should begin with a warm- up and end with a cool-down. As a general rule, space exercise program your workouts throughout the week and avoid consecutive days of hard exercise. for the most benefits Here are the amounts of activity necessary for the average healthy person to maintain a minimum level of overall fitness: WARMUP: Five to 10 minutes of exercise such as walking, slow jogging, knee lifts, arm circles or trunk rotations. Low intensity movements that stimulate movements to be used in the activity can also be included in the warm-up. MUSCULAR STRENGTH: A minimum of two 20-minute sessions per week that include exercises for all the major muscle groups. Lifting weights is the most effective way to increase strength. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE: At least three 30-minute sessions each week that include exercises such as calisthenics, pushups, situps, pullups and weight training for all the major muscle groups. CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE: At least three 20-minute bouts of continuous aerobic (activity requiring oxygen) rhythmic exercise each week. Popular aerobic conditioning activities include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, cycling, rope-jumping, rowing, cross-country skiing and some continuous action games like racquetball or tennis. FLEXIBILITY: Ten to 12 minutes of daily stretching exercises performed slowly, without a bouncing motion. This can be included after a warmup or during a cool- down. COOL DOWN: A minimum of five-10 minutes of slow walking, low-level exercise, combined with stretching. CHOICES TO MAKE FOR EXERCISE When should you exercise? The hour just before eating. Heat and/or digestion both make heavy the evening meal is a popular time for exercise. The late demands on the circulatory system and, in combination afternoon workout provides a welcome change of pace with exercise, can be an overtaxing double load. at the end of the work day and helps dissolve the day’s worries and tensions. Wear loose-fitting clothes to permit freedom of movement. Wear lighter clothes than temperatures Another popular time to work out is early might indicate as exercise generates great amounts of morning, before the work day begins. Advocates of the body heat. Light-colored clothing that reflects the sun’s early start say it makes them more alert and energetic rays is cooler in the summer and dark clothes are on the job. warmer in winter. When the weather is very cold, it’s better to wear several layers of light clothing than one Among the factors you should consider in or two heavy layers. Never wear rubberized or plastic developing your workout schedule are personal clothing--such garments interfere with the evaporation preference, job and family responsibilities, availability of perspiration and can cause body temperature to rise of exercise facilities and weather. It’s important to to dangerous levels. schedule your workouts for a time when there is little chance that you will have to cancel or interrupt them The most important item of equipment for the because of other demands on your time. runner is a pair of sturdy, properly-fitting running shoes. Training shoes with heavy, cushioned soles and You should not exercise strenuously during arch supports are preferable to flimsy sneakers and extremely hot, humid weather or within two hours after light racing flats. Walking: A step in the right direction Walking is one of the Do you often feel faint or schedule to follow a walking easiest ways to be physically have dizzy spells? program that will work for you. In active. You can do it almost Do you feel extremely planning your walking program, anywhere, any time. Walking is breathless after you have been keep the following points in mind: also inexpensive--all you need is physically active? a pair of shoes with sturdy heel Has your health care Choose a safe place to walk. support. Walking will: provider told you that you have Find a partner or group of people high blood pressure? to walk with you. Your walking Give you more energy. Has your health care partner(s) should be able to walk Make you feel good. provider told you that you have with you on the same schedule Help you to relax. bone or joint problems, like and at the same speed. Reduce stress. arthritis, that could get worse if Wear shoes with thick Help you sleep better. you are physically active? flexible soles that will cushion Tone your muscles. Are you over 50 years old your feet and absorb shock. Help control your appetite. and not used to a lot of physical Wear clothes that will keep Increase the number of activity? you dry and comfortable. Look for calories your body uses. Do you have a health synthetic fabrics that absorb problem or physical reason not sweat and remove it from your Answer the following mentioned here that might keep skin. questions before you begin a you from starting a walking For extra warmth in winter, walking program: program? wear a knit cap. To stay cool in summer, wear a baseball cap or Has your health care provider If you answered yes to any visor. ever told you that you have heart of these questions, please check Do light stretching before and trouble? with your health care provider after you walk. When you are physically before starting a walking program Think of your walk in three active, do you have pains in your or other form of physical activity. parts. Walk slowly for five chest or on your left side (neck, minutes. Increase your speed for shoulder or arm)? Leave time in your busy the next five minutes. Finally, to cool down, walk slowly again for faster, going further and walking Do not wear headphones. five minutes. for longer periods of time. Stay aware of your Try to walk at least three The more you walk, the surroundings. times per week. Add two to three better you will feel. You also will minutes per week to the fast walk. use more calories. Walking right is very important. If you walk less than three times Walk with your chin up and per week, increase the fast walk Keep safety in mind when your shoulders held slightly back. more slowly. If you walk less you plan your route and the time Walk so that the heel of your than three times per week, of your walk: foot touches the ground first. Roll increase the fast walk time more your weight forward. slowly. Walk in the daytime or at Walk with your toes pointed To avoid stiff or sore muscles night in well-lighted areas. forward. or joints, start gradually. Over Walk in a group at all times. Swing your arms as you several weeks, begin walking Do not wear jewelry. walk. Moderate Physical Activity Guide Start exercising slowly and gradually increase the intensity. Trying too hard at first can lead to injury. Common Chores Sporting Activities Washing and waxing a car for 45-60 minutes Playing volleyball for 45-60 minutes Washing windows or floors for 45-60 minutes Playing touch football for 45 minutes Gardening for 30-45 minutes Walking 13/4 miles in 35 minute (20min/mile) Wheeling self in wheelchair 30-40 minutes Basketball (shooting baskets) 30 minutes Pushing a stroller 11/2 miles in 30 minutes Bicycling 5 miles in 30 minutes Raking leaves for 30 minutes Dancing fast (social) for 30 minutes Walking 2 miles in 30 minutes (15min/mile) Water aerobics for 30 minutes Shoveling snow for 15 minutes Swimming Laps for 20 minutes Stairwalking for 15 minutes Basketball (playing game) for 15-20 minutes Bicycling 4 miles in 15 minutes Jumping rope for 15 minutes Running 11/2 miles in 15 min. (10min/mile) Your exercise can be done all at one time or intermittently over the day. Initial activities may be walking or swimming at a slow pace. You can start out by walking 30 minutes for three days a week and can build to 45 minutes of more intense walking at least five days a week. With this regimen, you can burn 100 to 200 calories more per day. Also, try to increase “everyday” activities such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Reducing sedentary time is a good strategy to increase activity by undertaking frequent, less strenuous activities. With time, you may be able to engage in more strenuous activities. Competitive sports, such as tennis and volleyball, can provide an enjoyable form of exercise for many, but care must be taken to avoid injury. High activity would include walking 10 minute/mile or walking with load uphill, tree felling, heavy manual digging, basketball, climbing or soccer/kick ball. You may also want to try: Flexibility exercise to attain full range of joint motion. Strength or resistance exercise. Aerobic conditioning. Fitness gain It is a myth that eating lots of protein and/or taking protein supplements and exercising vigorously will definitely turn you into a big, muscular person. Building muscle without pain depends on your genes, how hard you train and whether you get enough calories. The average American diet has more than enough protein for muscle building. Extra protein is You can survive for a month without food, but only a eliminated from the body or stored as fat. few days without water. Water is the most important nutrient for active people. Score with Vitamins and Minerals Eating a varied diet will give you all the vitamins and When you sweat, you lose water, which must be minerals you need for health and peak performance. replaced. Drink fluids before, during and after workouts. Water is a fine choice for most workouts. However, during continuous workouts of greater than 90 minutes, your body Exceptions include active people who follow strict may benefit from a sports drink containing electrolytes and vegetarian diets, avoid an entire group of foods or eat less carbohydrates to replace electrolytes lost through sweat than 1800 calories a day. If you fall into any of these during workouts lasting several hours. The most effective categories, a multivitamin and mineral pill may provide the sports drinks contain 15 to 18 grams of carbohydrate in every vitamins and minerals missing in your diet. eight ounces of fluid. Taking large doses of vitamins and minerals will not help Rev up Your Engine with Carbohydrates your performance and may be bad for your health, however. Vitamins and minerals do not supply the body with energy Carbohydrates are your body’s main source of and are not a substitute for carbohydrates. energy. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that are found in foods such as breads, cereals, fruits, vegetables, Popeye and All That Spinach pasta, milk, honey, syrups and table sugar. Sugars and starches are broken down by your body into glucose, which is Iron supplies working muscles with oxygen. If your used by your muscles for energy. iron level is low, you may tire easily and not have enough stamina for activity. For health and peak performance, more than half your daily calories should come from carbohydrates. The best sources of iron are animal products, but plant foods such as fortified breads, cereals, beans and green leafy Sugars and starches have vegetables also contain iron. four calories per gram, while fat has nine calories per gram. In other Iron supplements may have side effects, so take them words, carbohydrates have less only if your doctor tells you to. than half the calories of fat. No Bones About It, You Need Calcium Every Day If you regularly eat a carbohydrate- Many people do not get enough of the calcium rich diet, you needed for strong bones and proper muscle function. Lack of probably have calcium can contribute to stress fractures and osteoporosis. enough stored to fuel activity. Be sure The best sources of calcium are dairy products, but to eat a meal for many other foods such as salmon with bones, sardines, fluid and extra collard greens and okra also contain calcium. Some brands energy if you of bread, tofu and orange juice are fortified with calcium. are competing Read labels and choose those products. in a sport. A Weighty Matter Your calorie needs depend on your age, body size, sport and training program. The best way to make sure you are not getting too many or too few calories is to check your weight from time to time. If you’re keeping within your ideal weight range, you’re probably getting the right amount of calories. Why you need to win the “battle of the bulge” If you are overweight, losing as little as five percent of your body weight may lower your risk for several diseases, including heart disease and diabetes. Slow and steady weight loss of 1/2 to two pounds per week--but not more than three pounds per week--is the safest way to lose weight. The only way to lose weight--and keep it off--is to make a lifelong commitment by changing your eating and physical activity habits. Choose healthy foods, such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains and low-fat meat and dairy products. Eat just enough food to satisfy you. Try to do at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days of the week, but preferably every day. You may need to do more physical activity daily if you are extremely overweight. Weighing too much increases your risk for losing weight and becoming more physically active can developing many health problems. You can lower your help you control your blood sugar levels. Losing weight health risks by losing as little as 10 to 20 pounds. If you and exercising more may also allow you to reduce the are overweight or obese, you may be at risk for: amount of diabetes medication you take. Type 2 diabetes. Heart disease and stroke. Heart disease and stroke Cancer. Heart disease means that the heart and circulation Sleep apnea. (blood flow) are not functioning normally. If you have Osteoarthritis. heart disease, you may suffer from a heart attack, Gallbladder disease. congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death, angina Fatty liver disease. (chest pain) or abnormal heart rhythm. During a stroke, blood and oxygen do not flow normally to the brain, possibly causing paralysis or death. Heart disease is the Type 2 Diabetes leading cause of death in the U.S. and stroke is the third leading cause. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes or noninsulin-dependent diabetes. It is the most People who are overweight are more likely to common type of diabetes in the U.S. Type 2 diabetes is a suffer from high blood pressure, high levels of disease in which blood sugar levels are above normal. triglycerides (blood fats) and LDL cholesterol (a fat-like High blood sugar is a major cause of early death, heart substance often called the “bad cholesterol”) and low levels disease, kidney disease, stroke and blindness. of HDL cholesterol (the “good cholesterol”). These are all risk factors for heart disease and stroke. In addition, More than 80 percent of people with Type 2 people with more body fat have higher blood levels of diabetes are overweight, though it is not known exactly substances that cause inflammation. Inflammation in why overweight people are more likely to suffer from this blood vessels and throughout the body may raise heart disease. It may be that being overweight causes cells to disease risk. change, making them less effective in using sugar from the blood. This puts stress on the cells that produce Losing five to 15 percent of your weight can lower insulin (a hormone that carries sugar from the blood to your chances for developing heart disease or having a cells) and makes them gradually fail. stroke. If you weigh 200 pounds, this means losing as little as 10 pounds. Weight loss may improve your blood You can lower your risk for developing Type 2 pressure, triglyceride and cholesterol levels; improve how diabetes by losing weight and increasing the amount of your heart works and your blood flows; and decrease physical activity you do. If you have Type 2 diabetes, inflammation throughout your body. Cancer Cancer occurs when cells in one part of the body, such as the colon, grow abnormally or out of control. It can spread to other parts of the body, such as the liver. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. Being overweight increases the risk of several types of cancer, including cancers of the colon, esophagus and kidney. Being overweight is also linked with uterine and postmenopausal breast cancer in women. Gaining weight during adult life increases the risk for several of these cancers. Being overweight also may increase the risk of dying from some cancers. It is not known exactly how being overweight increases cancer risk. It could be that fat cells make hormones that affect cell growth and Extra weight may place extra pressure on joints lead to cancer. and cartilage, causing them to wear away. In addition, people with more body fat may have higher blood levels of Avoiding weight gain may prevent a rise in cancer substances that cause inflammation. Inflammation at the risk. Weight loss, healthy eating and physical activity joints raises the risk for osteoarthritis. habits will lower cancer risk. Weight loss can decrease stress on your knees, Sleep Apnea hips and lower back--and lessen inflammation in your body. If you have osteoarthritis, losing weight will help improve your symptoms. Sleep apnea is a condition in which a person stops breathing for short periods during the night. A person who has sleep apnea may suffer from daytime sleepiness, Gallbladder Disease difficulty concentrating and even heart failure. Gallstones are clusters of solid material that form The risk for sleep apnea is higher for people who in the gallbladder. They are made mostly of cholesterol are overweight. A person who is overweight generally has and can sometimes cause abdominal or back pain. more fat stored around his or her neck. This may make the airway smaller. A smaller airway can make breathing People who are overweight have a higher risk for difficult, loud (snoring) or stop altogether. Fat stored in developing gallbladder disease and gallstones. They may the neck and throughout the body can also produce produce more cholesterol, a risk factor for gallstones. Also, substances that cause inflammation, a risk factor for sleep people who are overweight may have an enlarged apnea. gallbladder, causing it not to work properly. Weight loss usually improves sleep apnea, Weight loss — especially fast weight loss (more decreases neck size and lessens inflammation. than three pounds per week) or loss of a large amount of weight — can actually increase your chance of developing gallstones. Modest, slow weight loss of about 1/2 to two Osteoarthritis pounds a week is less likely to cause gallstones. Osteoarthritis is a common joint disorder. With osteoarthritis, the joint bone and cartilage (tissue that Fatty Liver Disease protects joints) wear away. Osteoarthritis most often affects the joints of the knees, hips and lower back. Fatty liver disease occurs when fat builds up in the liver cells and causes injury and inflammation in the liver. It can sometimes lead to severe liver damage, cirrhosis (build-up of scar tissue that blocks proper blood flow in the liver) or even liver failure. Fatty liver disease is like alcoholic liver damage, but it is not caused by alcohol and can occur in people who drink little or no alcohol. People who have diabetes or “pre-diabetes” (when blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet in the diabetic range) are more likely to have fatty liver disease than people without these conditions. It is not known why some people who are overweight or diabetic get fatty liver and others do not. People with fatty liver disease should avoid drinking alcohol. Healthy Bones: Don’t overlook this important part of your good health The U.S. Surgeon General The good news is that you are likelihood of developing osteoporosis: warns that by 2020, half of all Ameri- never too old or too young to improve cans older than 50 will be at risk for your bone health. With healthy nutrition, Get the recommended amounts of fractures from osteoporosis. physical activity every day and regular calcium and vitamin D. High levels of medical checkups and screenings, calcium can be found in milk, leafy Already 10 million Americans Americans of all ages can have strong green vegetables, soybeans, yogurt and over the age of 50 have osteoporosis, bones and live longer, healthier lives. cheese. Vitamin D is produced in the the most common bone disease, while Likewise, if it’s diagnosed in time, skin by exposure to the sun and is another 34 million are at risk for osteoporosis can be treated with new found in fortified milk and other foods. developing osteoporosis. Each year, drugs that help prevent bone loss and For people who are not getting enough roughly 1.5 million people suffer a bone rebuild bone before life-threatening calcium and vitamin D in the diet, fracture related to osteoporosis. fractures occur.” supplements may be helpful. Osteoporosis and other bone Osteoporosis is a “silent” Maintain a healthy weight and be diseases can lead to a downward spiral condition because many Americans are in physical health and quality of life, physically active at least 30 minutes a unaware that their bone health is in day. Include weight-bearing activities including losing the ability to walk, jeopardy. In fact, the number of people stand up or dress. Bone disease can to improve strength and balance. who have osteoporosis is much greater also lead to premature death. than the number who report having the Take steps to minimize the risk of disease—four times as many men and falls by removing items that might Other findings in the Surgeon nearly three times as many women. cause tripping, improve lighting, have General’s report include: regular vision tests and exercise to One of the most dangerous One in five older Americans who improve balance and coordination. myths about osteoporosis is that only suffer a hip fracture die within a year of women need to worry about bone the fracture. The report also calls on health health. Osteoporosis affects men and care professionals to help Americans women of all races. While bone maintain healthy bones by evaluating One in five people with a hip weakness is more common in older fracture end up in a nursing home risks for patients of all ages and Americans, building strong bones recommending bone density tests for within a year. begins in childhood. women over the age of 65--and for men Hip fractures account for 300,000 and women over 50 who suffer even a You can improve and maintain minor fracture. These tests are quick, hospitalizations annually. healthy bones and decrease the safe and painless. Calcium: The key to healthy bones Calcium builds bones and teeth--and maintains bone mass. Milk products are the primary source of calcium in American diets, but you can also get calcium in fortified juices and calcium supplements. Vitamin D functions in the body to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorous, thereby helping to build and maintain bones. Milk that is fortified with vitamin D is a good source of this nutrient. Other sources include vitamin D-fortified yogurt and vitamin D-fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. Here’s how much calcium you need daily: Age Calcium Need 0 to 6 months 210 mg 6 to 12 months 270 mg 1 to 3 years 500 mg 4 to 8 years 800 mg 9 to 18 years 1,300 mg 18 to 50 years 1,000 mg Over 50 years 1,200 mg (A cup of milk or fortified orange juice has about 300 mg of calcium.) SPORTS: Avoid muscle and bone damage Many Baby Boomers decade we have seen a dram- the arm, usually after such swat tennis and golf balls, atic increase in the number of activities as reaching or lifting. swim or play basketball for the patients over the age of 40 Over time, the pain may in- joy of physical activity and needing surgery to repair crease, even when the joint competition, as well as main- damage to their joints.” is not being used. taining cardiovascular fitness. While exercise is a key factor One area of particular Researchers hope to in forestalling heart disease, interest to Moorman is the develop a strategy that will Baby Boomers who are still shoulder, a unique joint where help Baby Boomers preserve young at heart should not four different muscles and the integrity of their rotator neglect their musculoskeletal their tendons form a “cuff,” cuffs as they exercise to stren- systems, especially if they want keeping the ball at the end of gthen their hearts. Surgery is to maintain an active life style the arm bone inside the socket often the only solution for into their 60s and 70s, says Dr. of the shoulder blade. “I’d say these tears. Claude T. Moorman, III, that about 60 percent of my director of sports medicine at cases involve the shoulder, “Fortunately, we can Duke University Medical with about 80 percent of those perform most rotator cuff Center. repairing injuries to the repairs safely and effectively rotator cuff,” Moorman says. with an arthroscopic approach, Failure to appreciate the “Over time, the tendon tends which means less pain and musculoskeletal system can to break down, first as tiny quicker recovery for patients,” lead to injuries that could tears. These tears eventually Moorman says. He added that curtail favorite pastimes, he coalesce into a much larger he treats about 90 percent of says. “We know that exercise tear that needs treatment.” the rotator cuff injuries with and physical activity is an an arthroscope. “Most pat- important way to maintain our The key to prevention, ients receiving this minimally overall health. Many people, Moorman says, is to recognize invasive approach are back to especially the Baby Boomers, early signs when the tears are normal routine in three to four don’t seem to be paying as small, such as pain that begins months, twice as fast as the much attention to other parts at the front of the shoulder traditional surgical approach.” of their bodies. Over the past and moves down the side of Feel better about yourself A healthy lifestyle builds self Take time to do things you enjoy. esteem, but there are plenty of steps You may be so busy or feel so badly you can take to feel better about about yourself that you spend little or yourself regardless of your body type, no time doing things you enjoy—things personality and financial standing: like playing a musical instrument, doing a craft project, flying a kite or going Pay attention to your own needs and wants. Listen to what your body, mind and heart are telling you. If you’ve fishing. Make a list of things you enjoy doing--and do them. Self been sitting down too long, stand up Get something done that you have and stretch. If your heart longs to spend more time with a special friend, do it. If your mind is telling you to clean been putting off. Clean out that drawer. Wash that window. Write that letter. Pay that bill. Esteem your basement, listen to your favorite music or stop thinking bad thoughts Do things that make use of your about yourself, take it seriously. own special talents and abilities. For instance, if you are good with your Take good care of yourself. As you hands, then make things for yourself, were growing up, you may not have family and friends. If you like animals, flowers or an attractive object in the learned how to take good care of consider having a pet or at least playing center of the table. Arrange your food in yourself. Treat yourself as a wonderful with friends’ pets. an attractive way on your plate. If you parent would treat a small child or as eat with others, encourage discussion of one very best friend might treat Dress in clothes that make you feel pleasant topics. Avoid discussing another. If you work at taking good care good about yourself. If you have little difficult issues at meals. of yourself, you will find that you feel money to spend on new clothes, check better about yourself. Here are some out thrift stores in your area. Learn something new or improve ways to take good care of yourself— your skills. Take a class or go to a Give yourself rewards. You are a seminar. Many adult education Eat healthy foods and avoid junk great person. Write that down. programs are free or very inexpensive. foods (foods containing a lot of sugar, For those that are more costly, ask salt and fat). Spend time with people who make about a possible scholarship or fee you feel good about yourself—people reduction. Exercise. Moving your body helps who treat you well. Avoid people who treat you badly. Begin doing those things that you you to feel better and improves your know will make you feel better self-esteem. Arrange a time every day Make your living space a place that about yourself—like going on a diet, or as often as possible when you can honors the person you are. Whether beginning an exercise program or get some exercise, preferably outdoors. you live in a single room, a small keeping your living space clean. You can do many different things. Taking a walk is the most common. You apartment or a large home, make that space comfortable and attractive for Do something nice for another could run, ride a bicycle, play a sport, you. If you share your living space with person. Smile at someone who looks climb up and down stairs several times, others, have some space that is just for sad. Say a few kind words to the put on a tape or play the radio and you—a place where you can keep your check-out cashier. Help your spouse dance to the music--anything that feels things and know that they will not be with an unpleasant chore. Take a meal good to you. If you have a health disturbed and that you can decorate any to a friend who is sick. Send a card to problem that may restrict your ability to way you choose. an acquaintance. Volunteer for a worthy exercise, check with your doctor before organization. beginning or changing your exercise habits. Display items you find attractive or that remind you of your achievements or Make it a point to treat yourself of special times or people in your life. If well every day. Before you go to bed Strong personal hygiene will make each night, write about how you treated cost is a factor, use your creativity to you feel better about yourself–things yourself well during the day. think of inexpensive or free ways that like taking a regular shower or bath, you can add to the comfort and washing and styling your hair, trimming You will find that you will enjoyment of your space. your nails, brushing and flossing your continue to learn new and better ways teeth. to take care of yourself. As you Make your meals a special time. Turn off the television, radio and stereo. incorporate these changes into your life, Plan fun activities for yourself. your self-esteem will continue to Set the table, even if you are eating Learn new things every day. alone. Light a candle or put some improve, along with your happiness. Civilian Fitness programs start on post The program was the comman- employee is hurt while participating in ding general’s idea. The Civilian Per- the civilian fitness program. sonnel Office was quick to jump behind it. “The general called and said, ‘We Both men said they understand really need to be doing something,’ and there is the chance that the time might we talked about what to do,” said be abused, but Ralston said he’s willing Denny Kerr, Fort Sill CPO chief. “If we to take that chance. “For the minute do this, the workforce will be happier, percentage that might abuse the pro- they’ll be more productive and healthy.” gram, if we save even one life, it will be worth it,” Ralston said. He said employees can ask their supervisors for up to three hours per A Web site is being constructed week. Kerr said they can use that three that has a list of approved programs that hours all at once or spread the hours. post employees can participate in. “That “Supervisors should mark the hours up will include obvious things like running to administrative leave and not charge and lifting weights,” Kerr said. “But, it By Keith Pannell the employee any personal or sick leave will also include educational events like of any kind,” Kerr said. smoking cessation and alcohol abuse Fort Sill Department of the classes.” He added that golf and Army and Non-Appropriated Fund “But, the mission must come bowling will not be on the list. The Web civilians will be able to take admini- first,” Ralston added. “The adminis- site can be reached at http://sill- strative leave to improve their physical trative leave should only be granted if it www.army.mil/chip/chip.html. and mental health. The new test pro- doesn’t interfere with getting the job gram started today. done. Having said that, I highly encour- Kerr said the program, which is age supervisors to grant the leave when- on a test basis for six months, will be in “In the last couple of years, ever possible.” a constant state of flux. The list will we’ve had three people die at their constantly be updated with additions and desks from heart attacks,” said Maj. The program is “as unobtrusive deletions as feedback comes in to a Gen. David Ralston, U.S. Fires Center as possible” for the employees and monitoring committee. of Excellence and Fort Sill commanding supervisors. There is no signing out of general. “If it’s a matter of giving the office, no paperwork for the super- The general said he understands people a couple of hours off each week visor or signing in at the workout facility. many offices on post are under-staffed to go work out, then it’s the right thing to “We’re leaving up to people’s integrity,” and overworked and may find it difficult do.” Kerr said. The only form civilian emp- to let their employees off three hours a loyees will need to sign is a release week. But, he encourages leaders to try absolving the post of responsibility if an and find a way. “Simply because I think it is the right thing to do,” Ralston said. “I do want the supervisors to really get behind this. One of the things we do best with soldiers is keep them in top physical shape and that pays great dividends for the mission, but also for their families. That will work for civilians as well.” Although not required, both Kerr and Ralston strongly advised civilians to visit their doctor to get cleared for physi- cal activity. For more information, call Denny Kerr at 442-5626. Rinehart Fitness Center 2730 Bragg Rd 442-6712 Hours of Operation Mon-Fri, 5am-10pm Sat—Sun, 8am-6pm Holidays, 8am-6pm Gladys Crawford, MGR Gladys.email@example.com Rinehart is Fort Sill’s flagship Fitness Center, it offers state of the art cardio theaters with life cycle, stair steppers and treadmill, four racquetball courts, locker rooms, saunas and a 25 meter indoor pool. Other Features Include: Aquamassager Escape from all of your worries and stress of the day with a 15 minute massage. Appointments only 442-6712 Mon-Fri : 8am—11am and 3pm –7pm Sat & Sun: 10am—2pm (Walk Ins welcome provided there is no conflict with appointments) Stretching Classes This class shows you the proper stretching techniques with one on one instructions Racquetball Reserve a court after 4:30pm but no earlier than 24 hours. Veterans Walk Fit Group Just walk and log your miles with Rinehart and receive a certificate of fitness (12 laps around the fitness center is equal to 1 mile) Indoor Pool Hours of Operation Mon—Fri, 5am –8:30am for PT Mon, Pool closes 8:30 am for the rest of the day Tue—Fri, 5am—8:30 am for Pt, 11am—9pm Adult Lap and PT Tues & Thu, 3:30 pm—6pm Recreation Swim Wed & Fri, 11am—7pm Goldner Fitness Center 3444 Crane Rd 442-2740 Hours of Operation Mon-Fri, 5am –10pm Sat, 8am-6pm Sun & Holidays 12pm –6pm Claudia Mejia, MGR Claudia.firstname.lastname@example.org Goldner Fitness Center is the premier center for weight training both free weight and machines. Goldner does have the Elliptical (cross trainers), treadmills, life cycles, and stair steppers as well as a boxing room with a speed bag, punching, and kicking bag, two volleyball courts, a sauna, and newly renovated locker rooms. Other Features Include Boot Camp Aerobics Class The Boot Camp Aerobics Class was developed to help soldiers to train their cardiovascular system as they working on muscular strength and endurance at the same time as they improve their flexibility. Boot Camp Aerobics is a great program for family members and civilians too. It covers a big variety of exercises such as squats, and lunges, kicks, and punches, upper body exercises with resistance tubes and push-ups, abdominal exercises, plyometrics, and stretches. Everybody is welcome; there is no beginner or advanced level. Participants have to work on their own paste and the goal should be optimum fitness No Weights Required Class This class is designed to help ladies with their work out in the gym. The instructor, Claudia Mejia, is showing the participants exercises with small fitness equipment i.e., medicine balls, resistance tubes, small dumb bells, exercise balls or no equipment at all in order to sculpt their bodies. All fitness levels and ages are welcome. Pilates Pilates is a mind-body fitness program which helps you to strengthen and stretch the entire body, it helps you to stand taller and forms defined and stronger abdominal muscles. By creating a strong core you will achieve a better balance, coordination, and flexibility. Pilates work out benefits pregnant females as well. It will make delivery easier by teaching you how to breathe deeply and evenly while tightening the muscles of your pelvic floor. Lunch Abs Teaser This is a great work out if you want to get the Abs of Steel. An intense 30 min. abdominal work out that will not only help you to max out your sit-ups in the AFPT, it will give you a nice defined six pack – cardio work out and right diet added. The instructor, Claudia Mejia, will give you the needed support in order to reach your goal. Honeycutt Fitness Center 912 Randolph Rd 442-4670 Hours of Operation Mon-Fri, 5am-10pm Sat & Holidays, 8am-6pm Sun, 12pm-6pm Otis Gentry, MGR Otis.email@example.com Honeycutt Fitness Center focuses on both Cardio and strength training. Highlighting on more floor space for equipment . Honeycutt features cardio and abs rooms, indoor cycling room, circuit training, Hammer Strength plate loader machines and Iron grip free weights. Other Features Include Nitro Room The Nitro room is a strength machine training room. For circuit training, and basic workout. . Fit Group Designed for deployed Soldier and Family members to get and stay in shape as well as an outlet for stress relief. This class features strength training, cardio, abs and peace of mind. Judo Class Tue & Thu, 6pm-9pm Sat, 2pm-5-m For more information call Andrew M. Kriegel 248-8811 300/100 Club 300 / 100 Club is a bench press of 300 lbs for men and 100 lbs for women. Individuals must bench press one complete rep. On a successful lift their name will be placed on the 300/100 Club board and receive a T-Shirt as a member of the 300/100 Club. Editorial “There’s nothing to do here at Lawton!” How many times have you heard that? My guess is that if you’ve lived here more than a week, you’ve heard someone say those exact words to you. Maybe coming to Lawton isn’t as exciting as going to Hawaii, but I think everyone can find something to do in the area no matter what your passions are. For your well-being, it’s important to get out of your house and socialize. It’s not healthy to sit at home. Recreate! Have some fun! Instead of being negative about where you live, take a look around at all of the activities available right here. If you’re looking for a fun day outdoors, head over to LETRA. They are hosting a Triathlon on September 15. They have a beach area where you can lay out and enjoy the sunshine. There’s putt-putt and boats for everyone, or stop by the lodge to relax inside and escape the heat. There’s great fishing all around the well- stocked lake and people regularly catch catfish, bass, perch and crappie. You can camp out there and enjoy a where you hike up to the top of a mountain surrounded by mini vacation without driving across the state or county. cliffs, ford a river and see all kinds of wildlife. If you’re interested in a day trip, there’s hiking to Crab Eyes. Crab There’s a newly renovated bowling alley on Fort Eyes is a mystery because it’s hard to imagine how on top of Sill called Twin Oaks where you can go with your friends this tall mountain, two large rocks stay balanced over the and f amily for food and fun. Whether you bowl a 300 years. It literally looks like a set of crab eyes and the hike out or 80 (like me), you’re guaranteed a good time. The Java there is beautiful. Café has great food and microbrews available. Play trivia or one of the interactive online games and listen to Try out your singing skills at the Operation Rising Star the music jamming on the jukebox. Competition. This is a singing competition to find Fort Sill’s best singers. There’s a comedy show being held Sept. 15 at Stop by the RecPlex and play a game of pool, the Patriot Club. This show will feature a Fort Sill Soldier as foosball, air hockey, ping pong, shuffleboard or any of a comedian along with the main act. the many board games we have. Or come watch TV on our 106" TV screen with Dish Network cable. Challenge For those who love shopping, take a trip to Medicine your buddies to one of the latest games on our XBOX Park. Medicine Park has so much character and history and 360s. is a tight-knit community. The little shops that line the river are full of unique gifts to purchase. There’s a swimming hole For people into the outdoors, you couldn’t ask for children to cool off and restaurants that overlook the river for a better array of activities. Look west and you see the if you want to sit and enjoy an afternoon. There’s a winery Wichita Mountains in the Wildlife Refuge. First of all, outside of Medicine Park on Highway 49 that creates their there’s the wide spectrum of animals that roam the area. own varietals of wine. It’s fun to stop by there for samples When you drive out to the refuge, you never know what on a Saturday afternoon. you’re going to come across--maybe buffalo, prairie dogs, coyotes, wild hogs, rattlesnakes and longhorns. You don’t Personally I think that there’s a lot to do in this area. even have to get out of your car to see these animals. If If only the weekends were longer! you’re feeling adventurous, there are numerous trails. For families, there are some shorter trails, such as the narrows, --Jenny Sullivan Community Activities Manager HEALTH NEWS AND VIEWS MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS NUTRITION FITNESS TREATMENT HEALTH CONCERNS VACCINES C H Warning Anger hurts your health labels Here’s some good advice for men with hot tempers: Cigarette pack Don’t get mad, get healthy. warning labels with Men who chronically lose their temper face a far higher prominent text and risk of developing a serious cardiac condition called atrial graphic pictures of fibrillation, according to Duke University research. This smoking damage are condition can lead to blood clots in the heart that can travel to most effective at the brain and cause a potentially fatal stroke. changing smokers’ behavior, says a study “We’ve known for at least 20 years that people who that looked at warning have chronic anger are more likely to have severe blockages in labels in four countries. their heart arteries, to develop heart disease over time, to have increased risk of cancer death, suffer more rapid progression of arterial sclerosis and even increased risk of The study found that health warnings on workplace injuries,” says Dr. Redford Williams, director of the cigarette packages in the United States, which Behavioral Medicine Research Center at Duke University were last updated in 1984, are the least Medical Center and a leading expert on anger management. Williams reminds people that letting your anger out is not effective, consisting of only small text warnings always healthy. on the side of packages. “This is one of those “This study suggests that more myths that exist about anger- prominent health warnings are associated with -that if you’ve got a lot of greater levels of awareness and perceived anger, you should let it out effectiveness among smokers,” wrote researcher and get rid of it. Or that it’s David Hammond. equally bad to bottle it up. Both of these myths are wrong. F Quit smoking slowly “If you always let your For smokers who don’t think they’re anger out, you’re going to be ready to kick the habit, reducing the amount of doing a lot of exploding since cigarettes they smoke may lead to unexpected there’s plenty in the world to quitting, say University of Vermont researchers. get angry about,” he In 16 of the 19 studies reviewed, smoking continued. “On the other hand, if you always hold your reduction in people who did not want to quit led anger in, you could be holding it in about some pretty bad to an increase in the percentage of them who things. What we need to do is learn when to do something did quit. In most of the studies, smoking with our anger and when it’s not that sort of situation and we reduction was accompanied by the use of should just ‘chill out.’ It’s not a case of always letting it out or nicotine replacement products. always holding it in, it’s a case of evaluating each situation and using learned anger management skills to help decide the The findings suggest that doctors should best way to react.” try recommending reduction for smokers who haven’t responded to repeated advice to quit, Williams co-authored Anger Kills, a book of strategies said study author Dr. John Hughes, a professor to control hostility. He points to a long list of negative health consequences from anger and urges health-care providers to of psychiatry at the University of Vermont do more in helping their patients deal with their anger and School of Medicine. “Cutting back is approved hostility. as a method of quitting in several European countries, but not in the United States,” Hughes “Given all the research showing how harmful anger is, said. “Our review contradicts the commonly we should be more aware of the health risks anger poses and held belief that quitting requires stopping begin to teach people the skills they need to manage anger abruptly and provides evidence that smokers better,” Williams said. “We know that for all people, healthy can quit successfully by reducing the amount of or not, good nutrition and regular exercise are important. I cigarettes smoked. would add anger management skills right in there with these other life-enhancing practices.” MEDICAL BREAKTHROUGHS NUTRITION FITNESS TREATMENT HEALTH CONCERNS VACCINES A Smoking and middle age Everyone knows that smoking kills, but a new study finds it can kill much earlier than most people realize. Researchers in Norway tracked more than 50,000 people for a quarter century and found that smokers were much more likely to die in middle age than nonsmokers. But the study also showed that the risk quickly dropped when a smoker quit. “This finding reinforces the message that its never too late to quit smoking,” said Dr. Ronald M. Davis, director of the Center for Health Promotion and A Trauma Centers Study Disease Prevention at the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. “The benefits are larger if you A national study has found that the overall risk of death is 25 percent lower when care for traumatic injuries quit at a lower age, but there are significant is provided at trauma centers compared to hospitals benefits at any age.” without trauma centers, say researchers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center. The researchers found that, among the men, 41 percent of heavy smokers (a pack or more a Trauma centers have the equipment and on-site day) died at ages 40 to 70 compared to 14 percent medical personnel to treat life-threatening injuries 24 of those who never smoked. The middle-age death hours a day. The study included 18 hospitals with Level 1 rate for women who smoked heavily was 26 trauma centers and 51 hospitals without trauma centers percent, compared to nine percent of those who in 14 states. never smoked. “We observed substantially lower Researchers found that within one year after risk for death among those who quit smoking in all injury, the rate of death was significantly lower when care decades of middle age,” the researchers reported. was provided in trauma centers (10.4 percent versus 13.8 percent for non-trauma centers). The difference was For John F. Banzhaf, executive director of the similar for rate of in-hospital death. The differences were Washington-based organization Action on Smoking most pronounced when patient injuries were severe, the and Health, the study is valuable because it researchers said. emphasizes middle age. “All too many people, when they think of smoking, think of people dying The authors said that though there wasn’t enough evidence to establish a hospital-based effect among at an old age,” Banzhaf said. “This study shows a patients with lesser injuries, but it is possible that very dramatic increase in death rate at middle age, treatment at a trauma center could benefit those patients a significantly lower chance of surviving middle age, by reducing complications and increasing the likelihood particularly if you are what they define as a heavy that they will return to productivity. smoker — one pack a day.” “The results show that the risk of death is “Even if you have heart disease or cancer, significantly lower when care is provided in a trauma quitting smoking is beneficial,” Davis said. “Middle- center than in a non-trauma center and argue for aged smokers who haven’t been hit by a smoking- continued efforts at regionalization,” wrote the authors. related illness may think that if they’ve lasted this Many states use the American College of long, they’re not susceptible to the dangers of Surgeons’ trauma center criteria to designate trauma smoking or that the damage is already done. These centers based on a regional approach. In some states, are myths we need to correct.” however, there are few if any trauma centers because they are expensive to maintain, and before the study, there was no strong evidence of their effectiveness.