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					                                           Use of natural light depot Beverwaard




                                                   Use of natural light
                                                   Depot Beverwaard




Administrator   : D. Huybens
Author          : Ing. Koos Spindler
Date            : 9 November 2010
Version         : 0.1
Status          : concept
Filename        : 2-Use of natural light
Filename: 2-Use of natural light            RET N.V.




Table of contents

1     GENERAL                                          3

1.1     Introduction                                   3

1.2     Program of Requirements                        3

1.3     Building Act                                   3

1.4     Design starting points                         4


2     COORDINATION WITHIN THE DESIGN                   5

2.1     Orientation of the building                    5

2.2     Elaboration of the facades                     6

2.3     Roof lights                                    7

2.4     Sufficient daylight                            8

2.5     Lighting level from the PVE                    8

2.6     Artificial lighting                            9

2.7     Resume                                         9




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                                              RET N.V.




1 General

1.1      Introduction
In 2006 the making of the first design has started for the Beverwaard depot in
Rotterdam. After going through different design variants, in 2008 a building
permit is submitted for the design, which is now be build. It is the intention that
the building is going to be finished in 2011.
This document describes the considerations regarding the use of daylight into
the building, which led to the final form.

1.2      Program of Requirements
The RET has established a Functional Program of Requirements, in which for
the natural light accession states that this should be adapted to the relevant
function fulfillment, according to the HEALTH AND SAFETY legislation. These
demands are placed on light accession, which come in through the facades but
also through the roof.
Quote the working conditions regulations: jobs and traffic spaces are so
enlightened, that the light present no risk to the safety and health of workers. It
does not say that this has to be daylight.

1.3      Building Act
In the Building Act (Dutch build regulations) further requirements regarding
daylight surface and the manner of measuring this are mentioned. However, for
the intended function of this building the only demands for daylight are
mentioned for the Office area. For the workshop, which is classified as an
industrial function, no requirements regarding the daylight surface are given.

                                                       leden van
                gebruiksfunctie                                          grenswaarden
                                                      toepassing
                                                  daglichtoppervlakte daglichtoppervlakte
                                          artikel 3.134               3.134
                                               lid 1 2 3 4 5 6 7          1        2
                         .                                              [%]      [m2]
1 woonfunctie
   a woonfunctie van een woonwagen                1 2 3 - 5 - -                 8    0,5
   b andere woonfunctie                           1 2 3 4 - - -                10    0,5
2 bijeenkomstfunctie
   a bijeenkomstfunctie voor kinderopvang         - - - -         -   -   -    -      -
      1 ruimte voor spelactiviteiten              1 2 3 4         -   6   -    5     0,5
      2 andere ruimte                             - - - -         -   -   -    -      -
   b andere bijeenkomstfunctie                    - - - -         -   -   -    -      -
                                                                                            No requirements
3 celfunctie                                                                                for industrial
      1 ruimte voor dag en nachtverblijf          1 2 3 4 - 6 -                3     0,15
      2 andere ruimte                             - - - - - - -                -       -    function
4 gezondheidszorgfunctie
      1 ruimte voor aan bed gebonden patienten    1   2   3   4   -   6   -     5    0,5
      2 andere ruimte                             -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -      -
5 industriefunctie                                -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -      -
6 kantoorfunctie                                  1   2   3   4   -   6   -    2,5   0,5
7 logiesfunctie                                   1   2   3   4   -   6   -     7    0,35   2,5%x m2 floor
8 onderwijsfunctie                                1   2   3   4   -   6   7     5    0,5    space =
9 sportfunctie                                    -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -      -
10 winkelfunctie                                  -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -      -    equivalent
11 overige gebruiksfunctie                        -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -      -
12 bouwwerk geen gebouw zijnde                    -   -   -   -   -   -   -     -      -
                                                                                            daylight m2
                                                                                            min > 0,5m2
Figure 1:Tabel 3.133 from the Building Act




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                       RET N.V.




1.4     Design starting points
Independent of the requirements and the legislation, when creating the design
also clearly a need for the realization of a transparent building was in mind. With
a transparent building we do mean a building where:
 Employees have a clear overview.
 The open structure delivers a more natural orderliness.
 Employees can be aware of their surroundings and the weather conditions.
 A maximum amount of natural daylight is reached.

With these thoughts in mind the main structure of the building is designed and
developed further.




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                        RET N.V.




2 Coordination within the design

2.1     Orientation of the building
The available piece of land of the building is just large enough to realize the
desired functions. The locations for workshop, depot and office are ranked in
such a manner that the best use of daylight is possible, without blinding sunlight
that can be annoying for the users. This means that the Office is on the north
façade, avoiding direct sunlight, but still can take advantage of the daylight. In
particular, in the Office area, this situation is desirable. By this approach the need
for extra sun blinds is not present.



                                         WEST



                                            workshop
                                                       office
    SOUTH                                                                 NORTH
                                                wheel pits

                                           depot




                                         EAST



Figure 2: Orientation Beverwaard Depot

The workshop is oriented on the West, so that light comes in freely and only at
the end of the day direct solar occurs. Here, a strip of the maintenance functions
and the washing place form a heat-absorbing buffer in favor of the workplace.
This also means that the workshop has less benefits from the incident daylight.
Although all separations are also transparent, the daylight intensity decreases as
one goes further away from the façade. In the South side, where the incoming
sunlight can be unwanted, there are almost no facades. And where the facade of
the workplace is made, a sun protective façade band is figured out.




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                       RET N.V.




2.2     Elaboration of the facades
In determining the appearance of the facades a number of wishes played a role:
 The aesthetic desire to treat the complex as one large uniform building.
 In the size and shape of the façades, the scale of the building must be
   expressed.
 The aforementioned need to have a transparent building.
 All workplaces, both on the facades as well the deeper into the building
   located functions, must have as much as possible daylight.
 The facades need to be affordable in both the construction and in use, so they
   must be durable and easy in maintenance.
 Pollution, because of its location next to the highway, must be simple and
   thorough removable.
With these wishes/demands various kind of facades are considered. We have
come to the conclusion that a glass façade meets the best with all these
requirements. Glass is good washable and has less adhesion than, for example,
stone or concrete. Glass has, of course, the greatest transparency. By
installation of glass panels in a curtain wall system it is possible to fill the long
façades and obtain an uniform but nonetheless fascinating picture. After all, the
activity inside the workshop is also experienced from the outside. It is chosen for
an anodized aluminum system in a regular pattern. Aluminum, in spite of the
perhaps less environmentally friendly character, is yet finally chosen because it
has the least maintenance needs and is very long durable. In particular, it is for
this reason an anodized system is chosen and not a paint sprayed system. The
coating with such a paint system will get loose on the saw sides of the profiles at
a certain point. The clearance height of the workshop spaces is equipped for the
use of the overhead contact line. This is a minimum height of 6 m. We have, with
the above mentioned cases in mind, made the glass façade over the full height.
This allows the daylight to come far into the working space.




Figure 3a: Daylight entry in case of a common window strip




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                              RET N.V.




Figure 3a: Daylight entry in case of a glass in full height


2.3     Roof lights
Because the building covers a large surface, it is not possible to comprehending
daylight fully from the facade. That is why on the separation between the tram
storage and the workshop a continuous light street is devised, which spread the
daylight from the roof to both functions. In addition, also above the workstations
there are roof lights fitted. Together with the facades they must ensure a
substantial share in the lighting.




Figure 4: Location roof lights and light street in the roof (yellow blocks)




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                         RET N.V.




2.4     Sufficient daylight
For the workshop are no regulatory requirements for the amount of daylight on
industry function. For the offices, however, the Building Act is leading. I.e. the
amount of equivalent daylight surface should be at least 2.5% of the amount of
floor surface, with a minimum of 0, 5 m 2.




Figure 5: Daylight calculation from building physical rapport DGMR

The amount of daylight yield varies widely throughout the year and is also
depending on the orientation. In the free field measured luminance can vary
between 1450 and 12 500 Lux. Between 8:00h and 16:00h the lighting strength
is on 90% of the time more than 6,000 Lux. A value that is greatly reduced by the
applied glass etc.

2.5     Lighting level from the PVE
In the PVE (so also in the tendering specifications) for the various functions
logically different lighting strengths are required. The light installations must be
based on the following values*:
 Technical spaces                                                  150 lux
 Internal traffic spaces                                           250 lux
 Office- and meeting spaces                                        500 lux
 Tram depot                                                          25 lux
 Workshop storage                                                  250 lux
 Workshop                                                          250 lux

*) The Lux values must be measured on a height of 0,85m after one year of age
declining. Illumination has an equality of 0,75 and an aging factor of 1,2.




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Filename: 2-Use of natural light                                       RET N.V.




2.6     Artificial lighting
The aforementioned lux values should be achieved with fitted artificial lighting.
Depending on the amount of daylight that lighting can be reduced during use.
The installation is equipped with a daylight dependent regulation system.




Figure 6: Daylight depending artificial lighting




2.7     Resume
A lot of attention is given to the lighting of the Beverwaard depot. A good lighting
and a certain transparency is a condition for the proper functioning of the depot
and the well-being of the people who work there. In doing so, we watched
carefully to the impact on the environment and the related energy costs. This is
achieved by a well considered design and a refinement of the technical
installations.




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