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Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba Lindsay Newcomb Jamie Swank Andrew

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									Ginkgo biloba
 Lindsay Newcomb
    Jamie Swank
  Andrew Soteres
        History and Background
   Ancient use in China and
    Japan as a tonic.
    – Poor Circulation
    – Inner ear disorders
    – Absent-mindedness,
      Dementia, Depression, and
      Hypertension in the elderly
    – Impotence in men
   Chinese used leaves and
    nuts
   Use dates back over
    5000 years
About the plant…
           Commonly known as
            maidenhair tree
           Known for its green, fan-
            shaped leaves that turn
            yellow in autumn
           Unique seeds (not used in
            extracts)
           Extracts prepared from
            dried, green, whole leaves
           Tree can reach up to 80
            feet tall and 60 feet wide
            in urban areas
          Characteristics
 Dioecious  – separate male and
  female trees
 Only female trees produce fruit

 Grows in moderate and sub-tropical
  climates
 Gametophyte and embryo are edible
  while surface oils can cause
  dermatitis
     About the plant…(cont’d)
 The Chinese call it
  Duck Foot or Silver
  Apricot
 Ginkgo family is
  nearly free of
  disease and pests
                 A Living Fossil
   The world’s oldest tree
   In existence for over 250 million years
   Darwin referred to it as “a living fossil”
               Present Usage
   Uses in Medicine
     – Age-associated
       memory
       impairment (AAMI),
       dementia and
       Alzheimer's.
     – Peripheral arterial
       occlusive disease
                   Structures
   Phenolic
    Substituents




   Terpene
    Substituents
Physiologic Mode of Action
                Attributed to a
                 combination of the
                 flavonoid
                 glycosides and the
                 diterpene lactones
                 (ginkgolides).
Physiologic Mode of Action Cont’d
   Acts by releasing
    vasodilators, specifically
    nitric oxide and PGI2, which
    allows increased blood flow
    throughout the circulatory
    system and therefore
    increase oxygen and nutrient
    delivery to the tissues.
   Allows increased
    microcirculation in the
    capillaries (i.e. better
    exchange on the cellular
    level)
   Decreases blood viscosity
    Molecular Mode of Action
 Treatment with ginkgo increases the
  production of NO (nitric oxide) through
  NOS (nitric oxide synthase).
 NO increases the activity of KCa channels
  and invokes the influx of Ca2+ into
  endothelial cells.
 This mode was double checked against a
  known Ca2+ channel blocker (TEA) and
  inhibited the effects of ginkgo.
 Ginkgo does not affect ATP K+ channels.
          Ginkgo and Memory
   Effects on AAMI and cerebral insufficiency

   All but 1 of the 8 studies found a reduction
    in the symptoms of these diseases.

   May take 4-6 weeks to see improvement.

   UCLA study
      Peripheral Arterial Disease
   Intermittent Claudication (IC)
   One study showed that
    patients on ginkgo extract
    therapy had increased pain-
    free walking distance.
   Another study showed that
    there was a reduction in pain
    at rest with patients on ginkgo
    therapy.
Other Positive Effects of Ginkgo
             Improvements in
              cerebral metabolism
              (increases the efficiency
              of the oxygen that’s
              present)
             Increase in the release
              of neurotransmitters
             Antioxidant activity

             Prevention of free
              radical damage
                  Side effects
   Few and far between.
   The 5 reported cases have
    included hemorrhage,
    hematoma (rupture of blood
    vessels), and hyphema
    (bleeding in eye).
   In all trials <0.5% reported
    minor side effects including
    headaches, GI distress and
    allergic skin reactions.
   Overall, ginkgo is relatively
    safe.
Newest Research
           Ginkgo as an anti-
            cancer agent
            – In vitro exposure of
              human breast cancer
              and bladder cancer cells
              to ginkgo extract
            – Possible reasons
           Ginkgo in treatment of
            diabetes
            – Treatment of diabetes
              symptoms (similar to its
              effects on the vascular
              system)
            – Role of platelet-
              activating factor (PAF)
              Conclusion

 Although not a cure-all, the evidence
  suggests that ginkgo can increase
  memory capabilities in those with AAMI
  and decrease the effects of peripheral
  arterial disease.
 Further studies will be needed to assess
  the efficacy of ginkgo as regards cancer
  and diabetes.
     Ginkgo biloba

    This leaf from a tree in the East,
     Has been given to my garden.
       It reveals a certain secret,
Which pleases me and thoughtful people.
  Does it represent One living creature
        Which has divided itself?
 Or are these Two, which have decided,
      That they should be as One?
      To reply to such a Question,
        I found the right answer:
 Do you notice in my songs and verses
        That I am One and Two?
                        -Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Questions?!?!?

								
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