S.NO SUBJECT PAGE
HEALTH AND HYGIENE
1 INTRODUCTION TO HYGIENE AND SANITATION 1
2 WATER SOURCES AND ITS PURIFICATION 2
3 COMMUNICABLE DISEASES 4
4 MALARIA, TYPHOID AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES 6
5 STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF HUMAN BODY 8
6 INTRODUCTION TO CANCER AND CANCER CARE 16
7 JAUNDICE, VIRAL HEPATITIS AND ITS PREVENTION 20
8 DIARRHEOA, DYSENTERY, CHOLERA & THEIR CONTROL/ 22
9 MENTAL HEALTH 24
10 POST-DISASTER EPIDEMIC AND AILMENTS 26
11 FIRST AID IN MEDICAL EMERGENCIES 28
12 HIV / AIDS AND ITS PREVENTION 31
13 COOK HOUSE AND CAMP SANITATION 37
14 FIRST AID - AN OVERVIEW 39
15 USES AND APPLICATION OF TRIANGULAR AND ROLLER BANDAGES 44
16 HAEMORRHAGES, PRESSURE POINTS, BRUISES AND THEIR FIRST 48
17 PREPARATION OF A SICK ROOM 51
18 WOUNDS AND THEIR FIRST AID 54
19 BURNS, SCALDS, COLD INJURIES AND FOREIGN BODIES 57
20 PANIC, SHOCK. ASPHYXIA AND FIRST AID 63
21 ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION 68
22 SNAKE, ANIMAL AND INSECT BITES 72
23 HEAT STROKE, HEAT EXHAUSTION AND IT’S FIRST AID 74
24 CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSICATION (CPR) 76
25 POISONS AND FIRST AID 79
26 CARE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE PATIENT 82
27 OBSERVATION OF PATIENT AND VITAL SIGNS 85
ORGANISATION & ADMINISTRATION
28 NCC - AN OVERVIEW 90
29 NCC ORGANISATION AT DG AND DIRECTORATE LEVEL 94
30 ORGANISATION OF GIRLS BN & (I) GIRLS COY 97
31 ROLE AND DUTIES OF ANOs & GCIs 101
32 INTRO, RAISING OF NCC COY & TPS & PROCEDURE FOR 106
ENROLMENT OF CADETS
33 APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS AND TRANSFERS 110
34 DUTIES, POWERS, PROMOTIONS, DISCHARGE AND TRAINING 113
35 PAY AND ALLOWANCES AND DISCIPLINE 116
36 COMPOSITION & FUNCTIONING OF CENTRAL AND STATE 119
37 CCS RULES 122
38 ORGANISATION OF INSTITUTIONAL TRAINING 131
39 PLANNING AND ORGANISATION OF CAMPS, INCL DUTIES OF 134
40 ORGANISATION OF REPUBLIC DAY CAMP (RDC) INCL PM RALLY 147
AND INTER DTE COMPETITIONS
41 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT OF A NCC UNIT 163
42 CAMP BUDGET & ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE 169
43 TERMS AND CONDITIONS : ANOs & GCIs 181
44 CERTIFICATE EXAMS 185
45 AWARDS AND CADET WELFARE SOCIETY 190
46 INCENTIVES TO THE ASSOCIATE NCC OFFICERS AND NATIONAL 197
CADET CORPS CADETS
47 ORG OF ARMED FORCES – ARMY, NAVY & AIR FORCE 201
48 RELATIVE RANKS – ARMY, NAVY AND AIR FORCE 207
49 HONOURS AND AWARDS 211
50 QUARTER MASTER DUTIES 215
51 DEMAND AND ACCOUNTING OF ORDNANCE STORES AND 218
52 MANAGEMENT OF ORD STORES AND EQUIPMENT 222
53 LIFE CYCLE CONCEPT OF CLOTHING 226
54 CONDEMNATION BOARDS 234
55 INTRODUCTION TO MES WORKS 236
56 ARMS AND AMMUNITION DISCIPLINE 239
57 STANDING ORDERS FOR KOTE 241
58 KOTE DOCUMENTS 245
59 ISSUE AND SAFE KEEPING OF ARMS IN KOTE 257
60 HANDLING, STORAGE AND CARE OF AMMUNITION 260
61 PLG, PREP & CONDUCT OF WPN INSP 266
62 LOSSES OF ARMS, AMN AND EXPLOSIVES 269
63 TYPES OF MT, THEIR AUTH, INSP & MAINT 271
64 MT DOCUMENTATION 276
66 PART I & PART II ORDERS 287
67 CAMP REPORT 293
CIVIL AFFAIRS & DISASTER NAGEMENT
68 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CD AND ORGANISATION AT CENTRE, STATE 298
AND DISTRICT LEVELS
69 WARDEN SERVICES AND CD POSTS 301
70 ORGANISATION & FUNCTIONS OF MEDICAL, ENGINEERING, 304
WELFARE & COMMUNICATION SERVICES.
71 AIR RAIDS AND WARNING SYSTEM 308
72 RESCUE & RELIEF 310
73 ROLE AND ORGANISATION OF HOME GUARDS 313
74 FIRE FIGHTING 317
75 AID TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES - MAINT OF ESSENTIAL SERVICES 321
76 AID TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES-NATURAL CALAMITIES 324
77 DISASTER MANAGEMENT 328
78 SETTING UP OF RELIEF CAMP DURING DISASTER MANAGEMENT 341
79 COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF AID AND MESSENGER SERVICE 343
80 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RIGHTS 346
81 ROAD SIGNS AND ROAD DISCIPLINE 351
82 ROAD ETIQUETTE 354
83 CONVOY DRILLS 357
84 ACTIONS FOR CASUALTIES IN MT ACCIDENT 360
85 TRAFFIC CONTROL 362
86 ORGANISATION AND CONDUCT OF ROAD SAFETY WEEK 364
INTRODUCTION TO HYGIENE AND SANITATION
1. The primary cause of ill health in our country is poor hygiene and lack of
sanitized environment to live in. It is incumbent upon individual to realize the
importance of good hygiene, so as to make combined efforts towards adopting
and inculcating a healthy way of life there by reducing ill health and longing life.
(a) Health. It is defined as of complete physical, mental and social
well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity.
(b) Hygiene. It refers to cleanliness of an individual.
(c) Sanitation. It refers to cleanliness of one‘s environment or
3. Importance of Good Hygiene and Sanitation.
(a) To prevent disease.
(b) To promote Health.
(c) To prolong life.
4. Public Health. There should be an organized community effort to bring
about good public health by:-
(a) Control of Communicable Diseases.
(b) Improved sanity measures for disposal of excreta, refuse, proper food
hygiene, purification of water, good housing and living conditions.
(c) Health education of masses.
(d) The reaching out of medical and other aids to each village and
5. Good health is the birth right of every individual. Good hygiene and
sanitation must be practiced to attain it from ―Womb to Tomb.‖
WATER SOURCES AND ITS PURIFICATION
1. Water is one of the major media for transmission of diseases.
Contaminated or unsafe water, if consumed without purification, is a great health
hazard to the community. Excreta contaminates water, as also common usage
of drinking water for washing, cleaning and ablution purposes, causes
contamination through the paths or routes of flow. It is therefore important to
purify water and obtain safe water for usage.
Sources of Water
2. Safe water is that which is free from harmful chemicals, disease producing
organisms and pleasant to smell and taste. Sources of water are :-
(a) Rain Water.
(b) Surface Water. This can be from rivers, streams, tanks and
(c) Ground Water. This is from wells and springs.
Impurities of Water
3. Impurities in water can be:-
(a) Dissolved gas, such as carbon dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen and
(b) Suspended Impurities.
(i) Inorganic – sand and clay.
(ii) Organic – plants, bacteria and insects.
Methods of Purification of Water.
4. Methods of Purification of water can be classified in two ways - Purification
on a large scale and Purification on as small scale.
5. Purification on Large Scale. For towns and cities. It is done in three
(a) Storage. Water is stored in a reservoir for 10-14 days. During
this stage impurities settle down, pathogenic agents die due to action of
sunlight, and some bacteria along with oxygen, remove chemical
(b) Filtration. By filtration, 99% of the impurities are removed. Two
types of sand filters are used - slow and rapid sand filter. Here water is
kept on a bed of sand and gravel, and allowed to filter through. During
this process bacteria act on it and remove the impurities.
(c) Chlorination. It is the addition of a calculated quantity of chlorine to
the filtered water. It kills pathogenic bacteria, removes harmful chemicals
and improves the smell and taste of water.
6. Purification on Small Scale. As in homes. It is done by:-
(b) Chemical disinfection - adding bleaching powder, alum.
7. Horrock‘s Apparatus. This is used to determine the quantity of
chemical disinfectant to be used for purification of water.
(a) Horrock‘s apparatus consists of :-
(i) One black enamel cup with a mark on inside.
(ii) Six white enamel cups of 200 ml capacity.
(iii) Two metal spoons, each of capacity 2 gms.
(iv) Six glass rods for stirring.
(v) Special pipette.
(vi) Indicator solution of starch iodine.
(i) Take one level upon (2 gm) of bleaching powder in the black
cup and make a thin paste with water. Add water and stir until the
level is up to the mark. This forms the stock solution.
(ii) Fill the six white cups with water to be tested till 1 mm below
the rim (i.e. 200 ml).
(iii) With a special pipette add one drop of stock solution to cup
No. 1, 2nd drop in 2nd cup and so on up to six drops in the 6th cup.
(iii) Stir with separate glass rods. Leave for half an hour.
(iv) Note the first cup, which shows blue colour. Suppose the 3 rd
cup shows blue colour, it means 3 level spoons full (i.e.gms) of
bleaching powder in required to disinfect 455 litre of water.
8. The importance of having safe water supply cannot be over emphasized.
Water can be the cause of spread of a number of communicable diseases –
bacterial, viral or protozoal. Besides, harmful chemicals in polluted water can
adversely affect the health of the people.
1. A large percentage of illnesses in our country are due to communicable
diseases. The main cause of spread of communicable disease is lack of proper
hygiene and sanitation and ignorance of healthy habits. Most of these diseases
are preventable and we can check their spread from one to other. Also one must
remember ‗Prevention is always better than cure.
2. (a) Communicable Disease. It is disease due to a specific infectious
agent or its toxic product, capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted
from man to man, animal to animal, or from environment to man or animal.
(b) Contagious Disease. A disease transmitted from one to
another through physical contact, e.g., scabies, STD.
(c) Infestation. Lodgment, development and reproduction of
arthropods on the surface of the body or in the clothing, e.g., lice.
(d) Infection. Entry and development of an infectious agent in the
body of man or animal. Infection does not always cause illness.
Modes of Transmission of Diseases
3. This can be through :-
(a) Direct contact. This is by :-
(i) By Touch. Few skin diseases and eye infection.
(ii) By Droplet Infection (Air borne). Limited to distance 30-60
cms e.g. pulmonary TB, measles.
(iv) Soil Contact. Hook Worm, tetanus.
(v) Inculcation to Skin or Mucosa. For e.g., Aids, Rabies,
(vi) Transplacental. For e.g., toxoplasmosis, rubella,
(b) Indirect Contact. These can be :-
(i) Vehicle Borne. That is via food, water, e.g., diarrhoea,
cholera, typhoid, and polio.
(ii) Vector Borne. For e.g., malaria, dengue, cholera.
(iii) Air Borne. For e.g., tuberculosis.
(iv) Fomite Borne. For e.g., typhoid.
(v) Through unclean hands and fingers.
Prevention of Spread of Communicable Diseases
4. Three tier method :-
(a) First Tier – Control at Source. This is done by early diagnosis,
isolation and treatment of patient along with notification, quarantine,
surveillance and disinfection of articles used by patients.
(b) Second Tier – Control of Method of Transmission. By
purification of water, boiling of milk, food and personal hygiene. Proper
disposal of excreta and refuse, destruction of insects and larvae.
(c) Third Tier – Protection of Host. By personal protective measures
5. Since most of the communicable diseases are preventable, health
education to the public will go a long way in stooping their spread in the
MALARIA, TYPHOID AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES
1. Malaria is a communicable disease which is responsible for considerable
morbidity and mortality every year. Until the early fifties, malaria was a major
health problem responsible for a large number of deaths in our country. In the
late fifties and early sixties, there was only focal out break of the disease
because of use of DDT. However once again, since the late sixties, because of
emergence of DDT resistant mosquito strains, there have been a number of
epidemics and the incidence of malaria has increased.
2. Typhoid is an acute communicable disease, varying in severity from mild
to severe form. In India it is still a major public health problem due to poor
3. Malaria is caused by a parasite - Plasmodium vivax - and transmitted to
man by certain species of female Anopheles mosquito. It has an incubation
period of 10 - 40 days. It manifests as high grade fever associated with chills.
Fever is generally on alternate days or every 4 th day depending on the species
involved. Later there is enlargement of spleen and secondary anemia.
4. Typhoid is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhus. Has an
incubation period of 10-15 days. Clinical features are :-
(a) Prolonged fever and headache.
(b) Loss if appetite, abdominal discomfort, greenish semi-solid pea
soup appearance of stool.
(c) Pulse not rising in proportion to the rise in temperature.
(d) Urine will be scanty and high coloured.
(e) Tongue will be coated.
(a) Agent – Plasmodium vivax (Can be P ovale malariae or falciparum)
(b) Vector-Female Anopheles Mosquito.
(c) Conditions of Transmission :-
(i) A reservoir of infection- i.e. patient suffering from malaria.
(ii) Presence of sufficient number of female Anopheles
(iv) Favourable climatic conditions.
(v) Presence of susceptible human beings to whom infection may be
6. Typhoid. From excreta and urine of infected person to healthy person
through contaminated water, food and files.
(a) Prevention of breeding of mosquito by preventing the stagnation of
(b) Anti larval measures by pouring oil over collections, use of anti
larval chemicals, use of gambusia fish which eat larva.
(c) Anti adult measures – DDT and BHC spraying.
(d) Personal Preventive Measures – Use of mosquito nets, mosquito
repellant, screening of doors and windows, prophylactic chloroquine
(a) Control of Source. By isolation, treatment, disinfection,
notification, follow up to check for typhoid carriers.
(b) Control of Sanitation. By ensuring safe water supply, proper
disposal of patient excreta and urine, proper disposal of refuse and food,
personal hygiene, health education.
(c) Protection of the Public. By immunization with TAB.
(d) Drying, pasteurization and disinfection kill this organism.
6. Malaria is once again emerging as a major health problem in our country,
while typhoid continues to be a health hazard in our country because of poor
hygiene and sanitation, improper disposal of sewage and lack of health
education. By following preventive measures both at individual and community
level, these diseases can be prevented to a great extent.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF HUMAN BODY
1. Human body can be easily compared to a well-orchestrated machine,
which is required to perform various functions in coordination to other system.
To a healthy body every system and its coordinated functioning are essential as
no particular system can be said to be more important than the other.
2. (a) Circulatory System. It moves blood carrying oxygen and foods to
body cells and removes wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells.
(b) Respiratory System. It helps in exchanging air to bring in oxygen and
expel carbon dioxide. This oxygen is put into blood stream while carbon
dioxide is being removed.
(c) Digestive System. It enables us to eat, digest and absorb food and
provides for the removal of the waste.
(d) Urinary system. It is involved in the removal of chemical wastes from
the blood and helps to balance water and salt levels of blood.
(e) Reproductive System. It includes all structures and hormone needed
for sexual reproduction.
(f) Nervous System. It controls movement, interprets sensations,
regulates most body activities and generates memory and thought.
(g) Endocrine System. It produces chemicals called hormones that help to
regulate most body activities and functions.
(h) Musculo skeletal System. It includes bones and provides protection
and supports the skeletal muscles that act with the bones to permit body
(j) Special senses. It consists of various organs that link with nervous
system to provide sight, hearing, taste, smell, and sensation of pain, Cool
heat and tactile responses.
(k) Skin. It includes skin, hair and sweat glands.
(l) Hemophilic System. Blood.
(m) Immune System. It protects the body from disease causing organisms
3. Circulatory System. It consists of heart arteries veins etc. Its primary
function is to purify and to circulate the blood and to help in distributing the
nutrients to different parts of the body. Heart is muscular tissue, which contracts
continuously to work as pump. It is situated between the lungs and other chest
contents more towards left side of chest. It consists of four separated hollow
chambers; upper two are known as right and left arteries and lower are known as
right and left ventricles. Principle function of heart is to send impure or
deoxygenated blood received from various parts of the body to lungs and to
circulate pure blood to body through a network of flexible tubes called Blood
4. Blood vessels.
(a) They are of three types, arteries veins and capillaries. Arteries carry
pure blood away from the heart. They are the strongest of the blood
vessels. They divide becoming smaller and thinner as they reach the
tissues until they become capillaries.
(b) Capillaries are small blood vessels consisting only thin layer of cells
through which the exchange of fluids and gases to and from tissue cells of
the body can be made. After that the tiny capillaries gradually join up and
(c) Veins. They carry impure blood back to heart. Smaller veins unite
gradually becoming larger unit they end in two large veins, which return
the blood to the right collecting chamber of the heart. They are bluish in
5. Respiratory System. Oxygen is vital to life. The aim of breathing is
to transfer oxygen from the air to the lungs where it is picked up by the blood and
circulated throughout the body and to allow carbon dioxide, a waste product, to
be expelled. Air is a mixture of gases, 21% of it is oxygen. Only 5% of the
oxygen is used up in breathing so that when we exhale, we breathe out 16% in
addition to a small amount of carbon dioxide. The amount of oxygen breathed
out is therefore adequate to resuscitate another person.
(a) Airway Anatomy
(i) Nose. Primary way air enters and leaves the system.
(ii) Mouth. Secondary way air enters and leaves the system.
(iii) Pharynx. This is the common passage way for air and food.
(iv) Larynx. Passage way for air in neck.
(v) Trachea. Passage way fro air flowing from larynx.
(vi) Bronchial tree. Tubes that branch out from trachea taking air
to the exchange levels of the lungs.
(b) Lungs. They are elastic organs containing microscopic air sacs
(alveoli) where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place with
the blood. The airway anatomy system is outlined neatly in fig.
(c) Mechanism of Breathing. Breathing is an automatic function. It is
divided into three phases.
(i) Inspiration. Breathing in
(ii) Expiration. Breathing out
(iii) Pause. A respiratory center in the brain determines the
rate and depth of breathing.
(aa) Rate in average adult-16-18/minute.
(ab) Rate in children and infants-20-30/minute.This rate
increases during stress, exercise, injury or illness. The heart
rate will increase accordingly to carry the extra oxygen
around the body.
6. Circulation of Oxygen in Blood. Oxygen is carried around the body by the
red cells in the blood. Blood is circulated in a continuously repeated cycle by the
contraction-relaxation movement of the heart. Each times the heart muscle
contracts; blood is forced out of the pumping chambers of the heart. When the
muscle relaxes replacement blood pours into its collecting chambers. Rate of
heartbeat in average Adult at rest is 72 times per minute.
(a) Deoxygenated blood flows back from the tissues into two main and
then into the right side of the heart. It is then forced out of the heart to the
lungs where the exchange of gases takes place.
(b) The oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart and is
then pumped out again into the main artery from where it is distributed to
all parts of the body. Valves in the heart ensure that blood continues to
flow in the right direction.
(c) The oxygenated red blood cells give the blood its bright red colour.
Blueness (cyanosis) arises when the blood is low in oxygen. Pallor results
from lack of blood in the skin. These colour changes are especially
noticeable in the lips, ear lobes and nail beds. The mechanism of oxygen
circulated in blood in presented in fig.
7. Gastro intestinal System. Food eaten is masticated or mixed in with the
saliva in mouth and is sent down with the help of peristaltic movements through a
tube called esophagus which is located in chest and connected to stomach
where food is stored, churned and mixed with gastric juices. Food is further
propelled to small intestines where food gets absorbed with the help of enzymes
and sent further to liver. Waste products are discharged through large intestines
to rectum and finally through anus come out in the process of defecation.
8. Urinary System. It consists of kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra
Its principle function is to filter waste products and other harmful substances not
required in the body, to form urine and to help in discharging it to urinary bladder
through ureter. Urinary bladder is nothing but an expansible muscular bag which
stores urine and discharges out of body through urethra when sufficient quantity
collects in. A normal person should pass about 1500-2000 c.c. of urine a day.
9. Nervous System. It is situated in the hollow of the cranial bones. It
comprises two equal halves i.e. hemispheres. It is composed of white and gray
(a) White matter. It provides communication of senses.
(b) Gray matter. It provides storage, appreciation of sensations and
There are twelve cranial nerves coming out of various foramens in the
cavities of skull and each one is assigned separate work. i.e., optic nerve carries
visual sensations and auditory nerve carries hearing sensations. Brain is
connected to rest of the body through spinal cord, which is responsible for
transmission of the touch, pain, thermal and other routine sensations. All the
vital functions like respiration are controlled by brain.
10. Bony Structures (skeleton). The skeleton forms the bony frame work of the
body. It consists of separate bones joined together by means of cartilage
ligaments and muscles .The parts of the skeleton are skull, spine ribs and breast
bone, upper limbs, pelvis, lower limbs and bones. It consists of axial and
(a) Axial System comprises of skull and face bones those are 22in
number. Vertebral column, it consists of 33 small rounded pieces of bones
placed one above the other seven in cervical vertebrae in neck region,
twelve dorsal vertebrae in thorasic region, five lumbar vertebrae in waist
region, five sacral vertebrae in hip region, four coccygeal vertebrae in the
tail region in between each vertebrae there is a thick piece of cartilage
called disc which allows movement and acts as a shock absorber. There
is central canal through which spinal cord passes and carries nerve
impulses to and from the brain. There is twelve pair of ribs, which
constitute a thorasic cage. The first seven pairs of these ribs are
attached to breast bone, sternum in front and eight, nine and tenth ribs are
attached to the above and last and last two pairs of ribs, eleventh and
twelfth have no attachment in front and are known as floating ribs. Pelvis
the two hipbones join together and forms a pelvic girdle at the back there
is sacrum and coccyx and in front sympysis pubis which contains intestine
urinary bladder and reproductive organs and there are two sockets on
either side of the pelvis where the thigh bones join, forming the hip joint.
(b) Appendicular skeleton. The upper limbs and shoulder bones are
the clavicle one on each side between upper part of the breast bone on
the front and shoulder joint and shoulder blade scapula lies superficially
one on each side in the upper and outer part on the back of the chest The
bones of the upper limbs are humerus and forearm consists of two bones
radius outer side of fore arm and ulna inner side of forearms.
(c) There are eight carpal bones at the wrist and five metacarpal bones
at the hand. There are three small bones in each finger called phalanges
and two bones for each thumb.
(d) Femur or thigh bone is the longest and strongest bones in the body
it‘s upper end form a part of the hip joint while a lower end forms a knee
joint on which patella lies superficially in the muscles ligament and under
the skin. The bones of the legs tibia and fibula. Tibia extends from the
knee to the ankle and fibula lies on he outer side of tibia it‘s lower end
forms the outer part of the ankle joint.
(d) The foot comprises of seven irregular bones. Tarsus at in step. The
largest the heel bone and the uppermost forms the lower part of the ankle
joint. Five long bones metatarsus in front of the instep support the toes.
The toe bones phalanges are 14in number two in big toes and three in
each of the other four toes.
11. Muscles. Muscles to the layman mean flesh and are primarily meant
to produce movement of the limbs and organs. There are broadly two types of
muscles, viz. voluntary muscles which can cause movement under the dictates of
will and involuntary muscles like those found in the heart which continue to work
even without the dictates of the will.
12. Ligaments. Thickened portions of a joint capsule are called ligaments.
They check movements beyond normal permissible limits. If there is simple
injury to the ligaments of the joints, it is called sprain.
13. Connective Tissues. Consists of yellow elastic and white fibrous tissue
intermixed in varying proportions. It is present in many parts of the body and
forms a layer between the skin and under-lying flesh all over the body, fat being
contained between its meshes, often in large quantities. The chief use of
connective tissue is to bind parts together.
14. Skin. The skin covers the whole of the body and protects the under-
lying structures. It consists of two layers, the outer or hard layer (cuticle) and
the inner layer (true skin or dermis). In the latter are numerous glands which
secrete sweat (consisting of water and impurities from the blood) the evaporation
of which from the surface of the skin cools it and helps to regulate the
temperature of the body.
15. Eye. The eyes are situated in sockets in the front of the skull and are
covered with fold of skin (the eyelids) from which the eyelashes project. The
inside of the eyelids and front of the eye are covered by a smooth membrane
(conjunctiva) and are washed and kept moist by tear fluid. Through the
transparent part of the eye (cornea) can be seen a coloured circular diaphragm
(the iris) with a round hole (the pupil). The latter varies in size with the amount of
light passing through it. Behind the pupil is the lens of the eye which focuses rays
of light on to the light-sensitive part of the eye (retina).
16. Ear. The ear consists of three parts:
(a) The outer ear is that part which can be seen projecting from the
side of the skull, together with the canal which leads to the eardrum.
(b) The middle ear, situated inside the skull, receives and transmits to
the inner ear sound waves concerned in hearing. It also communicates
with the back of the nose and throat by the Eustachian tube, which opens
(c) The inner ear is embedded inside the skull and is concerned with
the sense of balance in addition to the sense of hearing.
(d) The outer ear is separated from the middle ear by the eardrum.
17. Tongue. The tongue is the muscular organ, which lies on the floor of
the mouth; it assists in the tasting, mastication and swallowing of food. In an
unconscious casualty on his back, the tongue tends to obstruct the throat and
Functions of the Body (Physiology)
18. The study of the normal changes and activities which go on in living
beings is known as physiology. The body consists of distinct parts such as the
heart, the lungs, kidneys, etc., which carry on the special kinds of work. Such a
distinct part is called an ‗organ‘ and its special work is called a ‗function‘. The
essential functions of life such as respiration, circulation, digestion, excretion,
etc., are carried on by a set of organs of closely related parts that form a
‗system‘, e.g. the digestive system which includes the mouth, the gullet, the
stomach, the liver, the pancreas and intestines. The Cells, which compose the
tissues of the body, are continually undergoing changes and become worn out
dying and being replaced. During its life a cell under-goes change and gives off
carbon dioxide and other waste products and has to be supplied with food and
oxygen. Furthermore, the various chemical substances that make up the living
body are continually being used up and have to be replaced by food and fluid
taken into the body. Food is digested in the mouth; stomach and intestines, by
digestive juices secreted by various glands and in this way is broken down into
simple substances, which are absorbed from the small intestine. The residue,
consisting largely of vegetable fibers, enters the large intestine (colon) where the
accompanying water and mineral salts are absorbed. The final waste products
(faces) are eliminated from the body through the rectum. Oxygen is also
necessary for the support of life and is obtained from the air we breathe. It must
pass from the lungs into the blood stream and be circulated before it can be of
use to the body. It unites with a protein in the red cells to form a suitable
compound for easy transport throughout the body. Protein is a chemical
compound which is derived from foodstuffs such as meat, eggs, fish etc. The
oxygen and the digested materials are carried in the blood stream to the tissues
to supply substances fro their growth and repair and to produce heat and energy.
19. Pulse. With each heartbeat blood is ejected into the arterial system.
To accommodate this extra amount of blood the arteries expand. This expansion
travels along the arteries in the form of a wave, which is felt over the arteries,
which are accessible near the surface of the skin and s known as ―Pulse‖. Pulse
is normally felt over the lateral side of the wrist, but can also be felt in the neck,
temples, and groin near the ankle. The average adult has a pulse rate of 72 per
20. Blood. Living human body contains widely different types of fluids. Blood
is one of them. It circulates in a closed system formed by the heart, the arteries,
capillaries and the veins. It is a thick viscid liquid of bright red or scarlet colour,
which it flows from the heart to the arteries and takes a dark red or purple hue
when it comes back to the heart via the veins. In the liquid itself are suspended
varieties of cells, those which carry hemoglobin and are red in colour are known
as red blood corpuscles while there are colourless corpuscles known as white
blood cells. ;The liquid portion of the blood is normally referred to as plasma and
contains proteins, enzymes and other important ingredients. An average adult
has a blood volume of five to six liters which keeps on circulating in the system
and carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body and collects the waste
products which are partly excreted by the kidneys and the lungs.
21. Digestion. For the survival of human life food and water are essential.
The former supplies the energy and the latter maintains the fluid balance in the
system. A well-balanced diet contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins
and various minerals, viz. iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, fluorine
with traces of zinc, and copper in adequate proportions. The food at the initial
stages is masticated and made into a soft pulp in the mouth which, with the aid of
saliva, is passed down the gullet to the stomach in the abdomen where it
undergoes further chemical changes and is finally passed into the small
intestines where the enzymes, bacteria and secretions from the liver, pancreas
and intestines break them into various simpler compounds which are finally
absorbed in the system. The unabsorbed food passes via intestines and is
finally, evacuated as faces. The chemical changes that the food undergoes from
mouth downward to small intestines are normally referred to as the process of
22. Excretion. The waste product of the food are filtered from blood in the
kidneys and excreted as urine. There are two kidneys one on each side in the
back of the abdomen. The urine passes from each kidney though urethra and is
collected in the urinary bladder, which is a t the central and lower part of the
abdomen. Any injury on the back or lower part of the abdomen may result in
damage to kidneys, urethras and or bladder. Hence all such type of injuries are
to be referred urgently to the hospital for check up and observation. A small
percentage of waste products are also excreted through respiration and
23. Every first aider should have practical familiarity with various systems of
the body and their functioning without which he will not be able to appreciate the
extent of sickness or injury.
INTRODUCTION TO CANCER AND CANCER CARE
1. Cancer / malignancy is regarded as a group of diseases characterized by
abnormal growth of cells, an ability to invade adjacent tissues and even distant
organs, resulting eventually in the death of affected person.
2. Cancer can be classified into two major categories - solid tumors and
leukemia and lymphomas.
The Cancer Problem
3. Cancer in all forms are causing 9% of deaths throughout the world. Out of
an incidence of 8.7 million, 5.4 million are from developing countries, and 3.3
million from developed countries. In India, every year 5 lakhs of new cases and 3
lakh deaths are estimated. Cancer occurs more frequently in females than males.
4. Ranking Order by Site of 6 Common Malignancies.
RANK MALES FEMALES BOTH SEXES
1 Lung Breast Stomach
2 Stomach Cervix Lung
3 Colon/Rectum Stomach Breast
4 Oral Colon/Rectum Breast
5 Prostrate Lung Cervix
6 Oesophagus Oral Oral
Warning Signs (Danger Signals) of Cancer / Malignancy
5. These are :-
(a) A lump or hard area in the breast.
(b) A change in wart or mole.
(c) A persistent change in bowel or bladder habits.
(d) A persistent cough or hoarseness.
(e) Excessive blood loss during menses or blood loss outside dates.
(f) Bleeding from natural orifices.
(g) A swelling or sore throat that does not improve.
(h) Unexplained weight loss.
Causes of Cancer
6. Environmental Factors.
(a) Tobacco-is a major cause of mouth pharynx, larynx, oesophagus,
bladder, and pancreas cancer.
(b) Alcohol- excessive intake of alcohol intake can cause esophageal
and liver cancer.
(c) Dietary Factors. Smoked fish is related to stomach cancer,
dietary fibre to intestinal cancer, beef consumption to bowel cancer, food
additives to gastro intestinal cancer.
(d) Occupational Exposures. These include exposure to benzene,
arsenic, cadmium, chromium, vinyl chloride, asbestos and polycyclic
(f) Parasites. Schistosomiasis is known to cause urinary bladder
(g) Customs, habits and life-styles – for e.g., Kangri cancer in
(h) Others. Exposure to sunlight, radiation, air and water
pollution, medication (estrogens) and pesticides.
7. Genetic Factors. There is a complex relationship between hereditary
susceptibility and environmental stimuli in causation of number of cancers.
8. Oral cancer is one of the ten most common cancers in the world. It is a
major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers.
9. Risk Factors.
(a) Tobacco. Approx 90% of oral cancers are linked with tobacco
chewing and smoking.
(b) Alcohol. Oral cancers are associated with consumption of high
concentration of alcohol and alcohol has synergistic effect in tobacco
10. Symptoms. Nonhealing ulcer, discoloured patch or persistent swelling in
the oral cavity.
(a) Primary Prevention. Oral cancers are amendable if tobacco habits
are eliminated from the community. This requires extensive public,
motivation to change life styles, and legislative measures like banning and
restricting the sale of tobacco and alcohol.
(b) Secondary Prevention. By early detection and treatment. If
detected in pre - cancerous stage it can be cured.
12. Breast cancer us one of the commonest cause of death in middle aged
women in developed countries, and is becoming frequent in developing
13. Risk Factors.
(a) Age. Breast cancer is uncommon below 35 years of age. The
incidence rapidly increases between 35 - 50 years. A secondary rise in
incidence occurs after the age of 60.
(b) Family History. The risk is high in those with positive family
history of breast cancer.
(c) Parity. First pregnancy in late thirties, unmarried women,
women who have not borne a child.
(d) Age at Menarche and Menopause. Early menarche and late
menopause are established risk factors.
(e) Hormonal Factors. External intake of hormones is associated with
(f) Prior breast biopsy for benign breast disease increases the
chances of breast cancer.
(g) Diet. High fat diet and obesity are linked with breast cancer.
(h) Socio-economic Factors. It is more common with higher socio-
(i) Others. Exposure to radiation, intake of oral contraceptive
14. Symptoms. Painless swelling on the breast, swelling in the armpit,
discharge from the nipple, retraction of the nipple, puckering of skin over the
areola and skin over the breast, ulcers on the breast.
15. Screening for Breast Cancer.
(a) The basic techniques of early detection of breast cancer are :-
(i) Breast self-examination by patient.
(ii) Palpitation by physician.
16. Prevention and Control.
(a) Primary Prevention. The average age of menarche can be
increased through reduction in childhood obesity, increase in strenuous
physical activity, reducing fat intake and promotion of cancer awareness.
(d) Secondary Prevention. Breast screening leads to early
diagnosis, treatment and regular follow-up to detect recurrence and to
Cancer of the Penis
17. It represents a common cancer in males. 40% of cases are under 40
years of age. It is characterized by difficulty in retraction of foreskin, chronic
inflammation of penis, penile warts and chronic rash, crusting, oozing, ulcers on
18. Symptoms. It consists of painless lump or ulcer on the penis, mild
irritation or pus, which later on is blood stained or / and painless swelling in the
(a) Circumcision done in early days of life confers protection from
cancer. It is rare in whom circumcision is done between 4-10 years.
(b) Personal hygiene (washing of parts before and after sex with soap
(c) Single sex partner.
(d) Homosexuality, paedophilia, masturbation and bestiality should be
20. Cancer can be controlled through a series of measures based on
prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, after-care and rehabilitation. This will
reduce the number of cases due to cancer.
JAUNDICE, VIRAL HEPATITIS AND ITS PREVENTION
1. Viral hepatitis is the commonest cause of jaundice. It is again a major
health problem in India, spreading mainly due to lack of hygienic living and
improper sanitary conditions.
2. This is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of sclera, skin and
other body tissues. This occurs due to excess of pigments like bilirubin in the
blood. Common causes of jaundice are: -
(a) Infection of liver- Common cause is viral infection ‗of liver – viral
(b) Obstruction in the bile duct by stones.
(c) Excessive production of bile pigments because of excessive break
down of hemoglobin
4, This is an acute communicable disease caused by a virus. This virus can
be Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B or non A, non B virus.
Mode of Transmission
5. For Hepatitis A virus is faeco- oral. For Hepatitis B virus, it is mainly
through use of contaminated syringes, needles, and transfusion of contaminated
blood or by sexual contact with infected person.
6. Loss of appetite, fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, yellow
discoloration of sclera and skin, high coloured urine, pale stool, pain in upper
Prevention of Viral Hepatitis.
7. (a) Early diagnosis, isolation, notification, disinfection of patient‘s stool
and vomits and articles.
(b) Proper disposal of excreta and refuse.
(c) Hygienic food.
(d) Personal Hygiene and health education.
(e) Proper sterilization of syringes and needles.
(f) Passive immunization with immuno-globulins is also available now
8. Viral hepatitis, specially the one caused by Hepatitis B virus, is particulary
dangerous since some of the patients infected by this go in to chronic hepatitis,
which might further progress to carcinoma. Hence greater stress needs to be laid
on prevention of spread of viral hepatitis, more so for Hepatitis B.
DIARRHEOA, DYSENTERY, CHOLERA & THEIR CONTROL/
1. Normal bowel movement varies from thrice a day to once in three days.
Stools should be semi-solid in consistency. Formation of loose stools more than
thrice a day is termed as diarrhoea. Loose stools with visible blood in it is termed
as dysentery. Cholera is a diarrhoeal disease.
2. Definition. Occurrence of loose stools more than thrice a day which
usually lasts for 3-7 days.
3. Causes. Can be caused by viruses, bacteria or protozoa.
(a) Rehydration Therapy. It is carried out in mild to moderate
cases. It consists of ORS solution. Other fluids which can be administered
are, a glass of water with a handful of sugar and a pinch of salt, lemon
juice, rice kanji, coconut water, lentil soup, curds and fresh fruit juice.
(b) In severe cases intra venous fluid administration should be resorted
(c) Antibiotics may be used depending on the severity of the case. In
infants breast-feeding should be continued.
5. Definition. Onset of loose stools with blood mixed with it, which may
last up to 10-14 days.
6. Causes. Can be bacterial or protozoal.
7. Treatment. Oral / intravenous rehydration depending on the situation.
8. Definiton. It is a diarhoeal disease, caused by vibrio cholerae.
9. Causes. Caused by bacteria vibrio cholerae.
10. Symptoms. It consists of sudden onset of profuse, effortless watery
stools, followed by vomiting, rapid dehydration, muscular cramps and
suppression of urine.
11. Treatment. Oral rehydration therapy, intra – venous (IV) therapy.
Tab doxycycline 300 mg sd or Tab doxycycline 100 mg bd x 3 days.
Prevention / Control
12. 5 F‘s.
(a) F- Food sanitition.safe drinking water.
(b) F- Flies. Hygiene and sanitation of surroundings. Proper waste
(c) F-Faeces. Effective excreta disposal.
(d) F- Fomites.hygiene at home / periodic disinfection.
(e) F-fingers. Personal hygiene.
13. Health education and early diagnosis & treatment.
14. Diarhoea, dysentery, and cholera are preventable diseases. Provision of
safe food and water, and sanitation, along with early diagnosis and first aid will
go a long way in stopping their spread in the community.
1. It is the balanced development of an individual ‗s personality and
emotional attitudes, which enables him to live harmoniously with his fellow –men.
Characteristics of a Mentally Healthy Person
2. He feels secure and comfortable about himself. He neither under
estimates or over estimates his own ability.
3. He is able to be interested in others and to love them. He has satisfying
and lasting friendships.
4. He is able to meet the demands of life. He can think for himself and take
his own decisions.
Warning Signals of Poor Mental Health
5. A yes answer to the questions below, are indicators of poor mental health.
(a) Are you always worrying?
(b) Are you unable to concentrate due to unrecognized reasons?
(c) Are you continuously unhappy without any justified cause?
(d) Do you lose your temper easily?
(e) Are you troubled by regular insomnia?
(f) Do you experience mood fluctuations?
(g) Are you constantly bitter?
(h) Are you afraid without real cause?
(j) Do you have numerous aches and pains without any physical
Causes of Poor Mental Health
6. These could be due to any or all of the following :-
(a) Organic conditions.
(b) Hereditary. 40 times more prone than normal individual.
(c) Social - Pathological Causes. Emotional stress, unhappy
marriages, broken homes, frustations, poverty, industralisation and
(d) Environmental Factors.
(i) Toxic Substances. Carbon disulfide, mercury, manganese,
tin, and lead.
(ii) Psychotropic Drugs. Barbiturates, anti fungal drugs.
(iii) Nutritional Factors. Deficiency of thiamine, pyridoxine.
(iv) Traumatic Factors. Road and occupational accidents
(v) Radiation. Nervous system is most sensitive to radiation
during the period of development of the child in the womb.
Crucial Points in Human Life
7. These are the prenatal period, the first five years of life, school child,
adolescence and old age.
Types of Mental Health
8. It can be divided into 2 types - Minor (neurosis) and Major (psychoses).
(a) Neurosis. Here the person is not able to react normally to life
situations. His associates do not consider him insane. He visits the
psychiatrist himself. E.g., mood disorders, obsessive compulsive
disorders, anxiety neurosis, kleptomaniac.
(b) Psychoses. His associates consider him insane. Here the person
is out of reality. He can be aggressive / violent or docile. E.g.,
schizophrenia, paranoia, manic depressive psychosis.
9. There are three levels of prevention.
(a) Primary Level. This consists of improving the social condition and
promotion of social, emotional and physical well being of all individuals.
(b) Secondary Level. This consists of early diagnosis of mental illness
and emotional disturbances through screening programmes in schools,
universities, industries and recreation centres. Family counseling is also a
method of treatment intervention.
(c) Tertiary. It seeks to reduce the duration of illness and reduce the
stresses they create for the family and the community. The goal of this
prevention is to reduce further disruption and breakdown.
Mental Health Services
10. The mental health services comprise of :-
(a) Early diagnosis and treatment.
(c) Group and individual psychotherapy.
(d) Mental health education.
(e) Use of modern psychoactive drugs.
(f) After care services.
POST-DISASTER EPIDEMIC AND AILMENTS
1. After a disaster, may it be natural or man-made, there is disruption of land
and life. This environment is conducive for ailments. These diseases may vary
from mild disorders to severe diseases, which can lead to fatality. This topic is to
highlight various diseases, which occur after a disaster, and to discuss the
2. Massive population displacement.
3. Disruption of water and sanitation.
4. Environmental conditions conducive for disease outbreak.
5. Hostile terrain and lack of community participation.
6. Gastro-intestinal Disorders. These include vomiting, diarrhoea, and
dysentery leading to dehydration and hypovolaemic shock. This is caused due to
unhygienic food, water and surroundings. Subacute affects are viral hepatitis,
enteric fever, polio, food poisoning and worm infestation.
7. Acute Respiratory Tract Infection. This includes running nose, sore throat,
fever, cough, with or without expectoration and dyspnoea. Other respiratory
infections are pneumonia, chicken pox, measles, influenza and meningitis.
8. Skin Infection. Scabies, fungal infection and pediculosis may occur due
to poor hygiene and sanitation.
9. Eye / Ear Infections. These are conjunctivitis, trachoma, asom (acute
suppurative otitis media - ear infection), which occur due to poor hygiene and
10. Arthropod Infection. Malaria, dengue fever, kala-azar.
11. Other common ailments are tetanus, snakebite and injuries.
12. Psychological Ailments. Depression, hysteria, anxiety neurosis and
13. Long-term effects are protein – energy malnutrition and unproductive
population as a whole.
14. There should be a check on water quality and environment sanitation.
15. Personal Hygiene. Wash hands for 10 seconds, ideally with soap,
Regular bath and wash clothing.
16. Food Hygiene. Avoid consumption of uncooked food / raw meat,
sharing of meals or using improperly cleaned utensils.
17. Disinfection of beds, pillows, mattresses and other common household
18. Wearing of gloves and face masks on handling of waste, excreta, vomitus
19. Psychological Support. Comforting and counselling of victims.
20. This means bringing the individual back to normal situation. Rehabilitation
is done in three stages :-
(a) Physical Rehabilitation. This is treating and managing various
diseases and injuries. Later on providing prosthesis and various
reconstructive surgies, depending on the situation.
(b) Vocational Rehabilitation. Providing suitable employment.
(c) Social Rehabilitation. Providing a social status to the victim.
This is done by construction of houses, roads, and electricity supply.
21. Trainees must be aware of various diseases and their transmission during
disasters and various measures to control them, thus minimizing the grievances
of the people at large.
FIRST AID IN MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
1. First aid is the assistance or treatment given to a casualty for any injury or
sudden illness before the arrival of a qualified medical expert. To survive a
person must be able to take oxygen to lungs. This in turn is distributed
throughout the body by blood. The ABC rule is to identify these three conditions
in the casualty, i.e., A - airway (clear / open), B - breathing (adequate) and C -
2. The three emergency situations where a casualty is especially at risk
because of interference with vital needs are :-
(a) A – Airway. Clearing of airway to allow unobstructed passage of
fresh air to casualty‘s lungs
(b) B - Breathing. Artificial ventilation to get air into lungs of a
casualty who has stopped breathing.
(c) C - Circulation. Compression to apply pressure on the chest,
so as to pump blood through the arteries to vital organs.
A - Airway
3. The procedure is :-
(a) Kneel beside the casualty.
(b) Lift her chin forwards with the index and middle finger of one hand
while pressing her forehead backwards with the heel of your other hand.
(c) Lift her tongue forward and clear the airway.
B - Breathing
4. This technique of breathing for a casualty is known as artificial respiration.
The most efficient method is to transfer air from our own lungs into the casualty
(mouth to mouth ventilation). The steps are :-
(a) Remove any obvious obstructions over the face or constriction
around the neck. Open the airway and remove any debris seen in the
mouth and throat.
(b) Open your mouth wide, take a deep breath, pinch the casualty‘s
nostrils together with your fingers and seal your lips around his / her
(c) Blow forcefully into the casualty‘s mouth until you can see the chest
rise to maximum expansion.
(d) Remove your mouth away from the casualty‘s. Repeat the process.
Rate: 12-16 times per minute.
(e) Check pulse to see if heart is beating. If heart is not beating you
must perform external chest compression.
C – Circulation
5. The steps involved here are :-
(a) Lay the casualty on his back on a firm surface. Kneel besides him
facing his chest and in line with his heart. Find the junction of the rib
margins at the bottom of his breastbone. Place the heel of one hand along
the line of the breastbone, two fingers breadth above this point, keeping
your fingers off the ribs.
(b) Cover this hand with the heel of your other hand and inter lock your
fingers. Your shoulders should be directly over the casualty‘s breastbone
and your arms straight.
(c) Keeping your arms straight, press down vertically on the lower half
of his breastbone to move it to 4 - 5 cms for an average adult release
pressure. Compression should be smooth. Rate-80-100/min
(d) Continue with 15 compressions followed by two ventilations,
repeating the circulation check after the first minute. Thereafter, check
pulse after every three minutes.
(e) As soon as the pulses return stop compression. Continue mouth-to-
mouth respiration, until natural breathing is restored. Then place the
casualty in recovery position.
6. The Recovery Position.
(a) Kneel upright besides the casualty facing his chest. Turn his head
towards you and tilt it back keeping the jaw forward in the open airway
(b) Place the casualty ‗s arm nearest to you by his side. Lift his buttock
and place his hand well underneath with the fingers straight. Holding his
far leg under his knee .the knee or ankle bring it towards you and cross it
over his near leg. Bring his other forearm over the front of his chest.
(c) Protect and support the casualty‘s head with one hand. With the
other hand, grasp his clothing at the hip joint furthest from you and pull
him towards you. Support him on his side against your thighs. Still
supporting his body against your knees, re-adjust his head to ensure that
the airway is open.
(d) Bend his uppermost arm at a right angle to support the upper body.
(e) Bend his uppermost knee at a right angle to bring the thigh well
forward to support the lower body.
(f) Carefully pull the other arm out from under the casualty working
from the shoulder down. Leave it lying parallel to him to prevent him rolling
on his back and to avoid interference with his circulation.
(g) Check that the final position is stable and that the casualty cannot roll
forward or backwards. Ensure that no more than his half his chest is in
contact with the ground and that his head remains tilted and his jaws
forward to maintain an open airway.
7. Cardiac arrest is a medical emergency which can strike any time. Thus
you can save a human life by applying the principles of ABC.
HIV / AIDS AND ITS PREVENTION
1. India is a leading country in HIV/AIDS. More than 40 millions are suffering
from the disease, of which, over 14 million are children. The NCC, as an
organization, can contribute immensely to the fight against such diseases, and
has joined hands with UNAIDS in this mission.
2. HIV Infection. It is the infection caused by human immuno virus A and B.
3. AIDS. Is Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome. The disease breaks
down the body‘s immune system, leaving the victim vulnerable to a host of life
threatening opportunistic infections.
Modes of Transmission
4. The various modes of transmission are :-
(a) Sexual transmission - 70-80%.
(b) Blood / Body Fluid Contact -100%.
(c) Mother to foetal transmission - 30%.
(d) Breast milk - 14%.
5. 0.04ml of infected blood or body fluid is adequate to transmit the disease.
5. It is the time when an infected individual escapes detection of the infection
but is capable of transmitting it. This period may range from few weeks to a few
months (not more than 6 months). The only way of detecting the infection during
this period is by assaying the peripheral blood mononuclear cells for presence of
HIV DNA by polymerase chain reaction.
6. ELIZA Test. Screening test.
7. Western Blot. Confirmatory test.
8. Post Exposure. Prophylaxis Regimens for 6 weeks.
9. Basic Regimen. Zidovudine - 300 mgs BD or 200 mg tds for four weeks +
Lamivudine 150 mg BD.
10. Expanded Regimen. Basic Regimens+ Indinavir 800 mgs tds.
Duration of PEP
11. It should be started after 72 hrs of exposure, after that it is of no use.
(a) Base line test - at time of exposure.
(b) Repeat HIV test - at six weeks.
(c) Repeat 2nd HIV test - at 12 weeksImmunisation of Children with HIV
Infection12. The immunization schedule recommended by WHO-EPI for children
stress is on to immunize children as per schedule. A child who is known case of HIV but
is a symptomatic should receive all vaccines recommended by the EPI including HepB.
If the child is symptomatic the two live vaccines namely BCG and OPV (oral polio
vaccine) should not be given. Mother to Child Transmission.
13. Parent-to-child transmission of HIV or perinatal transmission accounts for
2.14% of the total HIV infection load in the country. Parent-to-child transmission
of HIV can occur during pregnancy, at the time of delivery or through
breastfeeding. The Variable Risks of Mother-to-child Transmission are as follows
:-(a) Where no drugs are administered and the baby is breastfed by its HIV-
positive mother, the risk of infection is generally around 30-45%.(b) Where no
drugs are administered and the baby is not breastfed by its HIV-positive mother,
the risk of infection is around 20%.c) Where a one-month course of AZT is
administered and the baby is not breastfed, the risk of infection is around 10%.(d)
Where a one-month course at AZT is administered, and the baby is
breastfed by its HIV-positive mother for up to 6 months, the risk of infection is
about18% at that age, according to preliminary data.
(e) Where two ARVs, AZT and 3 TC, are administered at the time of
labour, and to mother and baby for one week following delivery, the risk of
infection at 6 weeks of life, with breastfeeding, is around 10%.If the drugs are
given from the 36th Week of pregnancy, continued
in labor and given for a further week after delivery, the risk of infection,
when the baby is breastfed, is around 8% at 6 weeks of life and 21% at 18
months of life.
(g) Where one oral dose of Nevirapine is given to the mother at the
onset of labor and to the baby within three days of birth, the risk of
infection at 6-8 weeks of life is about 12%, with breastfeeding. It is 16% at
12 months in infants that continue to breastfed.
14. Factors Affecting Mother to Child Transmission. These are viral,
maternal, obstetrical, fetal, infant, viral load, viral genotype and phenotype, viral
resistance, maternal immunological and nutritional status, behavioral factors,
ARV treatment, PROM (>4hrs), mode of delivery, intrapartum hemorrhage,
obstetrical procedures, invasive fetal monitoring, prematurity, genetic, multiple
pregnancy, breastfeeding, gastrointestinal tract factors and immature immune
15. Guidelines for Infant Feeeding in HIV Positive Mothers.
(a) Exclusive breast feeding for 4 months followed by abrupt weaning.
(b) ALTERNATIVE:Expressed milk is allowed to stand.
(c) Pasteurized human milk.
(d) Frozen human milk.
(e) Wet nursing by HIV negative wo0man.
(f) Human milk banks.
(g) Continuation of ART while breastfeeding.
16. Strategies for Preventing of Transmission. These include :-
(a) Primary Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission - taking steps
to protect women of child bearing age from becoming infected with HIV.
(b) Provision of Family Planning Services including an MTP when
(c) Today, however, there is a third strategy for HIV-positive women
who want to give birth. This is a course of Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs given
to both mother and newborn. The drug Nevirapine given to the mother
during labour helps protect the newborn and is meant to treat the mother
(d) Other interventions to prevent parent-to-child transmission include
the following :-
(i) Delivery by Elective Caesarean Section reduces the child‘s
exposure to the mother‘s body fluids during birth and has been
shown to lower the risks of HIV-infection with a 1.8% rate of
transmission as opposed to 10.5%.
(ii) Cleansing the Birth Canal during labour and Delivery.
Chlorhexidine cleansing showed no overall difference in rates of
parent-to-child transmission, but did show a significant reduction in
cases where membranes were ruptured of infant mortality and
(iii) Other obstetrical modifications include contact between the
infant and the mother‘s infected body fluids and avoiding
episiotomies, unnecessary artificial rupture of membranes, fetal
scalp electrodes and other invasive procedures.
(iv) Vitamin A Supplement to the mother has shown to reduce
17. HIV infection is preventable. Prevention of all means of transmission can
be achieved through a variety of strategies which are appropriately targeted to
national conditions and which are culturally sensitive. Prevention can be
furthered through changes in behavior, knowledge, treatment and the criterion of
a non-discriminatory environment
(a) Safe blood transfusion. Screening of blood and blood products.
(b) Practice of safe sex.
(c) Use of gloves, protective masks, gowns, and eye wear while
handling blood or body fluids or sharp objects.
(d) Safe bio-medical waste disposal.
(e) Disinfection by 0.5 % -1% Sodium Hypochlorite solution, or 5% of
Povidon / Betadine solution (30 mins of contact period.). For hand wash
(at least 15 secs).
(f) Reporting and surveillance.
(g) Use of disposable needles, syringes, IV sets, catheters, minor
19. Prevention of Transmission Through Transfusion of Blood / Blood
(a) Voluntary promotion of blood donation.
(b) Training and manpower development for blood bank.
(c) Appropriate and rationale use of blood and blood products.
(d) Infrastructure creation for self-reliance in blood products by
implementing through education and legislation.
20. Prevention in Adolescents. Youth is increasingly at the centre of the
AIDS epidemic, both in terms of transmission and impact. Over 50% of all new
HIV-infections in India occur in young adults below 25 years. Most transmissions
take place heterosexually. Such influencing factors must be balanced with good
counselling, family life and education in schools, which might easily prevent
transmission of HIV in this group. To prevent the spread of HIV, it has been seen
that education provides young people with knowledge required to help them
make responsible choices and adopt a healthy life style. The goal of HIV / AIDS
education is to promote correct behavior and thereby prevent transmission of
HIV. The contents of preventive education should include Basic knowledge of
HIV / AIDS modes of transmission, fears, anxieties, responsible behavior
(dealing with sex and protective sex) and care and support of HIV patients.
Role of NCC in C0ntrolling HIV / AIDS
21. Objectives. Is to provide NCC with a set of guidelines to address
HIV/AIDS epidemic in the realm of NCC training. The guidelines covered are as
(a) Prevention of HIV. The NCC is in a unique position to promote
prevention efforts particularly in relation to changing attitudes and
behaviors through the provision of information and education, and in
addressing socio-economic factors.
(b) Creation of Master Trainers of NCC.
(c) Training of Peer Educators.
(d) Elimination of stigma and discrimination of HIV status.
(e) To develop concrete responses at the school and colleges towards
attitudinal /behavior change to sex and sexuality.
22. Training for Peer Educators.
(a) Be sufficiently knowledgeable about the content and methods of
(b) Be sensitive to race, sexual orientation, gender /land culture in
developing and delivering their training.
(c) To eliminate sexual harassment or for persons with disabilities.
(d) Enable / identify factors in their lives that lead to increased risk of
(e) Be able to counsel people living with HIV/AIDS about coping with
23. Information and Awareness - Raising Campaigns. Information
programs should, where possible, be linked to broader HIV/AIDS campaigns
within the local community, sectors or region. The programs should be based on
correct and up-to- date information about how HIV and is not transmitted
24. Non Discrimination. In the spirit of respect for the human right and dignity
of persons infected or affected by HIV/AIDS, there should be no discrimination
against anyone on the basis of real or perceived HIV status. Discrimination and
stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS inhibits efforts aimed at promoting
25. Goals of HIV / AIDS Supportive Care of Children.
(a) To contain the disease to its minimum manifestation.
(b) To encourage the normal growth and development of the child.
(c) To support the child to use his maximum potential and abilities.
(d) To prevent physical and psychological consequences.
(e) To create awareness in adolescents.
26. Home-based Care. This involves the training of family members, who are
care providers. The linkage network is to be formed with the health services,
mainly by the NGOs. Counseling to reduce the anxiety and stress within the
family is an essential ongoing process. Home-based care has to be monitored
and needs the supervision of community- based NGOs. The primary health
personnel will also identify the need and time, as to when to refer to referral
27. Psychological Care. Clinicians must also help in clarifying
misconceptions and creating awareness for the prevention strategies of this
disease. In addition, on-going counseling must address denial, guilt and anger of
the family members and must maintain hope for the family. Children affected with
HIV face a number of psychological problems. Many issues, including those
unique to HIV as well as those associated with poverty and drug abuse
contribute to stress and poor coping abilities among families dealing with HIV.
Basic AIDS educational programs for all children and adolescents should be
factual and explicit.
COOK HOUSE AND CAMP SANITATION
1. Cookhouse includes kitchen, dining hall, storeroom and utensil washing
area. Any unhygienic conditions can be a source of contamination, leading to
2. This includes :-
(a) State of fly proofing, ventilation, lighting, floor and ceiling.
(b) Smoke nuisance.
(c) Rules of cookhouse should be available.
(d) Adequate meat cutting boards, chapatti baskets, meat safe, meat
(e) Area must be rat / cockroach proof.
(f) Method of cooking (nutritive value).
(g) Water supply, its suffiency and safety.
(h) Frequent food tasting to be done (to see if food is tasty / palatable
and well cooked).
(j) Availability of special cooks cloth and dusters.
(k) Personal hygiene and clothing of cooks.
(l) Immunization and monthly medical inspection records of cooks.
(m) Hair, nails & skin of cooks.
(n) Availability of hand washing site, nailbrush, towels for food
(o) Utensil washing site.
(i) Adequate arrangements for washing of utensils/disposal of
(ii) Arrangements for disposal of kitchen waste.
(iv) Condition of cold water grease trap and soakage pit.
(p) Store adequate and safe storage of bulk items.
(q) State of fresh and dry ration.
(r) Dining hall. Space -1sqm / head, wash basins -1 for every 12
persons, cleanliness and fly proofing, state of ventilation, lighting, floor,
ceiling & walls, state of dining table, availability of receptacles for bones
and inedibles and adequate and safe drinking water.
3. Selection of Site. Selection of site depends on availability of water
followed by convenience of cadets. Site should be on high ground and away from
towns, villages and marshy areas.
4. Lay out of Camp. Following points to be considered: -
(a) Camp should be at least 1kmaway from habitation or fly / mosquito
(b) Movement of cadets to local habitation should be forbidden.
(c) Direction of wind should from camp towards village and not vice –
versa. Front of camp should face the wind.
(d) All sections should be on high ground.
(e) Living accommodation should be in front and cooking and messing
should be on one side.
(f) Bathing area and water point should be away from conservancy
(g) Conservancy area should be not more than 200 metres from living
5. Disposal of Human Excreta
(a) Shallow trench latrine used temporarily, for stay of less than one
week. Trenches are dug in parallel at least 60cms away from each other.
Dimension-90cms length x 30cms width x 60cms depth. Scale: 10% of
(b) After 24 hrs faeces should be covered with 3 cms layer of slaked
lime and filled with earth. New row of trenches are dug for the next day.
While leaving, the area should be sprayed with earth.
(c) Deep Trench Latrine. This type of latrine is recommended for
disposal of faeces in semi permanent camps whose duration is one week
to one year. Faeces are disposed off on the spot by natural disintegration
by soil bacteria. Dimension: 1m width x 3 m length x 2.5 m depth
6. Disposal of Wastes.
(a) Ideally daily inceration of solid waste in a pit should be done. If
inceration is not possible, burial should be carried out.
(b) Disposal of Liquid Wastes. This includes waste water from
bathrooms, washing places. Sullage (all waste water) is disposed off in
soakage pits. Grease and soap must be removed to ensure proper
soakage, before disposal. For this purpose improvised strainers made of
straw and sand may be used before disposal in a soakage pit.
(c) Soakage Pit. It is a pit of dimension 1.25 m cube. It is filled from
below upwards with brickbats, stones, gravel and sand. The pit is covered
with bamboo matting except at the centre for fixing a strainer grease trap.
The soakage pit functions by soakage and evaporation. Some biological
action also takes place due to organisms that grow over the stones and
brickbats. Weekly insecticide spray must be carried out all round the pit.
FIRST AID - AN OVERVIEW
1. First aid is the kind of treatment instituted in an emergency before
professional medical aid arrives. The intentions of a person providing first aid are
to preserve life and prevent the condition of an injured person becoming worse,
before a doctor is available.
2. The word ―emergency‖ implies a sense of danger, a crisis, and an
experience with unknown. An emergency is an unforeseen condition, which calls
for prompt action to save the life of a victim, or to prevent severe damage.
Emergency can be traumatic, medical or even disastrous in nature. Emergency
can occur anywhere. Some times it can occur at home where you have to tackle
and administer medicines also. In such cases you should be able to under stand
abbreviations used in prescription to carry out orders. If you happen to be at the
site when an emergency arises, you may have to deal with it promptly,
knowledgably and confidently. If definitive treatment is required, you will have to
make a decision and arrange for medical intervention.
3. Providing first aid is a moral obligation and it applies to all citizens. In
some countries there are legal requirements for mandatory emergency
assistance. These laws maintain that a person must assist others exposed to
grave physical harm. Person violating such laws can be fined or punished.
(Lady Diana‘s motor accident in France).
4. The originator of first aid was Dr Esmarch, a distinguished surgeon from
the German Army during the Franco-Persian war. The term ―First Aid‖ was
officially adopted in England for the first time in 1879, by St. John‘s Ambulance.
5. First Aid. It is preliminary or immediate care given to casualties of an
accident or sudden illness with in the available resources before the arrival of
medical aid. Aim of first aid being to preserve life, promote recovery and prevent
6. Qualities of Person Giving First Aid.
(a) Observation. A close watch, monitoring general condition of
(b) Tact. Sensitivity and skill in dealing with others.
(c) Resource. Supplies or materials.
(d) Dexterity. Skill in performing task.
(e) Sympathy. Compassion and concern for suffering of others.
(f) Perseverance. Continuing in a course of action inspite of difficulty
or lack of success.
(g) Discrimination. Should not be biased to any race, religion or caste.
7. Scope of First Aid. The scope of first aid is as follows: -
(a) Diagnosis. To determine the severity or nature of case that is
based on history, symptoms & signs.
(i) History. This is obtained from the casualty or witness to
know how an accident or sudden illness took place.
(ii) Symptoms. These are the sensations of the casualty such
as feeling, cold, nausea, thirst, pain etc., which only the casualty
can explain if he / she is conscious. It is subjective in nature.
(iii) Signs. Signs are objective, observable and
measurable for e.g. rapid pulse, pallor, swelling, sweating,
breathing pattern, and high temperature. Signs are most reliable
indications on which diagnosis is based.
(i) Removal of casualty from cause or remove the cause.
(ii) Ensure comfort for fast recovery
(iii) Prompt attention must be paid to the following: -
(aa) Failure of breathing.
(ab) Heart failures.
(ac) Severe bleeding.
(ad) Shock fractures.
(iv) Adopt continued measures to combat any of these
conditions by applying of ABC‘s controlling bleeding, immobilizing &
supporting and continued treatment.
(i) Shifting to nearest shelter.
(ii) Sending message to relatives.
(iii) Earliest transportation.
8. Responsibility of Person Providing First Aid.
(a) Assess the situation without endangering your own life.
(b) Identify the problem or condition (Diagnosis).
(c) Prioritize the problems.
(c) Give immediate, appropriate and adequate treatment.
(d) Arrange transportation.
Principles of First Aid
9. (a) Be prompt, quick, quiet, no panic, no fuss.
(b) Look for: -
(i) Failure of breathing.
(ii) Heart failure.
(iii) Severe hemorrhage.
(c) If yes,
(i) Attend to this as priority. Then treat other injuries.
(ii) Artificial respiration if breathing absent
(iii) Stop bleeding.
(d) Treat shock.
(e) Avoid handling unnecessarily.
(f) Use First Aid equipment if available, or use improvised equipment.
(g) Inspect the area and remove casualty from cause.
(h) Disperse the crowd.
(j) Shift to comfortable shelter.
(l) Relieve pain.
(m) Do minimum essential to save life.
(n) Dispatch at the earliest to hospital.
10. First Aid Equipments. It consists of the following: -
(a) Scissors or blade.
(b) Safety pin.
(c) Bandages roller bandages and triangular bandage.
(e) Adhesive tape.
11. Improvised First Aid Equipment.
(a) Rifle as a splint,
(b) Books / newspaper / umbrella as a splint.
(c) Well-padded bayonets as an arm splint.
(d) Turban or strips of cloth as bandages.
12. Different Routes of Administration of Drugs.
(a) Mouth. Tablets, Capsules, Syrups.
(b) Inhalation. Certain drugs for Asthma are given by inhalation.
(c) In unction. Rubbing ointments, local infiltration.
(d) Rectum. By suppositories.
13. General Rules for Administration of Medicines.
(a) Check the prescriptions carefully, recheck the patient‘s name and
(b) Note the dosage prescribed and the timing for administration.
(c) Read the prescription twice before giving the medicines, and check the
label before and after pouring the medicine.
(d) Never measure medicines in a dark room. Measure the dose at the
(e) Never use medicines when label is not clear.
(f) Medicine ordered before food are to be given 20-30 minutes before
meals and after food, 20-30 minutes after meals. Always administer the
medicines in time.
(g) Watch for half and hour after administering dangerous drugs, for
reaction if any.
(h) Never allow a patient to carry the drugs and do not leave the drugs
with the patient to be taken on his own.
(j) The drug should always be given by the prescribed route only.
(k) Concentrate on the work you are doing and do not converse with
14. Abbreviations used by Doctors. Abbreviations are mainly used in
prescriptions as a means of instruction and divided into four parts:-
(a) Name of the patient.
(b) Name of drug ordered and how the drug is to be dispensed whether
liquid tablet, powder, ointment injection.
(c) Dosage and directions for administration.
(d) Signature of the doctor.
15. Abbreviations in common Use.
(a) Aq - Aqua water.
(b) Aq Dis - Aqua distilled, distilled water.
(c) Liq - Liquid.
(d) Mist - Mixture
(e) OL - Oil
(f) Pulv - Powder
(g) Tine - Tincture
(c) UNG - Ointment.
(a) aa - of each
(b) ac - before
(c) pc - after food.
(d) Ad lib - Liberally (plenty)
(e) AD/Alt days - Alternate days
(f) O.D - Once a day in 24 hours.
(g) BD - Twice a day in 24 hours
(h) TDS - Thrice a day in 24 hours
(j) QID - Four times a day in 24 hours
(k) CM - Tomorrow morning
(l) HS - At bed time.
(m) CN - Tomorrow night.
(n) SOS/PRN - Whenever necessary/required.
(o) STAT - At once (immediately)
(p) AM - Morning
(q) PM - Evening
(r) PR - Per rectum
(s) IV - Intravenous
(t) IM - Intra muscular
(u) SC - Subcutaneous
17. There are professional organizations conducting a course of first aid.
These are as follows: -
(a) Red Cross.
(b) St Johns Ambulance.
(c) St Andrew‘s Ambulance (Scotland).
(d) American Association.
(e) Rishtriya life saving.
Role of NCC
18. Keeping in view the expanded role of NCC in community awareness
programme, it is essential to have knowledge of first aid in an emergency. As a
good citizen, you have added responsibility to disseminate knowledge and skill to
community as under: -
(a) Encourage & support community based emergency self-care
(b) Participate in safety education programme.
(c) Preparing community to meet emergencies.
19. The overall purpose of learning first aid treatment and techniques is to
enable all to provide care in a pre-hospital setting till definitive treatment can be
USES AND APPLICATION OF TRIANGULAR AND ROLLER BANDAGES
1. In day-to-day life we all sustain injuries, which can result into serious
complications. Any break in the skin can give way to infection. Bandages and
dressing play a vital role to check the entry of micro-organisms into the body, and
support the injured part.
2. A bandage is a long piece of thin cloth, which is wrapped around an
injured part of the body. Bandages are made from flannel, calico, elastic, net or
3. The purpose of bandaging is as follows : -
(a) Apply direct pressure over the dressing to control bleeding from a
(b) Retain dressing and splints in position.
(c) Prevent or reduce swelling.
(d) Provide support to a limb or joint.
(e) Restrict movement.
(f) Assist in lifting and carrying the casualty.
Types of Bandages
4. There are two types of bandages : –
(a) Triangular Bandage.
(b) Roller Bandage.
5. Triangular Bandages.
(a) Triangular bandage is made by cutting diagonally a square piece of
calico 100 Cms. (40 inches) length. So that two triangular bandages are
formed. It has 3 borders. The longest is called the base and the other two
sides. There are 3 corners, the one opposite the base is called the point
and the other two are called ends.
End Base End
(b) Uses of Triangular Bandages. It is used as a whole bandage, as
a broad bandage, or as a narrow bandage.
(c) When a smaller size triangular bandage is required fold the original
bandage by bringing the ends together. The size will be half the original.
(d) Tying the Bandage (Procedure).
(i) Reef Knot. Hold one end of the bandage in each hand.
Take the left end over the right and under. Bring the ends up again.
Take the right end over the left and under. Pull the knot firm and
carefully tuck the ends in. This completes the reef-knot.
(ii) Use of Slings. To provide support and rest to the arm,
fore arm and hand. Types :-
(aa) Arm Sling. Arm sling is used to support fore-arm
and hand in cases of injury.
(ab) Collar and Cuff Sling. To support the wrist and
restrict movement at the elbow-joint.
(ac) Triangular Sling. To treat a fracture of the
collarbone,. we have to keep the hand raised high up giving
relief from pain.
(e) Use of the Triangular Bandage to Secure Dressing. It is used in
the scalp, forehand, eye, chest, back, shoulder, elbow, hand, back, wrist,
hip, knee, foot, ankle and stump.
6. Roller Bandages. Roller bandages are generally used in hospitals and
to provide first aid in case of emergency.
(a) Purpose. Purpose of tying roller bandages are to :-
(i) Secure dressing to cover the wounds.
(ii) Exert pressure in treatment of hemorrhage.
(iii) Provide support in case of sprains.
(iv) To lessen swelling (in sprains & strains).
(v) Secure splints in cases of fracture.
(vi) Provide warmth to correct deformity.
(b) Width of Roller Bandages. Roller bandages are made up of various
length and width according to the part on which they are applied:
(i) 1 inch for fingers and toes.
(ii) 1.5 to 2 inches for hand.
(iii) 2 to 2.5 inches for foot and fore arm.
(iv) 3 to 4 inches for leg, thigh and upper arm.
(v) 4 inches for breast spica shoulder.
(vi) 6 inches for axillary and trunk bandage.
(c) Parts. Roller bandages have two borders. Rolled part in
called head and unrolled portion is called tail.
(d) Rules of Applying Roller Bandages.
(i) Select the correct size bandage.
(ii) Face the casualty and stand on the same side for bandaging
except in capelin and eye-bandage. In this first aid, stand behind
(iii) Support the parts, which is being bandaged in portion.
(iv) While bandaging left limb, hold the head of bandage in right
(v) Fix the bandage by taking two circular turns on the dressing.
(vi) Bandage from below, upward over the limb.
(vii) Apply bandage from inner side to outer side.
(viii) Cover 2/3rd of previous turn with each fresh turn leaving 1/3
round of the bandage uncovered.
(ix) Keep the turns parallel with one another.
(x) Make the patient lie on the outer side of the limb and keep it
on one line.
(xi) See that the bandage is neither too loose nor too tight.
(xii) Fix the bandage either by pinning it up or by using adhesive
plaster or by a reef knot.
(xiii) Never apply the knot or pin over a bone or wound or where it
will cause pressure and prevent the patient from lying or resting on
(xiv) While removing the bandage loosen the end and pass the
bandage up into the hands.
(xv) Never apply a wet bandage as it will shrink and become too
tight on drying except for prevention of swelling to support in
(e) Various Turns Used While Applying Roller Bandages.
(i) Circular Turn. It is used to fix the bandage at the
beginning and the end of its application to cover the head and
(ii) Spinal Turn. It is used to cover a limb where there is little
increase in thickness.
(iii) Figure of Eight Turn. It is used for the part increasing
in thickness and for ankle, elbow, knee, hand and foot.
(iv) Spica – It is used for joints where one part makes an angle
with the other.
(v) Recumbent turn – It is used to cover on extremity.
(i) Simple Spiral. It is applied with a slight upwards slope and
fits snugly when part is not increasing in thickness rapidly.
(ii) Reverse Spiral.
(aa) Take one or two turns of a simple spiral on a limb with
little increase in thickness.
(ab) Apply the reverse turn as soon as part increases in
(iii) Figure of Eight Turn. In this the bandage is applied
obliquely, alternatively up and down, so that the loops appears like
the figure of ‗8‘.
7. Bandages are used to support dressing and there are two types of
bandages, triangular and roller. Triangular bandages are mainly used to support
the fractured parts. During application of bandages various turns are used
according to thickness and shape of the part.
AEMORRHAGES, PRESSURE POINTS, BRUISES AND THEIR FIRST AID
1. Our body is covered with skin, which is shielding the underlying delicate
structures and special networks of living tubes and pipes known as arteries,
veins and capillaries. When a blood vessel is cut and blood runs out
continuously, this is termed as hemorrhage. It is a life-threatening emergency.
2. It is an escape of blood from the blood vessel or torn artery or vein.
3. Haemorrhage is categorized as per visibility: -
(a) External Bleeding.
(b) Internal Bleeding.
4. (a) Blood from an artery in the systemic circulation is bright red in color
and tends to spurt out in jets corresponding with pulsation of the heart.
(b) Blood from a vein is dark red in colour and flows in a brisk
(c) Bleeding from injured capillaries is slight, and flows in a continuous
stream or ooze from all parts of the wound.
5. When the bleeding is from within the body cavity such as chest, skull or
abdomen etc., it cannot be seen immediately, but later blood may ooze out
through the nose, be coughed out through the lungs, vomited out through the
stomach or passed out in urine through the kidney.
6. From Scalp. These wounds bleed freely and are alarming. First aid
here is :-
(a) Do not probe the wound.
(b) Apply large pad or a bandage.
7. Bleeding from Nose (Epistaxis). Bleeding from the nose may be due to
dry weather, minor injuries, picking out crusts, high blood pressure. For this, first
aid is :-
(a) Reassurance - usually stops within 10 to 15 minutes.
(b) Pinch the soft part of the nostrils firmly.
(c) Seat the casualty with the head slightly bent forward and ask him to
breathe through the mouth.
(d) Loosen clothing at the neck.
(e) Apply cold compress.
(f) Ask the patient not to blow this nose for some time.
(g) Seek medical help.
8. Bleeding from Gums. After teeth extraction bleeding from teeth may
occur.First aid treatment is as follows :-
(b) Rinse the mouth with cold water or saline.
(c) Place thick cotton wool ball in the socket and ask him to bite on it.
9. Palm. Bleeding from the palm may be very severe because many
arteries could get cut in the palm. First aid is as follows :-
(b) Grasp the wrist with your hand tightly for 10-15 minutes.
(c) Put a suitable pad over the wound, close the fingers over it and
bandage firmly up to the wrist.
Various Pressure Points (To control bleeding)
10. A pressure point is one where is an artery can be compressed against the
underlying bone to prevent the flow of blood beyond that point. If the bleeding
cannot be controlled by the application of direct pressure, or when it is impossible
to apply direct pressure successfully, apply pressure to the appropriate pressure
point. The important pressure points in the body are as follows : -
(a) Carotid Pressure Point. The carotid arteries are branches of the
aorta and pass on either side of the windpipe to supply the head area.
(b) Subclavian Pressure Point. The subclavian arteries are the
branches of the aorta. They pass behind the inner end of collarbone
across the first rib to the armpit.
(c) Brachial Pressure Point. The brachial arteries run along the inner
side of the biceps muscles.
(d) Femoral Pressure Point. The femoral arteries pass into the lower
limbs at a point corresponding to the center of the fold of the groin.
(e) Radial pressure Point. Which supplies blood to hand.
11. Arresting Haemorrhage in Special Cases.
(a) For a wound of the scalp or temple, compress the temporal artery.
(b) For a wound of the lower face (below the eyes), apply pressure to
the facial artery along the lower border of the mandible.
(c) For neck wound compress the wound site. Do not compress the
carotid artery as this could cause stroke.
(d) For a shoulder wound of the upper arm, compress the subclavian
artery against the clavicle.
(e) For a wound of the lower part of the upper arm or of the elbow
,press the brachial artery against the humerus.
(f) For foot wounds, compress the entire network of arteries in the
(g) For a wound of the lower arm, press the ulnar & radial arteries at
the antecubital fossa.
(h) For hand wounds, press the ulnar and radial arteries at the wrist.
(j) For thigh wound, apply great pressure to the femoral artery against
(k) For wounds of the lower leg, apply pressure to the popliteal artery,
behind the knee.
(l) Apply ice pack in case of swelling.
12. A blow anywhere on the surface of the body may cause extensive
capillary haemorrhage beneath the skin, without breaking it. The injury may be
followed by discoloration or swelling. Such an injury is known as a bruise.
(a) Treatment with ice pack to reduce swelling and pain immediately.
(b) Warm compresses should be applied to hasten absorption of blood.
13. Rapid and unchecked bleeding may cause hypovolaemic shock and even
death. Management in hemorrhage is directed to control bleeding. Direct digital
pressure is used to control arterial bleeding in crisis situation. First aid
experience in cognitive skills and timely intervention can save the life.
1. As today‘s man is more knowledgeable and more conscious of his
surroundings than his counterpart in the past, the quality of environment,
particularly in patient areas, require careful attention. The human body is placed
in thermal neutrality and uniform illumination is provided. The widely spread
concept of so called optimum conditions for physical environment means minor
change with in comfort range of temperature, humidity, air movement,
illumination and sound checks the feeling of monotony and thus act in beneficial
2. A physical environment must satisfy three conditions that it should do no
harm and should provide adequate temperature, clean air, adequate safe sound
and light levels, and effective colours. It should contribute to healing induce
positive physiological responses and aesthetic pleasure. There are ample that
exposure to nature through interaction or access to views and landscape has a
positive healing effect.
3. Sick room. A sick person should have a separate room. An ideal sick
room should not have unnecessary furnishing but at the same time the room
should look as attractive as possible and the patient should be allowed her own
special possession. It should be located in a quiet corner possibly attached
bathroom and lavatory. It should have small adjoining room, convenient for the
storage of nursing equipments. The essential equipments include a comfortable
bed, aside table, two chairs, an arm chair, a table and chair should be provided
for nurse which should be suitably protected with some washable cover, also a
cupboard for the storage of equipments. If no fitted basin is available, it is
convenient to arrange a table with basin and jug nail brush and hand towel.
4. Light. The general room lighting level should not exceed 750 lux. A higher
level is considered a stress factor. Healing lighting environment should
accomplish the general illumination from indirect sources, at reasonable intensity
for most uses. Ensure access to unfiltered day light and provide control of light or
switches with in the territorial space.
5. Colour. Colour is a sensation, which creates an instant impact. The
human eye response to green yellow and orange than to red or blue. Colour can
delight and soothe, provoke and disturb. The choice of colour should make it
easier for the cleaner to discover dirt and substances capable of transmitting
infections. Frequently white colour is used in hospitals as this colour carries the
message of cleanliness. However, ophthalmologists have warned about interiors
with large areas of bright white may cause an effect to similar to snow blindness.
To make the environment free of hazardous conditions, design strategies for a
healing color environment must include balance between under stimulation of
extreme unity and over stimulation of extreme complexity. Selection of warm and
cool colours. Walls should be joint less non absorbent and easily cleaned.
6. Sound. Sound generated by the environment with no specific human
purpose is also a noise, which can be positive, for example sound from nature,
such as birds or breeze and negative as it often is with man made sounds such
as machine or intrusive activity noise. Many of the annoying sounds in the
patient‘s area could be eliminated if visitors would observe the rules of common
courtesy for e.g. walking and talking more quietly. Moreover it includes source
elimination (phone bells, intercoms printers and pagers) doors banging, television
fans and doors. Selective use of music with adequate concern for patient‘s
control can also contribute properly.
7. Climate. Temperature, humidity and air changes are key issues in physical
environment The comfort and purity of the air provided are critical to the healing
process the body temperature –regulating center is located in the hypothalamus.
Body temperature adjustments are made either by a fine regulating mechanism
such as skin or blood flow. A generally preferred indoor temperature for healthy
adults seems in the region of 21to 23degree centigrade .The acceptable limits for
relative humidity as regard to comfort are45-60 percent.
8. Ventilation. Fresh air is essential to health, and therefore the sickroom
must be well ventilated without allowing any draught .The air of an occupied
room become stale by the heat and moisture added to it from expired breath and
from evaporation of perspiration to avoid this. Windows in the sickroom must be
kept open. Therefore, window and ventilators are essential as inlet for fresh air
and outlet for exhausted air. In cold weather extra blankets and hot bottles
should be used to ensure sufficient warmth, rather than to shut the window.
Methods for heating are electric fires. Over- drying of the air can be prevented
placing a dish of water in front of fire. Adequate fireguards must be available to
prevent accidents. Sun blinds should be pulled down or window curtain drawn in
hot weather, before the Sun gets on to the room, in order to keep it cool.
9. Domestic Care. The care and cleanliness of room should be considered
part of the patient‘s treatment, as dirt harbours disease and dirt and untidiness
are depressing and retard patient‘s recovery. Routine cleaning should be carried
out after patient‘s daily needs are completed and bed‘s are remade. All cleaning
work should be carried out quietly and efficiently without disturbing patient. The
floor should be cleaned; using a vacuum cleaner Any rugs should be removed
should be removed and shaken or brushed outside the room. Furniture should be
dusted with damp cloth wrung out in water or a weak disinfectant and then
mopped with dry cloth. Water jug filled with fresh water should be covered and
kept at bedside table Doors and windows should be screened to keep out flies
and other pests. Fresh flowers should be arranged. Flower vases should be
removed in the night and returned in the morning.
10. Articles for the sick room. A comfortable cot and mattress with two pillow
covers, two bed sheets and blanket. The aim of bed making is to make patient
more comfortable gives a feeling of cheerfulness helps in quick recovery in a
particular position and gives tidy and neat appearance to sick room abed side
rug, bed cover. Minimum essential articles and furniture should be used. A
small table, chair an easy chair, few wall pictures and flowers can be arranged to
make the room to make room more cheerful and attractive. To avoid sun and
glare, soothing colours curtains should be used for doors and windows. . Room
can be made more attractive if few green artificial creepers can be used on walls
it gives patients a feeling being at home .A call bell should be provided at
bedside. Magazines and newspapers, television or headphone for entertainment
should be provided. A reading lamp should be well shaded to prevent eyestrain.
11. Types of Bed Making. There are various types of beds made as per
requirement such as simulated operation bed, cardiac bed and occupied bed etc
12. Additional Appliances. This depends upon the cases to be treated e.g.
cradle, sand bags, back rest, bed side table, bed blocks etc.
13. Positions of Patients in Bed. Different positions are adopted by patient‘ in
bed, according to the condition and illness of the individuals and also during the
nursing of the patient.
(a) Recumbent Position. Patient lies straight on his back.
(b) Prone position. Patient lies on chest and abdomen. A soft pillow is
placed beneath the chest, one arm lies underneath the body below the
(c) Semi Recumbent Position. Patient lies on his back with head and
chest raised on several pillows.
(d) Fowler‘s Position. The head side is elevated by means of backrest
and pillows. Thighs flexed and supported by pillows.
(e) Lateral Position. Patient lies on his right side called lateral position.
When he lies on his left side, it is called left lateral position.
14. The arrangement of the patient‘s room will make a great deal of difference to
his comfort and well being. This will be his little world when he is sick. Therefore,
be sure to make it bright, cheerful and attractive at all times. A quiet atmosphere
is important. Room should be well ventilated and surrounding should not be
WOUNDS AND THEIR FIRST AID
1. Our body is superficially covered by skin protecting underlying delicate
structures, blood vessels and nerve endings. Cuts and lacerations are very
common in our daily activities. Sometimes these cuts are inflicted intentionally or
accidentally, resulting in discontinuity of skin which is termed as wound.
2. Wound is a break in the continuity of tissue of the body, thus allowing the
escape of blood.
3. Incised Wounds. Caused by a sharp instrument like razor, knife etc. They
bleed freely and blood vessels are cut clean.
4 Lacerated Wounds. Caused by machinery, claws of animals. Here blood
vessels are torn.
5. Contused Wounds. By direct blow, crushing, resulting in bruising of
6. Puncture Wounds. Caused by sharp pointed instruments like needle,
knife. They have a small opening, but are very deep.
7. Abrasion. Outer layer of skin is injured, bleeding is slight.
8. Basic first aid for wounds is as under :-
(a) Provide a comfortable position.
(b) Elevate the bleeding part.
(c) Expose the wound by removing as little clothing as possible.
(d) Do not disturb any blood clot.
(e) Remove foreign body if visible, and can be easily picked out.
(f) Apply and maintain direct or indirect pressure.
(g) Apply dressing and bandage.
(h) Immobilize the injured part.
Clean or Shallow Wound
9. Wash the wound with soap and water and provide pressure.
Closed Wound / Contusion
10. No blood is seen over the skin surface only discoloration swelling, pain.
(a) Apply ice pack for 20 min.
(b) If in arms or legs, apply elastic bandage.
(c) Keep the injured part above victim‘s heart level. This will decrease
pain and swelling.
12. Minor bleeding is easily controlled by pressure and elevation.
Foreign Body in Wound
13. Large foreign body such as glass or metal fragment may be gently
removed if it is projecting from the wound. If deeply embedded, leave it alone,
just use sterile gauze cotton pad and send patient to doctor.
14. These wounds do not bleed profusely (internal damage), e.g., chest,
15. Chest Wound. A penetrating wound may cause severe internal
damage. In lungs air may enter the pleural space.
(a) Signs and Symptoms. Breathing difficulty and pain, signs of
shock, frothy blood on coughing, mouth, nails and skin appear blue and
blood bubbling out of the wound.
(i) Cover the open wound with your palm.
(ii) Cover the wound by sterile dressing, then cover the pad with
a plastic wrap.
(iii) Covering is sealed by adhesive tape.
(iv) Provide comfortable position. Send to hospital if necessary.
16. Abdominal Wound. Wound which penetrates the abdominal wall may
damage stomach or bowels. Management involves :-.
(a) Give nothing to eat or drink.
(b) If intestine comes out, cover with clean pad and give absolute bed
(c) Transport to hospital.
17. Keeping in view the expanded role of emergency care of NCC Cadets,
who are under your care, you should be able to manage different kind of wounds
efficiently and effectively, to prevent complications.
BURNS, SCALDS, COLD INJURIES AND FOREIGN BODIES
1. Right from the invention of fire, burns have caused a great menace to
humanity and after centuries of civilization, they continue to take a heavy toll of
life either due to severity or complications. In India burns are a second common
cause of injury to mankind.
2. The skin also performs the important role of maintaining our body
temperature by an adjustment between heat loss and heat production, which is
controlled by the heat regulation center. Normally 32 o F is congenial
environmental temperature, and when the temperature falls below this, then
effects of cold are produced, leading to cold injuries. Extent of injury caused
depends on degree of temperature and the period to which exposed to cold.
3. Foreign bodies means any extraneous matter that enters the body either
through a wound in the skin or via one of the natural openings of the body. We
often come across children who have inserted objects like beads, seeds, coins
etc., in their nose and ear. Even while eating, bones, particularly fish bones, have
got stuck in the oesophagus. These incidents are a cause of great apprehension
for parents as well as for victim.
Burns & Scalds
4. Definition. Burns are injuries caused by dry heat, radiation, electricity or
chemicals. Heat in the form of flame and steam are the commonest cause of
burns. Scalds are caused by moist heat e.g. of moist hot vapour.
5. Causes of Burn. These are categorised as under : -
(a) Dry heat – e.g. fire, flame, sun, and hot metal.
(b) Electric Burn – e.g. high / low voltage current.
(c) Friction – e.g. friction on rope or moving wheel.
(d) Chemical burn- e.g. sulphuric acid, nitric acid etc.
(e) Radiation burn – e.g. X-ray radiation, nuclear radiation.
(f) Wet Heat – e.g. boiling water, steam, hot tar.
6. Signs and Symptoms.
(a) Red raw skin.
(b) Blister formation.
(d) Oozing of fluid.
(e) Intense pain.
7. Classification of Burns. Burns are classified on the basis of depth of
the burnt part and the burnt area :-
(a) Superficial Burns are first degree and second degree burns.
(b) First degree burns. In this case, outer layer of the skin (epidermis)
is burnt. There will be a redenning of the skin, swelling and pain.
(c) Full thickness burn. All layers of skin are burnt. Damage may
extend beyond skin to affect nerves, muscles and fat.
8. Extent of Burn (by Rule of Nine the % of Burn can be Calculated).
Head and Neck - 9%
Anterior Trunk - 18%
Posterior Trunk - 18%
Arms - 2 x 9%
Legs - 2 x 18%
Perineum - 1%
9. First Aid and Treatment. First aid includes the following: -
(a) Put out the flames.
(b) Roll / wrap the casualty in a sheet.
(c) Soak the area in cold water for at least 10 to 15 min.
(d) Cover with dry, clean, washed towel.
(e) Don‘t apply any greasy substance.
(f) Give warm drinks – tea, coffee, milk.
(g) Give rest to the affected area and keep it elevated.
(h) Rush to hospital.
10. Chemical Burns. In case of such burns, first aid is:-
(a) Remove clothing that has been wet by the chemicals.
(b) Wash thoroughly with cold water.
(c) Don‘t apply any greasy ointment.
(d) Apply clean dressing.
(e) Give rest to the burnt area.
(f) Give warm drinks, if casualty is not vomiting.
(g) If more than 10% body surface is affected, send the casualty to
11. Electrical Burns. It causes irregular respiration and circulation and first
aid treatment is as follows:
(a) Remove the cause.
(b) Reassure him.
(c) Give coffee or tea.
(d) Send to medical centre for further check of heart and lungs.
12. Injuries caused by cold are chilblains, mmersion and trench foot,
frostbite and snow blindness.
13. Chillblains. Inflammation and swelling of the feet and hands. Rash
plaques or patches appear and cause discomfort due to itching, smarting and
burning specially when the part is warmed.
14. Immersion and Trench Foot. Commonly found among service men during
wartime, due to exposure to cold above freezing point. but below 50 o F.
15. Frostbite This is is a condition of freezing of tissue fluids, which occurs
when temperature is below 32o F. There will be aching sensation or feeling of
tingling or stinging and numbness The skin turns red first, then white, and
thereafter waxy yellow, depending upon the depth of exposure. Common areas
affected are feet, hands, face and ears. Complication - gangrene.
16. Snow Blindness. This is a condition of sun burn of the eyes due to sun
glare reflected from white snow. Eyes feel gritty, with burning sensation, redness
occurs, also oedema develops .Treatment includes applying cool compresses
with a drop of mineral oil for lubrication, removal of the victim from glare, and use
of green tinted glasses. These glasses filter out excessive ultraviolet rays better
than any other coloured lenses.
17. Preventive Treatment of Cold Injuries.
(a) Prevention from the exposure to excessive cold.
(b) Use of protective clothing and maintain regular physical activities.
(c) Use woolen socks and waterproof insulated covering to protect
18. First Aid Treatment.
(a) Remove the victim from the cold place.
(b) Loosen any constricted clothing.
(c) Warming of frost bit part by immersion in water (90o F to 100o F)
(d) Frost bitten hands can be placed between axilla/legs for warmth.
(e) Provide warm liquids nutrition and diet.
(f) Ensure rest and sleep.
(g) Elevate the feet.
(h) Restrict walking.
19. Contraindication. Contraindicated measures are: -
(a) Rubbing of the bitten part.
(b) Rubbing with snow or soaking in cold water.
(c) Exposure to open fire.
(d) No smoking.
20. Wood pieces, nail, glass pieces, thorns etc may get embedded
accidentally. Foreign bodies generally embed in the skin, eye, ear, nose and
throat. These foreign bodies, in case not removed, can cause serious
consequences e.g. septicemia visual impairment, auditory loss, asphyxia etc.
21. Sign and Symptoms. There is a history of injury with metal or glass.
On examination, embedded foreign body may be visible. There is also pain and
tenderness in the affected part.
(a) Clean using soap and water.
(b) Sterilize a pair of tweezers by passing them through flames. With
this, gently try to pull the splinters out of the wound. If it does not come
out, seek medical aid.
(c) Make sure the casualty‘s tetanus inoculation is up to date.
23. Foreign Body in Eye. Dust particles, eyelashes, instillation of strong
chemicals may affect lids, soft tissue around the eye, the surface of eyeballs and
eye itself. Injury to the eyeball or its deeper surface can cause impaired vision or
loss of eyesight.
(a) Sign and Symptoms. There will be history of injury and victim
will complain of :-
(i) Pain and itching.
(ii) Impaired vision.
(iii) Watering of eyes
(iv) Redenning of eyes.
(i) Do not rub and touch the eye without cleaning hands.
(ii) Look for clues about the foreign body and its location in the
(iii) Examine lower lid by pulling it downward.
(iv) Evert or invert the eyelid and ask the casualty to look down.
(iv) Upper eyelashes are grasped and its lid is pulled downward
(vi) In case not removed, a damp corner of soft clean
handkerchief may be used.
(vii) If any object has penetrated the eyeball, the victim is made
to rest. Both the eyes are bandaged.
(viii) Send the casualty to hospital.
24. Foreign Body in Nose. Young children, usually insert foreign body such
as pebbles or marbles, smooth objects, sharp objects, which can cause
(a) Sign and Symptoms. There will be history of inserting a foreign
body and victim will complain of difficulty in breathing, swollen nose and
discharge from nose.
(i) Advise breathing through the mouth.
(ii) Arrange removal to hospital.
25. Foreign Body in Ears. There will be history of inserting an object like
beads, seeds coins. hair pins. Other causes are entering of insects, sticking of
cotton wool etc. Victim will complain of pain in the ears, feeling of vibration in the
ears and impaired hearing in the affected side. Treatment is as follows :-
(b) Do not attempt to dislodge it.
(c) Ask the casualty to lie down with the effected ear upper most, and
place towel over his shoulder.
(d) Warm oil or alcohol may be instilled to remove a insect.
(e) Arrange transportation to hospital.
(f) Do not plug the ear in case there is discharge from the ear.
26. Foreign Body in Throat. Children often swallow the objects such as
buttons pins etc. Smooth swallowed objects do not cause any alarm but sharp
object can cause severe damage (pin needles etc.)
(a) Signs and Symptoms. There will be history of swallowing.
(i) Reassure patient and family.
(ii) Shift him to hospital.
(iii) Do not give any thing by mouth.
27. A burn is an injury caused by dry heat, radiation, electricity and chemicals.
It is classified as per depth of the burnt part and burnt area. These cases should
be assessed and appropriate first aid for the cause. Immediate transportation to
the hospital should be arranged.
28. Cold injuries can cause serious tissue damage resulting into gangrene,
hypothermia, chillblains etc. Protection from the effects of cold is important. One
should use adequate woolen stuff. Warm liquids and nutritious diet is important.
Regular physical activities are required to keep our body warm. The most
important is prevention, to undermine the excessive effects of cold.
29. Foreign bodies are irritating in nature and there is always a risk of
infection. In case of object injuries, first aid is to provide rest and transfer the
case to hospital. Foreign bodies can cause damage to delicate organs such as
eye and ear, hence prompt and efficient care is required.
PANIC, SHOCK. ASPHYXIA AND FIRST AID
1. Panic disorder is a serious condition that around one out every 75 people
might experience. It usually appears during the teens or during early adulthood.
Exact cause is unknown. It appears there is a connection with major life
transitions that are potentially stressful, such as, graduating from college, getting
married, having the first child etc. Genetic predisposition may also be the cause.
All ethnic groups are vulnerable.
2. Definition. A panic attack is a sudden surge of overwhelming fear that
comes without any obvious reason.
3. Signs and Symptoms. They manifest as: -
(b) Difficulty in breathing or insufficient air.
(c) Terror that is almost paralyzing.
(d) Dizziness and nausea.
(e) Trembling, sweating, shaking.
(f) Choking, chest pain.
(g) Hot flush and sudden chills.
(h) Tingling fingers or toes.
(j) Fear that you are going to be crazy or about to die.
4. Predisposing Factors. The following conditions precede panic: -
(a) Genetic or emotional disorders such as depression.
(b) Biological malfunction.
(c) Stressful life events.
(d) Physical and psychological causes.
5. Complications. Certain consequences of panic are as under : -
(b) Situational avoidance e.g. agrophobia.
(c) Quality of life is damaged.
(d) Increased consumption of alcohol.
(e) Risk of attempting suicide.
(f) Financially dependent on others.
6. Prognosis and Treatment. Panic can be treated. Once treated it does not
lead to any permanent complications. This is done by :-
(a) Cognitive and behavioural therapy ( changing one‘s way of
(b) Develop positive thinking.
(c) Anti-depressants and anti-anxiety drugs.
(d) Relaxation techniques (breathing retraining)
7. Shock is a circulatory emergency. It can vary from faintness to complete
loss of consciousness. Blood flow in the entire body is disrupted. Subsequently
blood supply to heart is decreased. Vital organs do not get enough oxygen
nutrients and this condition is termed as shock.
8. Definition. Shock is a severe depression of all the vital functions of the
body. The degree of severity varies with the cause. Severe shock following
injury is a very common cause of death.
9. Causes. These are as under : -
(a) Loss of Blood. This may be external due to injury, or internal due to
injury or disease.
(b) Pain. Severe pain causes shock ,e.g., a blow on the testes or in
the solar plexus, causes shock due to pain.
(c) Emotional Condition. The receipt of sad news or even very joyful
news, has been known to cause shock and even death.
10. Types of Shock. There are two types of shock:
(a) Primary Shock. This follows injury and varies from a feeling of
faintness to complete unconsciousness.
(b) Secondary Shock. This follows primary shock where there is a loss
of blood or fluids, as in cases of injuries or burns.
11. Aggravating Factors. Loss of Blood, cold, unnecessarily disturbing or
moving an injured part, loss of fluid as occurs in prolonged sweating and
12. Signs and Symptoms.
(a) Anxiety and restlessness.
(b) Extreme weakness.
(c) Pallor of face & lips.
(d) Cold and clammy skin.
(e) Rapid and feeble pulse.
(f) Air hunger or difficulty in breathing.
(g) Nausea and vomiting.
(j) Loss of consciousness.
13. Treatment. First aid is as under: -
(a) Loosen any constricting clothing round his neck and waist. This will
(b) Stop any bleeding and dress the wound.
(c) Lay him flat with his head lower than the feet.
(d) Keep him warm.
(e) Treat the pain. Tubonic morphia if available should be
(f) Fractures should be immobilised to reduce pain and chances of
aggravating the shock by undue movement.
(g) Give sweet hot tea, and drinking of water should be encouraged.
(Do not give anything by mouth if internal bleeding is suspected).
(h) Evacuate the patient as early as possible.
14. Oxygen is vital to life. The aim of breathing is to transfer oxygen from the
air to the lungs where it is picked up by the blood and circulated throughout the
body and allows carbon dioxide, a waste product, to be expelled. The respiratory
system comprises of air passages, lungs, larynx, trachea and bronchi. Lungs are
elastic organs containing microscopic air sacs (alveoli) where exchange of
oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place with the blood.
15. Breathing is an automatic function, which takes place in three phases :-
(a) Inspiration (taking air in).
(b) Expiration (taking out deoxygenated air).
(c) Pause (Relaxation).
16. In normal respiration some residual air is left in the lungs, so that
circulating blood has some oxygen available. Respiratory centre in the brain
determines the rate and depth of breathing. In an average adult, rate is 16-18 p /
min, which increases during stress, exercise, injury or illness, as the heart rate
will increase to compensate the need of oxygen.
17. Definition. Asphyxia is a condition in which lungs do not get sufficient
supply of air for breathing.
18. Causes. These can be categorised as follows :-
(a) Based on conditions affecting air passage.
(aa) Food going down the wrong way i.e., into the air
(ab) Water going into air passage i.e., drowning.
(ac) Irritant gases like coal gas, sewer gas etc.
(aa) Mass of food, vomit or foreign body like artificial teeth
in air passage.
(ab) Tongue falling back in unconscious patient.
(ac) Swelling of tissues of throat as a results of burns.
(iii) Compression on Neck.
(aa) Tying a rope or scarf tightly around the neck.
(ab) Hanging or throttling.
(ac) Laying a person face downwards on a pillow for a
(iv) Compression of the Chest. It can be caused by fall of
earth or sand in mines, or being crushed by a big beam or pillar.
(aa) Injury to lungs.
(ab) Injury to chest wall.
(b) Conditions affecting the respiratory mechanism, for e.g., epilepsy,
(c) Conditions affecting the brain or nerves, which control respiration.
(i) Electrical injury.
(iii) Paralysis caused by stroke or injury to spinal cord.
(iv) Morphine barbiturates (Sleeping Tablets).
(d) Conditions affecting the amount of oxygen in the blood includes :-
(i) High altitude.
(ii) Deep sea diving.
(iii) Air containing insufficient oxygen.
(iv) Carbon monoxide poisoning.
19. Signs and Symptoms. These are manifested as : -
(a) Difficulty in breathing or breathing may stop.
(b) Noisy breathing.
(c) Veins of the neck becomes swollen.
(e) Face, lips, nails, fingers and toes turn blue.
(f) Pulse get faster and feeble.
(g) Froth may appear at mouth and nostril.
(a) Remove the cause of asphyxia and open airway.
(b) Start artificial respiration.
(c) When breathing and pulse returns, place the casualty in prone
(d) Check the breathing rate, pulse and levels of consciousness at 10
(e) Arrange for disposal to hospital.
21. Panic attack is a serious condition and is caused by stressful situations.
Emotional signs are constant worry and fear and sleeping poorly, while physical
symptoms include hyperventilation, palpitation, sweating. It can be treated by
cognitive, behavioral therapy and counselling and medication.
22. Shock is a life threatening emergency as the blood supply is shut off to the
internal organs and to the brain, the cells begin to die because of oxygen
deprivation. If shock is not reversed the internal organ and brain eventually die.
23. Asphyxia is a condition in which lungs do not get sufficient supply of air.
There are various conditions such as spasm, obstruction, compression on neck
and chest, many diseases which affects brain, Atmospheric Pressure and
climatic conditions. General conditions can be assessed by observation such as
altered respiratory pattern discoloration of mucous membrane, altered pattern of
pulse. First aid is indicated keeping in mind the principles of ABCs and seeking
ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION ( DEMO CUM PRACTICAL)
1. Breathing is an automatic function. Major muscles of the chest and
diaphragm take part in breathing mechanism. A respiratory center in the brain
determines the rate and depth of breathing. Rate of respiration in average adult
is 16-18 per minute, but due to certain conditions a casualty can have respiratory
arrest, artificial respiration is one of the methods used to combat the same.
Causes of Respiratory Arrest
2. (a) Choking.
(f) Smoke Inhalation.
(g) Status Asthmaticus.
(h) Coronary Obstruction.
Symptoms and Signs
3. (a) Difficulty in breathing, increased rate and depth of breathing.
(b) Frothing at the mouth.
(c) Blueness of lips and fingernails.
(d) Confusion/ disorientation.
(e) Casualty will be unable to speak or breathe and may be gripping
(f) Congestion of the face and neck with the veins becoming
(g) Possible unconsciousness.
4. (a) Primary or initial assessment with in 30 –60 seconds.
(b) Remove clothing which restrict accurate assessment.
(c) Remove the clothes quickly but without aggravating the trauma.
(d) Assess the airway potency.
(e) Observe for any respiratory distress.
(f) Observe for pattern of breathing. Noisy respiration indicates foreign
body in upper respiratory tract, secretion Laryngeal Oedema or injury.
Methods used in Artificial Respiration
5. If there is any irregularity in breathing or a cardiac arrest, artificial
respiration is given. If it is given correctly and in time, the patient‘s life can be
saved. Cases of asphyxia are indications to commence artificial respiration.
Methods of artificial respiration are: -
(a) Holger Nielsen Method. Whenever there are indications of
requirement of artificial respiration, lose no time since every second
counts. Keep the casualty in prone position (face downwards). There are
two movements to be rhythmically carried out in this method as follows: -
(i) Movement One. Go down on the left knee opposite the
casualty‘s head, placing the right foot on the ground, to the side.
The operator should be 6‖ to 12‖ from the top of the casualty‘s
head. The mouth and nose of the casualty should be cleared of
mucus and secretions. Place the hands on the casualty‘s back with
the heel of the hand on the lower part of the shoulder blade, the
thumb on the spine and fingers pointing to the casualty‘s feet.
Keeping the arms straight, rock gently forward until the arms are
almost vertical. Use no extra force. This movement takes nine
seconds. This Pressure causes expiration.
(ii) Movement Two. The operator now rocks back counting
three for one second and slides his hand and grips the upper arm
near the elbow. He raises and pulls on the arms for two seconds
counting four-five. He should take care not to raise the chest from
the ground. This movement causes inspiration. Counting six the
operator lowers the casualty‘s arms. The movement should be
rhythmic in character and continued until breathing recommences.
When the casualty begins to show signs of breathing. The operator
should continue with movement two only. For children, the
pressure should be considerably reduced or applied only with
fingers. The-ratio should be 12 times in a minute. When the
patient begins breathing on his own, the rate of artificial respiration
should correspond with the natural respiration.
(b) Schaefer‘s Method.
(i) Position of the casualty. Lay the casualty in prone position
with hands one over the other under his head, the head turned to
one side, mouth and nose unobstructed.
(ii) Position of the operator. Face the casualty‘s head, kneel on
both knees at the side of the casualty, just below his hip joint. Sit
back on your heels, place your hands on the loins of the casualty,
one on each side of the back bone, with wrists almost touching,
thumbs as forward as possible without strain and fingers together.
There are two movements to be carried out: -
(aa) Movement One. Without bending your elbows swing
slowly forward by straightening the knees until the arms are
almost-upright, thus allowing, the weight from your body to
be communicated to the casualty‘s loins. This causes
abdominal organ compression against the ground and
against the diaphragm. Air is forced out the lungs, thus
(ab) Movement two. Swing back slowly on to your heels
thus relaxing the pressure. This causes the abdominal
organs to fall back and the diaphram to come down thus
inducing inspiration. These two movements must be carried
out smoothly and rhythmically and should take 5 seconds
(12 times per minute). Artificial respiration must be
continued until natural breathing is restored or doctor
decides that further efforts will be of no use.
(c) Mouth to Mouth Method. This is carried out as follows: -
(i) The casualty should be placed in a supine position.
(ii) The mouth and throat should be cleaned to maintain a
clear air passage.
(iii) Pinch the patient‘s nostrils.
(iv) The neck should be extended so as to straighten the
(v) Fit your mouth to seal the patient‘s mouth.
(vi) Blow into the patient‘s mouth while observing the
chest movement of the patient.
(vii) Release the seal for exhalation.
(viii) Take fresh breath and blow into the patient‘s mouth.
(ix) Cover the patient‘s mouth with clean gauze and blow
directly and slowly in to it (10 –12 times per minute).
(d) Sylvester Method. This method is carried out with the casualty in
a supine position, as given below-
(i) Lay the casualty on his back, put something (bundle of
cloth), under his shoulders to raise them, and allow his head to fall
backward, to a level lower than his trunk.
(ii) Clear his mouth, nose and throat.
(iii) Kneel at his head, grasp his arms at the wrists, cross them
and press them firmly over his lower chest. This will cause the air to
move out of the lungs.
(iv) Pull both arms upwards and outwards with a sweeping
movement. This will cause air to enter the lungs.
(v) Repeat these movements rhythmetically, 12 times in a
Assessment of Successful Breathing
6. (a) Observing Chest Movement.
(b) Feeling for inflow or outflow of air.
(c) Listening for exhalation of breath.
(d) Identifying cyanosis.
7. A competent First Aider can play an important part in hastening casualty‘s
recovery and restoring normal respiration. An alert first aider can recognize early
symptoms of impending complications and apply preventive measures promptly.
SNAKE, ANIMAL AND INSECT BITES
1. Bite is a puncture or wound caused by snake, animal or insects. All bites
are unclean. Thus the bitten part should be immediately cleaned with soap,
preferably under running water, and dressed. Here we shall discuss some
harmful animal and insect bites.
2. There are more than 2500 different types of snakes. All snake bites are
not fatal. Approximately 200 of them are venomous. People die mostly due to
fear, following snake bite.
3. Signs and Symptoms
(a) Burning sensation and numbness at the site.
(c) Teeth marks.
(e) Breathing difficulty.
(f) Signs of paralysis.
4. First Aid.
(b) Make patient lie absolutely still and give rest.
(c) Immobilize the affected part and wash the wound gently with soap
and plenty of water.
(d) Apply ice packs over the wound.
(e) Treat for shock.
(f) Transfer the patient to the hospital.
(g) Apply a tourniquet above the site of bite, to prevent the poison from
entering the blood circulation. Release for ½ min every ½ hour.
Note - Never give alcohol or any other stimulant to the casualty.
- Try to identify the snake for the proper management at the hospital.
5. Dog bite is always dangerous because it may cause rabies. A person
bitten by a rabid animal, develops rabies. The dog should not be killed but must
be observed for 10 days. If the dog is healthy, there is no danger of rabies.
6. Signs and Symptoms.
(a) History of dog bite.
(b) Open wound and bleeding.
(c) Pain and discomfort.
7. First Aid Treatment.
(b) Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and plenty of water.
(c) Cover the wound with dressing.
(d) Transfer the casualty to the nearby hospital.
(e) Clean area with methylated spirit.
Note – All dog bites must be treated as bite by a rabid dog.
Stings of Bees, Wasps and Flies
8. This causes severe pain and swelling, and it can lead to shock if untreated.
9. First Aid.
(b) Remove stings from the bite.
(c) Rinse the wound with soda bicarbonate.
. (d) Apply calamine lotion.
(e) Apply ice pack.
(f) Treat for shock.
(g) Transfer the patient to hospital if required.
5. All bites are unclean. An animals mouth harbours many aerobic and
anaerobic organisms which can cause tetanus, rabies etc. Bitten parts should be
immediately cleaned, preferably in soap and water. The community should be
educated and pet dogs should be registered and vaccinated.
HEAT STROKE, HEAT EXHAUSTION AND IT’S FIRST AID MANAGEMENT
1. The human body has been given a most beautiful covering – the skin. It
performs the vital function of regulating the temperature of our body. In the
process of perspiration, tiny sweat glands within the skin pour out surprisingly
large quantities of water. As this perspiration evaporates, it carries away large
quantity of heat, and this help to cool the body. When the body can no longer
control its temperature by sweating, it produces the effects of heat. Few of these
effects such as heat stroke, heat exhaustion and heat cramps.
2. Very high environmental temperatures that lead to increased body
temperature causes heat stroke. It develops when the body can no longer control
its temperature by sweating. Victim should receive urgent medical attention.
3. Signs and Symptoms.
(c) No sweating.
(d) Increased body temperature.
(e) Decreased urine output.
(g) Breathing may be noisy.
4. First Aid.
(a) Move the person to a cooler environment.
(b) If conscious, place the person in a half sitting position with head
and shoulder support.
(c) If unconscious hyper extend the neck to open the airway and check
(d) Fanning method – wrap the client in a cold wet sheet and keep it
(e) Electrolyte should be administered through intravenous route.
(f) If temperature falls, cover the client with a dry sheet and remove
him to an air conditioned room if possible
(g) Provide cold beverages.
(h) Constant recording of temperature.
5. Heat exhaustion is caused by loss of salt and water from the body. It is
more common in persons unaccustomed to working in a very hot humid
environment, although in elderly persons. It may follow a debilitating illness. A
stomach upset with diarrhea and vomiting can aggravate heat exhaustion. Home
care is appropriate for mild forms of heat exhaustion.
6. Signs and Symptoms. These include feeling of exhaustion and
restlessness, headache, dizziness and nausea, muscular cramps in abdomen &
lower limbs, cold & clammy skin, fast and shallow respiration, rapid and weak
pulse and normal / sub normal temperature.
(a) Lay the casualty down in a cool place.
(b) If he is conscious give him sips of cold water to drink.
(c) If he is sweating profusely, has cramps, diarrhoea and / or is
vomiting, add half a teaspoon of salt to each ½ liter (1 pint) of water.
(d) If the casualty becomes unconscious, open his airway and check
(e) Loosen or remove clothing.
(f) Do not use an alcohol rub.
(g) Do not give any beverages containing alcohol or caffeine.
Prevention of Heat Effects
8. Preventive measures are as under :-
(a) Avoid prolonged exposure on hot sunny days.
(b) Plenty of oral fluid should be taken in hot and humid weather with
salt / sugar.
(c) Proper clothing to protect for sunlight.
(d) Use of umbrella which protects from sunlight.
(e) Proper rest and diet.
(f) Daily bathing and changing of clothes is advised.
9. Heat stroke is an alarming condition and produced by high atmospheric
temperature, exposure to sunlight, poor working conditions with little air
circulation and lack of rest and sleep. Prolonged exposure to sunlight must be
avoided and plenty of oral fluids should be taken with salt and sugar.
10. Heat exhaustion is a condition of vasomotor collapse, which occurs due to
inability of body to supply enough fluid to peripheral vessels for producing
necessary sweat to cool extra heat that is generated during exercise. Puttuing
casualty in a cool room and salty foods and fluids given orally will help in speedy
CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSICATION (CPR)
1. Oxygen is vital to life. The aim of breathing is to provide oxygen to each
cell of our body and vital organs. This oxygen is carried around the body by red
cells in the blood. Blood is circulated in continuously repeated cycles by
contraction and relaxation. Each time the heart muscle contracts, blood is moved
out of the pumping chambers of the heart, and when the muscle relaxes,
replacement blood pours into its collecting chambers. Rate of heart beat in the
average adult is 72 / min. De-oxygenated blood flows back from the tissues into
two main veins and then into the right side of the heart. It is then forced out of
the heart to the lungs where exchange of gases takes place. The oxygenated
blood returns to the left side of the heart and is then pumped out again into the
main artery, from where it is distributed to all parts of body. In certain conditions,
the heart stops its function as well as lungs are not able to contract and expand -
then cardio pulmonary resuscitation is mandatory to restore the normal function.
2. The use of artificial ventilation with external heart compression is called
cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This should be started in all cases of cardiac
Causes of Cardiac Arrest
3. Cardiac arrest is a sudden cessation of the heart and the causes are : -
(a) Heart attack.
(b) Electric shock.
(f) Allergic reaction.
(g) Due to severe injuries.
Signs of Cardiac Arrest
4. Cardiac arrest is manifested with certain features such as
unconsciousness, no pulse in neck (carotid pulse, wrist or groin, absence of
breathing, no heartbeat, dilated and fixed pupils and bluish colour of lips and
Steps of CPR
5. Procedural steps of CPR are as under: -
(a) Establish that the victim is unconscious.
(b) Call for help to arrange for ambulance and to help in CPR.
(c) Position the victim on his back on some hard flat surface.
(d) Open the victim‘s air way, by the head tilt. neck lift, jaw thrust
(e) Take 5 seconds to look, listen and feel for breathing.
(f) Kneel alongside the casualty facing the chest, and in the line with
(g) Position your hands midline with the heart in the lower half of the
sternum, two fingers above xiphoid.
(h) Place the heels of one hand on sternum and the other hand
superimposed on top of the first hand. Interlace fingers and extend fingers
on ribs cage.
(j) Administer compression at a rate of 60 - 80/ mins. Keep the elbow
straight. Compress chest 3.8 to 5 cm.
(k) Release pressure between compression for cardiac filling, but do
not remove heel of hand, off the chest. If you are alone, give two lung
inflations after each chest compression. If you are two, one will continue
with ventilation while the other person will give the cardiac compression in
the ratio 1: 5.
Signs of Successful CPR
6. The correct result of CPR can be seen as :-
(a) Lung expansion will occur with each breath.
(b) Each time the sternum is compressed, a pulse will be perceptible.
(c) The pupil will react to light.
(d) Normal heart beat will return.
(e) Breathing will start.
(f) Victim may move legs or arms and colour may improve.
When to Stop CPR
7. One should continue resuscitation efforts until one of the following occurs:
(a) Effective spontaneous ventilation and circulation has been
(b) Physician assumes the responsibility of CPR.
(c) Victim is transferred to emergency medical centre.
Important Points to Follow in CPR
8. When CPR is performed improperly or inadequately it may be ineffective
in providing basic life supports. Hence important points to be followed are :-
(a) Don‘t interrupt CPR for more than five seconds.
(b) Don‘t move the victim to a more convenient site until he has been
(c) Never compress over the xiphoid. During compression, the heel of
the hand must release its pressure completely but should remain in
(d) Sudden or jerky movement should be avoided when compressing
(e) Shoulders of person giving first aid should be directly straight.
Pressure is to be applied vertically downward on the lower sternum.
(f) Lower sternum of an adult must be depressed one and half inches
by external cardiac compression.
9. The use of artificial ventilation and chest compression is termed as CPR.
It is used in all cases of sudden cardiac arrest.
POISONS AND FIRST AID
1. Poisoning is a condition caused by introduction of harmful substances or
chemicals into the body accidentally or intentionally. A poison is any substance
that if taken into the body in sufficient quantity, can cause temporary or
2. A poison is any substance, solid, liquid or gas, which is liable to cause
harmful effects on the body or destroy life.
Routes of Entry
3. This can be through the mouth by eating or drinking, through the lungs by
inhaling household or industrial gases, by injection into the skin or, by absorption
through the skin.
Action of Poison
4. It acts in various systems as under :-
(a) Once in the blood stream some poisons work on the central
nervous system, preventing breathing, heart action and other vital
(b) Other poisons act by displacing the oxygen in blood and preventing
its distribution to the tissues.
(c) Swallowed poison also reacts directly on the food passages
resulting in vomiting, pain and often, diarrhoea.
(f) Corrosive poison may severely burn the lips, mouth, gullet and
stomach, thus causing intense pain.
Investigation and Assessment
5. Presence of a container near the casualty known to have consumed
Signs and Symptoms
6. (a) Casualty may be delirious and have convulsion.
(b) Signs of asphyxia.
(c) Vomiting and diarrhoea.
(d) Burns around the mouth with corrosive poison.
7. (a) Quickly take history from conscious casualty.
(b) Place in recovery position, if he is not unconscious.
(c) Follow the ABC of resuscitation immediately.
(d) Arrange urgent disposal to hospital. Send him with any sample of
vomit and any containers such as bottles or pill boxes found near by.
8. Alcohol poisoning affects the areas of higher reasoning wit in the brain.
9. Signs and Symptoms.
(a) Casualty‘s breath may smell of alcohol.
(c) Altered sensorium.
(d) Deep breathing.
(e) Moist and flushed face.
(f) Rapid or weak pulse.
(a) Maintain an open airway.
(b) Place casualty in recovery position.
(c) Arrange transportation to hospital.
11. It may be suicidal, homicidal or accidental. Poisons are Nitric Acid,
Sulphuric Acid, Hydrochloric Acid andr Carbolic Acid.
12. Signs and Symptoms.
(a) Burns on or around the lips.
(b) Burning in the mouth throat and stomach.
(c) Heavy vomiting.
(d) Intense thirst.
(a) Do not induce vomiting.
(b) Give half litre of water or milk to which milk of magnesia has been
(c) Shift the casualty immediately to hospital.
14. It may be suicidal or accidental. The alkalis are Ammonia, Potassium
Hydroxide, Sodium Hydroxide, detergents and washing soda.
15. Signs and Symptoms.
(a) Membrane of the mouth may be white and swollen.
(b) Abdominal pain.
(c) Vomiting may contain blood and mucus.
(a) Do not induce vomiting.
(b) Give plenty of fluids.
(c) Antidotes are vinegar, citric acid, lemon.
(d) Shift the casualty to hospital.
17. Drugs like Narcotics (e.g.Heroin), depressants (e.g.Barbiturates) and
tranquilzers or stimulants (e.g. Amphetamines). In addition there is solvent
inhalation (e.g. glue sniffing)
18. Signs and Symptoms. Pupils of eye may be abnormally dilated or
(a) Narcotics Poisoning. Difficult breathing, injection marks on front or
(b) Depressants Poisoning. Shallow breathing, cold clammy skin,
weak or rapid pulse, possible unconsciousness.
(c) Stimulants Poisoning. Profuse sweating, excitability, tremor,
(d) Aspirin Overdose. Abdominal pain, vomiting, profuse sweating,
depression and drowsiness, difficult breathing.
19. Treatment. Follow the general treatment for poisoning and arrange
urgent removal to hospital. Be prepared to resuscitate.
20. Poisoning is a life threatening emergency and should be tackled promptly
and efficiently. One should be knowledgeable to identify the type of poison by
observation and questioning.. Antidote should be given to neutralize or dilute the
poisonous substances. The families should be educated about the safe custody
of chemicals and drugs at home.
CARE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE PATIENT
1. Infectious diseases are caused from an infection produced by pathogens,
and are capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man, or
,animal to man, or, animal to animal (e.g. bird flu). From environment through air,
dust, soil, this usually spreads by droplets. Disease results from the interaction of
agent, host and environment. Prevention of this interaction is the ideal means of
combating disease. It is necessary to apply control measures - the basic concept
in disease control is to break the link. The general measures to control infection
are early diagnosis, isolation, treatment and disinfection.
Mode of Infection
2. Infection spreads by following means: -
(a) Direct Contact. By carriers, e.g. droplets, excreta and
discharge, flies, clothing and bed linen, furniture, utensils, books, toys
(fomites), articles used by patients.
(b) Indirect Contact. Through food, water dust and air.
3. Nursing care activities carried out are :-
(b) Hand Washing. The infection can be transferred from person to
person through contaminated hands and careful hand washing reduces
the number of bacteria.
(d) Use of gloves, gown and mask.
(e) Education, for e.g., importance of immunization, information and
(h) Monitoring complications.
Prevention of Cross Infection
4. (a) Isolation of infected patient .
(b) Maintain the general cleanliness.
(c) Safe food & water supply.
(d) Disposal of clinical waste for e.g., excretion and dressing etc.
5. The precautions that should be taken are : -
(a) Maintain high degree of cleanliness.
(b) Health teaching about the spread of infection and its prevention etc.
(c) Minimize the number of visitors.
(d) Emphasize hand washing.
(e) Keep toilet articles separate for each person.
(f) Persons with lower resistance should be protected.
(g) As far as possibl,e the patients should be nursed in separate
6. Medical asepsis, also called clean technique, involves the use of
measures that interfere with the chain of infection in a variety of ways, e.g.
antiseptics, disinfectants like bleach, phenol etc.
(a) Gown. This should be worn whenever there is a risk of
contaminating clothing with blood and body fluid.
(b) Facemasks. Masks are generally used to prevent the spread of
microorganism to and from the patient, through the respiratory tract.
Masks should be worn only once and then discarded to ensure effective
filtering of micro-organisms.
(c) Gloves. Gloves are used in the medical asepsis to protect the
nurse from pathogens. They serve as a barrier when the nurse handles
articles contaminated by faeces or wound discharge.
7. In this system, the infectious patient is kept nursed in the same block as
other patients, but he is isolated in one corner. All articles used by the patient
such as ounce glass, plates, thermometer etc., are kept separately. These items
are disinfected and not mixed up with other patients items.
8. Those who come in direct contact with the patient and carry a certain
amount of infection without infecting themselves. They are likely to spread
infection to others.
Control of Infectious Diseases
9. (a) By eliminating the cause.
(b) Preventing spread of disease in the community by blocking the
medium of transmission.
(c) Increasing body resistance by immunization.
(d) Notifying the public health authorities.
(e) Education for disposal of waste and disinfection.
Management of Isolation Unit
10. A unit that is set up for isolation of patients needs to have the following
equipment : -
(a) Hand washing facilities – sink, water, soap, brush etc.
(b) Paper napkins.
(c) One table to place necessary supplies for the care of the patient
e.g. thermometer, dressing tray etc.
(d) Toilet facilities for the patient – water closet, bathing facilities etc.
(e) Personal articles for toilet, food, serving etc.
(f) An area outside the patient‘s room for clean supply for gown,
(g) Vessels for disinfection of articles, with disinfectant solution.
(h) A signboard stating ISOLATION should be hung on the door.
11. Patients suffering from infectious diseases should be kept isolated and
this also applies to carriers of diseases. Early destruction of agents and
disinfection is an important step in control of infectious diseases. Moreover
education, counselling, nutrition, medication, and immunization are equally
OBSERVATION OF PATIENT AND VITAL SIGNS
1. Nursing is based on the integration and application of scientific knowledge
from natural and behavioural sciences. Dynamic changes are occurring in
nursing practice. One major change is systematic investigation of problems, i.e.,
gathering information. This is possible by observation. It means close monitoring,
of the sleeping pattern, life style, appetite, participation in own care etc.
2. General observations are made to understand and study the patient‘s
condition. This can be achieved by signs and symptoms.
(a) Symptoms. Can be collected from patient if he is in a position to
express himself e.g. headache, giddiness, loss of appetite, chest pain,
abdomen pain etc.
(b) Signs. They are made by seeing, hearing, feeling, smelling and
(i) Seeing. Posture, gait, expression, whether cheerful or
depressed, whether in pain, external injuries, bleeding etc.
(ii) Feeling. Warm or cold, limp or rigid, firm or flabby etc.
(iii) Hearing. Groaning and crying.
(iv) Smelling. Odors from the mouth, body or clothing.
(v) Touching. Symptoms characteristic to feel, such as warm or
(a) Helps in observation of patient‘s general condition
(b) Helps in diagnosis .
(c) Evaluation of treatment is possible.
(d) Progress of patient‘s condition can be studied by observing
breathing, sleeping pattern.
(e) Intake and output pattern can be studied by observation.
4. Tools used in Observation.
(a) Clinical Thermometer.
(b) B.P. Apparatus.
5. Clinical Thermometer. A clinical thermometer is used to measure the
temperature of the body, which is registered from 950 F to 1100 F on the
Fahrenheit scale and 350 C to 480 C on the Centigrade scale. It is a self-
registering thermometer having a slight constriction in the glass tube,
immediately above the bulb of mercury. This constriction prevents the mercury
from falling back, once the temperature is taken until it is shaken down. Great
care should be taken while handling the thermometer. The bulb containing
mercury is the most fragile part and is likely to break easily. After use, wash with
soap and water and keep in a bottle containing disinfectant lotion (strength 1 in
20). Immerse little cotton wool in the lotion so as to prevent breaking of the
mercurial bulb. Keep in cold water. Container should be cleaned twice a day and
lotion should be changed daily.
6. Temperature. When the heat mechanism is deranged, there is a rise
in temperature above normal, which is called fever. Temperature of the body is
the heat of the body produced by metabolic activities of the body tissues,
releasing energy. The normal body temperature is 98.40 F or 370 C.
7. Methods of Taking Temperature. Can be recorded by the following
(a) Oral (by mouth).
(b) Skin by axilla (incase of injury to mouth, any infection present in
(c) Rectum (in unconscious persons and children)
(d) Rectal temperature gives the highest and most correct reading.
Mouth temperature is one degree (F) less than rectal. Temperature at
axilla shows one degree less than in the mouth.
8. Variations of Temperature.
Temperature in health Temperature during sickness
(i) Starvation. (i) Dehydration on account of
vomiting and diarrhoea.
(ii) Exposure to cold. (ii) In severe haemorrhage.
(iii) During sleep. (iii) Shock.
(v) Marked toxaemia.
(i) After taking food. (i) Metabolic disorders.
(ii) Exposure to heat. (ii) Due to infections.
(iii) Mental excitement. (iii) Derangement of hea.
regulating center e.g. heat stroke.
(iv) Muscular activities.
(v) Hyper thyroidism.
Types of Fever
9. (a) Constant Fever. This fever remains high, varies not more that 2 0 F
in 24 hours and does not reach / come to normal.
(b) Remittent Fever. This is characterised by variations of more than
20 F in 24 hours.
(c) Intermittent Fever. This is characterised by hectic or swinging
temperature varying from normal or sub normal to high, within an interval
of 24 hours to two / three days.
(d) Irregular Fever. A fever not corresponding to any of the above
(e) Crisis. Sudden fall in temperature in 24 hours which touches
normal - in cases of malaria and urinary tract infection.
(f) Lysis. Gradual fall in temperature in cases of typhoid.
10. The pulse is a measure of heart beats. Each pulse represents the
contraction of the heart, otherwise known as cardiac cycle. The pulse may be felt
at any point where an artery passes superficially over a bone.
11. Factors Effecting the Rate of Pulse.
(a) Rate of pulse differs according to age, sex, exercise and
excitement. In newborn infants the pulse rate is rapid, being about 140 per
minute. Normal rates are :-
(i) One-year-old 120 per minute
(ii) Two - five years 100 per minute
(iii) Five - ten years 90 per minute
(iv) Adults 72 – 80 per minute
(b) In old age pulse is unusually slow and in extreme old age, pulse
becomes rapid again.
12. Pulse Terms.
(a) Rate. The number of beats per minute
(b) Rhythm. Interval between the beats.
(c) Volume. Force of the beat felt under the fingers.
(d) Abnormal Pulse.
(i)Rapid More than normal.
(ii)Slow Lower than normal.
13. Type of Pulse. These are based according to rate and nature of the
(a) Tachycardia. Abnormal rapid action of the heart. Pulse rate will be
more than 120 / min.
(b) Brady Cardia. Abnormal slow heart rate less than 50 / min.
(c) Dicrotic Pulse. In this, a strong beat is followed by a smaller beat.
(d) Water Hammer Pulse. This is also called a collapsing pulse. The
artery is suddenly filled, but collapses abnormally.
14. It consists of inspiration, expiration and a pause. Normal respiration is
rhythmical, quite, regular and comfortable
15. Respiration Counting (Procedure)
(a) Patient should not be aware that respiration is being counted.
(b) Count the pulse for one full minute without taking the fingers off the
(c) Now slowly count the movement of the chest and count for another
Temperature, Pulse and Respiration Recording
16. Frequency of temperature pulse and respiration recording depends upon
the general condition of patient It is usually recorded in a day, hourly, two hourly,
four hourly and six hourly intervals.
17. It is the amount of pressure which the blood exerts against the walls of
arteries, Blood pressure depends upon the following factors : -
(a) Force of the heart beat.
(b) Elasticity of the muscles in the blood vessel walls.
(c) Volume of blood in circulation.
18. Types of Blood Pressure.
(a) Systolic Blood Pressure. Pressure in the arteries is the highest
due to contractions or systole of the heart. This pressure is called the
(b) Diastolic Blood Pressure It is the minimum pressure exerted by
the blood in the larger arteries at the end of systole.
19. Reading of Blood Pressure. The systolic pressure reading is always
written over the diastolic. For e.g., normal reading in healthy adult is:-
(a) Systolic 120 mm of Hg.
(b) Diastolic 80 mm of Hg
(c) The reading will be written as 120 / 80 mm of Hg.
(d) Low blood pressure 100 / 60 mm of Hg.
(e) High blood pressure 130 / 90 mm of Hg.
20. These are the visual signs: -
(a) Pupil reaction.
(b) Level of consciousness.
(c) Skin colour.
(d) Ability to move.
(e) Reaction to pain.
(f) Any discharge from ear, nose and eyes.
11. Observation is the mirror of our system, through which we can peep
through and through, and can study any variations. It helps a physician to
diagnose, as well as the response to treatment can be evaluated.
NCC - AN OVERVIEW
1. Youth are the future architects of India, on whose shoulders lies the
responsibility of conserving all that is best in the country. Swami Vivekananda the
great philosopher of the century had stressed on the need to awaken the youth in
India and to involve them in nation building activities. For this, there was a need
to strengthen a system of value education that would foster universal and eternal
values, oriented towards the unity and integration of the country, and help to
eliminate violence, fanaticism and fatalism. Value oriented education will go a
long way in including in the youth a spirit of service, nationalism and patriotism.
2. Brief History. The National Cadet Corps (NCC), a youth organization, has
its beginning in the ‗University Corps‘ which was created under the Indian
Defence Act 1917, with the object to make up the shortage of the Army. In 1920,
when the Indian Territorial Act was passed, the ‗University Corps‘ was replaced
by the ‗University Training Corps (UTC)‘. In 1942, the UTC was renamed as the
‗University Officers Training Corps (UOTC)‘.
3. Thus the creation of a youth organisation to train young boys and girls to
be better citizens in all walks of life, was realized by our leaders. For this, a
committee under Pandit H N Kunjru was set up in 1946 at the behest of our first
Prime Minister, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. NCC came into existence on 16 July
1948 under the NCC Act, Act XXXI of 1948, under the Ministry of Defence
4. Since then, the NCC has contributed immensely in helping the youth in
developing personality traits like, physical, physiological, socio-emotional,
intellectual values and morale necessary for a healthy development of character
of men and women.
5. Growth of NCC. The NCC has grown step by step, in a humble way with
a target of only 32,500 SD and 1,35,000 JD cadets in 1948, into a matured and
glorious organisation, keeping the youth in its fold. It is open to both schools and
universities students covering more than 4500 colleges and 6500 schools. It has
not been possible to provide NCC coverage to a large number of educational
institutions due to its sanctioned strength standing at 4.33 lakhs for SD/SW and
7.30 lakhs for JD/JW cadets which covers only 3.8% of the eligible student
population of our country, with a network of 754 NCC units spread from offshore
Union Territories of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshwadweep to the freezing
heights of Leh in Himalayas, as also from Kutch in the West to Kohima in the
East. The NCC got an inter-service image when Air Wing in 1950 and Naval
Wing in 1952 were added to it. While elementary military training was given to
school students (JD), College students (SD) were trained as potential officers of
the Army. In 1949, the Girls Division was introduced to give equal opportunity to
school & college going girls. In 1952, the NCC curriculum was extended to
include community development as a part of the NCC syllabus at the behest of
Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Due to popular demand and followed by Chinese
aggression, NCC training was made compulsory in 1963. However, on the
resistance of students and on the suggestion of some Vice Chancellors, it was
again made voluntary in 1968.
6. Who can join NCC. Induction into NCC is on voluntary basis. Students,
both boys and girls, in schools & colleges can join NCC with no distinction made
on the basis of caste, creed, status, community & province, at the age of 13
years in Junior Division / Junior Wing (boys / girls) - Class VIII to X, and Senior
Division / Senior Wing from class XI onwards. Less than 26 years of age, be a
citizen of India or a subject of Nepal, not having been convicted for any offence
involving moral turpitude and conforming to the prescribed standard of physical
fitness etc. are other conditions. Such a student should also not be a member of
any communal or political organisation.
Aims of the NCC
7. The NCC has always been evaluated from time to time by Evaluation
Committees and in 1972, an exercise was undertaken by the MOD to make
‗Aims‘ of the NCC in tune with the aspirations of the youth in view of changing
socio-economic environment. Accordingly in 1972, an Evaluation Committee was
set up under the chairmanship of Dr. G S Mahajani, Vice Chancellor of the Pune
University who presented its report to MOD in Jan. 1974.
8. Another committee was constituted by the Govt. of India by Non-Statutory
Resolution No. 8 dt. 20 Dec. 1986 for the NCC, to evaluate and review its
working with the references to its aims and objectives. Chaired by Lt. Gen (Retd)
M L Thapan, PVSM, which submitted in June 1988. The recommendations by the
committee have been accepted by the Govt. partially and implemented.
9. With the evaluation and constant growth of the youth, the Corps has
formulated its aims as under :-
(a) To develop qualities, character, courage, comradeship, discipline,
leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and sportsmanship and the
ideals of selfless service among the youth to make them useful citizens.
(b) To create a human resource of organized, trained and motivated
youth, to provide leadership in all walks of life including the Armed Forces
and be always available for the service of the nation.
(c) To create a suitable environment to motivate the youth to take up a
career in the Armed Forces.
10. (a) Obey with a smile.
(b) Be Punctual.
(c) Work hard without Fuss.
(d) Make no excuses and tell no lies.
11. The NCC Motto was framed as ―Unity & Discipline‖ which implies our
basic oneness, the brotherhood of all Indian people and is the essential
ingredient of our strength. It connotes the identity of purpose and is a major
contribution of the NCC towards national integration. The stress on discipline is
the backbone of any organization and the bedrock of any social order. A nation
with disciplined youth can only make rapid progress and achieve greatness in
12. The NCC organisation is administered through the Ministry of Defence.
The Defence Secretary is overall in-change, who is responsible to the
Government of India for efficient functioning of the NCC and other matters.
13. However, the organisational structure of NCC is closely related with the
educational programme of country. In fact the back bone of the organisation are
thousands of young men and women and Associate NCC officers who are on the
teaching staff of schools and colleges. Upon their shoulders, rests the
responsibilities of providing the necessary thrust and inputs of the NCC activities.
RANK STRUCTURE OF NCC
14. The Rank structure of NCC is as under :-
(a) Officers of Army, Navy and Air Force.
(b) NCC Whole Time Lady Officer (WTLO).
(c) Associated NCC Officers.
(i) Senior Wing.
(ii) Junior Wing.
(d) Girl Cadet Instructor.
(i) GCI I.
(ii) GCI II.
(iii) GCI III.
OBJECTIVES OF GIRLS DIVISION
15. (a) To develop character and personality.
(b) To develop self confidence.
(c) To build up physique and courage.
(d) To teach those subjects which will be useful during an emergency and
in day to day life.
16. The colours of the NCC depict the fact that it is an inter-service
organisation i.e. red for the Army, dark blue for the Navy and light blue for the Air
Force. The laurel wreath with the letters NCC written in Golden Yellow depicts
the organisational structure - the main petal in the centre representing the
Directorate General NCC and the sixteen petals - eight on each side -
representing the sixteen NCC Directorates, while the two vertically noted dots on
the top represent the two training establishments of the organization - NCC OTA,
Kamptee and Gwalior.
17. As of today, the NCC has been functioning for over 50 years, and has
grown from strength to strength, designed to suit the need of the hour to develop
the youth of our nation.
NCC ORGANISATION AT DG AND DIRECTORATE LEVEL
1. The National Cadet Corps (NCC) came into existence in 1948 by an Act of
Parliament, as a result of the recommendations of the Pandit H. N. Kunzru
Committee. The NCC has a four tier administration. The Directorate General
NCC is at New Delhi, directly administered through the Ministry of Defence.
2. NCC is a voluntary organisation having three Divisions viz. the Senior
Division, Junior Division and the Girls‘ Division. Since the organisational structure
of NCC is closely associated with the educational system of our country, the
backbone of the organisation are young men and women of schools & colleges
and Associate NCC officers who are on the teaching roll in schools and colleges.
Organisation of Directorate General of NCC
3. The NCC is headed by Director General (DG), an army officer of the rank
of Lieutenant General, who is responsible for the functioning of the NCC in the
Army through the Directorate General of NCC, located at Delhi. The DG at the
Directorate General NCC is assisted by two Additional Directors General (ADsG),
one Major General from the Army and the other equivalent rank from Navy or Air
Force. There are five Deputy Directors General in the rank of Brigadier and
equivalent. In addition, there are 10 Directors of the rank of Col or equivalent and
10 Joint Directors of the rank of Lt Col and equivalent. There also are Majors and
equivalents functioning as Deputy Directors and Dy Asstt Director in different
Directorates at the Dte Gen NCC.
4. The organisation of NCC is as under :
NCC HQ ( DGNCC)
Lt General (DG NCC)
SO to DG NCC
ADDITIONAL DG (A) ADDITIONAL DG(B)
(REAR ADMIRAL /AIR VICE MARSHAL) Major General
DDG DDG BRIG DDG BRIG DDG BRIG DDG BRIG
Dte of Personnel Dte of Planning Dte of MS Dte of Logistic Dte of Trg
And Finance & Coord
Organisation at NCC Dte Level
5. At the state level, the country has been divided into 16 Dtes, covering all
states and Union territories. These Dtes are headed by an officer of the rank of
Brigadier or its equivalent from the other two services. Each of the state NCC
Dtes controls two to fourteen Group headquarters (Gp HQs), headed by an
officer of the rank of Colonel or its equivalent. In all, there are 92 Group
Headquarters in the country, which exercise control over a network of 658 Army
Wing units (including Technical & Girls units), 58 Naval Wing units and 58 Air
Squadrons. An NCC unit is commanded by a Major / Lt Col or equivalent.
6. The organisation chart of state NCC Dte is as under: -
DDG NCC (Brig/equivalent)
Director (Col / Eqvt)
Joint Director (Lt Col)
Dy Dir Dy Dir Dy Dir Dy Dir Dy Dir Sr Accts Offr
Trg Adm P &C
Pers State cell
Note - Each Dte has got 4 to 14 Gp Headquarters, except NCC Dte Delhi and J &
K, who have got only two Gp Headquarters. Each Gp Headquarters has got four-
eight NCC units, subject to a maximum of 10 units. OTA Kamptee and Gwalior
come directly under DG NCC.
7. For administrative convenience, the whole country is divided into sixteen
Directorates. The following are the Directorates and their location: -
Ser. Directorate Location
(a) Andhra Pradesh Secunderabad
(b) Bihar & Jharkhand Patna
(c) Delhi Delhi
(d) Gujarat, Dadra, Nagarhaveli & Daman & Diu Ahmedabad
(e) Jammu & Kashmir Jammu
(f) Karnataka & Goa Bangalore
(g) Kerala & Lakshadweep Triuvananthpuram
(h) Madhya Pradesh & Chhatisgarh Bhopal
(j) Maharashtra Mumbai
(k) NE States (ATMA, MNM) Shilong
(l) Orissa Bhubneshwar
(m) Punjab, Haryana, HP& Chandigarh Chandigarh
(n) Rajasthan Jaipur
(o) Tamilnadu, Pondichery, Andaman & Nicobar Chennai
(p) Uttar Pradesh & Uttranchal Lucknow
(q) West Bengal & Sikkim Calcutta
8. All these Directorates are controlled by the Directorate General of NCC,
located at New Delhi. Uttaranchal is shortly being converted to the 17 th Dte, with
its HQ at Dehradun.
9. Training establishments. Two training establishments are functioning.
Officers Training Academy (OTA) Kamptee for male officers and NCC Officers
Training Academy (OTA) Gwalior for women. These are commanded by officers
of the rank of Brigadier called as Commandant.
10. To function efficiently in this organisation, it is necessary that one should
understand the organization and various functions of NCC at all levels.
ORGANISATION OF GIRLS BN & (I) GIRLS COY
1. NCC began in a small way with an initial strength of 1,68,000 cadets.
Today the Corps is nearly 13 Lakhs. From the outlaying Andamans in the Bay of
Bengal & Lakshdweep in the Arabian Sea, to remote regions of Ladakh &
Arunachal Pradesh in Himalayas, there is hardly a town or village with a school
or a college, which does not have a NCC Unit.
2. As members of the NCC, it is important to know & understand the
organisation & function of the NCC Battalion & Independent Company. For the
purpose of imparting training, permanent instructional staff (PI Staff) is drawn
from the three services & posted to these units. In addition, each institution is
required to provide Associate NCC Officers (ANOs), who are responsible for the
training & administration of the cadets of the NCC unit/ Sub unit i.e., coy / troops
allotted to the institution.
Organisation of NCC Battalion
3. Officers & PI Staff.
APPT/ BN BN BN BN BN BN BN
RANK (2 COY) (3 COY) (4 COY) (5 COY) (6 COY) (7 COY) (8 COY)
LT COL 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
(CAPT/LT) - - 1 1 1 1 1
TOTAL 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
(SUB MAJ) - - 1 1 1 1 1
(SUB) 1 2 2 2 3 4 5
NB SUB 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
TOTAL 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
NCO INSTR 4 6 8 10 12 14 17
(PI STAFF) (In this, 2 PER COY : 1 AMC, 1 Signals)
Note. For JW Sliding scale of Instructional Staff will be as under (These are in
addition to the Company Authorisation) :-
JCOs Hav Nks
(a) 1 to 4 troops - - 01
(b) 5 to 7 troops - 01 -
(c) 8 to 10 troops - 01 01
(d) 11 to 25 troops 01 01 01
(e) 26 to 40 troops 02 02 02
4. Civilian Staff in Girls Bn.
Rank (2 COY) (3 COY) (4 COY) (5 COY) (6 COY) (7 COY) (8 COY)
Clerk - - - - - 1 1
Accts - - 1 1 1 1 1
UDC 1 1 1 2 2 3 3
LDC 1 1 2 2 3 3 4
Peon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Driver 1 1 2 3 3 3 3
Lascar 2 2 2 2 3 3 4
Safai 1* 1* 1 1 1 1 1
Total: 7 7 10 12 14 16 18
* Part time
Vehicles (2COY) (3 COY) (4 COY) (5 COY) (6 COY)
Lorry 3 TON 1 1 1 1 1
4x 2 GS/Pick up
Light Vehicle - - 1 1 1
Motor Cycle - - 1 1 1
TOTAL 1 1 3 3 3
7. When cadet strength is not more than one company / troop and the coy is
located at a considerable distance from the nearest Bn, then the Coy/ Tp
Organisation of Independent Company
8. Officers & PI Staff.
Designation Rank Strength
(a) Officer commanding MAJ 01
(b) JCO SUB/NB SUB 01
(c) NCO HAV 02
(d) Storeman Nk 01
DESIGNATION NO OF POST
UDC 1(01 addl for 11-20 Troops)
LDC 1(01 addl for 1-10 Troops)
Laskar 1(01 per school having 1-3 Troops)
Sweeper 1(Part time)
Note : The troops are attached to senior division (SD) unit for administration and
10. Vehicle – 01 Pick up van.
11. NCC Personnel ( ANO).
DESIGNATION RANK COY HQ TOTAL
COY 2IC MAJ/ 01 01
COY OFFR CAPT/ 01 01
TOTAL 02 02
Note : The strength of Junior wing (JW) ANOs will depend on the strength of
troops allotted under command in an Independent Company. The scale of ANOs
per troop will remain the same as per authorisation.
12. To function efficiently as an ANO / GCI / WTLO in NCC, it is imperative
that one should know the authorisation, strength and functioning of a NCC Girls
Battalion and Independent coy.
INTRO, RAISING OF NCC COY & TPS & PROCEDURE FOR ENROLMENT
1. NCC came into existence in 1948. It is the brainchild of Late Prime
Minister Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, who thought of the requirement of an
organized youth wing for the country after independence. He wanted to guide the
youth of the country to become useful citizens. He chose Universities, Colleges
and Schools as the area of such activities. Thus the National Cadet Corps came
into existence. Accordingly, Central Government passed an Act in Parliament on
16 July 1948, called National Cadet Corps Act. This act provided for the
constitution of National Cadet Corps and is called The NCC Act, Act XXXI of
2. This lesson covers the NCC Act & Rules in general, Raising of NCC coy &
troops & the procedure for enrolment of cadets.
Part I – Preliminary: NCC Act & Rules
3. This Act is divided into 13 sections as given below: -
(a) Section - 1. It gives a title to the Act, which is National Cadet Corps
(b) Section - 2. Defines certain terms used in this Act: -
(i) ―Corps‖. Means NCC constituted under this Act.
(ii) ―Enrolled‖. Means enrolled in the corps constituted under this
(iii) ―Prescribed‖. Means prescribed, proceeded or explained by
rules made under this Act.
(iv) ―School‖. Any institution recognised on this behalf (on behalf
of this Act) by the Central Government or the Provincial or State
(v) ―University‖. Established by law in India, including affiliated
Colleges, Inter Colleges, Technical Institutes of collegiate
status, recognised by Central and State Government.
(c) Section - 3. Prescribes the constitution of NCC. This empowers
the Government to raise, maintain in the manner prescribed by the Act,
any NCC unit according to the necessity.
(d) Section - 4. Empowers the Central Government to constitute NCC
units in any state by recruiting cadets from students of any university or
school. Central Government may disband or reconstitute such unit.
(e) Section - 5. Provides three Divisions in NCC, Senior Division (SD),
Junior Division (JD) and Girls Division (GD).
(f) Section - 6. Provides for the enrollment of cadets in NCC in the
three divisions considering sex, physical standard and other factors, who
will become subject to this act.
(g) Section - 7. Empowers the Central Government to raise any other
units not withstanding the provisions of this Act, in any place, make any
person eligible for enrolment. This section gives flexibility to the
Government. In the past during 1965-66 Government had made NCC
compulsory and also raised units called NCC Rifles.
(h) Section - 8. Every person enrolled under this Act shall be entitled to
receive his or her discharge from the Corps on the expiration of the period
for which he or she was enrolled or on his or her ceasing to be borne on
the roll of the university or school to which he or she may belong.
(j) Section - 9. Empowers the Government for the appointment of
officers from the members of the staff of the universities, colleges or
school or otherwise and to lay down duties, functions and powers of such
officers, who will become subject to this Act.
(k) Section - 10. Prescribes duties of persons subject to this Act.
According to this section nobody is liable for active military service just by
virtue of being in NCC. But they are liable to perform such duties and
obligations as prescribed from time to time.
(l) Section - 11. Provides for awarding punishments for officers. Certain
authorities are empowered by this Act to award punishments of fine upto
Rs. 50/- for the disobedience of rules made under this Act.
(m) Section - 12. Empowers the Central Government to constitute an
Advisory Committee for advising the Government in all policy matters
concerning the NCC. Central Government may also appoint such a
committee for the State Government.
(n) Section - 13. Empowers the Government to make rules to implement
the purpose of this Act. This section gives broad guidelines for making any
rules. Government can make any number of rules within the framework of
this section. The Central Government may make rules to carry out the
object of this Act.
Part II : Raising of a Unit
4. Conditions for Raising a Unit . A unit or part thereof may be raised in any
school or college subject to the following conditions: -
(a) The school or college will provide from among the members of
permanent teaching staff, a woman officer for the unit.
(b) The school or college shall give an undertaking that it can enroll and
maintain the maximum strength the unit which may be allotted to it.
(c) The school or college shall provide for the unit which may be allotted to
it store rooms for storage of clothing and equipment and provide
accommodation for an office.
(d) The school or college shall arrange for the use of a suitable parade
5. The Central Government may in any case, on the recommendation of the
State Government, relax wholly or in part, the provisions of clause (c) and (d), if it is
satisfied that the requisite facilities are provided by school or colleges located in the
Enrolment of Cadets
6. Qualifications of Enrolment. No girl student of a school or college shall
be eligible for enrolment : -
(a) Unless she is of good character.
(b) Unless she has attained the age of 13 years and has not attained the
age of 18 ½ years, in the case of Junior Wing.
(c) Unless she is over 15 years of age in the case of Senior Wing.
(d) Unless she satisfies such standards of physical fitness as may be
specified by the Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
(e) Unless she is on the role of the school or college which is providing the
unit of Junior or Senior Wing, as the case may be, or part thereof.
(f) Unless she is a citizen of India or a subject of Nepal.
(g) Will not be enrolled if :-
(i) If she is a member of any communal or political organization or
an organization believing in violence or communal disharmony.
(ii) If she has been dismissed from girls Division of the National
7. Application of Enrolment. A girl student desirous or being enrolled in a
Junior or Senior Wing unit shall apply to the Headmistress or Principal, who shall
cause her to fill up and sign in her presence a statement in Form I.
8. Medical Examination. If the Headmistress or Principal is satisfied that
the application is in order, that the applicant fulfils the conditions of enrolment
and is suitable for enrolment, she shall get the applicant medically examined.
9. Rejection. If the Headmistress or Principal is satisfied that the
application is not in order, or that the applicant does not fulfill the conditions of
enrolment and that she is not suitable for enrolment in the Junior or Senior Wing
unit; as the case may be, or that she is medically not fit for service in the said
unit, she shall reject the application and inform the applicant accordingly.
10. Verification. When an application is made to the Headmistress or
Principal under Rule 5, she may make such further enquiry regarding the
suitability of the applicant for enrolment in the unit, as may be prescribed in this
behalf, by the State Govt.
11. Method of Enrolment. If the Headmistress or the Principal does not
reject the application, the applicant shall be accepted and shall be required to
sign a declaration in Form I or if she is a minor, her father or guardian shall be
required to sign such a declaration. If the Headmistress or Principal is satisfied
that the applicant, or her father or guardian in the case of a minor applicant,
consents to the conditions of service, she shall sign a certificate to that effect on
the said Form and the applicant shall there upon be deemed to have been
12. Period of Enrolment. Subject to the provisions relating to discharge
in Part VI of these rules, a student accepted for enrolment shall be enrolled for a
period of two years from the date of her enrolment.
13. Extension of Service- Rule 11.
(a) A girl cadet of the Junior Wing may be permitted to extend her
enrolment for a period of one year up to a maximum of three years, total
(b) A girl cadet of the Senior Wing may be permitted to extend her
enrolment for periods of one year at a time but so as not to exceed four years
14. The Ministry of Defence, Government of India, may grant a further
extension of service to a girl cadet beyond the maximum limit of service.
15. Appointment. A girl student enrolled in the Junior or Senior Wing of the
Girls‘ Division shall be appointed by the Head mistress or Principal, as the case
may be, to the unit or part thereof which is being provided by the school or
college to which the girl student belongs.
16. NCC Act is the backbone of the organization on which the Corps is
constituted. It provides the necessary tool with which the routine functioning of
the NCC can be carried out. It is essential for every officer of the NCC to
acquaint themselves with these Act and Rules.
APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS AND TRANSFERS
Appointment of Officers
1. Qualifications for Appointment. No women shall be eligible for appointment
as an officer in the Girls‘ Division: -
(a) Unless she is a member of the permanent teaching staff where a
Junior or Senior Wing unit or part thereof, as the case may be, is being
(i) In the case of Junior Wing, of the school.
(ii) In the case of Senior Wing, of the college.
(b) Unless she has a good character.
(c) Unless she is over 22 years and under 45 years of age.
(d) Unless she satisfies such standards of physical fitness as may be
specified by the Ministry of Defence, Govt of India.
(e) Unless she is a citizen of India or a subject of Nepal.
(f) Will not be appointed: -
(i) If she is a member of any communal or political organisation or
an organisation believing in violence or communal disharmony;
(ii) If she has been dismissed from Girls‘ Division of the National
Cadet Corps or the WACI or the Armed Forces.
(g) Provided that the Central Government in the Ministry of Defence may
relax all or any of the above qualifications in the case of any particular women
or class of women.
2. Applications for Appointment. Any female member of the permanent
teaching staff of a school or college, who is desirous of being appointed as an
officer in the Junior or Senior Wing of the Girls‘ Division as the case may be,
shall apply to the Headmistress or Principal who will cause her to fill up and sign
in her presence a statement in Form II.If the Headmistress or Principal, as the
case may be, is satisfied that such member fulfils the conditions of appointment
and is fit in all respects for appointment, she shall fill up and sign the relevant
statement in Form II and forward the application
(a) In the case of Junior Wing
(i) Where there is an Inspectress of schools, to such Inspectress.
(ii) Where there is no Inspectress of schools, to such other
educational authority as may be specified in this behalf by the State
(b ) The Inspectress of schools or other educational authority, as the
case may be, shall forward the application with her recommendation to the
Director of Public Instruction.
(c ) In the case of Senior Wing. Director of Public Instruction or such other
educational authority as may be specified in this behalf by the State
3. Medical Examination. The Headmistress or Principal to whom an
application is made shall get the applicant medically examined before forwarding
the application to the authority specified in Rule 14.
(a) When an application under Rule 14 is made to the Headmistress or
Principal, she will fill up and sign the relevant part of a statement in Form II
and shall forward the application to the appropriate authority specified in
(b) The Inspectress of schools or Director of Public Instruction or such
other educational authority as may be specified by the State Government
shall, on receipt of the application, make such further enquiries regarding
the suitability of the applicant for appointment as an officer in the Girls‘
Division, as may be prescribed by the State Government.
5. Rejection. If the Inspectress of schools or Director of Public Instruction
or such other Educational authority as may be specified by the State Government
is satisfied that the application is not in order or that the applicant does not fulfill
the conditions of appointment or that she is not suitable to be appointed as an
officer in the Girls‘ Division of the National Cadet Corps or if the applicant is
reported to be medically unfit, she or he shall rejects the application and inform
the applicant accordingly through the Headmistress or Principal concerned.
6. Method of Appointment.
(a) If the Inspectress of schools or Director of Public Instruction or
such other educational as may be specified by the State Government
does not reject the application, the applicant shall be directed to appear
before a Selection Board, to be set up in the manner specified by the
Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
(b) If the Selection Board recommends the applicant for appointment
as an officer in the Girls‘ Division, the President of the Board on being
satisfied that the applicant understands the questions put to her and that
she consents to the conditions of service shall sign a certificate to that
effect on Form II.
(c) The State Government shall then directs the applicant to proceed to
an Armed Forces School, centre or unit for undergoing Pre-Commission
training for a period satisfied in Rule 30.
(d) On completion of the training, the applicant shall be reported on and
her application together with the report on her shall be forwarded to the
Ministry of Defence, Government of India.
(e) If the Government of India is satisfied that the applicant is suitable and
qualified for appointment as an officer in the Junior or a Senior Wing; Division
as the case may be, it will commission her as an officer in that Wing of the
(f) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-rules (3) and (4), the
Government of India may grant to any applicant recommended by the
Selection Board under sub rule (2), without pre-commission training,
Commission as an officer-
(i) In the Senior Wing of the Girls‘ Division if she has rendered
commissioned service in the Armed Forces, WACI or National Cadet
Corps (Senior Wing of the Girls‘ Division) or has passed the certificate
(ii) In the Junior wing if she has rendered commissioned service in the
7. Period of Appointment. Subject to the provisions of Rule 26, a person
commissioned as an officer in the Girls division of NC shall hold that commission
from the date of commission to the age of 52 years. Provided that DGNCC may
in any special case permit in writing to serve upto 55 years by granting extension
of service to such officer for a period of one year at a time.
(a) An officer of the SW shall be posted to a senior wing unit by the
(b) An officer of JW shall be posted to junior wing unit by the State govt.
9. Notice of leaving School or College. Where a SW officer desires to leave,
she shall give it in writing six months in advance, and in the case of JW Officer,
shall give three months notice to Headmistress.
10. (a) The transfer of SW officer from one unit to another is authorised by
MOD, GOI. The SW officer shall give it in writing to Principal who in turn
forward to Director of Public Instruction, thereon to MOD.
(b) JW Officer shall give it in writing to Headmistress who in turn
recommends to Inspectress of schools, who shall forward it to Director of
Public Instruction thereon to State Govt.
11. Transfer of Girl Cadets. Transfer of Girl cadets of SW/JW will be
permissible only by mutual consent of Headmistress / Principal concerned
respectively. The cadet has to submit it in writing to Officer in command of her
unit about her transfer.
DUTIES, POWERS, PROMOTIONS, DISCHARGE AND TRAINING
1. Officers of Girls Division are responsible for training and discipline of Girl
Cadets under their command.
2. They should attend all training parade and the annual camp conducted by
Powers (Rule 24)
3. (a) Officer shall exercise the powers of command over all cadets in
their unit. Provided that the power of command shall be exercised by the
officer when attending an authorised parade, when she is in uniform or
when in annual camp.
(b) The powers of punishment vested in such officers are specified in
Part IX of these rules.
Promotions- (Rule25) : Schedule III
4. Ranks and Scale of Substantive Promotion of Officers.
(a) SW Officer. The Senior Wing candidate is directly commissioned
as Lieutenant after successful completion of training. After 8 years she will be
promoted to the rank of Capt, and after 15 years she is entitled for the rank of
Major. But the officer has to undergo refresher training.
(b) JW Officer. The JW Officer on being first commissioned gets the
rank Third Officer. After three years of commissioned service she
becomes Second Officer, and after 8 years of commission she becomes
First Officer. She gets the highest rank of Chief Officer after completing 15
years of commissioned service.
(c) Promotions to the higher rank will be made, provided –
(i) The Officer is fit to hold the rank.
(ii) A vacancy in the higher rank exists in the unit.
(d) All promotions shall be made by the MOD, GOI.
(e) Officers appointed to Medical units of the NCC shall be granted the
rank of Lieutenant, with three years seniority, for purpose of promotion.
5. Ranks of Acting Promotions. The SW Officer can get an acting
Captain rank after five years of commissioned service, and after 8 years, acting
6. The period of service rendered by an officer of the GD as a commissioned
officer in the Armed Forces, WAC(I) or NCC (GD) shall count towards her
seniority and promotion. NCC Officers who proceed on study leave or maternity
leave and or long leave or are posted to perform some other duties and are
permitted to keep lien with their school or college shall be placed on
Supernumerary List for a period not exceeding two years unless Govt in a special
case agree to extend it. This period shall not be counted towards their seniority
for promotion in the NCC. Officers shall take the seniority among themselves
according to the date of commission in the corps.
7. Every officer or cadet is entitled to get discharged after completion of their
period of service. Any officer or cadet can be discharged otherwise as below :-
(a) Provided any false information in any form filled up by the
(b) When her services are no longer required.
(c) When she is medically unfit for further service.
(d) When she has been permitted to resign her commission.
(e) If she is no more the permanent teaching staff of the institute.
8. Discharging Authority (Rule – 27). The authority competent to
authorize the discharge of an officer shall be Ministry of Defence, Government of
India. The authority competent to authorize the discharge of cadets of SW or JW
is the Principal or Headmistress respectively, provided that a girl cadet
discharged shall have the right to appeal in the case of JW , to the Inspectress of
Schools, and, in the case of SW, to the Director of Public Instruction
9. Discharge on Application (Rule – 28).
(a) Any SW / JW officer or girl cadet not entitled to her discharge , who
is desirous of being discharged prior to expiration shall write to
headmistress or principal who may accept or reject.
(b) In case of ANO‘s application, the HOD recommends and forwards
to the Director of Public Instruction who may accept or reject
Training (Rule 30 to 33a)
10. Any Officer who has to undergo Pre-Commission Training before
becoming an officer for a period of Three months in OTA at Gwalior for Women
and Kamptee for Men. And for higher ranks, 30 days refresher training. And she
has to attend each annual camp to refresh herself and shall participate in Social
11. Every officer and girl cadet shall be liable to undergo training for a period
of at least 4 hours per week during the training year. Provided that no training
may be given during the periods the institution is closed for vacations.
12. Annual Training. Every officer and cadet should undergo an annual
training camp (SW-12 days and JW-10 days).
13. Further training. Every officer and girl cadet shall be liable to attend
such further training as may be directed by the Ministry of Defence.
14. Social Service Training. Every officer or cadet shall in addition to the
training be liable to undergo such social service training for such period as the
GOI may direct time to time.
PAY AND ALLOWANCES AND DISCIPLINE
1. It is important to know the Pay and Allowances applicable in the NCC, as
this is also a motivating factor for joining this organization. In addition, NCC being
a disciplined organisation, rules and regulations have to be followed strictly.
Thus, every officer must know their obligations, offences, disposal of offences
and summary reduction and punishments.
Pay and Allowances
2. Pay. Every commissioned officer shall be entitled to pay for periods of
actual attendance at CATC or at an authorized course of instruction with an
Armed Forces School or Centre, including intervening Sundays and holidays, for
every day , not exceeding 12 days in case of SW Officer and 10 days in case of
JW Officer. Pay of Rank is specified in SCHEDULE II. As per this Schedule,
rates of pay, honorarium and allowances admissible to lady officers under Rules
34 &35 are :-
(a) Rank Pay. For SD/SW ANOs.
(i) Lieutenant - Rs. 8000/-
(ii) Captain - Rs.9300/-
(iii) Major - Rs.11300/-
(b) Rank Pay. For JD/JW ANOs.
(i) Third Officer – Rs.3250/-
(ii) Second Officer – Rs. 4400/-
(iii) First Officer – Rs. 5400/-
(iv) Chief Officer – Rs.6600/-
(c) Every officer is authorised to receive outfit allowance of Rs.1200/-
for her tenure and every year she gets an outfit maintenance allowance of
(d) Care-taker allowance is given to those officers who are
commissioned as officers for their service rendered to NCC. This is :-
(i) SD/SW - Rs.500 PM
(ii) JD/JW - Rs. 400 PM
(e) Honorarium is paid to SW/JW officers every month. SD/SW:
Lieutenant – Rs. 900/-, Captain – Rs. 1000/- & Major – Rs. 1100/-. JD/JW:
Third Officer – Rs. 700/-, Second Officer – Rs. 750/-, First Officer – Rs.
800/- & Chief Officer – Rs. 850/-.
(f) Other Allowances.
(i) Messing allowance – During PRCN – Rs.65 pd
(ii) Travelling allowance – I class/ II AC Rail fare.
(iii) Daily allowance – Rs. 35 pd during journey.
(iv) Messing allowance during camp – Rs.45 pd.
(v) FOL – Rs. 80 per camp + 6% for lubricant.
(vi) Incidental charges – Rs. 8 per cadet per ANO.
3. Obligations (Rule 36). An Officer or Girl cadet shall have no liability to
render active service military service. When undergoing training, obey the orders
and carry out the directions of any person placed in command over her.
4. Offences (Rule 37). Any officer or Girl cadet commits an offence if: -
(a) When undergoing training or wearing uniform - uses insubordinate
language to or is insolent towards her superiors, disobeys any standing
orders, ill treats any person who is subordinate to her rank or position.
(b) Fails to appear on parade without any sufficient cause.
(c) Fails to perform any duty without sufficient cause.
(d) Causing any injury to any govt property in charge of the person
willfully, or by culpable neglect, loses the property.
(e) Furnishes false reports & returns knowingly, in respect of official
(f) Accuses any person falsely, knowingly.
(g) Falsely personates any other person at any parade or on any
5. Disposal of Offences (Rule 38).
(a) A charge made against a commissioned officer for any offence,
after investigation by HM or Principal may -
(i) Dismiss the charge if no offence is disclosed by the
(ii) Dispose the case summarily.
(iii) Refer the matter to Director of Public Instruction through the
Inspectress of Schools in case of JW, and to Secretaries / Vice
Chancellor in case of SW.
(b) A charge made against a Girl cadet will be investigated by the
commissioned officer in command of the unit and be dealt with it in the
following ways :-
(i) Dismiss the charge if no offence is disclosed by the
(i) Dispose the case summarily.
(ii) Refer the matter to the Headmistress or Principal.
6. Summary Reduction and Punishments (Rule 39).
(a) The Secretary, MOD, GOI, may award any of the following
punishments to a commissioned officer: -
(i) Dismissal from Girls Division.
(ii) Reduction to a lower rank.
(iii) Forfeiture of seniority or service for the purpose of
promotion for a period not exceeding twelve months.
(iv) Stoppages of pay and allowance until proved loss or
damage as charged or made good.
(b) The Secretary of the dept or VC of the University or the Director of
Public Instruction may award any of the following punishments to the
commissioned officer :-
(i) Forfeiture of seniority or service for the purpose of
promotion for a period not exceeding six months.
(ii) Stoppages of pay and allowance until proved loss or
damage as charged is made good.
(c) The HM or Principal may award the following punishments :-
(i) In case of commissioned officer :-
(aa) Severe reprimand or reprimand.
(ii) In case of Girl cadets :-–
(aa) Dismissal from the Girls division.
(ab) Reduction in rank.
(ac) Severe reprimand.
(d) A commissioned officer placed in a unit may award: -
(i) In case of Girl Cadet non commissioned officer: -
(aa) Reduction of rank as girl cadet.
(ab) Severe reprimand.
(ac) Extra duties not exceeding two.
(ii) In case of Girl cadets :-
(aa) Severe reprimand or reprimand.
(ab) Extra parades not exceeding three.
(ac) Confinement to the lines for a period not exceeding
three days during ATC.
7. While the NCC provides adequate pay and allowances, it demands a high
sense of discipline from its members. Learning rules and regulations is not
adequate by itself. It becomes practical only when it is practiced and strictly
COMPOSITION & FUNCTIONING OF CENTRAL AND STATE ADVISORY
1. The overall functioning of the NCC is the responsibility of the Central Govt
as well as that of the State Govts. In order to ensure smooth functioning of the
NCC as an organization, various advisory committees have been constituted
under the provision of section 12 of the NCC Act.
Central Advisory Committee (CAC)
2. The CAC is the highest advisory committee on the NCC formed on
recommendation of the Kunzru committee report under the Act of NCC. The
Central Advisory Committee shall be constituted in accordance with the
provisions of Section 12 of the NCC Act 1948. The Director General of the NCC
shall be the Secretary of the committee.
3. Composition. The Central Advisory Committee consists of the following
persons, namely :-
(a) The Minister for Defence, who shall be the chairman of the
(b) The Secretary to the GOI, MOD, ex officio.
(c) The Secretary to the GOI, Ministry Of Education, ex officio.
(d) The Financial Adviser, Defence, ex officio.
(e) The COAS and Commander-in-chief, Indian Army, ex officio.
(f) The CNS and Commander-in-chief, Indian Navy, ex officio.
(g) The CAS and Commander-in-chief, Indian Air Force, ex officio.
(h) Five non- official members to be nominated by the Central Govt .
(j) Two members to be elected by the House of the people, and one
member to be elected by the council of States annually.
4. Function. The CAC reviews the functioning of NCC including its aims, resources,
results achieved and future plans. It is the most important forum wherein policy matters
on the NCC are discussed at the highest level.
State Advisory Committee
5. Composition. A State Advisory Committee shall be constituted as
(a) The Minister of Education in a State/UT having a Legislature
functioning, or the Advisor to the Governor, in-charge of the Education
Portfolio, in a state where for the time being, no legislature is functioning,
or the administrator in a Union Territory where no legislature is
functioning, who shall be the Chairman of the Committee.
(b) The Secretary of the Education department of the state concerned,
or if the NCC is controlled by any other department, then the secretary of
(c) The Vice chancellor of each university if any, in any state.
(d) Provided that if the Vice chancellor is unable to attend any meeting
of the Advisory committee, he may depute the Pro – vice – chancellor or
Dy Vice Chancellor or where there is no Pro-vice – chancellor or Dy Vice
chancellor, any officer of the University not below the rank of the Registrar
to attend such meeting on his behalf.
(e) Head(s) of the dept i/c of the NCC in the state.
(f) One rep of the General Officer Commanding in Chief from the staff
of HQ of the Command or Area or Sub area concerned.
(g) Two principals from the colleges which provide a unit of SD/ Girls
Division (SW) to be nominated annually by the State Govt.
(h) Two HM of schools which provide a unit of the JD/ JW to be
nominated annually by the State Govt.
(j) Director, NCC ,concerned.
(k) Three non official members of whom one shall be a woman and
another shall be a member of the state legislature or a non official in case
there is no Legislature for the time being functioning in the state – to be
nominated annually by the State Govt.
(l) The member, if any, of the Central Advisory Committee residing in
(m) One rep of Finance Dept of the State Govt.
(n) Not more than one official, if in the opinion of the State Govt, he is
likely to promote the interests of the NCC- to be nominated annually by
the State Govt.
(o) A senior officer of the Education Dept to be nominated by the State
govt shall be the Secretary of the committee.
6. A recommendation on any matter concurred in by the majority of the
members of an Advisory Committee shall be deemed to be the recommendation
of the committee.
7. Minutes shall be kept on every meeting of an advisory committee. One
copy of such minutes shall be forwarded to the DGNCC
8. Functions. A State Advisory Committee shall ordinarily meet at least
twice a year and may, in relation to those portions of the NCC which are located
within the state :-
(a) Make recommendations and render advice to the central govt and
to the State govt upon the following matters:-
(i) The formation of new units and disbandment of existing
(ii) The selection of the colleges and schools which should raise
units or sub units.
(iii) The selection of persons for appointment as offrs in the JD
(iv) Any other matter which may be referred to it by the Central
govt or State govt or DGNCC as the case may be.
(b) Issue directions and tender advice to OC units of SD and to the
Director of Public Instruction on the following matters :-
(i) Improvement of training and training facilities for cadets.
(ii) Improvement of discipline in the units.
(iii) The general welfare of officers and cadets.
9. The advisory committees play a major role in overseeing the functioning
and progress of the NCC. In the Committees, the institution gets more
opportunity to oversee and advise on the functioning and improvement of NCC.
As ANOs, they should keep the head of the institution aware of its functioning, so
that suitable issues can be taken up in the meetings of these committees for the
betterment of the NCC.
1. The essence of Government service is the sense of discipline to which all
Government employees are subject and the privileges to which they, in general,
are entitled. These two aspects are fully covered by two sets of rules. These
rules are considered most important as they relate to the employees code of
conduct and discipline. Of these, the CCS (CCA) Rules are consulted in
Government offices in connection with discipline cases. As there are a large
number of civilian employees in the NCC, It is necessary to have an overview of
Sections of Rules
2. The various rules are listed under various sections of the CCS handbook.
These sections are :-
(a) Section 1 & 3 – seniority and promotion, departmental promotion
(b) Section 2 – reservations and concessions in appointment.
(c) Section 4, 5, 6 & 7 – pay, DA , HRA and CCA, other compensatory
allowances & other allowances.
(d) Section 8 – children‘s educational assistance.
(e) Section 9 – leave rules.
(f) Section 10 – provident fund.
(g) Section 11 – medical attendance rules.
(h) Section 12 – central government health scheme.
(j) Section 13 – government quarters.
(k) Section 14 – advances.
(l) Section 15 - deputation and Foreign Service.
(m) Section 16 – traveling allowances.
(n) Section 17 – joining time.
(o) Section 18 – leave travel concession.
(p) Section 19 – retirement on superannuation.
(q) Section 20 & 21 – quitting service and resignation, removal and
(r) Section 22 – special voluntary retirement.
(s) Section 23 – concessions when posted to NER.
(t) Section 24 & 25 - conduct rules, discipline rules.
(u) Section 26 - welfare measures.
(v) Section 27 – other service matters.
(w) Section 28 – income tax.
(x) Section 29 & 30 – postal information and telegraph information.
3. Only important aspects of the more important sections will be covered.
Section 1 – Seniority and Promotion
4. Seniority. Seniority means the relative position of an employee in the
cadre to which he belongs. Once such position is fixed, it may undergo changes
in certain circumstances. The rules relating to fixing of seniority position are given
(a) Seniority on Direct Recruitment.
(b) Seniority on Promotion.
(i) Promotion by Seniority -cum-Suitability.
(ii) Promotion by Selection.
(iii) Promotion from more than one feeder grade.
(c) Seniority of Direct Recruits vis-à-vis Promotees.
5. Regular and Ad-hoc Promotions.
(a) Regular Promotions. The number of regular vacancies required to
be filled in the year is estimated as accurately as possible, taking into
account clear vacancies arising due to death, retirement, resignation.
(b) Ad-hoc Promotion.
(i) Becomes necessary when direct recruitment quota remains
unfilled and there is no provision for filling the posts temporarily by
(ii) In short-term leave / deputation.
6. Confidential Reports and Adverse Entries. Confidential Report is an
objective assessment of the work and conduct of a Government servant.
Assessment of CRs is the main criteria for Confirmation, Promotion and Review .
CRs to be written for all categories of Groups ‗A‘, ‗B‘ & ‗C‘ employees, but not of
group ‗D‘ employees. CRs are written annually according to financial year, i.e, 1 st
April to 31 March.
Section 6 – Other Compensatory Allowances
7. These include, among others, special compensatory (hill areas, remote
locality) allowance, tribal area allowance, hard area allowance and bad climate
Section 7 - Other Allowances
8. These include, among others, transport allowance, cycle allowance,
washing allowance, overtime allowance, conveyance hire for local journeys and
Section 9 – Leave Rules
9. General Principles.
(a) Leave cannot be claimed as a matter of right.
(b) The leave sanctioning authority may refuse or revoke leave of any
kind, but cannot alter the kind of leave due and applied for.
(c) Leave of one kind taken earlier may be converted into leave of a
different kind at a later date at the request of the official and at the
discretion of the authority that granted the leave.
(d) Leave sanctioning authority may secure second medical opinion, if
considered necessary in case of MC/FC.
(e) Overstayal of leave without proper sanction will be debited against
the HPL account of the Government servant to the extent HPL is there,
and the excess treated as EOL.
(f) Willful absence from duty after the expiry of leave renders a
Government servant liable to disciplinary action.
(g) Absence without leave not in continuation of any authorized leave
will constitute an interruption of service unless it is regularized.
10. Earned Leave. Is credited in advance in advance at a uniform rate of
15 days each, in two installments (01 Jan & 01 Jul every year). Earned leave can
be accumulated up to 300 days. The credit for the half year in which a
Government servant is appointed will be afforded a the rate of 2 1/2 days for each
completed calendar month of the service which is likely to render in the calendar
half year in which he is appointed.
11. Half Pay Leave (HPL). Half pay leave is credited in advance at the
rate of 10 days on the 1 of January and 1st of July every year. Half pay can be
availed either with or without medical certificate.
12. Commuted Leave. Commuted leave not exceeding half the amount of
half pay leave due can be taken on medical certificate. Commuted leave can be
taken without medical certificate up to a maximum of 90 days in the entire service
if utilized for an approved course of study certified to be in public interest, up to
60 days by a female Government servant if it is in continuation of maternity
leave, up to maximum of 60 days by a female Government servant with less than
two living children if she adopts a child less than one year old. Half pay leave
can be converted into commuted leave with full pay to the extent of half pay
leave (it means one day commuted leave will be granted in lieu of two days
13. Leave Not Due. Leave Not Due may be granted to Permanent
government servant with no half-pay leave at credit. It can be granted on medical
certificate. Up to one year can be granted without medical certificate in
continuation of maternity leave. Leave not due will be debited against the half
pay leave that the government servant earns subsequently.
14. Extra Ordinary Leave. Granted to a Government Servant in special
circumstances as under: -
(a) When no other leave is admissible.
(b) May also be granted to regularize periods of absence without leave
(c) Extraordinary leave cannot be availed concurrently during the
notice period, when going on voluntary retirement.
15. Maternity Leave. Admissible to married / unmarried female employees
(a) Pregnancy. 135 days only to employees with less than two
(b) Miscarriage / Abortion. Total of 45 days in the entire service.
(c) Not debited to the leave account.
(d) Granted on full pay.
16. Paternity Leave. Admissible to Male Government servant with less than
two surviving children. Duration of 15 days during wife‘s confinement.
17. Study Leave. May be granted to a Government servant who has rendered
not less than 5 years service under Government for study in or out of India in
18. Casual Leave. Is not recognized as leave and cannot be combined with
any kind of leave. An official on casual leave is not treated as absent from duty
and pay is not intermitted. Casual leave cannot be combined with joining time.
Essentially intended for short periods. It should not normally be granted for more
than 5 days at any one time, except under special circumstances. Entitlement
(per calendar year) - 8 days for those entitled to 17 holidays and 10 days for
those not entitled to 17 holidays.
19. Special Casual Leave. For sports events, cultural activities of All India
/ Inter State, mountaineering / trekking expeditions, family planning, natural
calamities etc. Can be combined with any regular leave.
Section 10 – Provident Fund
20. Advances from GPF. A subscriber may be allowed to take a
temporary advance from his G P F for any purposes (illness, education etc).
Advances may be allowed every six months. Three months pay or half the
amount at credit, whichever is less, and recoverable in not more than 24 equal
installments is normal amount of advance permitted. Under special amount
there is no limit. . Advance recoverable in not more than 36 installments if it
exceeds 3 months pay. When an advance is granted before completing
repayment of an earlier advance, the outstanding balance will be added to the
new advance and instalments for recovery refixed with reference to consolidated
21. Withdrawal from GPF. A part of the G P F balance may be withdrawn
by a subscriber for the purposes such as education, obligatory expenses, Illness,
purchasing consumer durables, housing, purchasing a house site, constructing,
renovating ancestral house etc. This amount need not be refunded. Limits for
withdrawal from GPS: -
(a) Normally, one half of the amount at credit or six months pay,
whichever is less.
(b) Up to three- fourths of the amount at credit at the discretion of the
sanctioning authority: - Rule 16 (1). This is applicable for only some of the
items listed. For a few items, it could be upto 90% of balance at credit.
(c) The amount of withdrawal plus the Government loan already taken
should not exceed the limits – prescribed under the HBA Rules – Rule 16
(1) and Proviso.
22. Contributory Provident Fund. Every non – pensionable Government
servant is to compulsorily subscribe to the Fund. The amount of subscription may
be any sum as fixed by the subscriber, subject to a minimum of 10 percent of
emoluments and not more than his emoluments.
Section 13 – Government Quarters
23. Allotment of Quarters. Quarters allotted to the individuals having age
of above 25 years on availability & seniority at the Station.
Section 14 – Advances
24. These include interest free and interest bearing advances, festival
advance, flood / drought / cyclone advance, advance for training Hindi, warm
clothing advance, fan advance, typewriter advance, conveyance advance,
personal computer advance, motorcar / cycle /scooter advance and house
Section 17- Joining Time
25. When Admissible, Amount of Joining Time, Extension and Combination
with Leave. Is admissible to join on transfer, in Public interest, a new post either
at the same or a new station. One day is admissible on transfer to join a new
post within the same station, while from one station to another, joining time will
be admissible with reference to the distance between the old & new station by
direct route and ordinary mode. Extension of joining time can be granted upto a
maximum of 30 days by H.O.O. It can also be combined with vacation or leave of
any kind, except C/L.
Section 20 – Quitting Service other than Superannuation
26. (a)Voluntary, An employee has the right to retire and get benefit by giving
three months notice to the Appointing Authority after attaining the age of
50 yrs, after attaining the age of 55 years, on completion of 30 yrs
(b).Premature Pre-mature retirement is distinct from Compulsory
retirement ordered as penalty and, Voluntary retirement. Appointing
authority has right to retire an employee from service if it is in public
interest, by giving him notice of not less than three months in writing or
pay and allowance in lieu thereof. .
(c) Missing Employees. If any employee is missing and his whereabouts
not known, his family can be paid the retirement benefits.
Section 21 - Resignation, Removal and Dismissal
27. Resignation. Should be clear and unconditional . It should be submitted
to the Appointing Authority in respect of the service or post in question who is
competent to accept it.
28. Removal / Dismissal. From service of a Government servant, are the
major penalties which can be imposed upon a Government servant by the
Competent Auth for good and sufficient reasons, after observing the prescribed
procedure laid down in CCS Rules 1965.
Section 24 - Conduct Rules
29. Do‘s and Don‘ts.
(i) Maintain absolute integrity at all times.
(ii) Maintain absolute devotion to duty to all times.
(iii) Those holding responsible posts maintain independence and
impartiality in the discharge of your duties.
(iv) Maintain a responsible and decent standard of conduct in
(iv) Act in accordance with Government policies.
(i) Do not make joint representations in matters of common
(ii) Do not in indulge in acts unbecoming of a Government
(iii) Do not be discourteous, dishonest and partial.
(iv) Do not associate yourself with any banned organisation.
(v) Do not join or support any illegal strike.
(vi) Do not accept lavish or frequent hospitality from any
individual, industrial, commercial firms having official dealing with
(vii) Do not lend money to or borrow money from or deposit
money as a member or agent, with any person with whom you are
likely to have official dealing.
30. Acts, Conduct and Commissions which Amount to Misconduct.
(a) Act or conduct is prejudicial or likely to be prejudicial to the interests
of the master or to the reputation of the master.
(b) If the act or conduct of a servant makes it unsafe for the employer
to retain him in service.
(c) If the act or conduct of the employer is such that the master cannot
rely on the faithfulness of his employees.
(d) If the act or conduct of the servant is grossly immoral that all
reasonable men will say that the employee cannot be trusted.
31. Activities Requiring Permission / Sanction.
(a) To ask for or accept contributions to or otherwise associate himself
in the raising of any funds or other collections in cash or in kind, of any
(b) To engage directly or indirectly in any trade or business or hold an
elective office or canvas for a candidate for an elective office in any body.
32. Unauthorised Absence - Break in Service.
(a) Willful Absence. From duty not covered by grant of leave will be
treated as dies non for all purposes - increments, leave, pension.
(b) Unauthorized absence after leave will be debited against HPL &
excess period treated as EOL.
(c) Order on Break in service is to be invoked under FR 17-A after
issuing notice and hearing representation if any.
33. Government Servants and Politics - Activities Considered Objectionable.
(a) To be a member of any political party or organisation taking part in
(b) To be a member or otherwise associated with or having connection
with any banned organisation and other extremist left parties.
34. Acceptance of Gifts. Government Servants should not accept or permit
any member of his family or any other person acting on his behalf to accept any
gift except in certain cases.
35. Restrictions Regarding Marriage.
(a) Before appointment - bigamous marriage being a disqualification.
(b) Prescribed declaration in this regard is required to be obtained from
every new entrant Government servant.
(a) A Government servant shall not give or take or abet the giving /
taking of dowry.
(b) Dowry means any property or valuable security given or agreed to
be given either directly or indirectly.
37. Sexual Harassment of Working Women.
(a) Defined as, unwelcome sexually determined behavior, whether
directly or by implication (physically contact, demand or request for sexual
(b) An appropriate complaint mechanism should be created in every
organisation for redress of such complaints and time bound treatment
should be ensured.
Section 25 – Discipline Rules
38 Warning / Admonition / Reprimand.
(a) There may be a occasions when a superior officer may find it
necessary to criticize adversely his subordinate‘s work or call for any
explanation bringing the defects to his notice and giving him an
opportunity to explain.
(b) Written warning, admonition or reprimands should not be
administered or placed on record unless the Auth is satisfied that there is
good and sufficient reason to do so.
39. Disciplinary Proceedings. The following minor / major penalties may be
given to the Government servants : -
(a) Censure, withholding of promotions and future increments.
(b) Compulsory retirement, removal from service, dismissal from service.
Section 26 – Welfare Measures
40. Incentives for Promoting Small Family Norms.
(a) A special increment in the form of ―Family Planning Allce‖.
(b) Rebate of ½ % in the interest on House Building Allce.
41. Immediate Relief to the Family of an Employee who Dies in Service.
(a) His family will be eligible for immediate monetary relief of three
months pay or Rs 8,000/-whichever is less, in the form of advance.
(b) The advances should be adjusted within six months against the
arrears of pay and allces, leave salary, and gratuity balance in GPF.
42. As responsible members of the NCC fraternity, it is necessary for us to
have some knowledge of the rules, which govern the large number of civilians
employed in our organization, so that we can deal with them correctly. In addition
to what has been covered in this lesson, all should also read the CCS Rules
handbook & the P & F manual of the NCC.
ORGANISATION OF INSTITUTIONAL TRAINING
1. Having selected the best out of the available candidates based on their
potential and caliber, it becomes the responsibility of the organisation to impart
training to make them effective members to achieve desired goal.
2. Lot of pre-planning and deliberation is gone into while designing the
training programme, which aims at providing full knowledge, capability and
practical experience to the candidates so that the organisation functions
smoothly. NCC training has been designed to create in the youth, a sense of
patriotism, discipline, self-confidence, self-reliance and esprit-de-corps. It also
develops qualities of leadership, spirit of adventure, sense of pride and
achievement and makes them better citizens and leaders.
NCC Activities and Training
3. The NCC activities have undergone a sea change from its inception to the
present day. From drill and weapon training in the beginning, the spectrum of
NCC activities has expanded considerably. These can be broadly divided into
four distinct parts, namely, ‗Institutional Training‘, ‗Community Development‘,
‗Youth Exchange Programme (YEP)‘ and ‗Adventure and Sports Training‘.
Institutional Training in NCC primarily involves preparing the cadets for various
NCC Certificate Examinations, as also instills in them a sense of discipline and
self - confidence.
4. The NCC training is inter-woven with the school and college educational
programmes in such a manner that it does not interfere with the normal
education curriculum in any way. In order to achieve the laid down standards of
training, every year, the DGNCC issues the Training Directive for all wings of the
NCC. NCC Dtes, Group HQs and units ensure that the training is imparted to the
cadets based on the Training Directive and Training Syllabus, which has also
been formalized, and is amended from time to time. It is thus ensured that
systematic, progressive and uniform training is imparted to all cadets in the
5. Institutional Training. Institutional Training is the first step that every
cadet has to go through. It is the main stem from which all other activities branch
out. It is this training which makes a NCC cadet stand out amongst her peer
group. It involves Drill, shooting, physical fitness, map reading, first aid,
gliding/powered flying, boat pulling, sailing and camp training, all of which form
part of Institutional Training. Institutional training also covers basic military
training in Army, Navy or Air Force subjects. The aim of this training is to expose
the youth to a regimental way of life to inculcate in them the values of discipline,
dutifulness, personality, orderliness and smartness.
6. Objectives of Institutional Training.
(a) Firstly to expose young cadets to a ‗ regimental way of life‘ which is
essential to inculcate the values of discipline, duty, punctuality,
orderliness, smartness, respect for the authorities, correct work ethos and
(b) Secondly, to generate interest in cadets by including and laying
emphasis of those aspects of Institutional Training which attract young
cadets into the NCC and provide them an element of thrill and excitement.
(c) Thirdly, to inculcate a ‗defence services work ethos‘ which is
characterized by hard work, sincerity of purpose, honesty, ideals of
selfless service, dignity of labour, secular outlook, comradeship, spirit of
adventure and sportsmanship.
7. Camp Training. Camp Training constitutes the most important part of
NCC Training. After acquiring the basic knowledge in one year, the cadets are
exposed to the much awaited excitement of camp life where they apply the
theoretical knowledge that they had gained in Institutional training. In camps,
young cadets get the thrill and joy of outdoor and community living. In addition,
there are All India Camps such as National Integration, Leadership, Nau Sainik,
Vayu Sainik, Army Attachment, Republic Day and Independence Day Camps in
which cadets from all parts of the country work together and contribute greatly
towards promoting national integration. These camps widen the horizon of the
young cadets and provide them an opportunity to forge bonds of national
brotherhood. These camps have bridged the cultural gap, broken regional,
religious and language barriers and have brought the youth closer to each other.
The camp training assists in developing camaraderie, team work, group
cohesion, qualities of character and leadership, self confidence and self
reliance. Therefore, nearly 50 percent of the enrolled strength gets the
opportunity of attending a camp every year.
Organisation of Training
8. The training is so organised, that it is made interesting and useful and
provides maximum assimilation. With this view, some new subjects like Unarmed
Combat and Posture Training have been introduced. The syllabus for First Aid
training has been brought in line with the syllabus of St. John‘s Ambulance
Association. This will enable the cadets to obtain their proficiency in the subject.
9. In addition, the following steps are taken to ensure better assimilation and
optimum utilisation of the available equipment: -
(a)To overcome shortage of weapons and equipment, the training is
organised on ‗County‘ system.
(b) Squading is done according to the standards achieved by the
(c) Proper and regular briefing of Instructors is carried out.
(d) Emphasis is laid on practical work.
(e) Senior Cadets are made responsible to take classes on various
subjects under guidance. This is called ‗Voluntary Instructor Duties‘.
Certificates and Eligibility
10. The culmination of all training in the NCC is the conduct of various
certificate examinations.Having imparted the training, it is equally important to
make an assessment of how much has been assimilated by candidates and this
is done by way of examination. Passing of these NCC certificate examinations is
a must for the cadets, because it is these certificates that help them to get
various benefits. In NCC, Certificate exams A, B & C are conducted.
11. The Girls Division syllabus consists of fifteen subjects for SW and thirteen
for JW. The allotment of total classes for one training year is 120 for SW and
150 for JW.
12. On completion of NCC Training, the cadet get an opportunity to appear at
various certificate examinations held from time to time. As these certificates are
an authentic validity of training to the cadets, it is very essential to know about
(a) The exam for JW is ‗A‘ certificate. After completion of two years
training a cadet is eligible to appear at ‗A‘ certificate examination.
(b) For SW the examination is known as ‗B‘ certificate exam, which is held
after completion of Second year Course of Training.
(c) ‗C‘ certificate examination is held at the end of 3rd year of training.
14. Institutional Training forms a very important part of the NCC curriculum. It covers
basic military training in Army, Navy or Air Force subjects for NCC Cadets. It primarily
aims at providing training and exposing the youth to a disciplined, dutiful, regimental way
of life. Hence, ANOs should understand its importance for NCC Cadets, and strive to
organize such training in the best possible manner.
PLANNING AND ORGANISATION OF CAMPS, INCL DUTIES OF CAMP
1. The aim of Annual Training Camps is to impart collective training to cadets
with special emphasis on the development of qualities of leadership. Camps are
planned in consultation with the Director of Public Instruction and Director of
School Education well before the commencement of the Academic year (for
location and dates). All concerned are intimated about the dates and location of
2. The Annual Training Camps (ATC) for SW is held for the duration of 12
days and JW for 10 days.
Types of Camps
3. The following types of camps are conducted in the NCC :-
(a) Combined Annual Training Camp (CATC).
(b) Basic Leadership Camp (BLC).
(c) Advanced Leadership Camp (ALC).
(d) Pre-Republic Day Camp (PRDC).
(e) National Integration Camp (NIC).
(f) Republic Day Camp (RDC).
(g) Social Service Camp (SSC).
Preliminary Recce For Selection of Camp Site
4. Preliminary Recce should be carried out about four months before a camp
is due to start. This should be done by the Camp Commandant assisted by the
Sr JCO (Senior-Junior Commissioned officer). Points to be kept in mind before
selecting and conducting a camp are :-
(a) Campsite should be accessible by Road and Rail.
(b) Campsite is bereft of snakes, scorpion, flies and mosquitoes.
(c) Camp area should be on a level ground and it should not require
too much labour to make it fit for camping.
(d) It should have an adequate slope to drain out water from the camp
(e) The site should not be in the proximity of lakes, rivers and canals.
(f) The Civil Govt should not have objection in establishing a camp in
(g) Reasonable amount of shade should be available for rest hours.
(h) Water supply for both drinking and washing purposes.
(j) The area should not be under cultivation during the camp duration.
(k) There should be no disease prevailing in the area especially of
(l) Enough area for parade ground, range facility, and built up
accommodation for stores should be available for girls camp.
(m) ASC depot preferably located closely for obtaining ration.
Move to Camp Area
5. The Advance party should reach camp site four days prior to the
commencement of the camp to ensure :-
(a) General cleanliness of the area.
(b) Marking general layout of the camp.
(c) To establish water points for bathing and washing purposes.
(d) Digging latrines.
(e) Establishing Cookhouse, Office, Quarter Guard, Kote, MI Room,
Priority of Work
6. The following work is carried out by the cadets under the supervision of
regular staff: -
(a) Pitching of living tents.
(b) Digging snake trenches.
(c) Establishment of fire points.
(d) Digging Drains.
(e) Improving existing roads and tracks.
(f) Erecting Sign Posts.
7. Training team consists of: -
(a) Training Officer, 1 NCC Officer (per unit) as Assistant Training
(b) Senior JCO.
(c) One JCO or NCC Officer for Platoon Weapons courses.
Other Activities During Camp
8. The other activities carried out by the cadets are :-
(a) Social Service Work.
(b) Visit to places of Historical Interest.
(c) Cultural activities.
(d) Organising sports and other competitions.
9. Duties of various Camp officials should be given in brief: -
(a) Medical Cover.
(i) State Government provides medical cover provided liaison is
carried out with CMO in advance.
(ii) The duties of Sanitary Squad should be clearly defined.
(iii) Procedure of Sick Report should be correctly implemented.
(b) Interior Economy.
(i) Composition and functioning of messing committee.
(ii) Composition and functioning of purchase committee.
(iii) Procedure for cooking and serving the cadets.
(iv) Hygiene and Sanitation in Cook House.
(v) Arrangement of Mess. For :-
(aa) NCC Officers.
(ab) PI Staff.
(ac) Civilian Staff.
10. Camp orders as appended below will be promulgated to all ranks
participating in the camp. A copy of these should be posted in the Officers Mess,
Information Room and Company Notice Boards: -
(a) Camp Orders and Administration
(i) Pitching of Tents.
(iv) Arms and Ammunition.
(v) Fire Fighting Orders.
(vi) Guards and Duties.
(ix) Camp Routine.
(x) Messing Committee.
(xii) Officers Mess.
(xiii) Ration Scale.
(xiv) Location of Water and Bathing Points.
(b) Training, Clothing and Equipment
(i) Training Programme.
(ii) Training Area.
(iii) Administrative Orders and Issue Time Table.
(i) Out of Bound Area.
(ii) Damage to Property.
(iii) Dress Code.
(i) Security of Personnel.
(ii) Security of Property.
(iii) Location of Fire Fighting Points.
(i) Sick Parade Procedure.
(ii) MI Room Timings.
(iii) Protection Against Common Diseases.
(iv) Personal Hygiene.
(i) Information Room.
(ii) Canteen Opening Hours.
(iii) Cultural Activities.
(iv) Disposal Orders.
Reception Centre/Guest Tent
11. A reception centre and guest tent will be provided near the main entrance.
Visitors may be allowed to go around the camp after permission from the Camp
Commandant / Dy Commandant. In such cases visitor will be conducted by NCC
Officers / Cadets detailed for the purpose.
Purchase of Rations and Camp Necessities
12. Rations will be purchased from nearest ASC (Supply) Depot or Govt
Controlled shops. Items which are not available from these sources may be
purchased from local market through a purchase committee appointed in camp
orders. The composition of the purchase committee will be as follows: -
(a) Regular / WT Officer -1
(b) NCC Officer -1
(c) NCC Cadets -2
13. Members of this Committee will be changed after 3 days. Purchase
committee will be responsible for making all necessary purchase from local
14. (a) As far as possible, the QM Stores should be housed in a
permanent building. If permanent building is not available, case should be
taken up to provide security arrangements for the stores.
(b) It will be ensured that stores are properly stacked off the ground to
avoid damage by white ants and dampness.
(c) Stores should be sited away from the cadet lines.
15. The Camp Office should preferably be sited near the quarter guard and
will be placed ―OUT OF BOUNDS‖ to all cadets.
Marking of Sports and Parade Grounds
16. If camp area permits, each sub-unit will have it‘s own sports ground. This
will be properly marked with white lime. It is desirable to have a big open ground
at least 300 x 200 m for parades.
17. Sufficient number of water points should be arranged in the camp and
particular attention paid to the following:-
(a) Cleanliness of water points.
(b) Proper drainage facilities/soakage pits to avoid stagnation of water.
(c) Water points should be clearly marked with appropriate flags.
(d) A member of the RP will be posted to ensure discipline at water points
and to prevent wastage of water.
18. The following points need special attention when cooking of meals is in
(a) All preliminaries such as cutting, peeling and washing of food items will
be done in a separate room / tent. Peeling and cutting will never be done
in the ground or on gunny bags. Proper preparation tables, cutting and
chopping blocks will be used for this purpose.
(b) Food must be properly cooked and cooking must be so done that food
is ready only a few minutes before the time of distribution. The food
should be served hot except in the case of dishes which are served cold.
(c) Food should be served in an organised manner and proper
arrangements should be made to keep warm for those who are on duty.
19. Notice Board. Every cookhouse will display a Notice Board with the
following orders/statements: -
(a) Sanitary Rules (with translation in local language).
(b) Nominal Roll of cooks and other servants working in cook house.
(c) Duty Roster of cooks.
(d) Medical Inspection of cooks (FFI Record).
(e) Inoculation/Vaccination state.
(f) Current Menu.
(g) Daily scale of ration fixed for the camp.
(h) List of furniture and utensils in Cook House.
20. Soakage Pits. Each cookhouse will have a soakage pit 6' deep and 4.5'
wide. These pits will be fly proofed, filled with lime stone/bricks and covered with
a top layer of earth.
21. Cook House Sanitation. Cook House must be kept scrupulously neat and
clean. All waste food will be buried / burnt in refuse pits which will be located
away from the cookhouse. Each cookhouse will be provided with soap and water
treated with potassium permanganate for washing hands. Sanitation rules for
cookhouse will be displayed at a proper place in the cookhouse. Meal timings
will be displayed in the vicinity of the distribution points.
Mess Rules for Regular Staff
22. All officers, JCO, NCOs and Civilian Staff in the Camp will feed in the
cadets mess and will be charged the messing authorised to cadets per diem. No
separate mess will be established for anyone during the camp.
23. (a) Cordial relations should be maintained with the local people. No cause
should be given for any complaint regarding rude behaviour / damage to
(b) All civilian employed in the camp will be medically inspected. No one
suffering from any contagious disease will be engaged in the camp.
24. (a) Cadets will be forbidden from bringing large amounts of cash and
valuables to the camp.
(b) If due to unavoidable circumstances any cadet does bring large
amount of cash, the same should be handed over to the Camp
commandant for safe custody during the camp. The individual will be
given a proper receipt for the same.
25. Hawkers will not be allowed access to the camp.
Deep Trench Latrines & Urinals
26. Latrines will be smoked every evening. The wooden frames will also be
washed twice a day and treated with lime. Latrine will be provided at the scale of
100 cadets. Partition screens will be erected for each latrine seat. Sweepers will
be on duty to keep them clean. Night latrines will be earmarked and lighting
27. Each sub-unit will arrange to provide sufficient urinals within its area.
These will be treated daily with quick lime.
Information and Recreation Rooms
28. Newspapers and magazines in English and in regional languages should
be made available. Indoor games like Carrom, Darts, Table Tennis etc should be
arranged. A music system with loudspeaker arrangements can be most useful.
Games and Sports
29. Camp Sport Officer. He will be arrange evening games and athletics.
Each game will have JCO/NCO Incharge to coordinate the game activities and
issue of sports stores.
30. An entertainment officer will be detailed to co-ordinate all cultural activities
like concerts, variety entertainment and cinemas. Such activities will finish
before last post. The type of plays and music including recorded music should
be scrutinized properly to ensure that they are not obscene or vulgar.
31. The canteen will function according to the timings notified in camp routine
orders. A price list will be displayed after approval by the Camp Commandant/
32. Leave during camps is not normally granted and will only be considered
under very exceptional circumstances.
33. Private mail will be collected by the Coy Sgt Major from the Camp Office
and distributed to the cadets. A post box will be kept near the canteen or at a
suitable place. Timings of collection of mail will be notified in the Camp Routine
Orders. Postal cover and stamps will be sold in the canteen.
34. The location of the camp office and office timings will be notified in Camp
(a) Orderly Room. Orderly room cases will be brought before Camp
Commandant at the time notified by the camp adjutant.
(b) Publication of Part I order. Camp routine order will be published by
1700 hrs every day and will be read out at Roll Call.
Camp Officials and their Duties
35. Appointments. The following appointments will be made in a camp:-
(a) Camp Commandant.
(b) Deputy Camp Commandant and Accounts officer.
(c) Camp Quarter Master with a senior cadet as understudy.
(d) Camp Adjutant: cadets understudies to be changed over each week.
(e) Camp Messing Officer: cadets understudies to be changed over
(f) Camp JCO Quarter master: cadets understudies to be changed over
(g) Camp JCO Adjutant: cadets understudies to be changed over each
(h) Camp Orderly Officer :To be changed daily.
(j) Camp Orderly JCO : To be changed daily.
(k) Camp Orderly sergeant : To be changed daily.
(l) Camp Senior JCO.
(m) Purchase Committee.
(k) In Naval and Air Force Camps, appointments are to be made in
accordance with Naval and Air Force customs.
36. Duties - Camp Commandant.
(a) He is responsible for overall command, administration and training of
the regular staff, NCC officers and cadets in the camp.
(b) He will maintain close liaison with the civil officials dignitaries in the
area and invite them to the opening and closing functions.
(c) He will ensure that the highest standard of discipline is maintained in
(d) He will be responsible for looking after the health, welfare and
security of all the camp.
(e) He will keep a close watch on the maintenance of camp accounts
37. Duties - Deputy Camp Commandant.
(a) He will work as second-in-command of the Camp and will
personally maintain all camp accounts under the directions of the Camp
(b) He will act as the Camp security officer.
(c) He will help the camp commandant in any other duties assigned to
38. Duties - Camp Adjutant.
(a) He will work as staff officer to the camp commandant and will be in
charge of training and discipline generally.
(b) He will detail all guard and duties.
(c) He will run the camp office and issue Part I and Part II orders.
(d) He will arrange all ceremonial parades and important functions in the
39. Duties - Camp Quarter Master.
(a) He will work as staff officer to the camp commandant and will be in
charge of general administration of the camp.
(b) He will maintain ration accounts and arrange for the timely supply of
all rations, both dry and fresh.
(c) He will be responsible for the provision of accommodation to the
(d) He will hold the charge of all ordnance stores and ASC supplies.
(e) He will visit the cook houses, water and bathing points and latrines
daily to ensure that they are clean and that there are no sources of fly
breeding around the camp.
(f) He will employ local labour in consultation with the Camp
(g) He will control the MT in the camp if no separate MTO is appointed.
40. Duties - Messing Officer. The messing officer should be an NCC Officer.
(a) He will prepare menu in consultation with the Messing committee.
(b) He will ensure that cook houses and dining halls are kept clean and
tidy at all time.
(c) He will ensure that all cooks are medically examined before they are
employed in the cook houses.
(d) He will ensure that meals are served hot.
(e) He will ensure that no food is wasted.
(f) He will report to the camp quartermaster daily for any instructions
regarding cooks and cook houses.
41. Duties - Camp JCO Quartermaster.
(a) He will assist the QM in looking after the QM stores and issuing of
rations to coys.
(b) He will ensure that the stores are properly guarded both during day
(c) He will carry out any other duties assigned to him by the QM.
42. Duties - Camp JCO Adjutant.
(a) He will assist the Adjutant in maintaining overall discipline in the
camp and in detailing guards and duties.
(b) He will prepare Daily parade states and submit the same to the
(c) He will keep a record of daily out passes issued to the cadets.
(d) He will help the Adjutant in matters of training and any other task
assigned to him.
43. Duties - Camp Senior JCO.
(a) He will carry out the duties of Sub Maj in relation to the regular staff
in the camp.
(b) He will be in charge of the treasure chest.
(c) He will help the Camp Commandant in maintaining the highest
standard of discipline in the camp and keep him informed of any
44. Duties - Camp Orderly Officer. He should be an NCC officer.
(a) The camp orderly officer will be detailed in camp orders.
(b) His tour of duty will commence from reveille of the day he is
appointed till reveille of the following day. During this period he will remain
(c) He will exercise general supervision over the JCO of the day.
(d) He will report to the camp adjutant as soon as possible after
commencement of his duty. He will collect the orderly officers‘ report from
and will obtain any special instructions regarding fire practices,etc. He will
hand over the completed form by 1000 hrs on the day when he hands
over the charge.
(e) He will turn out the Quarter Guard once by day and once by night.
(f) He will mount the guard daily by the time specified in camp orders,
and will ensure that they are conversant with their duties. Quarter Guard
once mounted cannot be changed before their normal 24 hours duty
without the permission of the Camp Adjutant.
(g) He will check the pickets in sub unit s areas at night.
(h) During his tour of duty he will visit the following :-
(i) The QM‘s stores at the time of issue of ration.
(ii) One of the cadet messes at meal times.
(iii) The canteen, info and recreation rooms at the time of their
(iv) The cook houses, dining halls, latrines and urinals.
(j) He will attend one of the roll call parades.
(k) He will visit kotes and may carry out a surprise check of arms and
(l) He will see that lights are put off at the time specified in the camp
(m) He will not leave the camp area without permission of the Adjutant.
45. Duties - Camp Orderly JCO.
(a) The camp orderly JCO will be detailed in camp orders.
(b) His tour of duty will commence from reveille of the day he is
appointed till reveille of the following day. During this period he will remain
(c) He will assist the orderly officer of the day.
(d) He will report to the orderly officer as soon as possible after
commencement of his duty, and will obtain the time for touring the Guard.
(e) He will mount the guard at the time specified in camp orders.
(f) He will turn out the quarter guard once during the day and once
during the night. He will also carry out a physical check of the arms and
ammunition in any particulars kote and will sign the kote register.
(g) He will check the security measures in the camp.
(h) He will inspect sick report prior to its marching in the MI Room.
(j) He will check fire appliances in the camp area.
(k) He will ensure that lights are out at the specified time.
(l) He will not leave the camp area without permission of the Camp
(m) He will report any unusual occurrences in the camp area to the
orderly officer and the Sub Maj.
46. Duties - Camp Orderly Sergeant.
(a) His tour of duty will be from reveille to reveille.
(b) He will report to the orderly officer aas soon as possible after
(c) He will accompany the orderly officer on his visit to the cadets
messes at meal time.
(d) He will assist the orderly officer at Guard mounting .
(e) He will parade at the commanding officer‘s orders.
(f) He will see that all lights are out in the company lines after Lights
out has been sounded.
(g) He will not quit the camp during his tour of duty.
(h) He will visit the canteen to see that good order prevails, and that is
(j) He will submit a written report to the orderly room that the above
duties have been carried out.
(k) He will fall in the sick parade and will take them to MI Room.
(l) He will prepare the sick report form for MO‘s remarks and will
produce the book to the Adjutant.
47. Camps should be so organised and conducted that they leave a feeling of
satisfaction and achievement amongst all participants. There should be an
experience of a lasting nature and it should endeavour to inculcate a spirit of self-
improvement and a strengthening of physical fitness, mental robustness and
RGANISATION OF REPUBLIC DAY CAMP (RDC) INCL PM RALLY AND
INTER DTE COMPETITIONS
1. The culmination of all training activities in the NCC is witnessed at the
centrally organised Republic Day Camp at Delhi in January each year. In this,
cadets from all State Dtes participate. A large number of Inter-Directorate
competitions are conducted in this camp. The grand finale of the camp is the
Prime Minister‘s Rally where the salient activities of the NCC are demonstrated.
The Prime Minister takes the salute at the Rally and gives away prizes to the
Best Boy and Girl Cadets of all divisions and wings. He also presents the NCC
Banner to the best all round NCC State Dte.
Aim of the Republic Day Camp (RDC)
2. The camp is intended to :-
(a) Project the best of NCC to the National Leaders and people of the
(b) Conduct Inter Directorate Competitions to determine the winner of Inter
Directorate Championship Banner and All India Best Cadet of all wings.
(c) Select and train NCC Marching Contingents to participate in the
Republic Day Parade at Rajpath on 26 Jan and Guard of Honour for the
Vice President, Prime Minister and other dignitaries.
(d) Select Cadets for visiting foreign countries through the Youth
Exchange Programmes to be conducted during the ensuing training year.
(e) Foster pride amongst the cadets for being Indian Nationals and
members of the NCC.
(f) Conduct special display of Army, Navy and Air Wing activities during
Prime Minister Rally.
(g) Promote National Integration and better mutual understanding between
youth hailing from all parts of the country and friendly foreign countries.
(h) Give opportunities to selected cadets from all States / Union Territories
and remote areas, to participate in Republic Day celebrations.
Republic Day Camp Standing Instructions
3. Duration & Strength. The RDC is of 25 days duration i.e. from 5 Jan to
29 Jan, (both days inclusive). The camp strength is 1800 cadets. Any further
increase will be got approved from Govt. of India every year by Secretary RDC
(Jt Dir, Trg-B) by 01 Aug. Foreign cadets also attend the camp from 14 Jan
onwards. Camp staff will be in addition to this.
4. Blood Donation. Blood donation is organised by the Camp
Commandant during RDC. Each contingent will be informed the number of
cadets required to donate blood before the commencement of the camp.
Contingent commanders are responsible to provide the allotted number of cadets
of appropriate age group out of those, who are not involved in RD parade, guard
of Honour, Prime Minister‘s Rally or any other such essential duties.
5. Composition of Dte RD Contingent. Each NCC Directorate sends a
contingent to represent the Dte / State(s) / Union Territories to participate in RD
Banner competition and various functions / events of the NCC RD Parade. It is
composed of the following: -
(a) Contingent Commander. One Lt Col / Maj (Regular or Whole Time
Officer of any wing/service). Officer will perform this duty only once during
their entire tenure with NCC
(b) Contingent Officer. One Gent & one lady. Male ANO will be detailed
for RD duty only once in three years.
(c) PI Staff. One Sub, two Sub/Nb Sub, two NCOs, one addl JCO/NCO
auth to Dtes with contingent cadet strength over 100.
(d) GCI - One
(e) Lascar - Two
(f) Dhobi - One, (addl if str is over 100)
(g) Civilian Clerk - One
(h) Cadets. As per vacancies allotted. They are organised in platoon &
sections under cadet appointments. Cadets to wear actual cadet
appointment during camp. The allotment of cadets vacancies to Dtes is
made on the following: -
(i) Enrolled cadet strength of Dtes.
(ii) Requirement of cadets of various wings for competitions, RD
Parade, PM‘s Rally and other displays.
(iii) Smaller Dtes may be given few vacancies over and above their
share to make their contingent of viable strength.
(j) ANOs of certain remote area / off shore islands are given chance to
attend RD camp in turn. These vacancies are in addition to vacancies
6. Policy of Selection of the Contingent. The exact method of selection to
be adopted for selection of the cadets depends on the cadets available,
availability of funds and certain local conditions, which vary from state to state.
Therefore, it is not possible to lay down a uniform procedure. The Dtes will,
however, follow the following guidelines for selection of their contingents :
(a) Selection at the Unit and Group level will be a continuous process and
Unit and Group Commanders will prepare a provisional list of cadets
considered suitable for RD Camp during various Unit/Group level Camps,
visits to sub-units for Certificate Examinations and special parades /
competitions organised at Unit / Group level.
(b) Dtes will convene a Board of Officers composed of minimum of three
members to carry out an impartial selection of cadets in various categories
(c) If the cadets are of acceptable standard and fulfill the requirements of
various Competitions and Special Activities, efforts will be made to give a
fair representation to the States / UTs and regions covered by the dte,
albeit merit alone should count for final selection of a cadet.
7. Eligibility Conditions for Cadets. Cadets included by Dtes in their
contingents must fulfill the following conditions :-
(a) Cadets of Ist year of NCC training in their present division (Senior or
Junior) will not attend.
(b) Repeaters are not permitted except in the following categories :-
(i) R & V - Maximum of two RD Camps.
(c) Cadets sponsored by the Dtes for Youth Exchange Programmes and
Best Cadets must not be in the final year of the NCC or graduation course.
(d) Cadet must not be involved in any disciplinary case.
(e) Cadet must be medically fit. They will be protected against typhoid,
tetanus and small pox. Cadets suffering from any communicable disease
including skin disease will not attend.
(f) (i) JD/JW - Attended a minimum of 75% of parades conducted during
the 2nd year of NCC Trg and one Annual Training Camp during the
NCC Service. JD Cadets upto class X will only attend RD Camp.
(ii) SD/SW - Should have attended a minimum of 75% parades
conducted during each year of his/her NCC Training and one Annual
Training Camp during the NCC Service.
8. Special Duty Cadets. Each Dte will forward names of cadets trained to
perform duties as stated below, on 05 Jan to Secy RDC (SC) in duplicate :-
(a) One SD boy and one SW girl for reading Vote of Thanks in English and
(b) One SD boy and one SW girl for appointment as Camp Cadet Captain
of the day in rotation. These cadets are to be selected for their command
and control, bearing and word of command.
(c) Four JD boy cadets for traffic and RP duties and four JD cadets for
Hygiene, Sanitation and General duties.
(d) Four SD boys for prize distribution duties (Table Drill).
(e) Two SD cadets for detailment as stick orderlies to the DG.
9. Candidates for Guard of Honour Competition. Each Dte will attach a list
of competitors for Guard of Honour Competition as under :-
(a) SD Boys. Nine per Dte (three each from Army, Navy and Air Wing).
J & K will field all SD Army Cadets.
(b) SW Girls. Three per Dte. These girl cadets will be tested in Arms
Drill and MUST be in possession of Army Wing uniforms (Terrycot) as all
girls of Guard of Honour are to be dressed alike.
10. Candidates for RD Parade Selection Competition. All SD Boys and SW
Girls, or as directed by DGNCC, will partipate in this competition less the
(a) R & V and Band cadets.
(b) Gliding, Aero / Ship Modelling, slithering & parasailing cadets.
(c) Cadets already selected for Guard of Honour.
11. Intimation of Breakdown of Cadet Strength. Living accomodation for
cadets are required to be sub-allotted before the arrival of contingents. To avoid
any changes in this allotment, Directorate will furnish detailed composition of
their contingent indicating number of cadets under each of the following
categories to Secy RDC on 26 Dec :-
(a) SD Boys (Less R & V).
(b) JD Boys (Less Bands).
(c) SW Girls (Less R & V).
(d) JW Girls (Less Bands).
(e) Bands & R & V Cadets (Boys and Girls separately).
12. Instructions for Special Categories of Cadets.
(a) Cadets Bands. One boys and one girls band will be nominated for
RD Camp. Repeaters are permitted in this category. Although band
personnel will form part of the Dte contingent, they will be accommodated
in separate accommodation (in boys/girls area) which will not be marked
for line area competition. They will also not participate in Inter-Dte
competitions. All bands will attain proficiency in playing National Anthem,
and NCC Song apart from two marching tunes and two slow march tunes
(b) R & V Cadets. These cadets will also be accommodated separately
in boys/girls area. Their accomodation will also not be marked for line area
competition. Cadets of R & V may attend maximum of two RD camps.
After the Horse Show, Officers, Cadets and Staff not required for PM‘s
Rally (including reserves), will be sent back to their units on 20 Jan.
13. Advance Documents Concerning Cadets / Contingents. All Dtes will send
following documents duly signed, through their advance party (one NCO out of
RD contingent staff) as shown below: -
(a) Bio-data and documents of the Best Cadets and Youth Exchange
Probables. These will be carried in a sealed envelope addressed by name
to the OIC Competitions, DDG (MS) and DDG (Trg) respectively, and
handed over on 20 Dec at DGNCC.
(b) Final Nominal Rolls of Contingent Officers, PI Staff, Civilian Staff
and cadets to Secy RDC on 20 Dec.
(c) Details of mode of travel, Railway Station, Train date and time by
which the Dte Contingent would be arriving. One copy of this will be
handed over at the Camp Commandant and one to Lgs Dte of DGNCC.
14. Documents by Contingent Commanders The following documents will be
brought personally by the Contingent Commanders and handed over to the
authorities as shown against each: -
(a) Nominal Roll. As per form 14 copies to be distributed as under: -
(i) Four copies to RD Cell (Secy RDC).
(ii) Two copies to OIC Competitions (DDG MS).
(iii) Three copies to the Camp Commandant including one for
use of Chief Training Officer.
(iv) One copy to the Camp Adjt.
(v) Four copies to Dir Coord at DGNCC alongwith a certificate
that antecedents of all ANOs/Cadets have since been verified by
(b) Special Nominal Roll. Nominal rolls for team / individual
competitions will be given to OIC Competitions before the competitions.
Names of cadets for special duties will be indicated in these Rolls.
(c) Identity Cards. All cadets attending the RD Camp will be in
possession of Identity Card, issued by the respective Dtes. On arrival in
the RD Camp, these Identity Cards will be authenticated by the Camp
Comdt / Adjt by affixing Camp Stamp.
(d) Indemnity Bond. All Civilian Staff and Cadets will sign an indemnity
bond and these will be submitted to Camp Commandant on 05 Jan.
(e) Vouchers for weapons, arms and controlled stores on arrival will be
handed over to the Camp Commandant.
15. Contingent Stores, Clothing and Equipment. The Contingents will be
required to bring with them arms, ammunition, contingent stores and equipment,
clothing and necessaries as stated in the standing instructions for RD Camp.
16. Arrival of Contingents. The contingents will arrive at the RD Camp on 03 /
04 Jan as Instructed by the DG NCC. Contingent Commanders will ensure that
instructions given are strictly followed. Proper escort under PI Staff will be
detailed to ensure security of arms, ammunition and stores during the journey.
17. Cadet Appointments. To enable the cadets to learn leadership by practice
and play a greater role in management of the Camp, selected cadets will be
nominated for following cadet Appointments: -
(a) Camp Cadet Appointments. Camp Commandant will nominate Camp
Cadet Captain, Cadet Captain (Boys) and Cadet Captain (Girls) out of
names sponsored by the Contingent Commanders. Camp Commandant
will nominate cadets for Security, Traffic Control, Hygiene and Sanitation
and Reception duties. Appointments will be changed every Wednesday.
Camp Comdt will also select daily, a smart and well turned out ‗Cadet
Stick Orderly‘ out of cadets sponsored by contingents and appoint him as
the DG‘s stick orderly.
(b) Contingent Cadet Appointment. Contingent Commanders will nominate
cadets as Contingents Cadet Captain (Boys), Senior Cadet Boys, Senior
Cadet (Girls), Cadet Sergent Major, Cadet Quartermaster, Contingent
Writer, Line Sentries and Cadets in-charge of Team/Party sent for any
Competition / Event / Camp Function.
(c) Above Camp Appointments will exercise control over cadets under
their charge and ensure speedy ―Fall In‖, movement in proper squad,
paying of compliments to Officers and good conduct of their contingents.
18. Flag Area is one of the star attractions of the Camp. It is therefore, the
duty of Camp Commandant and Contingent Commanders to ensure that this
area is properly maintained at all times.
19. Camp Commandant will nominate an officer and a NCC cadet to exercise
control over Flag Area. They will ensure that cadets work on Flag Area only
during permissible timings and equipment is kept uncovered for visitors from
0900 hrs to 1300 hrs and from 1700 hrs to 1900 hrs, and for any other visits
notified in the camp programme. Flags will be kept flying from reveille to retreat
and area will be flood lit in the evenings. Sentry at Main gate will control entry of
vehicle and personnel.
20. On the days of VIP‘s visit to the Camp, the Camp Commandant and
Contingent Commanders will take a round of the Flag Area 45 minutes before the
visit time and get it set right. Transparent covers may be used to protect Flag
Area items during night and inclement weather. It will, however, be the duty of
Contingent commanders to get these removed in time.
21. Flag Area will be kept ready on all Cultural Show evenings and VIP/Press
Party visits and will have cadets specially nominated and rehearsed for the Flag
Area to explain the Theme.
Dispersal after the Camp
22. All contingents will disperse on 29 / 30 Jan under the respective
contingent commanders. Delhi has a big tourist rush during the month of Jan. All
Dtes will, therefore, take advance action to obtain reservations for the return
journey, taking into account their sight seeing plan after the Camp. Bands cadets
will also disperse alongwith Dte contingents.
23. Prior to departure from the Camp, the Contingent Commanders and the
Camp Staff will obtain clearance from all concerned.
Discipline at RDC
24. RD Camp is a model camp visited by many dignitaries. The officers and
cadets should ensure exemplary standard of turnout, behaviour (both on parade
and off parade) and ensure that various activities are conducted with clock like
precision. To achieve this, the Camp Commandant, the Camp Staff and the
Contingent Commanders will ensure that special emphasis is laid on the
(a) Officers and cadets will be properly turned out at all times. Individuals
will not wear any unauthorised items of clothing, ribbons and badges.
(b) Movement of cadets within the camp will be in proper squads under
the Cadet Appointment.
(c) All functions / events will commence at the scheduled time. The
tendency to make the cadets ‗fall-in‘ too much in advance will be curbed
as it causes disruption of other activities.
(d) All ‗fall-ins‘ will be held in a military fashion and proper reporting
procedure followed. Tendency to carry out lengthy ‗fall-ins‘ without prior
planning as regards the orders to be passed or sub allotment of cadets for
various activities will be curbed.
25. Responsibility for Ensuring Good Conduct
(a) Camp Commandant will be responsible for maintenance of discipline in
respect of Camp Officers and cadets at all times including various
functions outside the RD Camp.
(b) Contingent Commanders will be responsible to ensure that cadets
nominated for various functions and receptions, do not violate instructions
passed by the RD Cell or Camp Commandant. The senior most officer /
cadet from each contingent present at a function will be responsible to
check his cadets.
26. Discipline and Conduct during Functions with VIPs and Special Events.
Camp Staff and Contingent commanders will ensure that the behaviour of cadets
at various functions / activities is exemplary. Following will be ensured :-
(a) Camp staff and cadets are seated at least five minutes before the
guests start arriving.
(b) Cadets occupy only the allotted enclosure / seats. Boys and girls will
be seated in separate enclosures.
(c) ANOs (Male and Ladies), PI Staff and GCIs are nominated for each
function / event to ensure good conduct of the cadets. Cadets found
making noise, shouting or whistling will be produced before the Camp
27. Out Passes. No cadet will be permitted to leave the Camp except for
28. Sight Seeing and Shopping. No sight-seeing is permitted till the Camp
inauguration. Contingent Commanders will organise sight-seeing / shopping on
the days reflected in the Camp Programme and ensure that all cadets get a
chance in turn. Each sight-seeing party will be accompanied by a Contingent
Officer / PI Staff / GCI, who will be responsible to bring the cadets back to the
Camp by 1730 hrs. Sight-seeing outside Delhi will be permitted on 29 Jan. Dress
for sight-seeing/shopping will be mufti only. Camp Transport may be allotted for
organised sight-seeing within Delhi, when available. Before hiring buses for sight-
seeing, Contingent Commanders will ascertain from Camp Commandant about
the strength permitted to go out.
29. Function in the Camp Auditorium. In order to ensure smooth entry / exit of
cadets, reception, ushering and seating of guests, maintenance of discipline
during various camp functions, the seating in Camp Auditorium will be organised
for all functions as per instructions contained in succeeding paras.
30. For Entry and Exit, the following entrances when facing the stage will only
be used :-
(a) Boy Cadets & PI Staff. Entrance form MI Room side (left, when facing
(b) Girl Cadets and GCIs. Entrance from Camp Officers side (Right, when
facing the stage).
31. Seating. Standard seating for all such assemblies in the Camp Auditorium
will be (starting from front row to rear row of Sofas/Chairs/Benches) as follows :-
(a) Front Row of Sofas. DGNCC Staff and Lt Cols and above of Camp
Staff and DDG, Director and Gp Commanders of Delhi Dte.
(b) Second Row. For remainder officers of Camp & Delhi Dte (if required 3
or 4 rows).
(c) Subsequent Rows.
(i) Girl Cadets and GCIs (JW in front) - Right 1/3 of audotorium.
(ii) Boy Cadets (JD in front) - Left 2/3 of audotorium.
(d) Last Three Rows. PI Staff
32. Conduct During Functions. Contingent Commanders will nominate a
contingent Lady Officer / GCI / PI Staff each to sit in the last row of Girls and one
male ANO/PI Staff to occupy seat on the side of Boys Enclosure to exercise
control and check any talking/movement during the conduct of function. Once
everyone is seated, emergency exits (on both sides) will be opened by the PI
Staff to be detailed by the Camp Adjutant. All will keep the headgears on and
remain seated but will be cautioned to word of command ―Baithe Baithe
Savdhan‖ at the time of reporting to Camp Commandant/ADG. They will remain
seated, when the DG/Chief Guest enters, unless specifically told to stand up.
Caps/berets will be automatically removed once the talk/function starts and worn
again at the end of the function. Everyone will stand up when Chief Guest
departs. Cadets will leave by respective exits after the officers have left the
Security at RDC
33. Responsibility. Dy Camp Commandant is the Ex-Officio Camp Security
Officer and Fire Fighting Officer. He is responsible to the Camp Commandant for
efficient implementation of Camp security and Fire Fighting orders. These orders
will be framed and promulgated on the date of commencement of the Camp.
These orders will be prominently displayed at various boards. After the DG‘s
Opening Address, the Camp Commandant will briefly explain these orders to all
officers and cadets of the Camp.
34. Security of Stores.
(a) Security of government stores in the RDC Camp area, shall be
ensured through a system of ―Gate Pass‖. Movement of stores out of the
camp area will be permitted only through gate passes signed by the Dy
Camp Comdt (Camp Security officer). All ‗Gate Passes‘ will be serially
numbered. Details of each pass issued alongwith details of stores for
which issued and to whom issued will be entered in a register to be
maintained by the Dy Camp Comdt. A similar register will be maintained
with the sentry at the exit gate of the camp. Details of all passes will be
entered by the sentry in his register. The sentry will check stores being
taken out and endorse as such on the gate pass. The gate pass will be
retained by the gate sentry and returned next day to Dy Camp Comdt for
(b) During non RDC period the gate pass will be issued by the OIC DG
35. Surprise Check (SC)Committee.
(a) A surprise check committee directly responsible to the Chairman RDC
will function during the period of the RDC. The committee will be detailed
by the Secy RDC. SC will comprise of 2 officers, 2 JCOs and 2 NCOs
detailed from DG NCC staff and RDC Camp staff. The committee will
carry out surprise checks as ordered.
(b) The names of the committee will be published by the RD Cell and the
committee will function on day to day basis. The committee will report to
the Secy RDC at 0900 hrs daily for instructions.
(c) The committee will be responsible for carrying out surprise checks in
all areas where purchases are made and will authenticate on the bills of all
major transactions made during the day. The committee will report their
findings daily to Secy RDC SC who will, in turn, keep the chairman RDC
36. Security of Camp Personnel. Most of the cadets who attend the RD
Camp are new to Delhi and large numbers of them are girls and Junior Division
boys. It is, therefore important that proper arrangements are made for their
security both in the Camp and also when they are out of Camp for any training
activity, functions or sight-seeing / shopping. The Camp Commandant assisted
by Camp Security Officer (Deputy Camp Commandant), OsC Boys & Girls will be
responsible to ensure security of all camp personnel. The security system will
consist of camp guards and patrols, police guard and contingent line sentries.
37. Security of Arms and Controlled Stores. Weapons, ammunition and
controlled stores will be kept under guard in the Camp Kote. Officers or cadets
will not be allowed to bring their personal weapons in the Camp. Strict security
measures for the safe custory of rifles and bayonets, their issue for
parades/rehearsals and return to Kote, will be made. All rifles must be properly
chained at night. One NCO will be detailed to be present in the Kote both during
the day and night.
38. Security of Personal Belongings. Contingent Commanders will ensure
that cadets do not keep costly/valuable articles, jewellery or heavy cash with
them. Lady officers and girl cadets will not bring gold ornaments or costly
jewellery to the Camp.
39. Security of Camp Area. The Camp Security Officer will arrange with the
police authorities for perimeter patrolling of the Camp during the night. He will
also maintain close liasion with HQ Delhi area, Station HQ Delhi Cantt, Army
Headquarters Camp and Police Authorities.
40. Security Passes for Civilian Personnel. Security passes will be issued to
all civilian personnel and labour employed in the Camp. These will be checked by
the security staff frequently. In case of casual labour, strict watch will be kept on
their movement and entry/visit into the Camp.
41. Visiting Hours. Relatives of the cadets will be allowed to visit the cadets
between 1600 hrs to 1830 hrs daily except when there is a formal function in the
Camp. The visitors will report at the Reception Centre. OIC Reception Centre will
arrange to call the cadet concerned through announcement on camp
broadcasting system. For this purpose a parallel PA system on the camp
broadcasting system will also be set up by Camp Sig offr, in visitors tent. Cadets
will be allowed to meet such visitors in the Visitors Tent / Barracks or the Camp
Shopping Complex. They will not be allowed to go outside the Camp with them.
42. Responsibility. Deputy Camp Commandant will be Ex-Officio Fire Fighting
Officer. He will be responsible to formulate and promulgate fire fighting orders.
He will also liaise with Army Headquarters Camp, Delhi Area and Air Force
Station and make arrangements for obtaining help from them in case of fire.
43. He will obtain approval of the Camp Commandant as to the number and
location of the points and sub-allot the responsibility for setting up and
maintenance of these fire points. He will carry out fire fighting practice at least
once a week after getting time approved from RD Cell.
44. Contingent commanders should educate their cadets on the fire fighting
arrangements. They will strictly enforce the following precautionary measures :-
(a) No naked light will be permitted inside the tent/barrack.
(b) All lights will be put off at the lights out time.
(c) No one is permitted to smoke while attending a function / training
activity, inside a tent or near a vehicle or inflammable material like the
aircraft fuel, which should be well marked.
Inter Dte Republic Day Banner Competitions - General Rules
45. Every year Inter Dte Competitions are held in various fields/activities of the
NCC to determine the Champion Dte, which is presented a Banner by the Prime
Minister at the PM‘s NCC Rally on 27 January every year. Some of the
competitions are conducted at various All India Centrally Organised Camps, prior
to Annual RD Camp and remainder at the RD Camp. Venues of the Camps,
where such competitions will be held, are issued by DGNCC/Trg (A) by 01 April
46. List of Competitions. The RD Banner Competitions are divided into two
parts whose details are given below: -
S.No. Competition Max Marks awarded during Marks towards
the conduct of Competition RD Banner
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(a) Part I Competitions 1800 190
(b) Part II Competitions 5060 760
PART - I COMPETITIONS
(a) Mandatory Conditions
(i) Attendance of Camps by Cadets 200
(ii) Allotment of funds by State/UT 100
(iii) Implementation of rates of Allowances 120
(iv) Remittance of DG‘s Share of Regt Fund 100 35
(v) Cadet Welfare Society Contribution 80
(vi) Utilisation of Scholarship Awarded by 100
(b) General Proficiency and Achievements
(i) Deficiency of ANOs 72
(ii) MT Accidents 48
(iii) Cadets Enrolment 48
(iv) Outstanding Losses 48 45
(v) Audit Objections 48
(vi) Selection for YEP 24
(vii) Selection for Mountaineering 24
(viii) Utilisation of Vacancies on Army/Navy/ 24
(ix) Submission of Reports and Returns 48
(x) ACR Regular/Whole Time Officers 48
(xi) Timely reporting of PI Staff for Various 18
centrally organised Camps including RDC
(c) Social Service Activities
(i) Tree Plantation 50
(ii) Number of People Educated 50
(iii) Number of Cadets Donated Blood 50
(iv) Number of Roads/Bridges Constructed 50
(v) Community Development Projects 150 50
(vi) Publicity of Services 100
(d) Naval Training 100 30
Air Training 100 30
Total Part I 1800 190
PART II COMPETITIONS
(a) Contingent Events
(i) Line & Flag Area Assessment
(aa) Line Area Assessment 220
(ab) Flag Area Assessment 90 50
(ac) Briefing Flag Area Motivation Hall 40
(ii) Drill Competition (SD & SW) 500 100
(iii) Drill Competition (JD & JW) 100 25
(iv) Gd of Honour & RD Parade Selection 500 50
(v) National Integration Awareness
(aa) Presentation 120 30
(ab) Quiz 100 20
(vi) PM‘s Rally March Past 100 25
(b) Team Events
(i) Army Wing Competitions.
(aa) Obstacle Course 100
(ab) Pt to Pt March 50
(ac) Advance Shooting 100 60
(ad) Gun Drill 50
(ii) Naval Wing Competitions.
(aa) Boat Pulling 200
(ab) ship Modelling 100
(ac) Sailing 100 50
(ad) Firing 50
(iii) Air Wing Competitions.
(aa) Gliding 250
(ab) Aero Modelling 150 50
(ac) Skeet Shooting 50
(iv) Girls Wing Competitions.
(aa) Signals & Tele Exchange Operation200
(ab) First Aid & Home Nursing 200 60
(ac) Map Reading 50
(c) Common to All Wings
(i) Shooting (SD, SW, JD & JW) 400 50
(ii) Cultural Competitions 400 50
(d) Individuals Event - Best Cadet Competitions
(i) SD (Army Wing) 100
(ii) SD (Naval Wing) 100
(iii) SD (Air Wing) 100 60
(iv) SW (Any Wing) 100
(v) JD (Any Wing) 100
(vi) JW (Any Wing) 100
(e) Discipline Competition 240 80
Total Part II 5060 760
Part I Competitions : 190 Marks
Part II Competitions : 760 Marks
Total : 950 Marks
Notes : (i) Competitions not counted towards RD Banner is Best Rider
(ii) Dte scoring highest marks in aggregate is declared the winner of
RD Championship Banner.
(iii) The Dte which fails to field a team in any competition will be
awarded nil marks, in that competition.
(iv) Due consideration will be given to Dtes exempted from
particular competitions and their overall percentage will be computed
on number of competitions participated in by such Dtes.
(v) J & K Dte will be awarded for Naval Wg competitions out of 60
points till the time Air Training is restored in the state.
47. Random Selection.
(a) Random Selection by draw by OIC Competition will be carried out
48 hours prior to the competition to select the participants for each
competition except for Drill (both SD & SW and JD & JW), Guard of
Honour & RD Parade Selection, Part I of National Integration, Line & Flag
Area, Cultural, Gun Drill, Best Cadet and PM‘s Rally March, these being
contingent / Team Competitions. Dtes can, however, nominate 25% of
total participants rounded off the lower whole number in the following
(i) Obstacle Course & Pt to Pt March.
(ii) Advance Shooting.
(iii) Shooting common to all wings.
(iv) Signal & First Aid.
(b) Instructions for random selection in respect of Air Wing & Naval
Wing Competitions are given in the relevant Competition Rules.
(c) This selection will be done from the entire nominal roll of the
contingent participating in the camp. Any State Dte which fails to field full
team including the reserve will get penalty marks as under :-
(i) In case of shortfall in the nominated cadets - inherent penalty
because the Contingent selected after random selection does not get
marks which that particular participant would have otherwise scored.
(ii) In case of shortfall in the reserve selected - 5 penalty points per
48. Participation / Exemptions.
(a) Strength of teams and exemptions for each competition are given in
the Red Hand book.
(b) The following cadets will not take part in any Competition / will only
take part in competitions as indicated against them :-
(i) Band Cadets - Will not take part in any competition.
(ii) Special Activity Cadet - Will only take part in Line & Flag area
Competition. They will not take part in any other competition.
(iii) R & V Cadets - Will only take part in R & V competitions.
49. General Provisions. Following general rules will however, be followed for
all RD Banner Competitions: -
(a) Participation is open only to cadets on enrolled strength of NCC
Dtes. No other category of individuals will participate.
(b) A cadet can participate in one competition only (Team or Individual)
in addition to Contingent Event and Cultural Competition.
(c) Within Cultural Competition, a Cadet may participate in any number
of items / competitions.
(d) A cadet who has already taken part in and finished with any RD
Banner Competition of that year held prior to RDC, i.e., at a Centrally
Organised Camp, may be part of Dte contingent for RD Camp, but he /
she can participate only in Contingent Events, Best Cadet Competition
and Cultural Competition at the RD Camp.
(e) A cadet will not take part in the same event of the same category /
wing more than once except for equestrian events. For example, a firer
who has taken part in shooting for JD while in 9th Class, cannot take part
in same competition as a JD Cadet in 10th Class. He can, however, take
part in Shooting Competition of SD after joining Senior Division.
(f) For Army Wing, Girls and Shooting Competitions, the aim would be
to have all participants participating in at least one of the competitions.
(g) A cadet will not attend Vayu / Nau Sainik Camp more than once
even for taking part in a RD Banner Competition. Cadets who have
attended ALC / BLC or Vayu / Nau Sainik Camps may, however, attend
RD Camp. Cadets of NCC Bands may attend RD Camp more than once
provided they remain on the enrolled strength of NCC.
(h) A Cadet will also not attend RD Camp more than once. A Cadet
who has attended a RD Camp as JD / JW cadet may, however, attend
one more RD Camp as SD / SW cadet. Same restrictions will be
applicable to Best Cadet Competitions. Cadets of R & V can, however,
attend maximum of two RD Camps in the same category but cannot
compete for Best Cadet. They can however, compete for Youth Exchange
Programme, if otherwise eligible.
(j) Cadets in first year of training of respective Division / Wing are not
eligible to participate.
(k) JD Cadets upto class X are only eligible to participate. Cadets in
Class XI in Sainik Schools having Senior Division are, however permitted
to participate in RDC.
50. RD Camp is held in January every year. The activities of the cadets and
officers attending are observed with keen interest by various dignitaries visiting
the Camp and covered by the media. Also, the international participants in the
camp carry everlasting memories of their stay and association. Therefore, it
should be our endeavour to ensure, ‗The Best Standards‘ in all spheres are
achieved by all concerned. To conduct the camp in the most efficient manner and
to set the highest standards it is necessary to understand each and every aspect
of RD Camp and its competitions. The Red Book must also be read thoroughly
for being more conversant with the orders and the goals of this very prestigious
FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT OF A NCC UNIT
1. In a NCC unit various types of fund are maintained. These funds may be
financed from various sources like Govt money, contribution from employees or
private sources. It is imperative that one has a thorough knowledge of these
2. All accounts are generally operated by the OC / Adm Officer and the cash
in hand is kept in separate bags in a steel safe by the Officer Commanding / Adm
Officer / Sub Maj (Custodain of cash).
Definition of Book Keeping.
3. It is the art of recording pecuniary or business transactions in a regular
and systematic manner. It pre-supposes that such record shall be in a permanent
form that the details covering the transactions shall be so arranged that the
monetary aspect of each separate transaction, each group of similar
transactions and the whole of the transactions, is entered into during the given
period, may be maintained with the minimum of trouble and delay.
4. All funds which are financed entirely from public money, the unexpended
balance of which are refundable to Government. Mainly the cash received from
CDA will be maintained in this account. In the event of not being devoted to the
objects for which granted and also un-issued pay and allowances, officer
allowances fund and the estates of deceased men and deserters, the
unexpended balances of these funds are refundable to the government. Points to
remember here are :-
(a) Proper entries in the stock book as well as the cash book will be
maintained on the day of occurrence. Cash Book will be closed monthly.
This account is subject to audit by the Local Audit Officer.
(b) Expenditure under this head on account of PI Staffs Amenity,
Training and Education Grant, will be made strictly on proper approval of
the permanent Officer Commanding. As no balances are admissible on 31
Mar under this account, these should be utilized well before and to the
best advantage of the PI Staff.
(c) Sale proceeds of ‗Raddi‘ will be credited in the cash book before 31
March and the balances refunded to the Treasury for items of ‗Grants‘.
(d) PI Staff in NCC who cannot be provided with accommodation are
permitted to claim Compensation in Lieu of Quarters (CILQ). The staff
reporting on permanent posting will apply for the accommodation through
the CO to the Station Headquarters intimating whether he desires family
accommodation, or will live single. When permitted to make his own
arrangements, he will submit a plan of suitable accommodation selected
by him, along with the rent of the house with facilities of water and
electricity available. This information must be submitted before or within a
week after hire for approval of the Station Commander. The
accommodation will be inspected from discipline and sanitary point of
view. After approval all persons will submit their certificates monthly
certifying whether they are living in the quarter with or without family.
(d) Children Education Allowances. This includes :-
(i) Reimbursement of tuition fee and Hostel subsidy are
admissible as per existing orders on the subject.
(ii) All concerned are required to submit the requisite education
certificate etc immediately on their arrival on posting and on the
start of each academic year / session in order to publish the claim
in Part - II Orders.
(e) Example of public funds are (Regimental Account Indian Units): -
(i) Imprest Account.
(ii) Adjutant‘s Cash Account.
(iii) Quartermaster‘s Cash Account.
(iv) Annual Training Grants (ATG).
(v) Education Training Grant (ETG).
(vi) Amenity Grant.
5. Is the funds other than public funds as defined above, maintained by a unit,
which are financed either wholly or partly from public money. Every fund which is
maintained by subscriptions of officers or men or from both, and every fund to
which money accrues from the use of govt buildings or apparatus must be
regarded as Regimental.
6. The system and method of keeping Regimental Fund Accounts by NCC Dtes,
NCC Gp HQs and NCC units for receipts and disbursements of amount and for
providing necessary safeguards against loss by theft and fraud, are based on the
rules laid down in the ―Defence Service Regulations‖ and ―Notes on the
Prevention of Fraud‖. Example of Regimental Funds are Band Fund, Mess Fund,
Condiment Allowance and Lead and Cartridge Fund.
7. Sources of Receipt. The fund is built up on subscription from officers and
staff posted to NCC at the following rates: -
(a) Brig/ Eqvt and above - Rs. 20.00 p.a.
(b) All other officers - Rs. 10.00 p.a.
(c) NCC ANOs - Rs. 10.00 p.a.
(d) JCOs/NCOs - Rs. 4.00 p.a.
(e) All cadets - Rs. 4.00 p.a.
(g) Share of canteen profits.
(h) Grants received from Universities and rebates collected from
8. The regimental fund is distributed as follows: -
(a) 40% to DG NCC.
(b) 15% to NCC Dte.
(c) 15% to NCC Gp HQ.
(d) 30% to be kept by unit.
9. Dy DGs NCC / Commandants / OsC units are empowered to spend
amount out of NCC Funds on authorised items upto the limits as indicated
(a) Unit CO/OsC : Not exceeding 75% of the annual income
or Rs.40,000/- per annum whichever is less.
(b) Group Cdr : Not exceeding 75% of the annual income
or Rs. 80,000 per annum whichever is less.
(c) DDG States : 75% of annual income or Rs. 2,50,000/-
per annum whichever is less.
(d) DDGs are also authorised to sanction expenditure exceeding the
ceiling limits for Gp Cdrs and OsC units and upto Rs. 40,000/- per annum
in respect of each unit. DDG will obtain approval of DG in case above
limits are exceeded.
(e) List of items on which expenditure may be incurred from NCC
(i) NCC Day celebration and other similar functions.
(ii) Furniture for recreation rooms.
(v) Books and periodicals.
(vi) Indoor and outdoor games.
(vii) Musical instruments.
(viii) Utensils, crockery & cutley.
(ix) Camp furniture.
(x) Photographs and albums.
(xi) Cameras and projectors.
(xii) Purchase of private items of uniforms.
(xiii) Band instruments.
(xiv) Brochure and certificates.
(xv) Unit flags.
(xvi) Greeting cards.
(xvii) Expenditure on tea/refreshments.
(xviii) Any other items with prior concurrence of Dy Dir Gen
NCC/Director General NCC.
10. Private funds include all funds not financed in any way from public money
such as :-
(a) Battalion Fund.
(b) Sports Fund.
(c) Benevolent Fund.
(d) Entertainment Fund.
(e) Library Fund.
(f) Garden Fund.
(g) Mandir Fund.
(h) Other Welfare Funds.
State Govt Public Funds
11. These include: -
(a) Pay and allowances civilian staff.
(b) Unit Officer Fund.
(c) Annual Trg and Amenity Grant.
(d) FOL fund.
(f) Washing allowances.
(g) Refreshment Allowances.
(h) Camp Expenditure.
(j) Expenditure on miscellaneous items.
(k) Annual Outfit Allowance.
12. The funds under this account are allotted by NCC Dtes on receipt from
from State Govt from time to time on yearly basis. The financial year for the
maintenance of accounts covers the period 01 Apr to 31 Mar each year.
(a) NCC Dte initially allots the minimum possible funds for three
months to cover the expenditure for essential items of Office
Contingencies, telephone expenditure on Petrol for vehicles and allows
unit to incur expenditure on items as required for office building rent actual
expenditure on water and electricity if any.
(b) Thereafter the allotment is made by the DDG NCC on the basis of
demands from the units keeping in view the existing balance of funds and
the anticipated actual expenditure for remaining part of the year i.e. upto
31 March. A sum of Rs. 800/- is given as permanent advance to meet
immediate cash expenditures. This is reclaimed each time, it is spent.
Permanent advance varries from state to state.
(c) The funds are allotted under the following heads :-
(i) Pay and allowances of Civil Staff.
(ii) TA/DA Civil Staff and refreshments to the NCC Cadets.
(iii) Other contingencies.
(iv) Camp funds.
(d) No specific amount is allotted for the pay and allowance and TA/DA
to civil staff or for refreshments to cadets on parades, but units are
permitted to incur the actual expenditure.
(e) Funds under other contingencies are allotted for the following
(i) Office contingencies.
(ii) Telephone expenditure.
(iii) FOL & maintenance of vehicles.
(iv) Honorarium and Annual Outfit Allowance to NCC Officers and
Washing Allowance for Cadets.
(v) Amenity and Training Grant for NCC Cadets.
(vi) Courses for NCC Officers.
(f) Refreshment Allowance is admissible to NCC Cadets for two
parades each week and eight parades in a month.
(g) All Company Commanders are required to submit the refreshment
claims on the given form, one certifying the details of attendance, the
other giving details of refreshment provided and number of cadets and the
rate with total amount. These will be submitted by fifth of each month to
the OC for scrutiny and payment.
(h) The accounts clerk will check the bills thoroughly and that
attendance given on the bills agrees with the attendance registers
maintained by the Coy Cdr. The Coy Cdr will submit the money receipt
while collecting cash from the Officer Commanding.
(j) Washing Allowance is admissible @ 10/- per month to SW/JW NCC
cadets. It is admissible to a cadet even when a cadet attends one parade
in a month.
(k) The amount is drawn from the Govt Treasury on the conditions laid
down and authorised only to those cadets who have been issued with
uniforms and fulfil the above conditions.
(l) All Company Commanders are to submit the claims for washing
allowance in triplicate on the given form by the last week of Feb each
year. Washing allowance is supposed to be claimed and disbursed twice a
year, but it is normally done only once.
(m) Acquitance rolls of washing allowance will be submitted by the Coy
Cdr but the un-disbursed amount if any must deposited before 31 Mar for
crediting into the Treasury.
Honorarium and Outfit Allowance
13. All Coy Cdrs are required to submit their honorarium claims duly
countersigned by their Principals in the first week of each month. The payment of
honorarium will be made monthly. Annual outfit is admissible to Senior Wing
NCC Officers after completion of two years commissioned service.
14. It is of utmost importance that all funds must be maintained and accounted for meticulously. Care
should be taken while operating various funds.
CAMP BUDGET & ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE
1. Camps forms an integral Part of NCC Training. The single major item of
expenditure of any unit is that on camps. The Govt of India, Ministry of Defence,
also has a share in this expenditure, as 50% of the actual expenditure incurred
on camps is borne by them. It is therefore, essential that a uniform procedure is
followed by all units for camp accounting. The most important declaration made
by the Raksha Rajya Mantri during the Joint States Representatives and Deputy
Director General (JSR & D) conference, was that henceforth, Central Govt will
share 75% of expenditure on NCC Camps and States will have to contribute only
25%. He also declared that Central Govt will bear full expenditure for conduct of
NCC Camps in the NER and the state of J and K, both being disturbed areas.
2. Camp Expenditure. The term ―Camp Expenditure‖, includes the following
items of expenditure in respect of camps :-
(a) Messing Expenditure.
(i) Officers (ANOs).
(b) Pay of rank / annual honorarium for officers.
(c) Expenditure on conveyance of officers and cadets to and from
(d) Incidental expenditure.
(e) Expenditure on transportation of vehicle to camp site and back, &
(f) Expenditure on TA/DA of civilian staff.
(g) Any other items specially mentioned by NCC Directorate General.
3. Financial Arrangements. Financial arrangements will be as follows: -
(a) Expenditure on camps is initially borne by the sponsors of the unit.
50%(75%) of the actual camp expenditure is reimbursable, wherever
admissible, by the Govt of India. Necessary debits in this connection are
required to be raised by the State Accountant General in the case of State
Govt sponsored units, against the Regional Controllers of Defence
Accounts concerned, supplemented by an audit certificate and giving the
required details of expenditure. State Accountants General may raise
debits up to 80% of 50% of the actual expenditure in advance of audit, and
20% on completion of audit.
(b) Camp expenditure in respect of NCC units in the under mentioned
institution is borne by the Govt of India, as shown against each: -
(i) Sainik Schools & Military Schools.
(ii) Navodya Vidyalayas and Central Schools.
(iii) Public Schools funded by Central Govt.
4. Budget Proposal. Once the recce is done and the camp location is
finalized, the unit commander sends the Recce report for the camp site and
Administrative Joining instructions, alongwith the Budget proposal, keeping in
mind the strength of the enrolled cadets, the number of cadets who have to
attend the camp and type of the camp. For the Annual training Camps, the unit
commander has to decide the number of cadets whereas for the centrally
organized camps the allotment is made by the DGNCC. Budget proposal is sent
well in advance by the unit commanding officer through proper channel to Dte for
sanction. The estimates of expenditure should be as accurate as possible in
relation to the items of expenditure.
The Budget proposal consists of the following: -
(a) Messing. ANOs = 45 x No of ANOs x No of days.
Cadets = 40 x No of Cadets x No. of days.
(b) Rank Pay. ANOs = According to the Rank of the ANOs
proposed to be attached and No of days.
(c) TA / DA for Cadets and ANOs. Distance of the Institution is
considered for calculating this.
(d) Incidental. ANOs = 8x No of Days x No of ANOs.
Cadets = 8 x No of Days x No f Cadets.
(e) FOL. Rate as per the Type of camp x No. of Cadets and
(f) TA /DA for Civilians. No. of civilian staff x authorisation
Note: Messing and No of ANOs per cadet varies from Dte to Dte.
5. Bank Account and Drawal of Money. Sanction of the competent
authority will be obtained, where required, to open Bank/Personal deposit
account in Bank/Government treasury. No money may be drawn unless it is
required for immediate disbursement. It is not permissible to draw money to
prevent the lapse of funds sanctioned.
Duties of Appointments & Camp Committees
6. Duties of Camp Commandant. The Camp Commandant is personally
responsible for the safe custody of cash and expenditure from the funds made
available to him for running a camp. He is also responsible for the rendition of
camp accounts to the concerned authorities, clearance of audit objections /
observations, and for the safe custody of all documents submitted to audit. It is
the responsibility of the Camp Commandant to handle cash personally. He will
ensure that cash and cheque books are always in safe custody. The following
points are of special importance: -
(a) Heavy Cash balance should not be kept in the camp.
(b) Except where it is unavoidable, payments should always be made
in crossed cheques
(c) Carrying personally their share of cash for camp expenditure by
unit commanders/ others participating in combined camps, is not in order
(d) Cash should be drawn from the treasury / bank only when actually
required for disbursement
(e) Normal precautions laid down by the services should e strictly
7. Duties of Deputy Camp Commandant. Duties of the Deputy Camp
Commandant in respect of accounts will be as follows: -
(a) Maintenance of all cash accounts in the camp.
(b) Checking and maintenance of documents pertaining to messing
(c) Checking and maintenance of documents connected with
expenditure of all stores hired and purchased out of incidental expenditure
(d) Submission of completed accounts with all relevant documents to
the Camp Commandant who will arrange for the audit thereof soon after
termination of the camp.
8. NCC Officers / Cadets Committees. Formation of Committee will be: -
(a) In order to associate NCC Officers / Cadets in the running of camps
and to make them conscious of their responsibilities. Various committees,
such as messing committee etc, should be formed with NCC Officers and
Cadets as members.
(b) In so far as the accounts and purchase are concerned the following
committees should be formed in each camp :-
(i) Contract Operating Board. To receive and inspect rations
received from the contractor.
(ii) Purchase Committee. For purchase of urgent camp
(iii) Barrack Standing Committee. To fix lighting hours, number
of lanterns etc, whenever camps are not electrified.
9. Losses in Camps. Camp Commandants are not authorised to write off
losses of stores/public money occurring in camps. Any loss of central govt stores
will be regularised in the prescribed manner. Loss of public money and stores
purchased from funds initially provided by the State Governments will be
regularised by obtaining necessary state govt orders through normal channels.
10. Procedure for Purchase of Rations for NCC Camps.
(a) Source of Ration Supply. ASC Depot or Local market.
(b) Supply of rations from ASC Depot will be as follows :-
(i) As soon as a camp is planned, the Director NCC will decide
on the advisability of getting rations from ASC sources wherever
ASC Depots are located in the same place or near about the camp.
In this case, the Camp Commandant will be asked to make a
requisition to the formation HQ within whose jurisdiction the camp is
to held. He will give the full details of the camp such as the
strength, duration, location with postal address, nearest service
supply depot, distance and the approximate quantities of items he
requires. This information must be given to the formation concerned
at least three to six months in advance, as laid down by the
formation HQ concerned.
(ii) On receipt of approval from formation HQ the Camp
Commandant will liaise with OC Supply Depot, submit indents and
further details required by them.
(iii) Wherever ASC Depots are located in the same place or near
about the camps, the rations will be purchased from ASC Depots.
(iv) On receipt of priced vouchers from OC Supply Depot the
Camp Commandant will deposit the cost of rations and draw the
rations on the specified dates. The success depends on close
liaison between the Camp Commandant and the OC Supply Depot.
11. Purchase from Local Market. In other cases, rations may be purchased
from the Govt controlled shops. Items of rations which are not available from
ASC Depots or Govt controlled shops will be purchased from the local market
through a Purchase Committee. Only in case where prior approval of NCC DG
has been obtained for appointing contractors, rations may be purchased from
(a) In cases where prior approval of DGNCC as been obtained for
appointing contractors, the Directors NCC will arrange for the supply of
rations from local contractors.
(b) No contract will be concluded without calling for tenders except with
the prior sanction of the competent authority.
(c) The requirements of different items of rations will be estimated. This
will depend upon the strength of the camp and the scale of rations to be
(d) Tenders will be called for who will submit sample of dry ration in sealed
glass containers along with their tenders and in case of fresh rations, their
specifications will be mentioned.
(e) On a specified date, the Board assembles in the NCC Dte, the least
quoted will be decided.
(f) The Director NCC, after issuing the acceptance of tender, will forward
the sealed sample containers to the Camp commandant for display in the
Camp QM Stores.
(g) Though initially the requirement will be on the planned strength of the
camp, actual requirement can be estimated depending on exact strength
of the camp.
(h) A board of officers called Contract Operating Board will be appointed
in the camp to receive and inspect the rations supplied by the contractor.
The composition of the Board will be one Regular Officer as presiding
officer, One NCC officer and two senior cadets if available.
(j) Contracts will be a for the period of particular camp.
(k) No cash advances will be made to contractors.
(l) After supply of rations, the contractor submits the bills together with
copies of supply order/receipts issued by the camp authorities. The bills
will be checked and payments will found when there is no default.
Maintenance of Accounts
12. One of the essentials of an accounting system is that all transactions,
whether of money or stores are recorded accurately and with promptitude. This
is a fundamental requirement.
13. Records. The following are some of the more important records
required to be maintained by every Camp Commandant:-
(a) Cash Book.
(b) Daily messing expenditure statement.
(c) Camp Stores Ledger.
(d) Loan Ledger.
(e) Register of Security Deposits.
(f) Attendance Register.
(g) Camp FOL Account including Daily Running Report.
(h) Register of Hired Transport.
(j) Telephone Call/Rental Register.
(k) Postage Account.
(l) Master-Roll of Camp Followers.
(m)Audit Objection Register.
14. Cash Account for the Camp. Cash account for the camp will be as
(a) Each Camp Commandant should maintain a separate cash account for
each camp. Printed Columnar Cash Books prescribed by Central / State
Govt for recording cash transaction should be used. If such a book is not
available manuscript cash book containing the requisite number of sheets
may be used.
(b) Over-writing / erasures of entries in accounts / records / documents are
strictly forbidden. Any alteration necessary should be attested by a
(c) At the end of the month and at close of the camp, cash balances
should be verified and certificate of correctness of the balances recorded
in the cash book.
15. Procedure for Maintenance of Cash Book. This will be as follows :-
(a) All monetary transactions (receipts for payments) should be recorded
in ink immediately when they take place.
(b) Amount received as security deposit or earnest money from the
suppliers of rations etc. should also be taken as a receipt in the cash
(c) Payments for purchase of rations, fuel, hiring of utensil and other
stores, pay of cooks, should be entered on the charge side of her cash
book as and when made, duly supported by vouchers specifying the full
particulars of articles supplied / service rendered.
(d) Bills / Receipts are to be arranged chronologically and numbered
serially. Separate serial number should be assigned to receipt and
payment vouchers and filled separately. It is essential that against each
entry in cash book the relevant serial numbers of receipts / payments
vouchers is given in the columns provided for the purpose.
(e) Where an entry in the cash book represents payments made to several
individuals, it is advisable to keep separate details showing the name of
each individuals with the full address, the amount paid to him and brief
particulars of the payment made.
16. Payments of Bills. Payments of bills will be as follows :-
(a) Bills will be obtained for the stores received together with a copy of the
supply order/receipts issued by the camp authorities as early as possible
and interlinked with the requisitions.
(b) These bills will be checked thoroughly with the supply order and the
register maintained for the receipts of rations. It is to be ensured that the
bills have been prepared according to the rates approved.
(c) All bills will be passed for payment by the Camp Commandant on the
strength of certificate endorsed on the bill and taken on ledger charge.
The cash purchase transaction will also be posted in cash book after
obtaining orders of the camp commandant.
17. Remittance of Undisbursed Amount. The balance of cash in
hand and in bank on the termination of the camp after meeting all charges, will
be remitted to the treasury with speed and promptitude.
18. Period of Retention of Records. All records pertaining to
Camp Accounts should be carefully retained for a period of ten years. After the
expiry of the aforesaid period, an intimation, proposing the destruction of time
expired records, should be submitted to NCC Dtes after verifying the records that
no objection/observation on these accounts is outstanding, who in turn will issue
orders sanctioning the destruction of the records.
19. Safe Custody of Documents. All documents in respect of the following
camps will be kept in safe custody by NCC Dte concerned in whose jurisdiction
the camp is held. This is considered necessary because the accounts are
audited by the Accountant General of the state concerned where the camps are
(a) All India Summer Training Camps.
(b) Advance Leadership Course.
(c) Republic Day Contingent Camps.
(d) Officer Training Unit Camps.
(e) Combined Military/RMS/Central/Private/Public School Camps.
(f) Combined NCC Air Camps.
(g) Combined NCC Naval Camps.
(h) Pre-Commission/Refresher Training Camps.
(j) Cadets (whole time instructors) Camps.
20. Weights and Measures. Standards weights and measures should be
adopted in maintaining the messing account. Regional weights if any, in bills
should be converted into standard weights and measures after taking them on
charge in the messing account books.
21. Scale of Rations. Dte NCC will lay down a scale of rations for
vegetarians and non-vegetarians in respect of each camp, depending upon the
cost of items prevalent in the market, eating habits of the cadets, their average
age and keeping in view the monetary limit prescribed, including wages of mess
staff, hire charges of utensils etc. Although no hard and fast rule can be laid
down in regard to the scale of dry and fresh rations and refreshments per cadets,
the items and quantity consumed should not exceed the scale of rations as laid
down by the Director, NCC. If in any particular case, the Camp Commandant is
required to issue rations in excess of the prescribed scale, he should record
reasons for doing so.
(a) Ration Strength. The daily ration strength, vegetarian and non-
vegetarians should be notified in camp routine orders. All casualties in
respect of NCC personnel including hospital admission will be published in
camp routine orders. On no account ration will be drawn in respect of
persons admitted to hospital or those struck off strength.
(b) Daily Attendance Register. Daily attendance register should be
maintained. The feeding strength, as shown in the daily messing
expenditure statement, attendance recorded in the attendance register
and the feeding strength as published in the camp routine orders should
22. Disposal of unconsumed rations is as follows :-
(a) The unconsumed rations, if any, should be disposed of in any one of
the following ways and the sale proceeds credited in the cash book :-
(i) By return to the supplier at cost price.
(ii) By sale to the nearest unit or by sale to the entitled personnel at
cost price if the ration articles are purchased from ASC sources.
(iii)By public auction.
(b) The method adopted for the disposal should be recorded with details of
the articles, sale proceeds and full address of the individuals to whom
sold. If the amount realised is less than the cost price, the reason thereof
should be recorded.
23. Messing Arrangements in Camp. Only one mess will be run
for all officers, JCOs, PI staff and cadets. List of all officers, JCOs, PI Staff and
cadets are to be maintained on day to day basis, and they will be charged the
normal messing allowance admissible to cadets. Officers may however
supplement their food but this cost will be borne by them. Such items of food will
be cooked in a separate kitchen run by officers. On no account special items will
be cooked in cadets mess. Camp commandant will, therefore, warn the PI staff,
wherever necessary, to bring along with them the required funds. This amount
will be credited in advance in cash book and final adjustments made on the
termination of the camp.
(a) Messing Arrangements for Civilan Staff. Separate arrangements for
messing in respect of civilian staff will be made as they are entitled to DA
wherever permissible. Under no circumstances will they be allowed to eat
in the cadets mess, free of charge.
(b) Mess Servants.
(i) Cook and water carriers etc should be employed with due
economy. The number of cooks, water carriers and servers is at a
scale each of one per 45 cadets.
(ii) The daily rates payable to them should be determined with
due regard to the rates prevailing in the area. The civil authorities
should be contacted for obtaining the requisite information. If the
camps are held at military stations, the rates should be obtained
from the station authorities.
(c) NCC Officers. NCC Officers are entitled to Rs 45/- per
diem for the duration of the camp. The amount will be drawn and paid to
them in cash by the camp commandant and their receipt obtained.
(d) Messing Arrangements in Camp on Contract. Messing
arrangements in camps for NCC officers and cadets will not be entrusted
to contractors or carried out through contractors.
24. Incidental Expenditure.
(a) Generally, lump sum grant is made in respect of the incidental
expenditure. The funds are intended to be spent in connection with the
camp only. The amount sanctioned should not necessarily be spent in
full. Expenditure will depend on various factors such as location of the
camp, availability of built up accommodation with sanitary arrangements,
lighting and water, availability of MES furniture and so on. The expenditure
on employment of labour planning and upsticking for a camp must be
eliminated as far as possible by proper advance planning and utilising the
man power available with the unit.
(b) Grant of Incidental Expenditure. Wherever the incidental
expenditure grant is not on a per capita/per diem basis, the full incidental
grant will be admissible of more than 50% of the planned cadet strength of
each unit attending the camp, subject to amounts as sanctioned by the
State Government. Half the incidental expenditure grant is admissible if
50% or less of the planned cadet strength of each unit attend the camp.
(c) Items of Expenditure. The items of expenditure which are met
from the incidental grant are detailed below :-
(i) Labour Charges.
(ii) Payments to barbers, washer man and sweepers. The daily
rates payable to them should be determined with due regard to the
rates prevailing in the area. Civil authorities should be contacted
for obtaining the requisite information. If camps are held at military
stations, the local rates should be obtained from the station
authorities. The number of such personal should be based on the
following scales :-
(aa) Washer man - One for 75 cadets.
(ab) Barbers - One for 100 boy cadets.
(ac) Sweepers - One for 50 cadets.
(Note: - When shallow and deep trench latrines are used the scale
of sweepers will be two sweepers for 75 cadets).
(iii) Information Room requisites.
(iv) Amenity stores, e.g. radio, gramophones, out door and indoor
(v) Trophies, Prizes and Photographs.
(vi) Accommodation and allied charges e.g. water, light,
conservancy and hire of furniture where necessary.
(vii) Materials for cleaning and upkeep of information / equipment.
(viii) Training items, e.g. target paper, special items for exercises,
note books and colour items of camp.
(ix) Provisions of amenities and other requisites for inspections
and visits by important persons during the camp.
(x) Medicines not available in hospital / MI Room.
(xi) Construction of Cook house.
(xii) Items required for cultural activities.
(xiii) Printing charges.
(xiv) Lanterns and hot weather appliances, e.g. heaters.
(xv) TA/DA of civilian staff, if funds are available.
(xvi) Any other items of expenditure for which there is no specific
(d) Accounting of Stores Purchased From Incidental Expenditure
Grant. The accounting of stores purchased from incidental expenditure
grant is as follows :-
(i) Separate ledger for non-expendable and expendable stores
purchased from the camp incidental expenditure grant will be
maintained. Separate folios should be allotted for each items. It is
very essential that all items purchased are taken on ledger charge
in the respective ledgers supported by CRVs. The numbers and
date of the bills should always be cited therein. A certificate to the
effect that the stores have been taken on ledger charge will also be
endorsed on the CRVs.
(ii) On termination of the camp, the non-expendable stores
ledger should be closed to net balance by transfer of items to unit
camp stores ledger by appropriate vouchers.
(iii) Similarly the expenditure stores ledger should be closed to
NIL balance by proper expense vouchers and the balance if any, of
any items, may be disposed of to the best advantage of the state.
25. Responsibility for the Settlement of Audit Objections. It is the
responsibility of the unit commanders of unit where original accounts and
connected documents are held or the Camp Commandant, as the case may be,
to ensure that no objections relating to the camp account are kept pending. All
possible steps to expedite the settlement of objections/observations should be
26. Objections Register. An objection register will be maintained in
which all items of audit objection/observations will be transcribed and progress
watched. This register will be made available for inspection by inspecting
Reports and Returns
27. Camp Report. Camp Report will be prepared as follows :-
(a) Within two days of termination of the camp, the Commandant will
render a statement in the form and send to DG NCC.
(b) NCC Dte will prepare the debit statement and send the same to
state accounts general / state education department endorsing a copy
thereof to DG NCC by the10th of every month.
28. Audit Report. A copy of the Regimental Audit Board Proceeding or
State authorities audit report, alongwith the replies of the Camp Commandant as
the case may be, will be forwarded to NCC Dte concerned with a copy to DG
NCC so as to reach them not later than 14 days of the termination of the camp.
29. Expenditure Statements. All India combined / Zonal Commandants
are required to render, in addition to the reports and returns mentioned in the
previous paragraphs, an expenditure statement and a statement showing share
of each unit participating in the camp.
DO’S AND DON’T S
(a) Do enter the advance drawn in the Register for advances and
watch its adjustment.
(b) Do enter all the transactions with speed and promptitude.
(c) Do obtain local rates from the civil authorities or local nerrick rates
from Military authorities before engaging casual labour.
(d) Do maintain Muster roll of Camp followers with all relevant
(e) Do attest all thumb impressions / signatures obtained for payments
(f) Do obtain non-availability certificate from the ASC, if ration articles
are not available with them.
(g) Do obtain prevailing market rates before accepting tenders of
(h) Do ensure that suppliers bills are supported by the indents issued
by the purchase committee.
(j) Do ensure that vouchers are obtained in support of payments.
(k) Indicate a reference to indent, if any, date of supply , quantity
indented for, supply received and correctness of the rate charged.
(l) Do ensure that all items purchased are taken on ledger charge and
expendable items charged off on issue/expense vouchers.
(m) Do settle the rates of hire charges before hiring any item any item
and ensure that it is less than its cost price.
(n) Do open a bank personal Deposit Account in the Daily messing
(o) Do maintain detailed messing account in the Daily messing
(p) Do arrange Barrack Standing Committee for fixing the number of
petromax hurricane lamps, scale of kerosene oil and lighting time.
(q) Do ensure that the required reports and returns are submitted in
(r) Do ensure that completed accounts are audited / checked seven
days before termination of the camp.
(s) Do publish Daily camp routine order giving details of arrivals,
departures, casualties, ration strength, etc.
(t) Do maintain a list of winners of prizes duly certified, if prizes were
awarded from the camp incidentals.
(u) Do prepare sale accounts when articles are disposed off.
(a) Don‘t keep heavy cash balances in the camp.
(b) Don‘t destroy any camp record before the period laid down for their
retention i.e. ten years.
(c) Don‘t reappropriate any amount sanctioned for a particular purpose
for any other purpose.
(d) Don‘t make advance payments to individuals, firms,etc.
(e) Don‘t award cash or costly prizes.
(f) Don‘t employ casual labour in excess of the scale prescribed.
(g) Don‘t condemn non expendable stores before the expiry of their
(h) Don‘t make messing arrangements on contract.
32. Camps should be so organised and conducted that they leave a feeling of
satisfaction and achievement amongst all participants. This should be an
experience of a lasting nature and would only be possible if Camp budgeting and
its accounting are properly done.
TERMS AND CONDITIONS : ANOs & GCIs
1. Due to the introduction of compulsory NCC Training in 1963 and non-
availability of JC0s & NCOs from the regular army, there was a large deficiency
of PI Staff. To make up this deficiency, ex NCC Girl cadets were employed as
Under Officer Instructors / Sergeant Major Instructors (UOI / SMI), in lieu of
JC0s/NCOs, on whole time basis under terms and condition of service laid down.
The U0Is are treated equivalent to JC0s and the SMIs equivalent to NCOS. Their
consolidated pay was initially fixed in 1963 keeping in view the pay and
allowances admissible to JCOS/ NCOs at that time, which has since been
revised. There are about 235 posts of GCIs existing in NCC.
2. In the case of Boys Divisions. It was found possible to dispense with the
services of the cadet instructors after sometime. However, in the case of Girls
Division, on account of the peculiar nature of duties and continued shortage of PI
Staff, it has been found necessary to continue the services of these personnel
and also to recruit fresh hands. Further improvement in the terms and conditions
of these Girl Cadet Instructors was made in Jan 1981.
3. ANOs form the second tier of training staff. At the college level and school
levels, volunteer professors and teachers are appointed as part time NCC
Officers and are called Associate NCC Officers (ANOs). The credit for successful
functioning of the NCC as an organization to a large extent, depends on these
motivated ANOs. In fact they form the most vital link between the educational
institutions and the NCC.
Terms and Conditions of GCI
(a) Subject to the availability of a vacancy, a Sergeant Major Instructor
may be granted promotion to the rank of GCI-II provided she is found fit
and fulfills the following conditions: -
(i) Has completed three years of service as GCI-I.
(ii) Is a graduate from a recognised university in India.
(iii) Possesses ‗C‘ certificate of the NCC.
(iv) Is physically fit in an acceptable medical category SHAPE-1 at the
time of promotion.
(v) Is willing to be posted to a station where a vacancy exist.
(b) Local Rank of 2/Lieutenent as Associate NCC officer may be granted
to the Girl Cadet Instructors temporarily to fill up the deficiency of AN0s so
long as it exists.
5. Liability of Service. Normally these GCls will be liable to serve, subject to
availability of vacancies with Girl Wing units located in the jurisdiction of the
respective NCC Dtes and in the NCC OTA, when so selected. Transfer to a unit
outside their respective Dtes may be ordered provided the Girl Cadet Instructor is
6. Discipline. They will be subject to NCC Act & Rules (Girls Division) as
amended from time to time for discipline purposes.
7. Age of Superannuation. These Girl Cadet Instructors, if otherwise found
fit will be eligible to serve up to fifty-five years of age.
8. Pay and Allowances.
(a) The pay scales of Girl Cadet Instructors will be as under:-
(i) GCI-1. Rs.5000-150-8000.
(ii) GCI-II. Rs.4000-100-6000.
(b) They will be entitled to Dearness allowance, House Rent Allowance
and City compensatory Allowance as admissible to other central Govt
(c) While officiating in place of lady ANO and when granted the local rank
of 2/Lietenant, the Girl Instructors will be entitled to an honorarium
chargeable to the State Govt concerned. Free uniform on existing scales
only will be issued to them.
9. Provident Fund. The Girl Cadet Instructors will contribute towards
Provident Fund after one year of service. They will be entitled to draw
loans/advances and final withdrawals from their Provident Fund subject to the
provisions contained in Provident Fund Rules.
10. Medical Treatment. The GCIs and their dependent family members will
be entitled to the same medical facilities as admissible to JCOs/NCOs of the
regular army and their families under the existing Medical Rules.
11. Travelling Concessions. For Leave Travel Concession and for all other
moves, the GCIs are governed by the rules and orders as applicable to
JCOs/NCOs in the regular army.
12. Leave. The following leave is entitled to the GCIs: -
(a) Annual Leave - 30 days in a calendar year.
(b) Casual Leave - 15 days.
(c) Sick Leave. Admissible in attributable cases only and will be limited at
the rate of thirty days in a calendar year. This can be accumulated up to a
maximum period of 180 days. Sick list concession will be admissible.
(d) No furlough or terminal leave will be admissible.
(e) Maternity leave of three months.
Terms and Conditions of ANOs
13. Selection Criteria. Members of the teaching staff of colleges or schools,
who are keen and motivated enough to undertake the noble task of nurturing the
youth in this premier youth organization, can become an ANO if he / she fulfills
the terms of appointment. He / she :-
(a) Should be a permanent member of teaching staff. In the case of non-
permanent member of teaching staff, the Heads of Institution are required
to certify that the ANO will be retained in service for minimum three years
and/ or will be made permanent.
(b) Should be minimum 21 years of age and maximum 42 years of age.
For NCC B & C certificate holders and female ANOs the age criteria is
further relaxable to maximum 45 years.
(c) Should be medically fit
(d) Must successfully complete the laid down minimum duration of Pre-
commission course at NCC OTA. NCC certificate holders are entitled to
direct commission. However, they also have to undergo the same course.
(e) Should be Indian/ Nepali subject.
14. Training. The teachers or professors on being recommended by the
HOD and interview by NCC authorities, are selected by a selection board
constituted in each state. They have to undergo a three months PRCN course at
OTA Kamptee for Men, and at Gwalior for Women. On successful completion,
lecturers / professors from college / universities are commissioned as Lieutenant
and they assume the duties of company commander in Senior division / wing.
The teachers from schools are commissioned as Third officers and they take
over the duties of troop commanders in Junior division / wing. The terms of
engagement of an ANO is up to 50 years, extendable up to 55 years
15. Eligibility Conditions for Promotions. The ANOs are required to pass
their refresher course conducted at OTA for becoming eligible for further
promotion. ANOs promotions are as per the SCHEDULE III OF NCC Rules 1949.
16. Grant of Honorary Rank to ANO‘s after Relinquishment of Commission.
Outstanding ANOs after relinquishment of their NCC Commission can be
recommended for grant of Honorary Rank for their utmost devotion to NCC even
after retirement. It has to be approved by a Board of Officers headed by ADG(A)
and finally by GOI. The honorary rank given to them is the last rank held by the
17. Rank Pay, Honorarium and Allowance. The ANOs are eligible for Rank
pay, honorarium and various allowances as per the SCHEDULE II of the NCC
18. The Girl Cadet Instructor plays an important role in the NCC, in bridging
the gap between the male Permanent Instructors and Girl Cadets in order to
impart training in a effective manner. ANOs are the back bone of NCC and form
the vital link between the educational institutions and the NCC.
1. The culmination of all training in the NCC is the conduct of various
certificate examinations. Passing of these NCC certificate examinations is a must
for the cadets, because it is the certificates that help them get various benefits.
Conduct of certificate exam is the responsibility of the battalion commander,
group commander and DDG of NCC state directorates. Cadets find these
certificates of immense value at the later stage, while seeking employment. Many
organizations prefer NCC Cadets for responsible posts which require strength,
endurance, courage, and a sense of duty and discipline.
Certificates and Eligibility
2. Having imparted the training, it is equally important to make an assessment
of how much has been assimilated by candidates and this is done by way of
examinations. In NCC, certificate exams A, B & C are conducted.
3. On completion of NCC Training, the cadets get an opportunity to appear at
various certificate examinations held from time to time. As these certificates are
an authentic validity of training to the cadets, it is very essential to acquire them /
ensure cadets acquire them.
4. (a) The exam for JW is ‗A‘ certificate. After completion of two years
training, a cadet is eligible to appear for the ‗A‘ certificate examination.
(b) For SW, the examination is known as ‗B‘ certificate exam, which is
held after completion of Second year Course of Training.
(c) ‗C‘ certificate examination is held at the end of 3rd year of training.
5. The Girls Division syllabus consists of fifteen subjects for SW and thirteen
for JW. The allotment of total classes for one training year is 120 for SW, and
150 for JW. Cadet has to appear in four papers and the allotment of marks in the
certificate exam is as follows:
ALLOTMENT OF MARKS – PAPERWISE : CERTIFICATE EXAM
COMMON SYLLABUS CERT A CERT B CERT C
W P W P W P
PAPER I :
DRILL 40 50 25 50 20 50
WEAPON TRAINING 30 30 15 35 15 45
MISCELLANEOUS 200 - 225 - 220 -
PAPER IV :
SPECIAL SYLLABUS 105 45 105 45 105 45
TOTAL 375 125 370 130 360 140
6. ANOs have the responsibility of taking many of these classes as they
spend more time with the cadets. Paper I, II and IV are taken by the unit
instructors, whereas the Miscellaneous paper which carries more marks, has to
be taught by the ANOs. ANOs will also assist in taking classes in some subjects
of the Special paper. Details of these are given below :-
ALLOTMENT OF MARKS – PAPER –III : MISCELLANEOUS
SUBJECTS A B C
(a) Nation Building 40 30 40
(b) Human Resource Development 40 70 90
(c) Health & Hygiene 35 50 55
(d) Civil Affairs 25 25 05
(e) Environment & Ecology 10 10 15
(f) Social Service 30 30 -
(g) Adventure Activities - - 15
(h) Self Defence 20 10 -
TOTAL 200 225 220
ALLOTMENT OF MARKS : PAPER – IV : SPECIAL PAPER
CERT A CERT B CERT C
W P W P W P
(a) Map Reading 25 15 10 20 10 20
(b) Communication 20 -- 25 -- 25 --
(c) Obstacle Training 10 05 10 05 15 10
(d) Field Engineering 15 05 25 -- 30 --
(e) Fieldcraft & Battlecraft 20 15 20 15 20 15
(f) Adventure Training 15 05 15 05
(g) Armed Forces -- -- -- -- 05 --
TOTAL 105 45 105 45 105 45
7. Eligibility of Cadets for ‗A‘ Certificate.
(a) The cadet should be a regular student of the School.
(b) Her attendance in NCC classes should not be less than 75%.
(c) She should have sound and thorough knowledge of each subject
as per the syllabus for 1st and 2nd year.
8. Eligibility for Appearing at ‗B‘ Certificate Examination.
(a) The cadet should be a regular student of the School.
(b) Her attendance in NCC classes should not be less than 75%.
(c) She must have attended minimum one ATC.
9. Eligibility for Appearing at ‗C‘ Certificate Examination.
(a) Must be a regular student of the College.
(b) Her attendance should not be less than 75% in training.
(c) She must have passed ‗B‘ certificate.
(d) She must have attended minimum two ATCs.
10. Permission to Appear in Certificate Examination After Discharge.Cadets who
ceased to be on the rolls of NCC may be permitted to appear for certificate A
exam for JD/JW and B & C for SD/SW NCC at their own expense within a period
of 12 months of their discharge from NCC provided they were otherwise eligible
at the time of their discharge. The ex-cadet so eligible can appear for the exam at
any place in India by applying for the same, alongwith the discharge certificate
certificate to Local unit commander. The gp Cdr is empowered to accept such
11. Inter wing Transfers. Inter Wing transferees will be allowed to
appear in the certificate examination, pertaining to their new wing only after
having attended additional 90 periods pertaining to new wing, a certificate to that
effect duly signed by the new OC will be produced before the board conducting
12. Composition of Examination Board
(a) Certificate A. The members could be from the same unit.
Presiding Officer - OC unit
Members - ANO-01
- JCO –01
- NCO –01
(b) Certificate B. From different units.
Presiding Officer - Lt Col / Wg Cdr / Cdr
Members - Maj / Sqn Ldr / Lt Cdr - 1
- ANO – 1 (SD/SW)
- JCO – 1
(c) Certificate C. From different units.
Presiding Officer - Gp Cdr
Members - Lt Col / Wg Cdr / Cdr - 1
- Maj / Sqn Ldr / Lt Cdr - 1
- ANO -1(SD/SW)
13. Assessment. For passing in various certificate examinations a cadet
both from JW and SW has to get minimum 50% in each subject and the
aggregate must be minimum 50%.
14. Re-test ‗C‘ Certificate Exams.
(a) Re-test will be applicable for ‗C‘ certificate examination.
(b) Only those cadets will be eligible for re-test who have failed in exams
of two subjects, but have passed in Drill. Eligible cadets who are unable to
appear in ‗C‘ certificate examination due to reasons beyond their control
may also be allowed to appear along with re-test cases.
(c) The re-test will be held four to six months after the initial test during
which the failures will attend at least two weeks special parade. Coaching
classes to be organised by the unit after the academic examinations.
Those failures who do not attend these parades/classes will not be eligible
to appear at the re-test. No refreshment or other allowances will be
eligible for these classes/parades and re-test.
(d) Composition of examination re-test board will be the same as initial
15. Assessment and allotment of Marks. A cadet must obtain 45% marks
in each paper and 50% marks in the aggregate to pass the examinations.
Grading based on total marks obtained will be awarded as follows
(a) Grading A Cadets obtaining 80% marks and above.
(b) Grading B Cadets obtaining 65% marks and above but
(c) Grading C Cadets obtaining 50% marks and above but
(d) Fail Cadets obtaining less than 45% marks in any
paper or less than 50% of the aggregate.
16. Paper wise / subject wise allotment of marks will be done, compiled and
the board proceeding will be submitted by the Presiding Officer. Results will not
be announced by the Board members until these are checked and found correct
by the NCC Gp Hq or NCC Dtes, and intimation to this effect is received in
writing from them. The responsibility of publication of result is the Unit
Commanders on receipt of the approval of results.
17. ANOs should be aware of the syllabus and be thorough in all the subjects
so as to impart adequate knowledge to the Cadets. She must strive to get 100%
pass results in her institution.
AWARDS AND CADET WELFARE SOCIETY
PART I : CADET WELFARE SOCIETY
1. A need was felt to form a society to grant financial assistance /relief to the
unfortunate cadets involved in accidents during organized NCC activities.
Consequently, Cadet Welfare Society, which was established in 1985 has
pioneered in introducing a number of welfare schemes for the benefits of NCC
cadets. The society grants financial assistance / relief to NCC cadets in case of
death / disability during organised activity.
Source of Income
2. The source of income of the society are as under:-
(a) To start with, the society was given a one time grant of Rs.5.60Lakhs
by the central govt at the rate of Rs.0.50 per cadet.
(b) An obligatory membership fee was levied on the cadets. The obligatory
membership fee is fixed by the Governing body from time to time and
is payable by the cadet at the time of enrolment.
(c) Interest on Fixed Deposit
(d) From the grant received from various states and union territories
(e) Regimental funds of HQNCC and the State NCC Dtes
3. The membership is open to only those NCC Cadets who have paid the
one time membership fee at the time of enrolment and such cadets shall be the
beneficiaries of the society. The cadets who have discontinued their
membership and seek re-enrolment shall be treated as fresh cadet and
membership fee will be charged. The present membership fee is Rs.10/-per
4. Each cadet on becoming a member of the society shall fill in a Nomination
Form as per the approved proforma. It is an important document and should be
filled carefully without any alteration/cutting. Financial assistance is payable only
on production of the original nomination form. Cos should carefully scrutinize the
nomination forms to ensure that the nominees are only the parents or other close
relatives like brothers and sisters. Only in rare cases where the cadet do not
have parents or close relatives living, will be allowed to nominate others.
5. The quantum of financial assistance payable is Rs. 2 lakhs in case of death
or 100 percent permanent disability during high-risk NCC activities and Rs. 1.5
lakh during other NCC activities. The expenditure incurred towards medical
treatment is also re-imbursed by the society upto Rs. 50,000/-
NCC ACTIVITIES DEATH CASES PERMANENT TEMPORARY
HIGH RISKS RS 2 LAKH RS 2 LAKH RS 1 LAKH
OTHERS RS 1.5 LAKH RS 1.5 LAKH RS 1 LAKH
PROCEDURE FOR SUBMISSION OF REQUEST FOR FINANCIAL
6 Requests from the cadet/nominee of deceased cadet for grant of financial
assistance will be forwarded to the member secretary, Managing committee,
NCC CWS accompanied by the following documents within two months of the
(a) DEATH CASES
i. Application from the nominee for Assistance
ii. Nomination form in ORIGINAL submitted by the
deceased at the time of enrolment
iii. Enrolment form in ORIGINAL
iv. Bonafide Death certificate from DDG as proof that death
occurred during NCC RELATED ACTIVITY.
v. Post mortem report.
vi. Court of Enquiry proceedings
vii. Certificate from the Nominee.
viii. Recommendations of OC Unit, GP CDR and DDG.
(b) PERMANENT DISABILITY CASES
i. Application from the Cadet for financial assistance
ii. Nomination form in ORIGINAL
iii. Enrolment form in ORIGINAL
iv. Injury Report /Medical Certificate indicating percentage of
disability from the GH.
v. Court of Enquiry proceedings
vi. Certificate from the cadet / Guardian
vii. Recommendations of OC Unit, GP CDR and DDG.
(C ) TEMPORARY DISABILITY CASES
i) Application from the Cadet for financial assistance
ii) Nomination form in ORIGINAL
iii) Enrolment form in ORIGINAL
iv) Injury Report /Medical Certificate indicating
percentage of disability from the GH.
v) Medical Bills (ORIGINAL)
vi) Court of Enquiry proceedings
vii) Certificate from the cadet / Guardian
viii) Recommendations of OC Unit, GP CDR and
(c) IMMEDIATE FINANCIAL RELIEF
In case of death of a cadet during NCC related Activity, immediate interim
assistance not exceeding Rs.50000/- is ggranted by DGNCC. For the
above, one copy of the following documents will be forwarded within 48
hrs of occurence:-
(i) Detailed note of the case covering the following aspects:-
(aa) Institution/unit of thecadet with date of her joining
(ab) Nature of NCC Activity during which DEATH
(ac) Date and cause of DEATH.
(ad) Whether FIR has been filed and post mortem carried
(ae) ourt of Inquiry has been ordered
(ii) Nomination Form in ORIGINAL.
(iii) Enrolment form in ORIGINAL.
(iv) Address of the nominee and the branch of SBI,
SYNDICATE or PNB which is nearest to residence of the
(v) Bonafide death certificate from DDG.
PROCEDURE OF HOLDING COURT OF INQUIRY
7. In all cases of death or disability court ofinquiry is ordered within 24 Hrs by
the Gp Cdr /OC Unit/ Camp commandant. The inquiry will be conducted to
investigate the circumstances leading to the accident and culpability of the
accident. DDG must ensure that the inquiry is convened by the concerned Gp
Cdr within 24 Hrsof the occurrence and the proceediongs are finalized not later
than 30 days of the casualty. A manuscript copy of the Proceeding will be
submitted to NCCHQ duly signed by the convening authority. DGNCC has to
receive the case within 2 months of the occurrence. On receipt of complete
document, the case will be put up to the committee for consideration.
PROVISION FOR MEETING EXPENDITURE ON TREATMENT OF CADETS
AND OTHER MISC ITEMS
8. (a) DEATH CASES
When a cadet dies on duty away from home station during NCC related
activity, the expenditure on onward journey by air and return by 2 nd class
rail in respect of 2 relatives shall be borne by society In case the dead
body is to be dispatched for cremation /burial to the home station, one
close relative is allowed to take by air. Expenses on embalming the body
is also be met out from the society.
(b) PERMANENT DISABILITY
(i) During serious sickness or injury while in transit or in camp, the
cadet will be evacuated to the neared Hospital(military/civil) through
available resources of transport by the NCC authorities by fastest means
including air. Or the expenditure on conveyance of two relatives by air to
the place of treatment and return of the relatives by second class rail will
be borne by the society. Society would bear expenses on their board and
lodging during stay at the station, limited to the entitlement of GpA Officer.
(ii) After specialized treatment, if the cadet expires,the medical
expenditure upto Rs.1 Lakh incurred on treatment will be
reimbursement in addition to the lumpsum grant.
(iii) After specialized/prolonged treatment , if the cadet has
permanent disability,medical expenditure upto Rs. 1 Lakh will be
reimbursed in addition to lumpsum grant.
(iv) If cured, medical expenditure upto Rs.1 lakh will be reimbursed.
(v) one time grant upto a maximum of Rs.10,000/- may be
provided to cadets of 100% permanent disability.
(c) TEMPORARY DISABILITY – Maximum of Rs.ONE LAKH will be
reimbursed for medical expenses.
9. All cadet joining NCC will subscribe a sum of Rs.10 towards membership
fee, same is applicable for re-enrolment. Out of Rs.10/ collected from a cadet,
one rupee shall be ertained by the OC of the NCC unit to defray expenses
towards printing of nomination forms and other incidental expenditure. Th
remaining Rs.9 should reach the CWS by 30th Nov each year. The Dtes will
collect the contribution from GpHQ through units and immediately deposit
through a bank draft in favour of NCC CADETS WELFARE SOCIETY drawn at
NEW DELHI branch of any nationalized bank. Payment of cheques are not
accepted. The cadets contribution will be maintained by each unit / gp hq under a
separate head CWSF in its cash book. The cadets contribution will not be utilized
for any other purpose nor loaned to any other fund.
CW S :SCHOLARSHIP SCHEMES
10. a) JUNIOR DIVISION/WING CADETS
Cadets should have passed 10th std or equivalent exam. In the preceding
academic year to which scholarship pertains with 65% marks in
aggregate. They should have undergone training for atleast 2 full years
with a minimum of 80% attendance in each year with exemplary discipline.
b) SENIOR DIVISION / WING CADETS
Cadets who have passed 10+2pattern exam are eligible. Science stream
cadets should have 65% and Art /commerce should have 55% marks .
They should have undergone NCC training as SD/SW for atleast 2 full
years continuously with a minimum of 80% attendance in each year with
CWS SCHOLARSHIP AMOUNT
11. The Society awards 500 scholarships with one-time payment of Rs.
5,000/- each to meritorious NCC cadets in academics every year. The applicants
belonging to SC/ST and other backward classes are given relaxation of 5%
marks. In addition a bonus of 10% on the marks actually secured by such
SENIOR DIVISION – RS. 5000/-
JUNIOR DIVISION – RS.5000/-
12. NCC organisation has grown considerably during its existence over a
period of five decades. In order to reward the students and to compensate for the
valuable time they spend in NCC training, a number of incentives are being given
by the Central Government and the State Governments to them. NCC
Organisation provides Scholarships, Cash Awards and Prizes apart from
Financial assistance. Scholarships to meritorious NCC cadets in recognition of
their academic performance are also being given by various State Govts. in the
form of cash prizes, medals/trophies and commendations from high dignataries
like Governors and the Chief Ministers for taking part in NCC related
competitions. Major Scholarship scheme available to NCC cadets are from Cadet
welfare society, Sahara group and from NCC group.
PART – II: AWARDS
13. Awards are given to NCC personnel to include NCC whole time lady
officers (WTLO‘S), Associate NCC Officers, Girl Cadet Instructors (GCI‘s) and
14. NCC Awards are
a) Raksha Mantri Padak
b) Raksha Mantri Commendation Card
c) Raksha Sachiv Commendation card
d) DG Commendation Card
a) Raksha Mantri Padak: It is awarded to NCC personnel and cadets for
performance of any exceptional act incvolving courage, devotion to
duty and contribution of lasting value to the NCC. In addition cash
award of Rs. 10000/- and a running veer trophy is also given to te
receipient ofthis award. In a year, only one padak is given.
(b) Raksha Mantri Commendation Card It is awarded to NCC personnel
and cadets for performance of any exceptional act incvolving
leadership,courage, devotion to duty and contribution of lasting value to
the NCC. In addition cash award of Rs. 7500/- and a running veer trophy
is also given to te receipient ofthis award. In a year, three persons get this
(c) Raksha Sachiv‘s Prashansa Patra: This commendation card with
Rs.7500 cash, is awarded for act or deed in the field of adventure
sports, training or for outstanding contribution in social or cultural
activities. Every year maximum 10 get it.
(d) Maha Nideshak‘s Prashansa Patra : This commendation card with
Rs.1000 cash, is awarded for act or deed in the field of adventure
sports, training or for outstanding contribution in social or cultural
activities.There is no limit to the number for award for this.
(e) Maha Nideshak‘s Prashansa Patra to civilian personnel: It is
awarded for displaying outstanding and distinguished service,
dedication and devotion to work and outstanding contribution for
efficient management of various NCC activities incl camps.
a) JUNIOR DIVISION/WING CADETS
b) SENIOR DIVISION / WING CADETS
c) HIGHER / PROFESSIONAL STUDIES
i) Cadet should have 80 % attendance in NCC
ii) Should not be drawing any other scholarship
iii) Preference to cadets participated in NCC RD parade Camp
15. a) JUNIOR DIVISION/WING CADETS-RS.6000/-
i) Cadets should have obtained 65% marks in aggregate.
ii) They should have undergone training for atleast 1 full year
b) SENIOR DIVISION / WING CADETS – RS.12000/-
i) Cadets who have passed 10+2pattern exam in the preceding two
years are eligible .
ii) Science stream cadets should have 65% and Art-55% and
commerce-60% marks .
iii) They should have undergone NCC training as SD/SW for atleast 1
iv) Marks of XII or eqvt to be considered for merit.
c) HIGHER / PROFESSIONAL STUDIES – RS.30,000/-
i) Should have done 2 years of NCC
ii) Marks of class XII to form the basis of merit
iii) Cadets who have passed 10+2pattern exam in the preceding
two years are eligible
iv) Should have been admitted to any of the professional
Best Cadet Awards
16. The society is also giving monetary incentive for excellence in NCC at Gp
Hqrs level. Each Gp HQ selects 4 best cadets and 4 second best cadets as per
the conditions. DDG consolidates alongwith selection board proceedings and
forwards. On DG‘s approval awards are presented and requisite amount is sent
to dtes. Four Best Cadet awards carrying an amount of Rs. 1,000/- each in Junior
Division, Junior Wing, Senior Division and Senior Wings are awarded at each Gp
Hqr every year to 364 cadets. Also Rs. 3000/- and Rs. 2000/- is now being given
as monetary incentives to Best Cadets and second Best Cadets in six catagories
during RD Parade at New Delhi respectively. In a nutshell, an endeavour is being
made to do as much as possible for welfare and overall development of NCC
17. ANOs should be aware of the objective and benefits of NCC and the
information should be clearly disseminated to cadets and others.
INCENTIVES TO THE ASSOCIATE NCC OFFICERS AND NATIONAL CADET
1. Every Officer commissioned as Associate NCC Officer in the NCC and
posted to units, shall be entitled to some allowances and incentives, in addition to
the pay they receive from both State and Central Govt as teacher / lecturer.
2. In view of the multiplicity of responsibility, role of ANOs and growth of
NCC cadets, Education Departments, State Govts and Central Govt have been
revising these allowances and incentives to keep the motivational level high.
3. The NCC organisation has also grown considerably during its existence
over five decades. In order to reward the students and to compensate them for
the valuable time they spend in NCC training, a number of incentives are being
given by the Central and the State Govts to them. These incentives can broadly
to categorised under the heads ―Concessions in Employment‖, ―Concessions in
Academic Field‖, ―Cash Awards and Pizes/Medals/Trophies‖ and ―Scholarships‖.
Incentives to ANOs
4. Allowances Borne by State Govt. These include Honorarium, Caretaker
allowance, Outfit allowance and Messing allowance (during PRCN & Refresher
5. Allowances Borne Both by State & Central Govt.
(a) Rank pay for ANO during camps/courses.
(b) Messing allowance for ANOs.
(c) DA for ANOs.
(d) Petrol, Oil & Lubricant Allowance.
6. Non Fiscal Benefits. These incentives have been proposed for
the cases to be taken up with respective state government: -
(a) Compensatory off from work load to ANO involved in social service
activity. A conveyance allowance Rs.300/- per year be given as incentive
for social work.
(b) Outfit allowance at the rate of Rs.1000/- be given after completion
of 13 years of service. The medals earned may be issued to ANOs on
(c) Post retirement benefits like CSD facilities and monetary benefits in
form of additional pension & gratuity.
(d) Allotment of Govt Accommodation - Out of Turn.
(e) Ban in transfer of ANOs to institutions other than those having
NCC, and this, after confirmation from State DDGs.
(f) Priority in selection to be the member of Senate in universities by
getting additional points.
(g) Compensation in hours of duty.
(h) Status of service officers - NCC commission.
(j) Honorary rank - Lt Col after Retirement.
(k) No military service liability.
(l) Free Travel and medical treatment during camp / training.
(m) Foreign travel during Youth Exchange Programme.
(n) Personality development.
(o) Children of ANOs eligible for reserved seats in medical and
Engineering College in the same State.
7. Canteen Facilities. ANOs are entitled to canteen stores (except
liquor / beer, imported / special allocated items, Scooters & Refrigerators) vide
Army HQ (QMG‘s branch) letter No A/66622/iii/Q/Can dated 24 June 1974.
Incentives for NCC Cadets
8. Concessions in Employment. In the field of employment, the Central
Govt. has offered substantial concessions to the cadets.
(a) Certain number of vacancies have been reserved exclusively for
NCC cadets holding ‗C‘ certificate for the grant of commission in the
Armed Forces. These are :-
(i) Army (Officer).
(aa) Indian Military Academy (IMA). 32 vacancies in every
regular course of IMA Dehradun i.e. 64 vacancies in a year
are reserved for NCC ―C‖ Certificate holders who pass in
UPSC exam and subsequently by the SSB.
(ab) Officers Training Academy (OTA). 50 vacancies in
every course for Short Service Commission are reserved for
NCC ‗C‘ certificate holders. They are exempted from
appearing in UPSC entrance exam. However, they have to
qualify in SSB.
(ii) Navy (Officer). Upto 6 vacancies per course for grant of
commission are reserved as Special Entry Cadets in the Naval
Academy Cochin. NCC ―C‖ certificate holders in Naval wing must
have B.Sc (Physics and Maths) or BE. Should be between 19 to 24
of age. They are exempted from appearing in UPSC entrance
exam. However they have to qualify in SSB.
(iii) Air Force(Officer). 10 % of vacancies per course are
reserved for pilot course (Direct entry) for cadets holding NCC ‖C‖
certificate of NCC Air wing. They are exempted from appearing in
UPSC entrance exam. However they have to qualify in SSB.
(b) Similarly, weightage in marks is given to NCC cadets in recruitment
as ORs / Sailors / Airmen, in both technical and non-technical branches.
Some seats are reserved for NCC cadets for B.Sc. Nursing and
Probationer Nursing Course. Some para-military forces like BSF, CRPF,
CISF, ITBP and the Coast Guard also give weightage to NCC Cadets in
recruitment as officers and other ranks.
(c) The Department of Telecommunications also gives bonus marks to
NCC cadets for recruitment as Technicians. Within NCC organisation, ‗C‘
certificate has been prescribed as a desirable qualification for appointment
of NCC Whole Time Lady Officers, in addition to reserving 20% of
vacancies, and as an essential qualification for recruitment of Girl Cadet
Instructors. This has also been specified as one of the essential
qualifications for recruitment of Civilian Gliding Instructors (Gp A post).
(d) Concessions offered by State Govt. in the matter of employment
vary from state to state, but largely they give preference to NCC cadets in
appointment in the Police, Home Guards and Forest Department.
(e) Concession in Employment at a Glance.
(i) Vacancies reserved for commission in Defence Forces for
NCC ‗C‘ Certificate Holders.
(ii) For ORs, sailors, Airmen - 5 to 10% bonus marks awarded for
(iii) Para military Forces - 2 to 10 bonus marks awarded for
(iv) Department of Telecommunications. Bonus marks awarded
(v) CRPF - NCC cadets holding 3rd division degree eligible for
recruitment to gazetted posts.
(vi) NCC - Civilian gliding instructors / Girl Cadet Instructors /
Whole time Lady officers.
(g) State Govt - Preference for state services in certain states.
(h) Industries - Some industries gives preference to NCC ‗C‘
(j) NCC Games - Cash awards to team and individuals for
9. Concessions in Academic Field. In the academic field, certain
concessions are offered by the State Govts, but these vary from state to state. In
most of the states, NCC cadets are given preference / weightage in admission to
various academic and educational institutions like Polytechnics, ITIs, Engineering
and Medical colleges. In states like Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, some seats in
professional and non-professional courses for degree and diploma level have
been reserved for NCC cadets with proven merit in their respective universities.
10. Awards /Medals/Trophies. In addition to scholarships to meritorious
NCC cadets in recognition of their academic performance, they are also being
given cash prizes, medals / trophies and commendations from high dignataries
like Governors and the Chief Ministers of various State Govts for taking part in
NCC related competitions.
11. Welfare Measures : Finance Assistance. Cadet Welfare Society,
which was established in 1985 has pioneered in introducing a number of welfare
schemes for the benefits of NCC cadets. This has been covered separately. In
addition, the Society awards 500 scholarships with one-time payment of Rs.
5,000/- each to meritorious NCC cadets in academics every year. The applicants
belonging to SC/ST and other backward classes are given relaxation of 5%
marks and, in addition a bonus of 10% on the marks actually secured by such
12. Best Cadet Awards. The society is also giving monetary
incentive for excellence in NCC at Gp HQs level. Four Best Cadet awards
carrying an amount of Rs. 1,000/- each in Junior Division, Junior Wing, Senior
Division and Senior Wing are awarded at each Gp HQ every year to 364 cadets.
Also Rs. 3000/- and Rs. 2000/- is now being given as monetary incentives to
Best Cadets and second Best Cadets in six catagories during RD Parade at New
13. Youth Exchange Programme. With a view to increasing international
understanding and heighten awareness, NCC has a unique exchange
programme with youth organisations / NCC of nine countries, under which
selected cadets have an opportunity to visit countries like Australia, UK,
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Canada, Maldives, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and
14. A large number of allowances and incentives are admissible to ANOs in
the NCC. An endeavour is also being made to do as much as possible for the
welfare and overall development of NCC cadets. In addition, the intangible
benefits for both are innumerable, thus making the NCC a lucrative career for
teaching staff and cadets.
ORG OF ARMED FORCES – ARMY, NAVY & AIR FORCE
1. The present day Indian Armed Forces owe their origin to British days. It
was then used as an instrument for the expansion and preservation of the British
Empire. A lot of evolution and modernization has taken place since then, and the
Armed Forces have now become a symbol of strength for our country.
2. The NCC is very closely associated with the Armed Forces and includes
many of their personnel. It is therefore necessary to understand the basic
structure or organization of what constitutes the Armed Forces, i.e., the Army,
Navy and Air Force.
The Indian Army
3. Initially, the army's main objective was to defend the nation's frontiers.
However, over the years, the army has also taken up the responsibility of
providing internal security, especially in insurgent-hit Kashmir and North East.
The army has a strength of about a million troops and fields 34 divisions. Its
headquarters is located in the Indian capital New Delhi and it functions under the
command of the Chief of Army Staff (currently General Joginder Jaswant Singh).
The COAS is assisted by several other high ranking officers.
4. The Army since Independence has taken part in the following major
operations in defence of our borders :-
(a) Kashmir Operations against Pakistan : 1947-48.
(b) Sino- Indian Operations in NEFA (Arunachal) and Ladakh : 1962.
(c) Indo-Pak war, 1965
(d) Indo- Pak war, 1971.
(e) IPKF (Sri Lanka )
(e) Kargil ops.
5. In addition, the Army took part in peace-keeping missions under United
Nations in Korea, Congo and a number of African States, Lebanon, Gaza Strip
(Egypt) and Sri Lanka.
6. Services of the Army, Navy and Air Force have been extensively utilized in
aid of civil authorities during natural calamities like floods, cyclones and
7. The Army today is self- reliant in respect of its requirements of
conventional weapons and is fully geared to meet any external aggression on our
8. Command & Control. The President of India is the Supreme
Commander of all the Armed Forces of the country. The Chief of Army Staff is
the head of the Indian Army and is responsible for its command, training,
operation and administration. He carries out these functions through Army
Headquarters (Army HQ).
9. Command Headquarters. The whole country is divided into seven
commands. These are Northern, Western, Central, Southern, Eastern, South
Western and the Army Training Command (ARTRAC). The Command HQ
exercise operational responsibility. Of these, 6 are tactical commands and one, a
training command. Each command is headed by General Officer Commanding-
in-Chief with the rank of Lieutenant General. Each command is directly affiliated
to the Army HQ in New Delhi.
Command HQ Location
Northern Command Udhampur, J & K
Western Command Chandigarh
Eastern Command Kolkata
Southern Command Pune
Central Command Lucknow
Note: The army also operates a 7th command known as Army Training
Command (ARTRAC) located in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.
10. Field Formations : Corps. A Corps is an army field formation responsible
for a sector within a Command. There are 3 types of Corps in the Indian Army:
Strike, Holding & Mixed. A Command generally consists of 2 or more Corps. A
Corp has many army divisions under its control. The Corps HQ is the highest
field formation in the army.
11. Other Field Formations.
(a) Division. An army Division is an intermediate between a Corp
and a Brigade. It is the largest striking force in the army. Each Division is
headed by General Officer Commanding (GOC) with the rank of Major
General. It usually consists 15,000 combat troops and 8,000 support
elements. Currently, 34 Divisions including 4 Rapid Action Divisions, 18
Infantry Divisions, 10 Mountain Divisions, 3 Armoured Divisions and 2
Artillery Divisions make up the Indian Army. Each Division composes of
several Regiments and Brigades.
(a) Brigade. The Brigade is smaller than the Division and is
roughly of the same size as that of a Regiment. A Brigade generally
consists of 3 Infantry Battalions along with elements of various Combat &
Support Arms & Services and is headed by a Brigadier . The Indian Army
also has Independent Armoured Brigades, Independent Artillery Brigades,
Independent Infantry Brigades, Independent Parachute Brigade,
Independent Air Defence Brigades, Independent Air Defence Groups and
Independent Engineer Brigades. These Independent Brigades operate
directly under the Corps Commander (GOC Corps).
(c) Batallion. A Battalion is commanded by a Clonel and is the
Infantry's main fighting unit. It consists of more than 900 personnel.
(d) Company. Headed bya Lieutenant Colonel / Major, a Company
comprises of 120 soldiers.
(e) Platoon. An intermediate between a Company and Section, a
Platoon is headed by a Lieutenant, or depending on the availability of
Commissioned Officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of
Subedar or Naib-Subedar. It has a total strength of about 36 troops.
(f) Section. Smallest military outfit with a strength of 11 personnel.
Commanded by a Non-Commissioned Officer of the rank of Havildar or
12. The Army is constituted of the following :-
(a) Combat or Fighting Arms. These are the Armoured Corps, Infantry
and Mechanised Infantry.
(b) Combat Support Arms. These are Corps of Signals, Corps of
Engineers, Regiment of Artillery, Air Defence Artillery and Army Aviation
(b) Services. These elements provide administrative cover to the
Fighting and Supporting Arms thus enabling them to carry out their tasks.
The Services and the functions of the some of them in brief are:-
(i) Army Service Corps (ASC) - Supply of Rations, POL &
Transport and Animal Transport.
(ii) Army Medical Corps (AMC)- Provision of Medical Cover.
(iii) Army Ordnance Corps (AOC)- Supply Armament,
ammunitions, vehicles, clothing, tent age and all equipment.
(iv) Corps of Electrical and Mechanical engineering – Repair,
recovery and maintenance of vehicles, arms, electrical, mechanical
(v) Remount and Vetinary Service (RVC).
(vi) Army Educational Corps (AEC).
(vii) The Intelligence Corps.
(viii) The Corps of Military police (CMP).
(ix) Judge Advocate General Department (JAG).
(x) Army Physical Training Corps (APTC).
Indian Army statistics
Active Troops 1,100,000
Reserve Troops 800,000*
Territorial army 200,000**
Main Battle Tanks 4,310+
Aircraft 9 squadrons of helicopters
Surface to Air Missiles 1,200
* includes 300,000 1st line troops and 500,000 2nd line troops
** includes 40,000 1st line troops and 160,000 2nd line troops
13. Indian Navy is equipped with several ships of different types and naval
aircrafts. Shore facilities have been provided at various places in the country to
train personnel for the Navy, repair ships and aircrafts and provide the fleets with
logistic support. Training establishments are:-
(a) INS Garuda at Cochin for aviation.
(b) INS Hansa at Dabolim (Goa) for aviation.
(c) INS Mandevi at Goa for Officers.
(d) INS Utkorsh at Port Blair for aviation.
(e) INS Chilika at Orissa near Chilka for trg of sailors.
14. Organisation and Administration. The Naval HQ at New Delhi exercise
administrative and operational control over the Navy through various
Administrative Authorities‖. For this purpose the Navy is divided into three
commands. These are:-
(a) Western Naval Command with HQ at Mumbai.
(b) Eastern Naval Command with HQ at Vishakapatnam.
(c) Southern Naval Command with HQ at Cochin.
(d) Fortran HQ- at Andaman Nichobar (Port Blair)
15. The Navy has at present two fleets viz. the Western Fleet and the Eastern
Fleet, each commanded by Flag Officer of the rank of Vice Admiral. The
Southern Naval area is allotted ships or aircraft from time to time as the
16. Fleet Strength. The navy has an Aircraft Carrier (VIRAAT),
Destroyers of the Delhi and Rajput class, Frigates of the Godavari, Talwar,
Brahmaputra and Giri class, Corvettes of the Khukri, Kora, Veer and Abhay
class, Landing ships, Patrol Vessels, Missile Boats, Minesweepers, Submarines,
Training ships, Tankers, Tugs and Survey and Research ships. It also has
aircraft and helicopters.
Indian Air Force
17. Indian Air Force is the youngest of the three services. It was in 1932 that
an Act was passed in Indian Legislature for establishing the Indian Air Force on
the recommendations of Skeen Committee.The Indian Air Force is today the
world's fourth largest, well-equipped and professionally trained, smartly efficient
and with an élan, second to none.
18. Organisation. Air HQ comprises the Chief of the Air Staff and his
principal staff officers. It consists of three branches viz. Air staff, Administrative
and Maintenance branches, with each Branch being organised into Directorates.
19. Commands. The Air Force is organised into seven commands, which are
functionally and administratively controlled by Air HQ. Each command is placed
under the command of an Air Officer Commanding in Chief. The Commands
WAC WESTERN AIR COMMAND
EAC EASTERN AIR COMMAND
CAC CENTRAL AIR COMMAND
SWAC SOUTHERN WESTERN AIR COMMAND
SAC SOUTHERN AIR COMMAND
TC TRAINING COMMAND
MC MAINTENANCE COMMAND
In addition to these commands there is No 1 Operational Group. These
commands and the groups have a number of formations under them.
20. There are five operational air commands, the Western Air Command
with headquarters in Delhi being the prime one and responsible for air operations
from Kashmir Southwards to Rajasthan and including the Capital and Punjab,
with an Operations Group dedicated for Jammu & Kashmir, including Ladakh.
Central Air Command based at Allahabad, encompasses most of the Indo-
Gangetic plain while Eastern Air Command, from Shillong, is responsible for
Bengal, Assam, the Eastern states of Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Mizoram,
and areas bordering Tibet, Bangladesh and Burma. South Western Air
Command, at Jodhpur, is responsible for air operations in most of Rajasthan,
Southwards through Gujarat to Saurashtra and the Kutch area. Southern Air
Command was formed in July 1984 with headquarters at Trivandrum and has,
geographically, the largest territory, from the Deccan plateau area to the
Southern tip of the peninsula, including the island territories of Lakshwadeep and
the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. Training Command has its headquarters at
Bangalore, with the majority of flying and ground training establishments located
in Southern India. Maintenance Command operates from Nagpur in Central
India. The five Operational Commands through administrative Wings, control
some 45 fixed-wing squadrons (including five Transport and one Communication
squadron), 20 helicopter units and numerous surface -to- air missile squadrons,
with unit establishments varying from 12 to 18 aircraft. This represents a total
aircraft strength of nearly 1,700 including training and support types, manned by
some 120,000 personnel
21. An attempt is made to give a brief outline organisation of the Armed
Forces. Visits to Various units and armed forces organisation would give a further
insight to the defence services.
RELATIVE RANKS – ARMY, NAVY AND AIR FORCE
1. NCC is an Inter service organization and comes under the Ministry of
Defence. The Officers, JCOs and Other Ranks (ORs) equivalent, from all the
three services are posted in NCC to carry out their assigned task. Therefore, as
WTLOs, ANOs & GCIs, it is necessary to recognize the various rank structure in
the three services, to enable every individual to pay due respect.
2. This will be covered in three parts:-
(a) Rank Structure in the Army.
(b) Rank structure in the Navy.
(c) Rank structure in the Air Force.
Relative Ranks in Services
3. Army Navy Air Force
Field Marshal Admiral of the Fleet Marshal of the Air Force
General Admiral Air Chief Marshal
Lieutenant General Vice Admiral Air Marshal
Major General Rear Admiral Air Vice Marshal
Brigadier Commodore Air Commodore
Colonel Captain Group Captain
Lieutenant Colonel Commander Wing Commander
Major Lt Commander Squadron Leader
Captain Lieutenant Flight Lieutenant
Lieutenant Sub Lieutenant Flying Officer
4. The same is also illustrated in the Appendix attached.
5. JCO / OR & Equivalent Ranks
ARMY NAVY AIRFORCE
SUB MAJ MCPO I CWO
SUB MCPO II MWO
NB SUB CPO WO
HAV PO SGT
NK LDG CPL
L/NK SEA – I L CPL
SEPOY SAILOR/SEA – II AIR MAN
6. Having seen the various rank structures, it will take time to remember all
of them. However, a constant study of this rank structure would facilitate all to
recognize the various rank structure in the armed forces, when required.
BADGES OF RANK Appendix
HONOURS AND AWARDS
1. British rule over India came to an end on 14 August 1947 and with it also
ended the old institution of British honours and awards. The new Indian awards
could come into being only with the dawn of the Republic on 26 January 1950.
But on the basis of proposals already made by early May 1948, the new awards,
known as Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra and Vir Chakra, were finally
selected in June 1948. Thus on becoming a Republic, decorations and medals
were introduced to honour the deeds of gallantry and valour by members of
Indian defence forces. Gradually, with the passage of time, the range of awards
kept on expanding.
2. A complete break with the past was, however, not possible because
members of the Indian armed forces still held British honours and these could no
longer be granted to Indians. A perusal of the British and Indian awards will thus
show some equivalents in the Param Vir Chakra to the Victoria Cross, the Maha
Vir Chakra to the Indian Order of Merit and the Vir Chakra to the Military Cross.
The other group of awards i.e. the Ashoka Chakra series, meant for gallantry
other than in the face of the enemy, was probably meant to replace the George
Cross, Albert Medal and George Medal.
3. The first batch of decorations introduced on 26 January 1950 was thus
made effective with retrospective effect from 15 August 1947. The Vir Chakra
and Ashoka Chakra series became important institutions of this batch. The
second instalment came in March 1953, in the form of the Meritorious Service
Medal and Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, Territorial Army Decoration
and Territorial Army Medal. Then followed the highest award of the land-the
Bharat Ratna-and Padma series in 1954. On 26 January 1960, some more
medals were instituted and these included the Vishisht Seva Medal (in the
classes), Sainya Seva Medal, Videsh Seva Medal and Sena, Nao Sena and
Vayu Sena Medals.
4. As a result of the Indo-Pak conflict of 1965, the Raksha Medal, Samar
Seva Star and some others were introduced. Then came the 1971 war and it led
to the institution of the Sangram Medal, Poorvi Star and Paschimi Star.
Classification & Categories
5. For the purpose of classification, Indian honours and awards can be
divided into two categories :-
(b) Non-gallantry awards.
6. The gallantry awards are again divisible into two categories :-
(a) Those for gallantry in the face of the enemy.
(b) Those for gallantry other than in the face of the enemy.
7. The first category of the gallantry awards comprises :
(a) Param Vir Chakra.
(b) Maha Vir Chakra.
(c) Vir Chakra.
(d) Sena, Nao Sena and Vayu Sena Medal.
(e) Mention in Dispatches.
(f) Chiefs of Staff Commendation Card.
8. The second category of the gallantry awards comprise the following :
(a) Ashoka Chakra*.
(b) Kirti Chakra*.
(c) Shaurya Chakra*.
* These were originally named Ashoka Chakra Class I, Class II,
9. The non-gallantry awards are :-
(a) 30 Years Long Seva Medal.
(b) 20 Years Long Service Medal.
(c) 9 Years Long Service Medal.
(d) Meritorious Service Medal.
(e) Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.
(f) General Service Medal – 1947.
(g) Samar Seva Medal.
(h) Sainya Seva Medal.
(j) Videsh Seva Medal.
(k) Commendation Card.
(l) Raksha Medal.
(m) Poorvi Star.
(n) Paschimi Star.
(o) Sangram Medal.
(p) Wound Medal.
(q) 25th Independence Anniversary Medal.
Param Vir Chakra
10. The highest decoration for valour is the PVC which is awarded for the
most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self
sacrifice in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. The
decoration is made of bronze and is circular in shape. It has, on the obverse, four
replicas of Indra‘s vajra embossed round the state emblem in the centre. On the
reverse the words Param Vir Chakra are embossed both in Hindi and English
with two lotus flowers in the middle. The decoration is worn on the left chest with
the plain purple coloured riband about 3.2cm in width.
11. The second highest decoration for valour is the MC which is awarded for
the most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self
sacrifice in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. The
decoration is made of standard silver and is circular in shape. It has, on the
obverse, five pointed heraldic star with domed centre piece bearing the gilded
state emblem in the center. On the reverse the words Mahavir Chakra are
embossed both in Hindi and English with two lotus flowers in the middle. The
decoration is worn on the left chest with the half white and half orange coloured
riband about 3.2cm in width, the orange being near the left shoulder.
12. Third in the order of awards for the most conspicuous bravery or some
daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self sacrifice in the presence of the enemy,
whether on land, at sea or in the air. The decoration is made of standard silver
and is circular in shape. It has, on the obverse, five pointed heraldic star which
has Ashok Chakra in the centre. Within this chakra is a domed piece bearing the
gilded state emblem. On the reverse the words Vir Chakra are embossed both in
Hindi and English with two lotus flowers in the middle. The decoration is worn on
the left chest with the half blue and half orange coloured riband about 3.2cm in
width, the orange being near the left shoulder.
13. The decoration is for valour which is awarded for the most conspicuous
bravery or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self sacrifice in the
presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. The decoration is
made of gilt gold and is circular in shape. Embossed on the obverse is a replica
of Ashok chakra surrounded by a lotus wreath. Along the edges is pattern of
lotus leaves, flowers and buds. On the reverse the words Ashok Chakra are
embossed both in Hindi and English with two lotus flowers in the middle. The
decoration is worn on the left chest with the green silk riband about 3.2cm in
width, divided into two equal segments by an orange vertical line.
14. The decoration is awarded for conspicuous gallantry. The decoration is
made of standard silver and is circular in shape. Embossed on the obverse is a
replica of Ashok chakra surrounded by a lotus wreath. Along the edges is pattern
of lotus leaves, flowers and buds. On the reverse the words Ashok Chakra are
embossed both in Hindi and English with two lotus flowers in the middle. The
decoration is worn on the left chest with the green silk riband about 3.2cm in
width, divided into two equal segments by an orange vertical line.
15. The decoration is awarded for conspicuous gallantry. The decoration is
made of bronze and is circular in shape. It is exactly like Ashok Chakra. The
decoration is worn on the left chest with the green silk riband about 3.2cm in
width, divided into four equal segments by three orange vertical lines.
PVSM, AVSM AND VSM
16. Awarded to personnel of all three services in recognition of distinguished
service. PVSM for the most exceptional service, AVSM for exceptional and VSM
for service of a high order. The medals are made of Gold, Silver and bronze
respectively. Each medal has on its obverse five pointed stars, and on its reverse
the Lion capital. The ribbon is golden with one dark blue stripe down the centre
for PVSM, two dark blue stripes for VSM and three for VSM.
17. As NCC officers , you should know about the awards of our nation, as you
have a part to play in bringing up our heroes of tomorrow. It is rightly said, ―This
world rests on the arms of heroes like a son on those of his sire. He, therefore,
that is a hero, deserves respect under every circumstance. There is nothing
higher in the three worlds than heroism. The hero protects and cherishes all, and
things depend upon the hero".
QUARTER MASTER DUTIES
1. Quartermaster is a regimental staff officer responsible for the receipt/ issue
of equipments, clothing and stores. He ensures provision of rations, conservancy
and cleanliness of the lines, unit-shopping complex and supervise regimental
shops and establishments. The morale and efficiency of a unit depends to a very
large extent on how well the unit QM is able to carry out his functions. The QM is
regimental Staff Officer who is responsible to ensure that all Government stores
and supplies in his charge are correctly accounted for and any expenditure of
stores is conducted honestly and economically in accordance with the existing
2. Detailed duties of the Quartermaster with regard to various stores that has
to be dealt with are as under: -
3. Ordnance Stores.
(a) Provisioning. He must know the entitlement of the unit and take
appropriate and timely action to provide for these stores and equipments.
(b) Indenting. He must be thoroughly conversant with the procedure
for obtaining stores, as given in relevant instructions / orders.
(c) Receipt. He is responsible to ensure that the stores received
are checked, both for quantity and condition. He should also ensure that
appropriate action is taken forthwith to resolve discrepancies, if any, at the
time of receipt.
(d) Discrepancies and Losses. He must ensure that any discrepancies
or losses brought to light are vigorously pursued to finality, without any
loss of time.
(e) Accounting. He must ensure that stores held in the unit are
properly accounted for and stocktaking is carried out as laid down. (AI
(f) Care and Preservation. He must be conversant with the care and
preservation of stores, and ensure that the stores are not damaged due to
biological and non-biological causes when held in unit storehouse.
(g) Issues. He must ensure that the stores are issued strictly as per
scales and entitlements at the right time. (AI 149/68)
(h) Repairs. He must arrange timely repairs to stores so as to
prolong their life and utility. ‗A stitch in time saves nine.‘ (AI 149/68)
(j) Controlled stores and Ammunition. The provisions of controlled
stores and ammunition is an important function of Unit Quartermaster and
it is essential that he must be conversant with the special instructions and
procedures regarding their procurement (AI 149/68) along with timely
reports and returns for these items.
4. ASC Stores. Unit Quartermaster is responsible for provision, receipt
storage and issue of ASC stores to entitled personnel as per regulations. Further
he must ensure proper turn over of rations and timely preparation of monthly
ration and forage Return (Regulations (Regs) for the Army 1987 (Rev) Para 880-
5. MES Stores These include accommodation, electrical fittings, furniture
and other ancillaries. Unit Quartermaster is responsible for their correct handling
/ taking over, to / from the MES authorities and to ensure that they are properly
accounted for and maintained while on unit charge. Maintenance of distribution
inventories is important [Regs for the Army (Rev 1987) Para 1011-1025].
6. Conservancy. Unit Quartermaster is responsible for making
adequate arrangements for conservancy in the unit as per PE and through local
7. Transport and FOL. Where a separate MTO is not authorised to the Unit,
QM is called upon to perform the duties of MTO also. In such cases, he will be
responsible for the receipt, issue and maintenance of the unit vehicles and FOL,
preparation and submission of various reports and returns and maintenance of
relevant documents, which require special attention for eg. monthly vehicle
casualty return (MVCR). He will also be responsible to ensure that the unit MT
fleet is kept ON ROAD at all times through URO/dependent EME Wksp.
8. Fire Fighting. Provision of the fire fighting equipment is also the
responsibility of the Quartermaster. He should ensure that these equipments are
held in the unit as per AI 2/91 and personnel/crew are trained in handling of
these equipments [Regs for the Army (Rev 1987) Para 1190].
9. Inspections. Quartermaster has to ensure readiness of the unit for the
following inspections/visits: -
(a) Inspection/Technical visit by Ordnance Representatives, CO
Divisional Ordnance Unit (DOU)/Col Ordnance.
(b) EMAE (SA) Inspection.
(a) CEME/OC EME Bn‘s Inspection
(b) OC PARS/FARS Inspection.
(c) ADMS‘s/SHO‘s visit.
10. The Quartermaster must ensure unit’s readiness for administration in peace and
units readiness for war as he is responsible for the receipt and issue of equipment,
clothing and stores, provision of rations, conservancy and cleanliness of the lines, unit
shopping complex and supervision of the regimental shops and establishments.
DEMAND AND ACCOUNTING OF ORDNANCE STORES AND AMMUNITION
1. Correct preparation and submission of indents is of primary importance for
expeditious issue of stores. Details of Ordnance Depots on which units places
demand for various type of stores are published from time to time in formation
orders. Regulations and correct accounting minimizes chances of pilferage and
loss of Government Stores. Besides, this helps in making adequate and timely
provision of stores and obviates unnecessary accumulation of stocks, which may
urgently be, required elsewhere.
Indenting and Accounting Procedure of Ordnance Stores
2. Indenting. Ordnance stores required by unit are demanded from
dependent Ordnance depot with the help of the following Army Forms: -
(a) IAFO - 2705. This form is used to demand ordnance stores and
ammunition. It is prepared in duplicate and forwarded to dependent
Ordnance depot through Divisional Ordnance Unit (DOU)/Formation
Ordnance Officer in original, together with schedule of indent (IAFO 1286).
(b) IAFO - 1457. This is used to demand tentage on loan required by
the units for temporary use. The procedure of demanding is the same as
mentioned in sub Para 2(a) above.
3. Preparation of Indents. The indents must be legible and prepared
correctly. Preferably the indents should be typed or hand written in copying pencil
or in ink. Separate indents are required to be prepared for: -
(a) Each catalogue of ordnance stores (COS) sub section.
(b) Each catalogue of clothing (COS) sub section.
(c) Each catalogue of MT stores (CMTS) sub section.
(d) Technical stores.
4. Placing of Demand. The demands are placed on the following occasions: -
(a) When replacement is required for quantity rendered
(b) Replacement of quantity lost.
(c) As first supply to make up authorised scales.
(d) Demands for expendable stores will be placed for three months
requirement and three months in advance (AO 20/84).
5. Submission of Indents. Indents are submitted to the following: -
(a) Dependent Ordnance Depot/Field Ord Depot (FOD) for normal
replacement and to complete authorised scales.
(b) Central Ordnance Depot (COD) responsible for such items, which
are centrally stocked. Formation headquarters to units intimates names of
such Central Depots.
(c) COD Agra for dry batteries (AO 61/58 and 332/60).
6. Types of Demand. These are classified as under and are printed on the
form itself. Those not applicable are deleted.
(a) Normal for Routine demand.
(b) Special for Priority demand.
(c) Payment for Op Immediate.
7. Address. Units will clearly show the designation and nearest railway
station. When stores are required to be dispatched through any transit agency
where the location of unit is not connected by rail or when the unit is in
operational Area, address of such agency (MFO, MCO, Out Agency) shall be
very clearly mentioned. Postal address of unit in peace area will not show the
APO address in the indents.
8. Numbering. All indents will be given serial number and date. Separate
series will be maintained for clothing, equipment and other stores.
9. Data. Normally the data on which the demand is based will be the WE/PE
of the unit/formation.
10. Authority. Authority for the demand is the regulation under which stores
are held on charge. Following are the main authorities for demanding stores: -
(a) WET/PET of the unit.
(b) Equipment Regulation.
(c) Clothing Regulations.
(d) Loss Statement.
(e) Army Instructions/Army Orders.
(f) Government/Army Headquarter letters.
(g) Survey/Condemnation Board Proceedings.
(h) BER/BLR Certificates.
11. Method of Accounting. Stores other than ammunition and vehicles are
accounted for properly on IAFZ-2286A.Ammunition is accounted for on IAFO-
1444A and vehicles on IAFZ- 2186 (Unit Vehicle Register). Separate ledgers are
required for clothing, public and personal equipment.
Accounting of Ordnance Stores
12. The stores issued by the government are accounted for by the units and
audited by the LAO just like the government finances. The QM of a unit is
responsible for accounting of various type of stores issued by the Government.
13. The main object of accounting of stores is to give the correct position of
the stores held by the unit for the Officers Commanding (OC) of the units and
inspecting officers. In addition to this, it helps the QM to take appropriate action
to complete deficiency and to dispose off the surplus stores held by the unit.
Maintaining proper and correct accounting also minimizes the chances of theft
Procedure of Accounting
14. The procedure for accounting ordnance stores by units are laid down in AI
149/68. In order to facilitate the accounting and easy checking, separate ledgers
are maintained for each of the following types of stores: -
(a) Ammunition and Explosives.
(b) MT stores and vehicles.
(c) Special items of clothing as detailed in AI 14/S/65 and AI 22/83.
(d) Personal Equipment items (both controlled and uncontrolled) which
are authorised on ‗per man‘ basis in PET/WET. A separate ledger, may
however be maintained for arms and components.
(e) Items of personal and public clothing.
(f) Stores for officers on cash payment.
(g) Training grant stores.
(h) Expendable stores.
(i) Station stores.
(j) Special items of winter/snow clothing and equipment.
(k) Salvage stores.
(l) Packing materials.
(m) Unit equipment and all stores not covered by (a) to (m) above.
Maintenance of Accounts
15. (a) All ordnance stores other than ammunition, explosives and MT
vehicles are accounted for in form IAFZ- 2286A (Accounting Sheets).
Vehicles are accounted for on from IAFZ-2186 (Unit vehicle Register).
(b) Items are accounted for, by quantity only. Only in the case of
Blanket Barrack of different groups (Grade I and II and part worn
serviceable (PWS) clothing) and conditions are required to be shown.
(c) A separate page is used for each item and all pages in a particular
volume of ledger are arranged in accordance with catalogue section in
alphabetical order. All pages are numbered serially. A certificate regarding
total number of pages in the ledger is endorsed on IAFO-2397A (Record
of inspection of books).
(d) Normally each volume of the ledger contains 100 sheets. The
following records are kept within each volume: -
(i) IAFZ - 2286 (Ledger cover).
(ii) A record on IAFO - 2437 (Pages can be added and
(ii) An alphabetical index showing nomenclature of each item
and its page number.
(iv) IAFZ - 2286A (Accounting sheets).
(e) Amount realised will be deposited in government treasury on IAFA -
507 (Military Receivable Order) along with a cheque for the amount in
favour of CDA and TRs forwarded to CDA and acknowledgement
obtained. Ration and Forage Return (IAFS - 1519) will be completed
accordingly on the appropriate pages and columns incorporating the items
issued on payment and the amount realised will be deposited in
(f) Procedure for payment issues is given in AI 16/75 as amended vide
AI 20/83 corrigendum.
16. The correct preparation and submission of indents is of primary importance
for expeditious issue of stores. Details of Ordnance depots on which units will
place demands for various types of stores are published from time to time in
Command orders. To ensure timely issue of stores from ordnance depots, timely
submission of indents is a must.
MANAGEMENT OF ORD STORES AND EQUIPMENT
1. It is the responsibility of the Officer Commanding (OC) Unit to ensure that
all ord stores on unit charge are maintained in good order and in serviceable
condition vide RA Para 42 (3). Frequent inspections of the kit in the hands of
individuals and regular kit maintenance parades should also be held to achieve
the object. The forms issued on various occasions by the units and stores
supplying agencies are either as Receipt Voucher (RV), Issue Voucher (IV) or
Expense Voucher (EV).
Types of Forms/Registers
2. Issue Voucher. Agencies supplying stores use this form as an Issue
Voucher when issuing stores to unit provided the agencies do not have their own
form for the purpose. On receipt of stores, unit return one copy of this form to
issuing authority duly receipted and signed.
(a) Units while returning stores to ordnance depots, transferring stores
to other units and returning packing material to supply depots, use it as an
(b) Consolidated Issue Vouchers are prepared on this form for issue of
public and payment issue of clothing and necessaries.
3. Receipt Voucher. When stores are received without issue voucher or
when stores are locally purchased, credit receipt voucher (CRV) is prepared on
this form and stores taken on ledger charge.
4. Expense Voucher. For expendable stores, monthly-consolidated
vouchers are prepared on this form to write off stores from the ledger such as
Charcoal, quick lime, Hygiene chemicals, Boot repair materials, Soap, Soda ash
and others issued to washer men. The following may be kept in mind while
dealing with expense vouchers: -
(a) The main thing to be remembered is separate series of vouchers
are prepared for stores pertaining to different ledgers.
(b) An expense voucher will also be prepared to charge off the items
from ledger which are condemned by the board of officers at the time of
Annual Stock Taking of unit property i.e. sports gears etc.
5. Ammunition Register. Ammunition (amn) is accounted for on IAFO -
1444A (Ammunition Account Register).
(a) This register is divided into VI parts, each part is used for specific
type of ammunition. Part I is used for maintaining accounts of service
ammunition (including pouch and emergency), Part II for practice amn,
Part III for amn on payment, Part IV for other purpose such as war
Trophies, Part V for amn packages/empties and Part VI for drill amn.
(b) On the front cover of the book there are certain instructions printed
which should be clearly understood before the book is taken into use.
(c) Part I is used for service ammunition. Each page is divided into
eight columns in addition to the name of article to be entered at the top left
(d) Ammunition received in a unit/formation will be based on same
demand/indent sent by the unit/formation. It will be the responsibility of the
unit to maintain these registers.
(e) All the remaining parts have identical columns and the entries are
made as explained above.
(f) This register has page number printed at the bottom, middle of
each page and in a bound book. There are 65 pages in the register.
(g) In addition to the VI parts mentioned above, this book has two more
parts, ―Statement giving details‘ of SA practice amn expended during the
weapon training year (page 142 to 151) and ‗Document received‘ for audit
purpose (page 152 to 165).
6. Survey boards of all ordnance stores and clothing held by units/formations
will be carried out by properly constituted board when there is change from
peace system to war system of accounting and vice versa. Detailed instructions
regarding survey boards are given in Army Order 206/75.
7. Action by unit. On receipt of orders for move of unit from peace to field,
an application will be made to station HQ/Formation HQ for convening a survey
board to carry out complete survey of all ordnance stores will detail the board
and clothing held on charge of unit/personnel.
(a) The composition of the board will be as under: -
(i) Presiding officer - One field officer from other unit.
(ii) Members - One Capt from the unit and one more officer from the other
unit in the station.
(iii) Ordnance representative of formation under which the unit is
serving will attend the board in an advisory capacity: -
(b) The survey board will not be held more than two months prior to the
date of actual move. The aim of the board is to: -
(i) Condition all stores so that the items, which are not required
by the unit, can be returned to the appropriate authorities.
(ii) Demand replacement for unserviceable items well in
advance to avoid hardships at a later stage.
(iii) To make up deficiencies before entry into operational area.
(iv) To issue the items of personal clothing to individuals in place
of those which do not have more than three months life in field
(c) On finalisation of the Survey Board proceedings, unit will take
(i) Place demand on dependent depot in the new location to
complete field scale and to make up to the deficiencies of stores
(ii) Dispose off surplus/ repairable/ unserviceable stores as per
disposal instruction of Survey Board proceedings.
(iii) Personnel will be equipped with the field service scale of
clothing and necessaries.
(iv) All stores ledgers will be closed and kept in rear for audit
(d) Survey board on return of a unit from operational areas to peace
area will be held within 3 weeks of arrival form filed area. Procedure for
conducting a survey board will be the same. On finalization of board
proceedings, unit will open new ledgers in peace area.
(e) A survey board in respect of a soldier on his return from
field/operational area will be held immediately within one week of his
arrival to examine the condition of his clothing and equipment.
Audit of Store Accounts
8. Just like Public Fund accounts, stores accounts maintained by units are
also audited by Local Audit Officer (LAO) and his staff. The stores, which are
supplied by the Government, are only audited and not the stores procured from
(a) Normally a team of auditors visits the units quarterly and audits the
accounts for the particular quarter. They intimate their programme to the
units well in advance to enable the units to keep their records up to date
(b) All records pertaining to stores such as ledgers and supporting
documents are checked by audit. The aim of audit is to ensure that: -
(i) Correct procedure is followed.
(ii) Stores are issued/expended for bonafide purpose governed
by regulations and instructions.
(iii) Stores received from various sources are correctly taken on
(iv) Amount realized on account of payment issues are credited
to the Government.
(v) There are no arithmetical errors in ledger postings.
(vi) Stock verification where necessary are carried out.
(vii) Loss, theft and fraud are exposed.
(c) If the LAO and his staff are not satisfied with any particular account
they raise what are known as ―Objections‖ and ―Observations‖ and call for
unit explanations. These observations and objections should be carefully
studied and suitable replies sent to settle them.
9. The unit‘s readiness for administration in peace and readiness for war
depends upon proper management of ordinance stores and equipment. It is the
responsibility of the OC unit to ensure that all ord stores on unit charge are
maintained in good order and in serviceable condition.
LIFE CYCLE CONCEPT OF CLOTHING
1. Clothing and necessaries, which consume the lion‘s share of NCC Budget,
are essential and expensive items required to equip the cadets of NCC.
Therefore, there is a need to preserve these items in public interest with due
consideration to the turn-out of the NCC cadets and their image in the society.
2. Advancement in the socio-economic conditions in the country motivated
Armed Forces and Para-Military organisations to introduce textile of improved
quality for uniforms. Thus NCC cadets were authorised terrycot uniforms from
the year 1984-85 which was to be introduced in a phased manner over 8 years.
Simultaneously, the existing system of accounting and replacement had been
changed to a life cycle concept for most clothing, as is being followed by the
Armed Forces. The success of adopting the life cycle concept, which goes a
long way to serve the interests of the state as well as the cadets, depends on its
3. The items of clothing and necessaries of the NCC cadets are covered
under four headings as under :-
(a) A total No of 29 personal clothing items together with life cycle and
entitlement for different categories of cadet is at Appendix ‗A‘.
(b) A total No of 17 items (Special issue items) of personal clothing which
are not covered under life cycle and which are required to be conditioned
annually by condemnation board is at Appendix ‗B‘.
(c) A total No of 14 items with or without life cycle issued for camps and
parades with entitlements is at Appendix ‗C‘.
(d) A total No of 12 items peculiar to regional conditions and entitlements
thereto is indicated at Appendix ‗D‘.
4. A cadet who had been issued with the items will be entitled to a free
replacement on expiry of its fair life. Thus, life cycle concept ensure effective
control over consumption and a sound rationale to base forecast for future
Scale of Clothing & Necessaries
5. The scale of clothing and necessaries authorized to cadets are laid down
in PET (Peace Equipment Table) vide Government of India letter with
amendments from time to time.
Issue of Items of Clothing & Necessaries to Cadets
6. Procedure for Demanding by Units. NCC units will submit their demands
for their requirements, including 20% reserve to their respective SH & DC (Store
holding & Distribution cell) at least 60 days in advance. Regular monitoring of
stores will be done by SHDC and surplus / deficiencies will be adjusted
7. Clothing and necessaries will be issued to cadets by their respective
ANO‘s (Associated NCC Officers ), at the commencement of each academic
year. The same will be returned by the cadets at the end of the academic
session. All the issues made to the cadets would be on signatures. The articles
will be inspected periodically at the discretion of OC Unit for serviceability. If
damaged due to negligence of the cadet, the damage and amount to be
recovered will be determined by the Officer Commanding of the unit, on the
merits of each case, taking into consideration, the cost of replacement and
residual life of the item at the time of loss/damage. On the discharge of a cadet
from the corps, all items of clothing & necessaries would be withdrawn and
accounted for. A cadet should be issued transfer certificate by the educational
institution only after recovering cost of NCC clothing items lost/not deposited by
the cadet and after clearance from NCC is obtained.
Life Cycle Concept
8. Articles of clothing as indicated in Appendix ‗A‘ where life has been laid
will be wasted out as per life cycle and will be deposited into the salvage section.
9. Composition of Board of Officers for Calculating Wastage as per Life
Cycle. The board of officers for calculating wastage quantities of clothing and
necessaries items based on life cycle as prescribed will be composed as under :-
(a) Presiding Offr - An Officer of the rank of Lt Col or
equivalent detailed by Dte
(b) Members - (i) One officer detailed by Group HQ
(ii) JCO or equivalent, detailed by Group
10. Wastage on Life Cycle Concept. Since clothing items are retrieved at
the end of each academic year from cadets, a detailed system of issue and
marking of clothing items has been evolved as follows :-
(a) Commencement of Life. It would commence from the month and year
it is issued to the institution. (School/College/Sqn/Div) by a unit or NCC
(b) Marking of Items. Ink and note in issue register & CIV (IAFZ-2096)
(c) Compilation of Wastage. Withdrawn from cadet and returned to the
unit at the end of academic session. Unit will send a return to SHDC
(State Dte) who in turn will, compile all such returns and will subtract the
total quantity thus wasted out from their total stock while compiling annual
wastage return and a stock return for submission to DG NCC as on 01 Jan
11. Disposal of Un-serviceable/Life Expired Items. All items will be posted
under Group HQ, then will be auctioned publicly by a board of offrs in the best
interest of the state, planned in Jun/Jul. Sale proceeds deposited in the
Government treasury by means of MRO and rest unserviceable will be deposited
into salvage section.
Procedure for Items Not Included in Life Cycle Concept
12. Articles where life cycle is not prescribed and are reported unserviceable
will be brought before a condemnation board once a year (in the month of May).
Only those items found unserviceable due to fair wear & tear would be
condemned. If they are found fit to further use after repair, they will be repaired
at the expense of the Central Government, Major Head 2076, Minor Head 113-
NCC, and issued to cadets again.
13 Composition of Condemnation Board .The condemnation board for Girl‘s
wing will be as under :-
(a) Presiding Officer - OC.
(b) Members - (i) ANO
(c) In attendance - Ordnance Representative
14. Auction/Condemnation Board Proceedings. The proceedings of the
auction/condemnation board will be countersigned by the concerned Dte and will
be kept for record as LAO subjects them to audit inspection.
15. Maintain Size Roll. To reduce impact of repair/refitting on uniform &
necessaries, it is necessary. The Dte would indicate size-wise requirements
strictly. Hence the size roll to be maintained by sub-sub unit and forward the
same to NCC unit, Gp HQ & Dte.
Provision Policy / Review
16. Provision review is done by DG NCC centrally based on a stock return.
17. Basis of Provisioning. Following are basis of provisioning :-
(a) Liabilities. The liabilities of the various NCC Dtes in respect of various
items of clothing and necessaries are worked out by multiplying their
enrolled strength of NCC cadets by the scales of authorisation of the items
in question,plus 20% as reserve.
(b) Cushion for Wastages. Cushion for wastage for the operative period in
respect of life cycle and non-life cycle items of clothing is worked out as
indicated below :-
(i) Life Cycle Items. Actual stock of an item in question is divided by
its assessed fair life in years, and the quotient is considered as
anticipated wastage for the operative period.
(ii) Non-life Cycle Items. Anticipated wastage for the operative period
is worked out on the average percentage based on actual wastage
data of the yearly Condemnation Boards held during the
(c) Anticipated Assets. This quantity in respect of each item is arrived at
as follows :-
(i) Actual Holdings (-) Anticipated wastage (+) Dues-in.
(d) Deficiencies. The following formula is applied :-
(i) Liabilities (-) Anticipated Assets.
18. In addition to the above arrangements, the State DDsG are also
empowered to effect local purchase in following cases to meet their minimum
essential requirements of clothing and necessaries :-
(a) Badges of rank and chevrons which are peculiar to NCC.
(b) Sarees and blouses for Lady Junior Officers.
(c) Cloth required for stitching of uniforms for oversized NCC cadets and
Junior Division Officers for which no central procurement purchase
coverage has been initiated (including payment of stitching charges).
(d) Such other items, as notified by Dte Gen NCC from time to time, for
which no provision for central purchase has been made, and the total
value of their order happens to be less than Rs 50,000/-.
(e) Normal items of clothing and necessaries which are considered urgent
and inescapable, but have not been supplied by the supplying agencies
despite repeated requests.
Storage and Accounting
19. (a) Stored properly.
(b) Use Bin Cards.
(c) Tent-age items.
(d) Turnover properly.
(e) Detailed instructions.
20. (a) Stock ledger.
(b) Receipt & Issue Voucher.
(c) Bin cards.
(d) Turnover Register.
(e) Register of loss statement.
(f) Register of Audit adjustments.
(g) Record of Inspection.
(h) Record of verification.
21. Proper planning, correct forecasting and prompt repair & maintenance can
ensure good kitting to cadets. This needs a vigorous drive at all levels to make
the life cycle concept a success. A proposal to issue personal clothing items to
NCC cadets as one time issue has been initiated by DG NCC to Ministry of
Defence, and is awaiting confirmation, to further streamline the issue of clothing
SCALE OF ITEMS WHOSE ASSESSED FAIR LIFE HAS BEEN LAID DOWN
UNDER GOI, MOD LETTER NO. 19017/DGNCC/AND(0-1)/ 1807/(GS-VI)
DATED 18 DEC 1994
1. Shirt PWPC Khaki
2. Short PWPC Khaki
3. Trousers PWPC Khaki
4. 1. Shirt PWPC WHITE
5. Short PWPC WHITE
6. Trousers PWPC WHITE
7. Shirt PWPC LBG
8. Short PWPC LBG
9. Trousers PWPC LBG
10. Shirt bush PWPC Khaki
11. Slack PWPC Khaki
12. Shirt Drill GK Navy
13. Short Drill GK
14. Salwar White Girls
15. Kameez White Girls
16. Shoes Black Leather items with the cap DMS
17. Boot Ankle DMS /Gp
18. Shoe Canvas Brown
19. Shoe Canvas white
20. Beret Rifle Green
21. Socks Nylon Torrypile White
22. Socks Nylon Torrypile Black
23. Socks woolen black
24. Jersey P/O Woollen khaki
25. Stocking woolen Black
26. Jersey P/O Woollen khaki
27. Jersey P/O Woollen
28. Jersey P/O Woollen black (NW)
29. Jersey P/O Woollen Grey (AW)
LIST OF SPECIAL ISSUE ITEMS TO BE CONDITIONED BY
CONDEMNATION BOARDS (NON LIFE CYCLE)
1. Bagkit Universal
2. Blanket barrack
3. Cap FS Disruptive
4. Durries IT
5. Coat Combat
6. Ground Sheet
7. Pagri Rifle Green
8. Shirt Angola drab
9. Trousers serge khaki
10. Vest woollen
11. Sashes Red worster
12. Laces nylon Black 90cm for boots
13. Laces nylon black 60 cm for shoes
14. Anklet web
15. Belt web waist
16. Overall combination
17. Cap water proof
LIST OF ITEMS ISSUED TO NCC CADETS FOR CAMPS / PARADES
1. Bagkit Universal
2. Blanket barrack
3. Cap FS Disruptive
4. Durries IT
5. Coat Combat
6. Ground Sheet
7. Sam brown belt black
8. Shoe canvas brown
9. Shoe canvas white
10. Jersey P/O Woollen khaki
11. Jersey P/O Woollen coatis
12. Jersey P/O Woollen black
13. Jersey P/O Woollen Grey
14. short PWPC khaki.
LIST OF ITEMS PECULIAR TO REGIONAL CONDITIONS
1. Boot Ankle
2. Shoes Black Leather Derby with toe cap DMS
3. Cap water proof
4. Rain coat
5. Shirt Angola drab
6. Trousers serge khaki
7. Vest woolen
8. Sashes Red worster
9. Jersey P/O Woollen khaki
10. Jersey P/O Woollen coats
11. Jersey P/O Woollen black
12. Jersey P/O Woollen grey
1. The responsibility of ensuring continued serviceability of stores/equipment
has been vested with the Officer Commanding (OC) unit vide Regulations for the
Army Para 37, ER, Para 7 and Clothing Regulations Para 16. OC unit should
inspect the equipments/stores/clothing held by units/personnel periodically.
Condemnation board comprising of officers is detailed in units to examine the
condition of unit equipment, and personal and public clothing in possession of
2. Normally a quarterly condemnation board is held for all items of personal
clothing, public clothing and unit equipment as per AI 82/55, AO 197/74, AI
149/68 and AI 22/83.
3. A detailed letter is issued by the Ordnance Branch of Formation HQ well in
advance showing the programme of condemnation board to be held for various
units. On receipt of the programme, units convene a board of officers after
notifying in their unit part I Orders. The Board is presided over by a field officer.
4. Proceedings are prepared (sufficient copies) on IAFD - 931. The form
contains unit strength and last date of condemnation. In addition, the following
are also mentioned: -
(a) Serial Number
(b) Part/Cat Number
(d) Total qty produced
(e) Quantity condemned due to fair wear and tear
(f) Quantity declared repairable
(g) Remarks, Disposal instructions by Ord rep.
5. The items, which are produced before the Board, should be clean and
properly marked. The board examines each item physically and classifies them
as per columns (e), (f) and (g) above.
6. Board proceedings are then submitted to Formation HQ (Ord rep) for
disposal orders of unserviceable items. Items of clothing, which are to be
returned by the individuals as per AI 22/83, are deposited with QM, for onward
dispatch to Ordnance (Salvage Depot). On receipt of approved copies of
condemnation board proceedings, demand for the items are submitted to the Ord
Depot together with a copy of the proceedings.
8. The responsibility of ensuring continued serviceability of stores/equipment has
been vested in the OC unit. A condemnation board, which is an assembly of
officers, helps units to examine the condition of unit equipment, personal and
public clothing in possession of troops and weed them out.
INTRODUCTION TO MES WORKS
1. In Defence Services, all types of construction works, repair works and
maintenance are carried out by Military Engineering Services (MES). They are
responsible for installations required for offices, residential accommodation,
fighting and other installations at all places, be it in plains, mountains or in high
altitudes. This includes electric supply water supply all electrifications, A/C lifts
etc. They also provide necessary furniture of all types.
2. To oversee the above-mentioned work, an engineering organization has
been established under Engineer - in -chief of the Army. This organization
comprises of Civil, Electrical and Mechanical Engineers and Architects who are
specialists in their respective fields.
3. MES carries out all types of construction work for Army, Navy, AF, Coast
Guard and other civil defence organization as deposit work. The responsibilities
of MES are: -
(a) Planning and construction of cantonments.
(b) Buildings, Offices, Residential complex and Hospitals.
(d) Ord Factories- Avadi Tank Factory.
(e) Air fields - Arkonam, Alwar.
(f) Naval dockyards- Bombay, Vizag.
(g) Naval Jetty or wharfs - Tirunelveli.
(h) Naval or AF Installation.
(k) Base Workshops.
(m) All types of furniture.
(n) Electricity Supply and electrification.
(o) Water supply.
(p) Furniture design and provision.
4. Works Procedure.
(a) Siting Board - feasibility, rough cost. Arch site plan, line plan.
(b) AE Part I and Part II
(c) Adm approval - By competent auth depending on the value of wk. It
(d) Architectural plan design.
(e) Structural design.
(g) Contract agreement.
(j) Handing over to user.
DGW (Dir Gen Wks)
Tech control & Supervision
CE Zones CE Zones CE Zones CE Zones
(Army Navy AF, Coast Guard)
CWE Commander Works Engrs CWE
Project Normal Wks
GE GE GE
Garrison Engineer AGE Project Main E/M
AGE (B/R) AGE
6. All Constructions are done through civil agencies by giving contract.
Planning including preparation of architectural plan, structural plan, arch design,
structural design, contracting, supervision of execution, furniture design etc are
done by MES. Dte Gen of works at Army HQ does major policies and planning
on design of bldgs such as residential, institutional and offices and storage bldg,
furniture design etc.
7. Types of Works. It depends on financial limit.
(a) Major wks – Rs 2.5 lakhs and above.
(b) Minor wks – Up to Rs 1 lakh.
(c) Revenue work - Rs1 - 2.5 lakh.
(d) Special repairs - Sub area/Area Commander.
(e) Periodical maintenance depending on the condition and life of the bldg.
8. Type of Contracts.
(a) Lump Sum contract - Major projects
(b) Rate Running Contract - Small construction works and normal repairs.
(c) Term Contract - Periodical maintenance, road repair and white washing
9. Wks Procedure. The user unit based on the needs projects its requirement
of certain accommodation to the higher HQ, who in turn orders a board of officers
to study the requirement, the place of construction suggested by the user, the
feasibility of construction etc. The board will be presided over by an officer from
some other unit detailed by Station HQ and a member from the user unit. They
board visits the site of proposed construction and submits the board proceedings
along with the feasibility study, rough cost and suggested architectural design.
Once higher HQ accepts the requirement, an administrator approval is accorded.
The work is then executed after release of funds by the competent financial
10. Correct knowledge of MES procedures ensures timely completion of work
within the given parameters and the user is provided with necessity at the
earliest. It is a must for all users to be aware of MES rules.
ARMS AND AMMUNITION DISCIPLINE
1. In army, personal arms are issued to all ranks, which are carried by them
on their person at all times during operations and training exercises. NCC
offrs/cadets are issued with arms only for short durations, for weapon training
and firing. Any laxity in handling of arms and ammunition (Amn) by the person
carrying arms is likely to lead to injury or death to innocent bystanders. There
have been large No of incidences wherein due to lack of discipline in wpn
handling avoidable accidents have occurred. It is therefore imperative for
everyone to exercise strict discipline in handling of arms and amn. Over the
years, few guidelines have been evolved on the subject. Religious observance
of these guidelines would help in avoiding accidents.
2. To bring out measures for ensuring arms and amn discipline.
Handling of Arms And Ammunition
3. Physical Security. First and most imp rule of arms and amn discipline is
that arm/amn is never left unattended. An individual issued with an arm/amn
must carry it on his person at all times. Incase the individual has to separate
from the arm due to some unavoidable reason, he must entrust the arm to some
one else. Under no circumstances should the arm/amn be left unguarded or
4. Inspection of Arms During Issue and Return. The arm must be checked
thoroughly for breakages and missing parts while it is being issued form the kote.
It should also be ensured that there is no round in the breech/magazine of the
wpn. Both the persons, i.e. the person receiving and person issuing the arm must
carry out the inspection. This inspection must also be carried out whenever the
wpn is handed over by one pers to another.
5. On culmination of every parade, breech of the wpn must be checked to
ensure that there is no round in it.
6. Direction of Barrel. At all times barrel of wpns must point towards safe
area i.e. either towards sky or ground. During squad post training, even if DP
rifles are being used, it must be ensured that the barrel is not pointed towards
any living being.
7. Protection From Moisture, Sand and Dirt. Moisture, sand and dirt
seriously degrade arms and amn. Hence the arms and amn have to be protected
from moisture, sand and dirt at all time.
8. Regular Cleaning. Arms and amn must be kept clean. Arms cleaning
should be carried out before and after every firing. Amn should be thoroughly
cleaned before firing.
9. Handling of White Phosphorus (WP) Amn. WP amn is extremely volatile
in nature. Hence, it is always stocked and carried separately. Other points to be
borne in mind while stocking WP amn are as follows;-
(a) Provision for sufficient quantity of water must be ensured in the
(b) Constant vigilance of amn must be ensured. On leakage
WP amn emanates onion like smell. Incase of such smell the amn
must be segregated and put in water.
(c) WP amn should always be stored in cool and shady place.
(d) Availability of breathing apparatus, rubber hand gloves and
first aid eqpt must be ensured in the vicinity.
10. Protection of Arms and Amn. Arms and amn should always be guarded
by an armed guard of at least one NCO and three OR.
7. Security of arms is an extremely important and critical issue. Particularly in
our country, as most of the states are facing secessionist activities. In such a
scenario loss of arms or amn can have serious repercussions. In order to
prevent any loss/damage to arms and amn it is necessary to maintain strict arm
and amn discipline. As a WTLO, GCI or NCC officer you may be required to
perform the duties of Administrative or Range officer wherein you will be
responsible for safekeeping of arms and amn. Adherence to the guidelines
mentioned above would ensure proper arms and amn discipline and prevent any
loss/damage to arms and amn.
STANDING ORDERS FOR KOTE
1. It is very important to have standing orders for kote, as this is the only
place where all the arms and control stores of the unit are kept. A good standing
order of kote helps in following correct procedures of both issue and receipt of
arms and control stores of a unit, it also helps in ruling out any lapses.
2. The aim of this lecture is to acquaint the class about standing order of
Security of Kote
3. All the arms and control stores of the unit will be kept in the Kote. The
Kote NCO in the presence of duty JCO and the duty NCO will open Kote.
4. Kote will be opened only for following purposes: -
(a) Issue of stores.
(b) Repair and maintenance of equipment held.
(c) Issue of private arm to individual.
5. A guard of 1 NCO and 3 OR will be detailed every day from 1800 hrs to
0600 hrs next day.
6. Kote Documents Following documents will be maintained and kept in
the kote: -
(a) Arms Register.
(b) Issue of Arms Register.
(c) Register of private Arms.
(d) Index Card.
(e) Weapon History Sheets.
(f) AIA Inspection Report (During inspection only).
(g) Kote Standing Order.
Procedure for Issue/Receipt of Arms
7. (a) DP Rifles. DP Rifles will be issued from the Kote after depositing
the necessary Rifle Discs in the Kote. This procedure will be followed only
for drill periods. Rifles discs will be held with the training officer and will be
issued to the trainees on a proper issue voucher and their signatures
obtained. It will be the responsibility of the individual trainees/ personnel,
issued with these discs, for its safe custody.
(b) Service Rifles. The instructors will draw 22 Service Rifles
required for WT classes. The NCO will be responsible for the safety of
arms till these are deposited back in the Kote. The Kote NCO will check
all the weapons before accepting them in the Kote. Deposition will be
done under the supervision of the training JCO.
(c) Private Arms. Private arms of all personnel posted to NCC
OTA be kept in the Kote and necessary entries will be made in the private
(d) Maint of Arms. Arms will be taken out by Kote NCO and will be
cleaned under his supervision.
8. No ammunition will be drawn without proper indent. After firing, balance of
live ammunition/fired cases will be deposited in the Kote after proper accounting.
9. Kote JCO will ensure that all the arms, balance of live amn/fired cases
have been deposited and he will sign the arms and ammunition register
10. Kote Keys. Duplicate keys will be kept, one will be in the duplicate key
box placed outside the Kote and the other will be with the kote NCO from
Morning till evening. It will be deposited in original Key Box in Guard Room, at
11. After locking and sealing the Kote, the Guard Duty NCO will be asked to
make sure that it has been properly sealed and then the keys will be deposited in
12. All arms/ammunition issued to this Academy will be on the charge of Kote
NCO. He will keep all arms and ammunition in the Kote. The issue and deposit
procedure is as under: -
(a) The Kote JCO Signal JCO will be Kote JCO at all times. He
will open the Kote every day in the morning 15 minutes before parade
time. He will check all arms and ammunition in the presence of Kote NCO
and will then issue the rifles required for training to the trainees. Arms
issue register will be kept in the Kote and signatures of the NCOs
obtained. After the training is over, the arms will be deposited back in the
Kote and entries again made in the issue register.
(b) Controlled Stores. Controlled stores including Signal eqpt will be
on charge of Signal NCO for issue/depositing of stores and will also be
handled according to procedure laid down for arms.
(c) Kote will be sealed daily by the Duty NCO in the presence of Kote
NCO by 1800 hrs or as ordered and kote keys deposited in the Unit /
Academy Guard Room.
(d) No arms/ammunition will be taken out of the Academy premises
without the written permission of Adjutant/Commandant. Ammunition will
be issued only on authorized form. Empty cases will be deposited by the
Range Officer after the firing with the Kote NCO and subsequently
returned to ordnance at the earliest.
(e) Kote will not be opened by any one other than the Kote NCO
without the prior permission of Adjutant/Commandant.
(f) Duty Officer will check the correctness of arms as per ledger, once
a week. He /She will make entries in red ink in the Kote Register.
(g) Arms for repairs will be given to Hav armourer by the Kote NCO
and taken back from the Hav armourer after repair before 1300 hrs.
(h) In all cases it will be ensured by the Kote NCO/Kote JCO/Adjutant
that all arms/controlled stores drawn in the morning are deposited in the
Academy Kote by 1230 hrs.
(j) Loss of arms/ammunition, if any, will be immediately brought to the
notice of the Commandant and action taken as per Army Orders 10/S/83.
(k) No un-authorized civilian is allowed to enter the Kote area under
(l) Kote guard will be checked once during day by Subedar Major and
once a week each by Duty Officer and JCO of the week, once during their
tenure of duty.
13. Regimental Treasure Chest (RTC). The RTC will be kept in the
Kote fixed with a chain in the wall. The Subedar Major or Officiating Subedar
Major will only open it.
14. A good standing order for kote, helps in following correct procedures of
both issue and receipt of arms and control stores of a unit, it also helps in ruling
out any lapses on our part.
DUTIES OF KOTE GUARD.
1. Duty NCO will be overall responsible for the Kote Guard.
2. The Kote Guard will consist of 3 OR to be deployed during the night from
1800 hrs to 0600 hrs the next day. The sentry will be changed every 2 hrs. The
guard will stay at the Guard Room during the night.
3. The duty NCO for the day in addn to his duties will also be responsible for
the Kote Guard.
DUTIES OF THE SENTRY ON DUTY.
1. He will not leave his duty post under any circumstances until relieved.
2. He will not permit any unauthorized entry into the guardroom or Kote, and
would be responsible for all stores/weapons inside the quarter guard during
tenure of his duty.
3. He will ensure that only the Kote NCO or authorized person opens the
4. The Kote will be locked in his presence. He will ensure that it is properly
locked and sealed and the keys deposited in the guardroom.
5. He will pay proper compliments to Officers and JCO, as is the custom of
6. He will report any untoward incident observed during his hour of duty to
the Duty NCO/Adjutant, for which an EPABX telephone connection has been
established. He will answer the telephone and take appropriate action on
orders/instructions received by him.
7. He will sound the alarm as and when required.
1. It is important to know about various kote documents since as officers you
would be often required to check the proper functioning of the unit kote. The kote
documents are also required to be checked by officers at laid down periodicity.
2. The aim of this lecture is to acquaint the class about various kote
documents being maint at the unit level.
3. Generally following docus are maint in unit kote for proper
accounting/security of arms, ammunition and control stores : -
(a) Kote Register. Deals with state of arms, ammunition and control
stores held on charge of the kote, quantity of stores out on duty and store
balance at the time of retreat each day. (Lay out of Kote Register is at
(b) Daily in/out Register of Arms and Amn. Deals with daily issue and
receipt of both arms, ammunition and control stores of the unit for guard
duties, firing and other duties (Lay out of Daily in out Register of Arms and
Amn is at Appx B)
(c) Index Cards. It is record of each weapon from the time of initial
issue giving details of all transfer(s) of that weapon. (Lay out of Index
Cards is at Appx C)
(d) Weapon History Sheets. Deals with records of complete history of
the weapon including issue details of the weapon, various inspections and
firing details (Lay out of Weapon history sheet is at Appx D)
(e) Private Arms Register. Deals with record of any private arms with
proper license that has been kept in the kote with prior permission of OC
of a unit. (Lay out of Private arms register is at Appx E)
(f) Before and After Firing Register. Deals with record of all
inspections carried out by unit armourer for weapons going out for the
firing (Layout of Before and after firing register is at Appx F)
(g) Weekly Arms Cleaning Register. Deals with arms cleaning carried out
at the unit level under supervision of duty NCO/JCO/Offr (Layout of
Weekly arms cleaning register is at Appx G)
(h) Arms Damage Register. Deals with record of any damage to the
weapon during firing or after firing (Lay out of the Arms damage register is
at Appx H)
(j) Arms Repair Register. Deals with record of any repairs done to the
weapon during or after firing (Lay out of the Arms repair register is at Appx
(k) Visitor Book. Keeps record of visit of senior officers‘ or inspecting
officers‘ to the Kote. (Lay out of Visitor book is at Appx J).
(l) Handing Taking Over Register. Deals with record of handing/taking
over of kote NCO/JCO (Lay out of Handing/taking over register is at Appx
4. Knowledge of all the kote documents being maint at the unit level
helps an officer in carrying out his task correctly and rules out any mistake, which
might result in loss of arms/ control stores.
In lieu of IARO 1459
KOTE REGISTER OF WEAPONS
At retreat when the kote are closed the NCO incharge of the kote will complete this book. He will then show it to
the officer detailed for duty and also takes the latter‘s signature.
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DAILY IN OUT REGISTER OF ARMS AND AMN
Ser Army Rank Name Type Qty Purpose Date Time Sig Date Time Sig Sig Sig Sig
No No of out out of in in of of of of
Arms Indl indl kote kote Adjt
*REVOLVER____ INDEX CARDS
(*Delete heading not applicable)
Designation: _____________ Registered No: ___________
From whom recd Receipt Vr No and To whom issued Issue Vr No and
and date date and date date
WEAPON HISTORY SHEETS
Weapon _______________/with Bayonet Regimental Serial No
Barrel Bolt Mark Manufactured Bayonet Manufactured Scabbard Mark
Number Number at at
Issued to: -
PRIVATE ARMS REGISTER
Regtl Regtl Name Full Regtl From No Date Date on
No Rank of description of No or whom and of which CO
owner weapon and mark purchased date of expiry sanctioned,
of its affixed the possession
distinguishing to the license with CO‘s
marks if any weapon initial
BEFORE AND AFTER FIRING REGISTER
Ser Butt Regd Date of Remarks Sig of Date Remarks Sig of Sig of
No No of No before by Armr Armr of of Armr Armr OC
WEEKLY ARMS CLEANING REGISTER
Ser Army Rank Name Type Butt Regd Purpose Date Time Time Sig Sig Sig Remarks
No No of No No out in of of of
Arms indl Kote Kote
ARMS DAMAGE/REPAIR REGISTER
2 Ser Army Rank Name Name Date of Signature Signature Remarks
No No of damage/Repair of Kote of Adjt
KOTE HANDING/TAKING REGISTER
Ser No Nomenclature Auth Held On loan Out Total in Remarks
Ser Date of Visit Remarks of visitors Signature
ISSUE AND SAFE KEEPING OF ARMS IN KOTE
1. Security of arms is an extremely important and crucial issue. Particularly in our country, where
most of the states are facing secessionist activities. In order to ensure security of arms in units
certain procedures have been laid down. Adherence to these procedures would minimize, if not
eliminate, the chances of losses/damage to arms.
2. To explain procedures for safekeeping of arms in units.
3. Arms are always held/kept in unit kote. ―Kote‘ is a custom built structure, specially designed to
hold the arms. It is always loc along side the unit Quarter Guard (Qr Gd), which is guarded by armed
sentries at all, times. Since NCC units do not have adequate manpower for placing sentries at the
kote, they are either affiliated to another unit having a Qr Gd or provided with an armed police gd.
Under mentioned aspects must be ensured for security of arms in the kote: -
(a) Entrance. All doors and windows except the main entrance must be permanently
closed and barred to prevent any unauthorised entry into the kote. The main entrance should
have double doors, i.e, one wooden/iron door and one iron grill door.
(b) The building should be free of moisture an humidity to avoid damage to weapons and
(c) Adequate racks/boxes/crates should be available for storage of wpns. Placing of
racks/boxes/crates should be such that it facilitates counting, withdrawal and deposition of
(d) All wpns placed in racks should be secured by chain and lock. The boxes and crates
having wpns/ eqpt should also be secured by chain.
(e) The wpns must be checked by Kote NCO and person drawing the wpn for
(f) A wpn/eqpt should never be taken out of the kote unless documentation is complete.
Security of Kote
3. Only Kote JCO and Kote NCO are authorized to handle/ receive/issue wpns in kote. Kote JCO
and NCO are detailed through unit Part I order. Every day in the evening after ascertaining
correctness of arms and eqpt the kote is locked and sealed and the keys are deposited in unit qr gd.
A correctness report is given to the Subedar Major.
4. Everyday in the morning the kote is opened by kote NCO in presence of Kote JCO and duty
JCO and all arms and eqpt are checked for correctness. Discrepancy, if any, is reported. Otherwise
correctness report is given to the Sub Maj.
5. An armed guard of at least of 1 NCO and 3 OR will be detailed at all times for security of the
kote. In non-military stations where it is not possible for NCC units to provide the armed guard,
either the wpns are kept in police kote or a police gd is provided at unit kote.
6. Following documents will be maintained and kept in the Kote: -
(a) Arms Register. This is the main document in which record of all arms held by the unit
is maintained. It has details of wpns auth, held, wpns issued for out stn duties and wpns
present in the kote.
(b) Arms Issue Register. Details of arms issued for any purpose other than for out stn
duties are entered in this register. Person withdrawing the arm is made sign for the wpn being
taken by him and entries of time of withdrawal and deposition is also entered.
(c) Stn Out Register. Details of arms issued for out stn duties are entered in this register.
A wpn is issued for out stn duties only after Company Commander/Adjutant has issued a letter
to that effect.
(c) Register of private Arms. Record of pvt arms belonging to unit personnel is
maintained in this register.
(d) Index Card. This is maintained separately for each wpn. The card has following
information in respect of the wpn:-
(i) Nomenclature of the wpn.
(ii) Registered No of the wpn.
(iii) Details of all transfers from unit to unit along with voucher number.
(e) Weapon History Sheets(IAFO1410). This document is also maintained separately for
each wpn. It shows details of allotment of the wpn to individuals. The card has following
information in it:-
(i) Nomenclature of the wpn.
(ii) Registered No of the wpn.
(iii) Butt No of the wpn.
(iv) Barrel No of the wpn.
(v) Bolt No of the wpn.
(vi) Place of manufacture.
(vii) Personal particulars (No, rank and name) of person to whom the wpn has been
allotted as personal wpn along with date.
(f) AIA Inspection Report (During inspection only).
14. It is very important to follow the correct procedures for issue and safe keeping of arms in kote.
Otherwise it may lead to avoidable loss of arms and their falling in hands of antinational elements. As
an officer it is our prime duty to prevent any such incidents.
HANDLING, STORAGE AND CARE OF AMMUNITION
1. Ammunition is the sinew of war. The success of any operation depends upon the correct and
timely provision of ammunition (amn) by the units. It is the responsibility of unit Commanders to
ensure that their units are equipped with amn at the scales laid down, at all times and any
deficiencies are made up as expeditiously as possible.
2. The aim of this lecture is to acquaint the class about handling, storage and care of ammunition.
Classification of Ammunition
3. Broadly speaking of amn held by the units fall under the following headings: -
Service Amn Practice Amn
First Line Amn Second Line Amn Reserve
Un -controlled Controlled
(Non- Restricted) Controlled (Restricted)
5. Service Ammunition. This amn is meant for operational use. Amn should be fit for un-
restricted use. As far as possible new amn should be conserved for operational use:
(a) First Line Amn. It is divided into two categories i.e. on wpn and unit res. The on
wpn amn in case of small arms is also called as pouch amn. The units carry this amn with
them wherever they go. Scales are given in the unit WE/PE.
(b) Second Line Amn. This is the immediate reserve to be carried in Formation second line
transport and is under direct control of Formation Commander. This amn may either be kept
loaded in vehicles or dumped in the formation Adm Area or kept with the units at the discretion
of the Formation Commander. It is expressed in numbers and Army Headquarters GS Branch
issues scales per weapon.
6. Practice Ammunition. This ammunition issued for practice is normally the same as that
issued for operational use. The exceptions to this are: -
(a) Ammunition, which has limited remaining life and is to be expended early, such
ammunition is downgraded to Range Practice. Boxes containing such ammunition are marked
as ‗RANGE PRACTICE‘ (R/P abbreviated form or ‗TO BE EXPENDED BY-----------‘) by the
Ammunition Depots, before issue to units. Units at the first available opportunity and within the
stipulated time should expend such ammunition.
(b) Small Arms Ammunition exposed for more than 12 months (One Year).
(c) Ammunition, which is specifically manufactured for practice/training such as Bicat strips,
Candle smoke ground, Grenades Hand No 90, Mines Practice, Practice Shells or shots.
(d) Overage ammunition marked m (O/A) on ammunition packages. This ammunition
should also be expended earliest.
Storage of Ammunition
7. All ammunition whenever possible must be stored according to compatibility groups, each one
being in a separate building or bin. In the case of bin type building, ammunition of the same nature
should also be kept together so that when stocks allow, the building/ bin are filled up with one nature
of amn/ explosive only instead of several ones.
8. Mixing and Segregation. If sufficient accommodation for storage of each group separately in a
building/bin is not available or the quantities held are very small, the ammunition from the following
groups may be stored in the same building/bin: -
(a) Ammunition of each compatibility group should be stored in separate
location/plinths/bay except that: -
(i) Items of compatibility group C, D and E may occupy the same
(ii) Items of compatibility group S may occupy the same location/bay/plinth as any
other items except those in compatibility group L.
(iii) Fuses may be stored in the same site as the projectile to which they belong.
(b) The following types of ammunition are to be stored in separate location/plinth/bay: -
(i) Detonators of compatibility group B.
(ii) As far as possible, ammunition in compatibility group F belonging to UN Hazard
(iii) Ammunition in compatibility group G.
(iv) Ammunition in compatibility group H.
(v) Ammunition in compatibility group K.
(vi) Ammunition in compatibility group L.
(vii) Rockets, rocket motors and missiles in a propulsive state.
9. Additional Requirement for segregation.
(a) Individual stacks should be limited to amn of one type and preferably of one lot/batch.
(b) The following ammunition must not be stored with combat serviceable ammunition in
the same location/plinth/bays :-
(i) Ammunition which has been returned from unit but which has not been
(ii) Ammunition in incomplete or damaged packages awaiting inspection or
(iii) Unserviceable ammunition.
(iv) Ammunition the use of which is forbidden
(v) Ammunition awaiting disposal.
(vi) Ammunition of unknown origin.
(vii) Recovered ammunition.
(c) Location/plinth/bay should not be used for the storage of other commodities (including
the empty packages, accessories and stacking materials) and the location should be
separated from other dangerous goods by adequate quantity distances.
10. Storage of Small quantities. In case of explosive storehouse containing small
quantities of ammunition and explosives other than from group H, the GOC-in C may authorize the
whole of such ammunition to be kept in one compartment except that ammunition under group B
must be separated from other groups by a traverse or wall of sand/earth for the purpose of such
storage small quantities mean : -
(a) Explosives content not more than 200 lbs.
(b) Any quantity of SAA of safety class.
11. Separate components of the main charges or rounds may be stored within the same
compartment provided such components are kept separate properly packed in a cupboard or on a
12. Arms, will at no time, be stored in the same compartment as ammunition, except pouch SAA
which may be stored with Arms provided such ammunition is kept locked in a separate box.
Handling and Care of Ammunition
13. Sorting of Ammunition. All ammunition must be properly sorted out before it can be
stacked. Every package as well as round bears one of the following marking : -
(a) Lot Number. This refers to components of ammunition e.g. fuzes and primers. The
output of an item from a factory over a given period from one batch of raw materials can be
expected to behave in the same manner is called a ‗Lot‘.
(b) Batch Number. This is applicable to the following ammunition items : -
(i) QF fixed ammunition.
(ii) Mortar ammunition fitted with a fuze.
(iii) Rocket ammunition.
(c) Serial Numbers. This refers to ‘shell‘ only and is same as lot number.
(d) Test Number. This pertains to certain demolition explosives e.g., GC Slabs and
GC primers; its purpose is the same as lot number.
14. The aim of allotting batch/lot number is as follows : -
(a) To achieve consistent performance.
(b) Facilitate inspection and test by an ATO/AT.
(c) To simplify checking and tracing of faulty ammunition.
(d) To facilitate sorting and maintenance of records.
Stacking of Ammunition
15. (a) All ammunition must be stacked on dunnage at least 6 inches high and a clear space
left between walls and attacks.
(b) Ammunition must be stacked by nature, lot/batch and date of manufacture.
(c) Stacking should be honeycomb type wherever feasible.
(d) Tarpaulin covers, if used, must be raised from the stacks.
(e) Serviceable Ammunition will not be stacked with ammunition of other conditions.
(f) Packages must be stacked to ensure ease of access and visibility of all essential
16. Height of Stacks. Packages must be stacked to any convenient height not exceeding 12 feet
except as stated below: -
(a) Ammunition containing white phosphorus will not be stacked to height of more than 6
feet (1.8 Meters).
(b) Crates containing Gun Cotton wet slabs will be stacked on their sides to a height not
exceeding 6 feet (1.8 Meters). In rows of two with their venting plugs out wards.
(c) Group B explosives shall be stacked to a height not exceeding 1.5 Meters (5 ft).
(d) Notwithstanding anything said to the contrary above, height of the stacks must be less
than the height of heaves/traverses by at least 2 ft.
Handling of Ammunition.
17. Rough handling of ammunition, explosives and their packages leads to misfires, blinds and
premature detonation, thereby impairing the effectiveness of the amn. Amn subjected to adverse
storage conditions can be restored to a serviceable condition by prompt action, if allowed to remain in
a poor state it will rapidly deteriorate and may become a source of danger.
18. The officer in-charge ammunition must carry out the periodical inspection of the stacks and
note any defects in storage conditions, method of stacking and handling and take proper measures to
rectify any faults. Important aspects to be borne in mind while handling amn are :-
(a) Packages must be handled in such a way that it does not cause any damage to paint
and identification markings.
(b) Boxes must not be dragged along the floor or rolled, dropped or thrown. They must
always be lifted properly.
(c) While handling unboxed projectiles, it should be ensured that the driving bands are not
(d) Packages must not unnecessarily be opened. At no time should there be more than one
part box of a particular type of ammunition.
(e) Lid of tinned containers soldered or taped must be closed with tape adhesive.
(f) Packages containing cartridges fitted with primers and white phosphorous should be
handled with great care.
(g) No packages will be opened in a storehouse for any purpose.
(h) All amn will be kept dry and protected from extremes of climatic conditions and direct
19. Turn over of Ammunition. The older ammunition must be expended first. Small lots/batch/
quantities of old dates of amn should always be given priority for expenditure. Equipment Regulations
Paras 228 & 231 lay down the general instructions for turn over of ammunition/explosives.
20. Ammunition is the sinew of war. The success of any operation depends upon the correct and
timely provision of amn by the units. It is the responsibility of unit Commanders to ensure that their
units are equipped with amn to the scales at all times and any deficiencies are made up as
expeditiously as possible to maint high std discp of arms and amn in the unit. At the same time amn
should be handled as per laid down rules and regulations so as to ensure its reliability during war.
PLG, PREP & CONDUCT OF WPN INSP
1. As a WTLO you should be aware about planning, preparation and conduct of weapon for
periodic inspection by the concerned EME inspecting team for maintaining high standard of discipline
of weapon within the unit.
2. The aim of this lecture is to acquaint the class about planning, preparation and conduct of
3. The aim of EMAE (SA) technical inspection is to check the serviceability of all unit weapons
and their standard of maintenance. EMAE (SA) brings to the notice of Officer Commanding any major
shortcomings in the maint and repairs system of unit arms. All defective weapons are sentenced
repairable and that Beyond Local Repairs (BLR) is recommended to be returned to Ordnance.
Comprehensive notes on preventive maintenance of Small Arms (SA), Machine Guns (MG) and
Mortars are given in ATM No.23 of Oct 75. This inspection normally precedes the annual inspection
of the formation Cdr and is carried out on his behalf.
4. (a) All small arms, machine guns and mortars held on unit charge will be inspected by
EMAE (SA) once a year.
(b) In addition machine guns and rifles will be inspected monthly and quarterly respectively by
Field Workshops (Fd wksp).
(c) Tour programme is published by formation Headquarters and circulated to all units one
month in advance.
(d) Ensure painting of correct butt No.
(e) Check re-browning of all metal parts.
(f) Both LMG barrels should be used equally.
(g) Check serviceability of spares.
(h) Check maint and serviceability of bicycles.
(j) Ensure regular inspection by unit armourer and necessary repair and maint. Weapons
requiring R2 repairs should be regularly sent to dependant workshop.
(k) Regular cleaning of weapons and accessories particularly after firing of weapons
belonging to personal that is away from the unit.
(l) Maint should be under supervision of Offrs/JCOs, adequate cleaning materials should
Action by Units Before Inspection
5. The under mentioned points will be observed by the unit before inspection: -
(a) IAF (EME) E-05 (Numerical roll of SAs, MGs, Mortars, Bomb throwers and Mounting)
will be prepared in duplicate for the total quantity of weapons held by the unit.
(b) Butt Nos and Registered Nos will be completed and kept upto date for inspection.
(c) Suitable place for inspection will be earmarked.
(d) Sufficient number of arms to be kept ready for inspection per day such as: -
(i) 200 Rifles or 50 LMG or 250 Carbine Machine Gun/Pistols.
(ii) EMAE (SA) can alter the above figure.
(e) Arms must be dry, clean and free from oil.
6. The following documents are required to be put up for inspection by EMEA (Auth as per AO
(a) Last EMAE (SA) Inspection report (IAF (EME) E-20). Annual Insp Report on SA, MG,
Mountings, Mortars, and Bicycles & Misc equipments. Ensure action completed on remarks.
(b) EMER Folder.
(c) IAFZ-1410 (Weapon History Sheet) Index Card Barrel History Sheet for LMGs/ MMG are
(d) Record of Work unit artificer (IAFZ-2102) and unit armourer should have a complete record
of maint carried out.
(e) Indents for SA components since last inspection.
(f) Finalize proceedings of C of I for damaged arms.
(g) Private Arms Register should be completed.
(h) Record of maint of bicycles should be upto date.
Queries /Difficulties to be Brought to the Notice of EMAE (SA)
7. The following queries/ difficulties should be projected by the units: -
(a) Difficulties in functioning of armourer shop.
(b) Non-Availability of spares/stores.
(c) Difficulty in getting arms repaired.
(d) Armourer Technical Training and Upgrading.
(e) Any other points regarding clarification.
(f) Armourer Shop Tools/Gauges and spares should be kept ready for inspection.
Distribution of EMAE (SA) Inspection report IAF (EME) E-20
8. The distribution of EMAE (SA) inspection reports is as under: -
(a) 8 Copies will be prepared on Form IAF (EME) E-20.
(b) Original copy will be kept for unit record and remaining copies will be disposed off as
(i) One copy to EMAE (SA).
(ii) Three copies to OC EME Bn / DEME who will retain 1 copy and forward 2 copies
to MG EME at Command Headquarters.
(iii) One Copy to Ord Depot where required for replacement of arms.
(iv) One Copy to Field Repair Wksp where arms sent for repairs.
(v) One Copy to Army Base Wksp where required with Arms sent for repairs.
Action By Unit After Inspection
10. The following action will be taken by the units: -
(a) In case of delay the matter will be reported to staff at Bde level.
(b) Unit will be asked to submit progress report on points raised by the inspection team, for
(c) Unit should take prompt action for: -
(i) Placing of work order for repair.
(ii) Placing demands for replacements.
11. As a WTLO it is very important to know the correct procedures of weapon inspection, as you
will be tasked in the unit for conducting weapon inspection. It is very important for the unit to carry out
successful conduct of weapon inspection as it shows battle readiness of the men and the unit.
LOSSES OF ARMS, AMN AND EXPLOSIVES
1. This section dealt with the system of investigation and regularization of discrepancies of arms,
ammunition (amn) and explosives.
Reporting of Losses
2. The following action should be taken when reporting of loss of arms, amn and explosives: -
(a) In the case of loss of arms and ammunition, both Government and private, a report
should be sent to the Sub Area or equivalent headquarters by signal who in tern will submit a
report to Command Headquarters through proper channel.
(b) Immediate report should also be made to the District Superintendent of Police for
investigation, if the following stores are involved in the loss: -
(i) Complete firearms, i.e. Rifles, Carbines or Pistols.
(ii) Rifle barrels or bolts.
(iii) Locks, bolts and barrels of automatic weapons.
(v) Gun and mortar ammunition and bombs.
(vi) Small arms ammunitions (SAA) including .22 inch and buckshot cartridges in
case more than 5 rounds are involved.
(vii) Blank SAA if more than 500 rounds are involved.
(viii) Fired cartridge cases, whether ball or blank of more than 500 cases are involved.
(viii) Grenades hand or rifle.
(c) A staff court of inquiry will be held in all cases of loss of arms and ammunition.
Proceedings of the court of inquiry will be forwarded to Army Headquarters, AG‘s Branch (PS
I) through proper channel within 3 months from the date of loss.
Recovery of Arms, Ammunition and Explosives
3. Any recoveries of arms, ammunition and explosives will also be reported and dealt with as in
para 3 above, except that, where the recovery of only 15 rounds or less of SAA including .22 inch and
buckshot cartridges are involved, the Sub Area or Bde Commander can dispense with holding of a
court of inquiry, AO 90/71 refers.
4. As a further clarification, the Ministry of Home Affairs have delineated responsibilities of the
Army and police authorities in connection with losses and recoveries of arms and ammunition.
5. With regards to losses from Amn Depots and Units, Depot/Unit Commander should, besides
making his own inquiries, report the losses immediately to the local Superintendent of Police. Further
inquiries by the police should be made in collaboration with the Depot/Unit Commander and there
should be no attempt at reviewing inquiries into the Depot/Unit premises.
(a) Recoveries of arms and ammunition abandoned by certain persons in which there is no
definite knowledge as to the person or persons concerned.
(b) Recoveries made in the course of a Police Operation in which there is fairly definite
information and ammunition was obtained.
7. In the former kind of recoveries, full information would be conveyed by the Police authorities
concerned to the nearest Army Sub Area or other formation, which may help in tracing the articles
recovered to their source. Any inquiry by the Police in such cases would be dependent on
information becoming available either through Police sources or the Unit or Units from which the
recovered articles were lost.
8. In the latter type of recoveries, it is essential, in view of the statutory duties and powers of the
Police as also of the importance of the question from the law and order as well as administrative
points of view, that the Police should immediately taken follow up inquiries in consultation and
cooperation with the head of the Army units. The progress of the investigation in such cases should
be communicated by the Superintendent of Police to the head of the Army units concerned from time
9. Timely report of loss of arms, amn and explosives results in both locating the culprit and
possibly to recover the loss of arms, amn and explosives.
TYPES OF MT, THEIR AUTH, INSP & MAINT
1. Mechanical Transport (MT) or a vehicle is an assembly comprising of chassis and hull/body
capable of self-propulsion over natural terrain and used for transportation of personnel/ cargo and
specialist equipment including weapons. MT is an essential and imp part of an inventory of any NCC
units or HQ. The Administrative Officer is responsibility for maintenance and documentation of MT.
However it is essential for all officers to have knowledge of types of MT existing and used in NCC,
their authorisatoin, and procedures for their inspection and maintenance.
2. Aim of this lecture is to acquaint the class about types and auth of MT, and procedures for
their inspection and maintenance.
3. The script is laid down in four parts as under: -
(a) Types of MT.
(b) Authorisation of MT.
(c) Procedures for routine maintenance.
Types of MT
4. MT is basically classified in three types in army viz ‗A‘, ‗B‘ & ‗C‘ vehicles. Vehicles that are
included in each type are as under:-
(a) ‘A‘ Vehicles. These are heavy vehicles provided with armoured protection and tracks
for high mobility. Some vehicles falling in this category are:-
(i) Armoured Fighting Vehicles (Tanks).
(ii) Self propelled artillery guns.
(iii) Light ‗A‘ vehicles.
(iv) Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs).
(b) ‗B‘ Vehicles. These are the smaller vehicles utilized for transportation of troops/stores.
Vehicles that fall in this cat are:-
(i) Motor Cycles.
(ii) Light Vehicles - Cars, jeeps, jongas, Gypsies.
(iii) Lorries all types ( TCVs).
(iv) Tractors light and heavy.
(v) Amphibians wheeled (DUSC).
(c) ‗C‘ Vehicles. These are essentially heavy plant vehicles used for engineer tasks.
Some examples are:-
(i) Earth moving plants.
(ii) Field recovery tanks.
(iv) Heavy tractors.
(v) Stone Crushers.
(vi) Road rollers and concrete mixtures.
Authorisation of MT
5. MT is auth to units on the basis of it‘s role and area of operation. Every unit, including NCC
units, have a War Establishment(WE) or Peace Establishment(PE). Authorisation of MT is laid down
in such WEs/PEs.
6. Generally a NCC Bn is authorised MT as under:-
(a) 01 x Lt Veh (Maruti Van/Gypsy) for conveyance of offrs.
(b) 01 x Troup Carrying Veh(TCV) for carriage of tps/stores.
(c) 01 x Motor Cycle for despatch duties.
Inspections and Maintenance
7. In order to ensure continued serviceability and long life of MT a system of regular inspections
by various agencies has been established in the army. Same procedures are also applicable to NCC
units. It is the responsibility of Mechanical Transport Officer(MTO), or AO in his/her absence to
ensure that these inspections are conducted as per schedule. Maintenance schedule of MT is similar
and concurrent to the inspection schedule. Whatever problems are noticed during the inspections
they are resolved immediately.
8. The inspection and maintenance schedule of MT is under:-
(a) Daily Inspection by Driver. Every day in the morning driver of every vehicle carries
out a visual inspection of the vehicle wherein following aspects are checked and adjusted:-
(i) Damage to the body of the vehicle.
(ii) Condition of tyres, i.e, air pressure, any cuts or foreign bodies embedded in the
(iii) Any overnight leakages of fuel, oil or lubricants.
(iv) Functioning of breaks.
(v) Functioning of lights.
(vi) Any unusual sound on starting of the vehicle.
(b) Weekly Inspection by MT NCO. The MT NCO inspects all vehicles once a week wherein
he inspects the under mentioned aspects in addition to the checks carried out during daily
(i) Water level in radiator and circulation of water.
(ii) Check complete lighting system for proper functioning.
(iii) Ensure battery plug an terminals are properly tightened.
(iv) Check gauges for proper functioning.
(v) Check all oil levels and top up if required.
(c) Monthly Inspection by MTO/AO. The MTO/AO, i.e, the officer responsible for
maintenance of MT carries out monthly inspection. The insp may be carried out by the MT
JCO/NCO on behalf of the MTO/AO. Record of the insp and findings are entered in IAF (EME)
E – 27. During the insp under mentioned checks are carried out in addition to those
mentioned in Sub Paras 7 (a) & (b) above:-
(i) Check all engine controls.
(ii) Check and adjust fan belts.
(iii) Check and clean the spark plugs.
(iv) Check sub assembly and loose mounting bolts.
(v) Top up battery with distilled water and clean air vent holes.
(vi) Clean the bty and apply mineral jelly to the terminals.
(vii) Check road springs, U bolts and hanger rivets.
(viii) Check and clean air tank.
(ix) Flush and refill the radiator.
(d) Quarterly Inspection by Unit Repair Organisation(URO) or Light Repair Workshops.
This inspection is carried out on behalf of the CO by qualified EME personnel posted in
URO/LRW. Since this inspection is beyond the purview of MTO/ AO details of checks carried
out are not being mentioned.
(e) Annual Inspection by CO EME. This inspection is carried out once a year by CO of
EME bn in the formation on behalf of the formation commander. Detailed inspection pf entire
veh is carried out and the findings are recorded in IAF (EME) E – 27.
9. In addn to the above inspections vehs are also inspected on the following occasions:-
(a) During handing/taking over of vehs.
(b) On accident.
(c) On surprise insp.
Action Required to be taken by Units Before CEME Inspection
10. Two or three vehicles should be jacked up daily; one or more team consisting of a vehicle-
mechanic, electrician and MT personal working on them till they are found fully roadworthy and fit for
(a) Tools, equipments, fitment items and other accessories are checked and NA certificates
where issued are shown and linked up.
(b) Docus regarding vehicles, Fuel Oil Lubricant (FOL) and drivers are brought upto date.
(c) Action on previous reports is completed, if not already done.
(d) Painting and marking of vehicles are done centrally.
(e) All modifications and outstanding repairs are completed.
(f) Ensure instruction on kilometer age are being correctly followed and correct record
(g) All document of vehicles are prepared and checked for correctness.
11. The following instructions will be strictly complied with: -
(a) Unit insp programme and all relevant vehicle documents will be kept readily available
(b) FOL stores will be kept opened for inspection.
(c) Tools and equipments will be properly laid out.
(d) List showing BA Nos, Model, Make and Type in respect of all vehs on unit charge will be
prepared in duplicate and handed over to the inspecting officers.
(e) 5 Copies will be prepared and disposed off as under: -
(i) No. 1 Copy (original) to Unit.
(ii) 1 Copy – to Fmn HQ
(iii) 1 Copy – to EME Workshop (OC)
(iv) 1 Copy – to Inspection Team (Tech Cell Bn HQ)
(v) 1 Copy – Dependant Wksp
12. Actions During Inspection.
(a) Ensure general standard of order and maintenance
(b) Ensure roadworthiness of all vehs.
(c) Repair standard and efficiency of URO, LRW and Wksp.
(d) Layout of tools and equipments.
(e) Completion and layout of all documents.
(f) Progress on modifications.
(g) Prepare IAF (EME) E-03 Technical Inspection Report (Vehs) in triplicate and dispose
off as under: -
(i) One Copy (original) to be retained by he unit for unit record.
(ii) One Copy – to Inspecting Officer.
(iii) One Copy – to dependant Wksp for repair purposes. Wksp will carry out
necessary repairs in accordance with remarks on E-03.
13. Religious observance of insp and maint schedule helps in increasing serviceability of MT and
improves functional efficiency of units. As such this aspect needs to be understood properly by all
offrs involved in unit administration.
(a) AO 490/70 – Classification of ‗A‖ vehs.
(d) AO 73/74 and AO 123/75 – Classification of ‗B‘ Vehs.
(c) Min of def letter No. 97920/GS/WE-14/3878/E/D/(GD-IV), dated 20 Dec 69 –
Restrictions on mileage of ‗B‘ Vehs.
(e) AO 24/80 – Load carrying capacity ‗B‘ Vehs.
(f) AO 303/63 for Inspection of MT .
1. From the time a vehicle is issued to a unit till it is finally released from service, unit holding the
vehicle maintains detailed record of all activities concerned with the vehicle. The unit concerned also
initiates various reports and returns from time to time so as to keep the higher HQ apprised of the
state/condition of the vehicle. This record is maintained in the form of various documents, the
process of maintaining these records is known as documentation. It is necessary for an officer to
have adequate knowledge of the MT document, particularly if he/she is to perform the duties of
2. To provide info on major MT documents maintained at the unit level.
MT Documents at Unit Level
3. MT document maintained at unit level can be classified in three major groups as under: -
(a) Documents maintained and held in office.
(b) Document kept in the vehicle.
(c) Statistical documents, reports and returns.
3. Documents Maintained and Held in Office.
(a) Unit Vehicle Register (IAFZ-2186). Record of all vehicles held by a unit is maintained
in this register. Units holding vehicles on their charge will enter them on IAFZ-2186 showing
the details of receipt and the authority for issue. Separate pages are used for each make and
type of vehicle on charge. The number and date of the vouchers under which the vehicles are
taken on charge or struck of charge must be clearly entered in appropriate columns. Ample
space is to be left after each entry to avoid crowding. The unit MTO/Quarter Master initials
each entry. Kits and tools for vehicles are accounted for item-wise in a separate ledger. This
register is subject to audit by the Local Audit Officer (LAO) and is checked periodically by the
Officer Commanding (OC) the unit.
(b) Fuel Oil and Lubricants (FOL) Register (IAFZ-2109). An acct of FOL held in the unit is
maintained in this register. All entries of receipt and issue of FOL are made and authenticated
by MTO/AO. Salient aspects of maintenance of this register are as under:-
Entries are generally made in red ink.
(i) FOL: issued to vehicles is charged off on weekly basis.
(ii) Details of reserve stock required to be maintained is endorsed in red ink on each
(iii) Board of officers detailed by CO tallies ledger balance with ground balance.
(c) Part I of FOL Indent Form(IAFZ 2206 -Revised). FOL Indent Form is used for
demanding FOL from ASC depots.
(d) FOL Retail Issue Voucher (IAFZ 2206) Part II (Revised). Record of FOL issued to
drivers is maintained in this Register. Entries are made into the register on weekly basis. At
the end of the month the issue is closed and stock bal is tallied with unit FOL register. The
document is signed by drivers once a week. Expendable stores are also charged off through
(e) Mileage Card (IAFZ 2212) (Revised). Following details are maintained in this
(i) Expenditure of FOL during the month.
(ii) Duties performed during the week by the vehicles and dist traveled in KM.
(iii) Complete details of utilisation of all vehicles during the week.
(iv) Endorsements as to whether the vehicles are running as per laid down KPL or
4. Documents Kept in the Vehicles.
(a) Car diary (IAFZ 2209) (Revised). This is maintained separately for each vehicle. This
is mainly the record of duty performed, km run and fuel issued. All duties performed whether
free or on payment will be entered. Unused pages are cancelled and signed by the MTO at
(b) Vehicles Log Book (IAFZ-2197) and Driving License (IAFZ-2036). This is basic
document of a vehicle, which will be issued by ordinance when vehicle is first taken into
service and will accompany the vehicle throughout its life. This book is not auditable but may
be referred to by LAO of Kilometer Per Liter (KPL) fixed by workshop (workshop), Checking
the funning and consumption of Fuel Oil Lubricants (FOL) and correctness of change of tyre,
tubes and battery. It contains the records of vehicle specification. Record of drivers. Inter unit
transfer, repairs carried out, any changes of major/minor assembly‘s, changes of classification
and yearly kilometer run.
(d) Accident report form (IAFY-2002) When ever the vehicle is taken out for duty the
driver must have this form in his possession.
(e) Military Motor Vehicles License (IAFZ-2036) It is issued to each driver authorizing
him to drive different types of service vehicles. It is renewed yearly. Records for initial issue
and thereafter for renewal are maintained by OC unit in a register, kept for the purpose and are
also entered in the license in the appropriate space. No driver is authorized to drive a Military
Vehicles unless he is in possession of license. This license is not valid for driving civil vehicles.
5. Statistical Document, Reports and Returns.
(a) Monthly Vehicle Casualty Return(MVCR). This report is initiated on last day of every
month. It shows state of vehicles held by the unit on that day. It is the basic document based
on which vehicles are released to units by Army HQ.
(b) Vehicle Strength Return. This is a monthly report forwarded by units to dependent
Supply Depot. Based on No of vehicles reflected in this report, the Supply Depot works out
and issues entitlement of FOL to the unit. NCC units are not required to initiate this report as
they do not draw FOL from supply depots.
(c) State of B Vehicles. This is also a monthly report whish is forwarded by NCC units to
(d) Rep of KM Run. This is an annual report forwarded by NCC units to DG NCC.
Detailed account of mileage done by all vehicles is given in this report.
8. It is very imperative for a staff officer to have in-depth knowledge about various MT documents
being maintained in the unit as it enables smooth functioning of MT without any lapses. It also helps
in avoiding pilferage and loss of stores.
PART I & PART II ORDERS
1. Besides laid down orders/instructions like Army Orders and Army Instructions, the
unit/formation are guided by certain local orders for daily day-to-day functioning. These orders
confirm to the existing orders but are in a greater detail.
Daily Orders Part – I
2. Para 37 (k) of the Regulations for the Army 1987 lays down that a CO will ensure that every
order issued for general information of all concerned will be published in unit orders or circulated to all
concerned. The CO also conveys such policy directives requiring wide publicity within the unit through
these orders. Broadly, ‗Part – I Order‘ may be defined as the orders of the CO applicable to all
personnel in the unit. Units have also standing Orders issued by the CO, which deals with matters of
permanent nature. Part I Order mainly deals with matters of a semi permanent or temporary nature,
which affect the day to day functioning of the unit establishment.
3. Daily Orders Part I are normally issued on matters concerning administration training and
parades duties, which do not affect a soldier‘s pay, service or documents. Some examples are: -
(a) Duties concerning Orderly Officers, JCOs, NCOs, Guards and Sentries.
(b) Orders on discipline and individual disciplinary cases.
(c) Audit Board, Training, working hours, Parade Timings and Investigation.
(d) Hygiene and Sanitation, Health and Organised games.
(e) Equipment and supplies.
(f) Promotions, Reversions & Appointments. These precede or follow publication in Part II
(g) Periodicity. There is no fixed periodicity laid down for these orders. These orders can
be issued daily or less frequently if there is nothing to publish. When other offices in the unit
initiate draft for publication, ‗A‘ Office is responsible for compilation and issue of these orders.
Each issue of Part I orders is numbered consecutively beginning with no 1 for the first issue
made on or after 1st Jan each year. Each Order (or items) is also consecutively numbered
throughout the year irrespective of the issue number. The Adjutant signs these orders in his
personal capacity. These are promulgated on roll call on the day of issue and prominently
displayed on notice boards at Recreation and Information rooms and messes. Copies are
distributed to subunits, various offices, Officers Mess and JCOs Mess. ‗A‘ Office keeps a
complete file of all Part I order. Translation of orders published in English is also made into
Hindi Regt/Corps language by subunits if necessary.
(h) It is the duty of every individual to make him acquainted with all orders issued in this unit
order. Ignorance of orders for whatever reason will not be accepted.
(j) The Commanding Officer may also issue ‗Special Orders‘ for important matters.
(k) For more details refer to Para 584 and 1155 (b) of Regulations for the Army 1987.
Part II Orders and Personal Occurrence Reports (PORS)
4. POR and Part II Orders are the means whereby occurrences and events in the service carrier
of personnel are conveyed in the prescribed manner to the appropriate authorities for necessary
action like adjustment of pay and allowances of personnel in the IRLAs maintained by the pay
Accounts Office. Completion of personal, unit and basic documents of personnel and other statistical
records depend mainly on the accurate publication of Part II orders.
5. Units located in peace area will publish their Part II Orders on subjects other than those
mentioned in Para 274 of Manual of Documentation JCOs/OR 1992. The unit will discontinue to
publish its own Part II Order the day an unit‘s enters into field service area, and instead submit to the
Records Office POR (IAFF-3011) notifying the occurrences pertaining to their personnel. Record
Office will publish Part II Orders on behalf the unit on the authority of the PORs received from the
Responsibility of Officers and Staff
6. Responsibility of Staff. The responsibilities of the staff publishing and distributing the Part II
Orders are as under: -
(a) Check each entry for accuracy before publication.
(b) Ensure that no error or omission occurs in the process of publication.
(c) Ensure correct distribution and dispatch to proper authorities.
(d) Ensure no delay in publication and dispatch.
7. Responsibility of Officers.
(a) Devise suitable measure to satisfy himself about correctness of personal events and
occurrences published in Part II Orders.
(b) Ensure that staff detailed for publication and distribution of Part II Orders are well
conversant with their job.
8. Action on Part II Orders. The following actions will be taken: -
(a) Check by Recipient Unit of Office. All recipient of Part II Orders will maintain a check
register to ensure that Part II Orders or sheets thereof are not missing in the series. They will
investigate and progress the receipt of such missing Part II Orders or sheets thereof.
(b) Promulgation. Officer Commanding units will ensure that all Part II Orders are given
due publicity within the unit. Recent issue of Part II Orders will be displayed on the notice
board and in the information rooms for perusal by all personnel of the unit. The contents of
these orders will also be read over at roll calls regularly when issued and will be translated in
Hindi where necessary.
(c) Entries in Documents. Offices in the unit and Record Offices responsible for entering
the recordable entries in the personal unit and basic documents will ensure that all entries are
properly recorded and attested.
(d) Completion of Statistical Records. All offices responsible for the maintenance of
statistics of personnel will process all Part II Orders and bring their statistical data up to
(e) Action by PAO. Pay accounts office will adjust the pay and allowances of JCOs/OR
on the basis of Part II Orders published by the Record Office or unit as the case may be.
(f) Observation of Part II Orders. OC Unit will attend to observations on Part II Orders
raised by the individual Pay account Office, or the record Office. Irregularities or errors will be
rectified through the medium of Part II Orders.
9. Lay out of Part II Orders. In order to ensure uniformity of layout, use of heading abbreviations
and phraseology in Part II Orders throughout the Army, specimen causalities for Part II Orders are
given in Appendix J 1984 to Manual of Documentation JCOs/OR 1992. These specimen casualties
have been arranged heading wise in alphabetical order to facilitate reference. As far as possible
wordings used in all Part II Orders will conform to those published in specimen for correct electronic
feeding to the computers.
10. Supporting Documents to Part II Orders. Instructions on the subject are given in Paras 309 to
312 of the Manual of Documentation JCOs/OR 1992 and AO 62/84, which may be strictly followed.
11. Publication of Time Barred casualties. Casualties in respect of time barred claim will be
supported by the CFA‘s sanction under Rule 188 of FR Part I. Waiving the time limit will be as per AI
68/69. The sanction will be forwarded in original to the PAO in support of the Part II Orders and a
note to the effect will be endorsed below the particular casualty in Part II Orders.
12. Responsibility for Publication of Part II Orders. Responsibility for publication of Part II Orders
on the following subjects will rest with the Record Office: -
(a) Allotment of Army Numbers.
(b) Allotment of Personal Number to JCOs on promotion or appointment after these has
been notified in the Gazette of India.
(c) Initial mustering as trained soldier, advancement, and classification.
(d) Remustering from one category to another.
(e) Promotion, appointment and reversion in the case of regiment or corps where promotion
is centrally controlled and notification of substantive promotion to JCOs rank in all cases after
their publication in the Gazatte of India.
(f) Counting of former service for pension or gratuity after it has been accepted by the
(g) Restoration of forfeited service for pension or gratuity.
(h) Retention of colour service.
(j) Honours and awards including grant of meritorious service medals, long service and
good conduct medals and medals of universal nature.
(k) Grant of honorary commissions or commission to JCOs and Honorary ranks to NCOs.
(l) Dismissal of deserters.
(m) Variation in terms of service.
(n) Grant of commission as officer.
(o) Acceptance for regular engagement.
(p) Personal occurrences in respect of non-effective personal belonging to disbanded units.
(q) Retention of permanent low medical category personnel.
(r) Notwithstanding the PORs mentioned above, Record Offices is competent to publish
any POR in Part II Orders for person proceeding on pension for which proper and adequate
evidence may be available either in the personal, unit or basic documents of the individual.
O2E Part II Orders in respect of units located in field service area.
13. Important Points Requiring Attention.
(a) Part II Orders will be published daily unless there is nothing to publish. Casualties will
not be allowed to accumulate. Formats given in Appendix J 1984 to Manual of Documentation
JCOs/OR 1992 will be used for Part II Orders.
(b) One series of Part II Orders will be issued by each unit. In case of training centre having
training battalions and Depot battalions functioning as self-accounting units, they may publish
separate series of Part II Orders.
(c) Separate series of Part II Orders will be published in respect of personnel on ERE. To
enable Record Office to scrutinize on receipt of Part II Orders pertaining to their respective
personnel, the serial number of the last Part II Order will clearly indicated as shown in
Appendix J to Manual of documentation JCOs/OR 1992.
(d) Each issue of Part II Orders will be serially numbered beginning with No 1 for the first
issue published on or after the 01 Jan each year.
(e) Each issue of Part II Order will bear the number and date of last Part II Order issued.
(f) Fresh series of Part II Orders will be issued whenever a unit is redesignated. The
change of designation need not be published in Part II Orders.
(g) Sheet number and number of sheets will be written in the space provided in the format.
(h) Sixth numerals will be used to denote the date, month and year. Dates will be shown as
‗010302‘ for 01 Mar 2002‘.
(j) Each casualty or occurrence published in Part II Orders will be numbered in indelible
(k) Part II Orders must be legible and all copies will be completed and identical.
(l) Spaces fixed for each column of the format be used.
(m) Any correction, addition or deletion made in the body of a Part II Order will
authenticated on all copies under full signature of the officer signing the Part II Orders such
instances should be rare.
(n) Additions amendments to and cancellation of casualties already published in Part II
Order will be carried out through Part II Order and not through a letter. Amendments and
cancellations will be published under the group and heading appropriate to the personal
occurrence and not in the bulk at the end of the Part II Orders where, however, an amendment
is important the original casualty should be cancelled altogether and same notified fresh
(o) Details of Army Numbers with suffix letter and names will be entered in each sub
heading in strict numerical sequence. Category will be shown in brackets directly after the rank
e.g SEP (Gnr, Nk (CLK GD)).
(p) Casualty once published will not be republished without canceling the previous one.
(q) The first casualty of an individual published in a unit will be of his being ―taken on
strength‖, the last being that of ―struck of strength‖. If a belated casualty has to be published,
the present unit or whereabouts of the individual will be shown against his name and a copy of
the Part II Order endorsed to his present unit where applicable.
(r) Part II Orders will be signed either by the CO, Adjutant or Record Officer. In
establishments where there is no Adjutant, an officer nominated by the Commanding Officer
will sign in full on every page at the bottom right hand corner. The name of the officer signing
will be typed in block letters below the signature in the last sheet.
14. Correct and Timely publication of Part I and Part II orders is one of the most important
functions of command. Carelessness on publication of such orders can have a disastrous effect on
morale of troops.
1. Camps forms an integral part of the NCC training. Major expenditure is on the conduct of
camps. Since WTLOs are given the appointment of Camp commandant/ Dy camp Commandant,
they should be aware of the planning and conduct of camps and the the reports and returns that have
to be sent on completion of the camp.
2. To enable the WTLOs to prepare correct Camp Report on completion of camp.
3. Camp Report is one such important report that is required to be forwarded to DGNCC on
completion of camp. This report is to be rendered to the concerned NCC Directorate with a copy
endorsed to DGNCC, within two days of termination of the camp. The format for this report is given in
Appendix F of Accounting Instructions for NCC Camps..
4. The detailed format is given at Appendix to this lesson .
5. On completion of the camp, the camp commandant will send the Camp Report (Appx F) to
state NCC directorates within two days. In turn, NCC Directorate will prepare the debit statement from
Appx F and send the same to State Accountants General / State Education Department endorsing
the copy thereof to Directorate General NCC by tenth of every month.
(Refer to Para 4 of the lesson plan)
FORMAT OF ‘CAMP REPORT’ THAT IS REQUIRED TO BE FORWARDED ON COMPLETION OF
(Referred to in para 251 of accounting instruction for NCC
Annual Training / Combined Cadre / Summer / Advance Leadership / OUT/ Camp /Course held at
-----------------------------from ----------------------------------to --------------------
1. Location of the camp.
(b) Landmark - Nearest Railway Station or town.
(c) Distance from nearest railhead to campsite.
(d) Distance from nearest supply depot.
(a) Duration ----------No. of days.
(b) Period – from --------------to ----------------
3. Names of the Unit Participating.
( Full details will be given).
4. Camp Staff.
(a) Camp Commandant – Rank, Name and unit.
(b) Dy Camp Commandant / Accounts Officer – Rank, Name and unit.
(c) Quarter master – Rank, Name and unit.
(d) Messing Officer– Rank, Name and unit.
(a) Authorised strength – NCC cadets, Officers.
(b) Number planned – NCC Cadets Officers.
(c) Number Actually Attended – NCC Cadets and Officers.
6. How are the ration procured ?
(a) Dry - ASC/ Govt Controlled shop/ Contract/ Purchase committee.
(b) Fresh - -do-
(c) Whether tenders were called for and the lowest tender accepted.
(d) Name and full address of the main suppliers / contractors and the cost of total purchases
made from each of them.
7. Did you appoint the purchase committee ?
(a) Was its constitution published in Routine orders?
(b) Did they sign all receipts to certify the correctness of the quality, quantity and the case of
local purchase, price?
(c) Were the personnel changed as laid down?
(d) If not, why ?
8. Expenditure on messing.
(a) Authorised for the actual number of cadets attended – Rs.
(b) Actually incurred –Rs.
(c) Saving , If any- Rs.
(d) Details of expenditure incurred – Rs.
(ii) Other items
(e) Per capita expenditure on messing – Rs.
9. (a) Number of each type of camp servants employed :-
(i) Cooks and Helpers.
(ii) Water carriers.
(v) Washer man and so on.
(b) Whether payment to them was made at approved rates? If Not , Why?
10. Whether attendance register was maintained and ration strength published daily?
11. Whether detailed daily messing accounts in the prescribed forms, of daily messing
expenditure statement were maintained?
12. Whether separate messing arrangements were made for NCC Officers or they messed with
regular officers. In either case, it may be stated whether proper account was maintained.
13. Whether the scale of rations was fixed by DGNCC.
14. What were the messing arrangements in respect to PI Staff, Whether PI Staff was allowed to
mess in the cadets mess, whether messing charges admissible to cadets were recovered from each
15. What were the messing arrangements in respect of civilian staff, if civilian staff were allowed
to mess in the cadet‘s mess, the reason therefore should be given (normally civilians are required to
make their own arrangement).
16. Were the NCC Cadets and officers were allowed to be member of purchase committee.
17. Incidental expenditure (details of the expenditure exceeding. 25 / on any single item will be
furnished in an annex.).
18. Whether no. of petromax and hurricane lamps and the scale of the kerosene oil were fixed by
the Barrack standing committee? If not why?.
19. Whether comparative rates were obtained before purchasing costly and expensive stores? If
not Why not?
20. Whether all the non-expendable stores have been taken on ledger charges?
21. (a) Whether the cadets were commuted to campsite in unit transport or hired transport?
(b) If the cadets were commuted to campsite in hired transport, state the procedure adopted
for hiring, giving the total expenditure incurred on these account as also per cadet?
22. (a) Whether Bank / personal deposit account for the camp funds opened?
(b) State the maximum cash balance held on any day.
23. What arrangement have been made for audit of camp accounts and check by regimental audit
board? When it is to take place?
24. How were the amounts remitted by the unit commander of unit participating in Zonal/
25. Whether any loss of govt stores and public money occurred in the camp. Brief detail may be
given. Stating by whom the loss was regularized.
26. Whether the payment were made after obtaining pay orders of the camp commandant on the
27. Total camp expenditure incurred in respect of all items?
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CD & ORGANISATION AT CENTRE, STATE
& DISTRICT LEVELS
1. Civil Defence is the defence by the people to minimise the effects of enemy actions on civilian
population so that the overall war effort continues without interruptions. Civil defence has to be
organized at all levels throughout the country.
Basic Principles of CD
2. The responsibility of CD rests squarely on the shoulders of every individual, family, community,
institution, agency, organization, industry, and corporate body, along with the Govt. It is the combined
effort of all that makes civil defence a success. The fundamental considerations to be borne in mind
in organizing CD are :-
(a) Each individual is responsible for his own self-preservation. In case of large calamities,
however, relief is obtained through mutual aid plans at all levels.
(b) Existing agencies whether they are government or non-official, should be utilised.
(c) Each level of Govt. administration must share responsibility for CD measures. The
measures necessary for CD are an extension of the peacetime functions of the Govt. to suit
Civil Defence Organisation at Central Level
3. The role of Central Government in Civil Defence is primarily of supervision and
coordination, laying down broad principles and policies on matters like shelter policy, protection in
general, and assisting private agencies and the public. The Ministry of Home Affairs is responsible for
the preparation of the Civil Defence plan, and for coordination of all matters. It includes reps of
various ministries of Central Government and the State Government, and eminent personalities, with
the Home Minister as its Chairman, and Director General, Civil Defence, as its member and ex-officio
(a) Civil Defence Committee. Home Secretary is the Chairman with reps of other ministries
as members. It advises the government of India on Civil Defence policy matters.
(b) Civil Defence Joint Planning Staff. Coordinates the implementation of Civil Defence policy
and suggest specific measures for reorganization and strengthening of the Civil Defence
Organisation in the country. It consists of Director General of Civil Defence as Chairman and
reps of various ministries at Deputy Secretary level as member.
(c) Director General Civil Defence. Advises on all matters relation to civil defence
organization, training, planning and other technical problems.
5. Functions of Central Civil Defence Organisation.
(a) Prepare list of towns, cities, vital plants, and installations requiring civil defense measures
to meet enemy air attack.
(b) Lay down general policy for civil defense.
(c) Coordinate civil defence works amongst various ministries of Government of India, State
Governments and All India Social Welfare Organizations.
(d) Provision of reliable warning systems.
(e) Lay down scales of manpower, equipment and vehicles required for civil defence.
(f) Constitution and composition of civil defence organization at Central, State and town
(g) Ensure uniformity of practice and procedure and indicates action to be taken in any town
(h) To issue orders for mobilization of Civil Defence Organisation.
(j) Keep watch on implementation of Civil Defence measures.
Civil Defence Organization at State Level.
6. At State level, Civil Defence responsibility is entrusted to the Home Department and other
departments assist at this level. Home Guards and Civil Defence being complementary organizations,
State Governments combine them whenever possible. A suitable advisory committee is created
which sustains public interest in Civil Defence activities, recruitment and training. The Home
Department will be responsible for organization, planning, and coordination, and also for liaison with
Central Government. It will also be responsible for procurement and distribution of CD equipment,
making plans for evacuation and arranging for CD publicity and propaganda. States are to have
Central Training Institutes where local instructors, staff officers and leaders of CD teams will be
7. Civil Defence Organization at District Level.
(a) In a District, the District Magistrate is the ultimate authority on CD and designated as
Controller of CD. The DM/CD Controller appoints the various department heads in the districts
as in - charge of various CD Services, and coordinates the work of these departments in
respect of planning various CD measures. The DM also constitutes Advisory Committees.
Members of the Committee are chosen out of people possessing qualities of leadership.
(b) Civil Defence Service. The various existing agencies will be responsible for organizing
suitable CD services in the subject entrusted to the agency in normal times:-
(i) Headquarter Service. In large cities a Controller with a few clerks and
chowkidars are provided. In smaller town it is from within the existing organization.
(ii) Warden Services. A link between the public and authorities. Wardens advise
people on CD, check lighting restriction, report damages, organize house fire parties.
(iii) Fire fighting Services. Consists of Home Fire Parties. Detects and puts out
(iv) Casualty service. Renders first aid, transport to casualties, casualty
(v) Communication Service. Receipt and dissemination of air raid warning,
evaluation of damage reports, provision of communication between various service/
(vi) Training Service. Subjects special to CD. Service training provided by CD
(vii) Rescue Service. To rescue those trapped under debris and recover the dead.
(viii) Welfare Service. Supplies information of missing, provide rest centres,
evacuation and procurement of transport.
(ix) Depot and Transport Services. To dispatch CD Service to affected localities and
procurement of transport.
(x) Salvage Service. Salvage and safe custody of property left behind by the
(xi) Corpse Disposal service. Collection, identification and clearing dead bodies
from the police and medical practitioners before disposing them off.
(xii) Supply Service. Planning, organizing & procuring necessary equipment for
CD Services. Proper storage, and quick distribution of equipment at the time of need.
(c) Home Guard for CD Services In certain cities, CD services such as incident control,
reconnaissance parties, canteen services, part time instructors, rescue supply, transport etc
are provided by Home Guards. CD provides necessary equipment.
8. The responsibility of Civil Defence rests with every individual, community, institution &
organization, along-with the Government. The measures necessary for civil Defence are an
extension of the peacetime functions of the Government, to suit wartime requirements.
WARDEN SERVICES AND CD POSTS
1. Warden Services is the backbone of the Civil Defence (CD) organization. To minimize the
effects of Air raid and to keep up the morale of the people, it is essential that they are properly guided
and advised before, during, and after an Air raid, as to what they should do. The success of the CD
measures will greatly depend on such guidance and advice. The warden service is organized to
perform these functions.
Duties of Warden
2. He is the friend philosopher and guide of the people in his area. He advises people on the
various aspects of CD and protection. His functions before, during and after an air raid are as follows:
(a) Duties Before an Air Raid.
(i) He must make himself familiar with his sector, both during day and night.
(ii) He must know the people in his sector thoroughly.
(iii) He must prepare a household register.
(iv) He must know the location of CD depot, public shelters, first aid posts & police
(v) He must advise people regarding precautionary measures to be taken for an air
raid. He must impress upon the people, the importance of observing instructions given by
CD authorities form time to time.
(vi) Organise house fire parties and other assistance for relief work by organizing self
(vii) To help in the recruitment of volunteers for CD services.
(viii) He must keep his CD diary up to date.
(b) Duties During an Air Raid.
(i) Immediately on receipt of air raid warning he will report himself to the warden
(ii) After reporting at the post, he should take his equipment and advise people
moving on the streets to take shelter.
(iii) To inform people by using visual signs or whistles in case sirens are not audible
in certain areas. When necessary, he should see that the people observe lighting
(iv) Survey the area after bombing with a view to find out the details of bombs, which
have fallen, and the consequent damage caused by them.
(v) To report the incident to control/sub control centre.
(vi) To attend to preliminary details like fighting small fires, rescuing the trapped
persons till the services report at the place of incident.
(viii) If an unexploded (UXB) bomb has fallen, he will report to the control/sub control
centre and police.
(ix) To provide valuable information to the leaders of the various parties or incident
(c) Duties of Warden Services.
(i) To direct the homeless ones and to give information regarding the various
(ii) To control panic.
(iii) To see that the essential services are restored as soon as possible.
Organization of Warden Services
3. Sector. There will be two wardens per sector of 2000 population. When there are large
blocks of flats and tenements with 1000 residents or more, special wardens should be appointed for
each block, chose from those living these premises. These block wardens will help the sector
wardens. In such a case the sector may consist of more than 2000 population.
4. Wardens‘ Post. The unit of organization in the Wardens Service is the Wardens post,
which serves 5 sectors. In thinly populated areas and on the outskirts of the town, a minimum of one
post per square mile should be organized. 10 Warden posts should normally be grouped in a division
under a divisional Warden.
5. Control and Training. The CD controller will depute a responsible officer to exercise
supervision and control of the service. This Executive Head of Wardens‘ Service is called as Chief
Warden or Officer Commanding Wardens‘ Service. He will also have a deputy. Where the Chief
Warden & Divisional Wardens are volunteer officers, they may be provided the assistance of a whole-
time staff officer (SO) per division. The SO may take charge of routine duties and will also impart
training and ensure efficiency of Wardens‘ Services. Clerical assistance may be necessary.
6. Equipment of Wardens Post. The post should have necessary furniture, crockery,
massage pads, pencils and time piece in addition to the following:-
(a) Notice Board.
(b) A telephone.
(c) A map of the area.
7. Post Records. The following are some of the records maintained at the post:-
(a) Post Logbook to record Wardens‘ important business and equipment.
(b) Household registers.
(c) There would be separate registers for showing routine of Wardens, Standing Instructions
for Post Wardens and a connected account of incidents after it has been cleared up showing
details of casualties and the action taken by the post. When the post is manned 24 hours, the
post routine should also be made for compliance.
8. Warden is the eyes and ears of the Civil Defence authorities in an area. He has to get the
cooperation of the people through his personality and by a show of power.
ORGANIZATION & FUNCTIONS OF MEDICAL, ENGINEERING,
WELFARE & COMMUNICATION SERVICES.
1. The knowledge that the vulnerable areas have a well-trained and efficient organization to
render assistance to the victims of disaster has a definite encouraging effect on the morale of the
people. These will include medical, engineering, welfare & communication services. At the local level,
various existing agencies will be responsible for organizing suitable CD Services.
2. Organisation at Central Level. The responsibility of coordinating Central Emergency
Medical and Heath Services at the Centre, is that of Ministry of Health. The executive functions are
delegated to the Director General of Health Services. They coordinate the emergency health plans for
various states and assist the states in training and equipping their Health Services.
3. Organisation at State Level. The Health Department of a State is responsible for the
organization and functioning of Civil Emergency Health Services under the coordination and control of
the Chief/Home Secretary. The Director of the Medical /Health Services is responsible for the
planning of Emergency Health Services within the States and to coordinate the plans of the various
Districts in the States and further provision for adequate equipment and personnel for training and
4. Organisation at District Level. The District Medical Officer (Civil Surgeon) should be
made responsible for the Civil Emergency Medical and Health Services of the District under the
guidance and control of the District Magistrate / CD controller. The assistance and cooperation of all
voluntary organizations such as Red Cross Society, the St. John Ambulance Association, Women‘s
wing of Home Guards, Ramkrishana Mission etc. must be sought.
5. Casualty Services. Treatment carried out only under the supervision of fully trained
medical personnel and is therefore carried out in hospitals. The Casualty Services are responsible for
rendering first aid on the spot of damage. It consists of the following :-
(a) First Aid Parties :
(b) Ambulance Service
6. Emergency Hospital Service. During emergency the requirement of medical facilities at the
place of damage increase. Therefore immediately on occurrence of a disaster, the old patients will
have to be transferred outside the area and additional accommodation created. Some tented
hospitals may be organized which will act as casualty clearing hospitals.
7. Emergency Public Health Measures. During the periods of disruption, the outbreak of
infectious diseases are likely to occur unless effective measures are taken for the restoration of
normal services. All personnel working in FA and parties should also be trained in the essentials of
drinking water, disposal of night soil and refuge, would control diseases like cholera, dysentery and
small pox epidemics.
8. Veterinary Service. The vet services should organize care of animals and destruction of
seriously injured animals and disposal of dead animals.
9. Disposal of the Dead. The disposal of the unclaimed bodies will have to be arranged to
keep up the morale of the population. Disposal of dead animals will also have to be done to avoid any
outbreak of disease.
10. Medical Stores Reserve Depot. All the services will need medical & public health drugs,
medicines chemicals and certain types of equipments. These would be catered for by the medical
stores reserve depot.
11. As a result of enemy air raid, many buildings will be damaged. A large number of people
may be buried under debris and a good number may find themselves trapped. Essential services like
water, electricity, gas, sewage will be damaged. The main functions of engineering services are to
rescue trapped persons from damaged buildings, salvage property, repair and restore essential
services, and demolish those buildings which are in dangerous conditions and badly damaged.
(a) To rescue living persons trapped beneath debris or from the damaged building.
(b) To render fist aid to trapped persons and to send them for further medical
(c) Take immediate steps for temporary support or demolition of damaged
(d) To cut off supply of water, gas and electricity from damaged buildings.
(e) To recover the dead from damaged buildings.
(a) Rescue Service. The rescue service will be provided by the Home Guard
Organisation. Rescue party of 08 persons per 25,000 population should be provided.
Rescue party will be located .in the CD posts and their composition will be as follows:-
(i) Leader - 01
(ii) Members - 06 (02 must be skilled)
(iii) Vehicle Driver - 01
(iv) Total - 08
(b ) Salvage Service. These services will be provided by the local PWD/CPWD/Police.
The function of these services is to salvage property from damaged houses or from the debris
and take care of such property until eventual disposal or restoration to the owners.
(c) Repair of Essential Services. The destruction and damage of water supply,
electricity, gas and sewage system as a result of enemy air raid, disrupt the normal life of
citizen and obstruct the working of other services. The responsibility of repair and restoration of
essential services will be that of the utility management.
14. The welfare services aim at minimizing the suffering of the community caused by enemy air
raid, and play an important role in raising the morale of the civilian population. The functions of these
services are as follows:-
(a) Information. Supply of information regarding missing and dead relatives, nature of
facilities and assistance available for affected people, enrolment in CD and such other matters
to deal with panicky people, and restore the public morale by giving the victims authentic
information and correct advice, as also to deal with individuals under extreme pressure of
stress and strain by giving them psychological first aid
(b) Information Centre. A CD information center will have to be set up in each town. In a
large town more than one office may be required. The primary function of the information office
will be to give information on enquiries on all matters pertaining to CD, both before and after
raid, to collect information regarding casualties and to publish casualty list for the information
(c) Camp and Rest Centre. Provision of rest center where people whose homes are
destroyed by air raid. May by given temporary shelter, food and clothing
(d) Evacuation. In the event of an air raid there may result panic flight on the part of a
large number of residents of the area. Even though no sponsored movement is envisaged, yet
efforts will have to be made to regularize such haphazard movement on the part of the people,
and provide such facilities as transport from the welfare services, as this will help people move
out smoothly without undue loss of life, confusion and panic.
15. The Communication Services cater for a well organized force of messengers in case of failure
of telephone lines, maintenance, installation and care of sirens for air raid warning, maintenance of
wireless and telephone communications between places of damage and control / sub control centres,
and provision and maintenance of field telephones to coordinate action at the place of damage, or an
alternative means of communication between places of damage and control / sub control centre.
16. The various type of services, which are part of the CD organization, thus play a very important
role in providing rescue and relief to the population during enemy air raid.
AIR RAIDS AND WARNING SYSTEM
1. In times of war, effective implementation of civil defence measures depends upon
perfect warning system in the town. For these measures to be effectively implemented it
is imperative that adequate signal communications are available to the concerned Civil
Defence staff at all levels. An effective warning system for the passage of Air Raid
Warning is the lifeline of Civil Defence organization in any country.
Air Raid Warning
2. Warning of approaching enemy air planes affords time for the people to take shelter and to
enforce various Civil Defence measures, including complete blackout Warning regarding the
withdrawal of threat, is also required for the people to come out of shelters and to resume their
normal act ivies.
3. (a) External Warning System. The aircrafts are detected with the help of radar. From the
time the enemy air craft is picked up by a Radar unit to the time the warning is received in a
town by the Civil defence control through a system of land line communication is designated as
external warning system.
(b) Internal Warning system. On receipt of warning at the Town Civil Defence Control
Centre, it will be disseminated to the public and other authorities and factories, located within
the zone. For this purpose, a reliable means of warning system is provided which is designated
as internal warning system. Simultaneous Broadcast facility is done through the ARP
equipment located in the P&T exchange. If the public is to be warned, Sirens and hooters are
5. Types of Raid Warning. There are basically four types of warnings :-
(a) Preliminary caution. The message is a preliminary one and is confidential. It is a
forecast of raiders movement. The text of the message is Air raid Message - Yellow. It is
received by a limited number of officials on the special warning list such as Headquarters of
Civil Defence Organisation, police, Fire Brigade, important factories, public utility concerns and
Railways. This preliminary caution will remain in force until cancelled by cancel caution.
(b) Action Warning. This is a warning that aircraft are heading towards certain towns which
may be attacked within a few minutes, and is a confirmation of the preliminary caution. The
text of the message is Air Raid Message - Red.
(c) Raiders Passed. This message means that raiding aircraft have left the town warned,
or no longer appear to threaten these towns. The text of the message is Air Message – Green,
and is conveyed to all recipients of action warning.
(d) Cancel Caution. This means the preliminary threat has passed and the text of this
message is Air Raid Message - White. This message is confidential. It will be passed on to all
those who received the preliminary caution. On receipt of this message normalcy is restored.
6. The enemy air raids create complex and difficult problems. These are: -
(a) Persons dead or injured.
(b) Epidemics, as a result of sanitary conditions.
(c) Animals dead or injured.
(d) Damaged buildings.
(e) People buried under debris.
(f) Essential Services damaged.
(h) Property buried and damaged.
(j) Homeless people without food and clothing.
(k) Separated family members.
(l) Aimless movements.
(m) Panic and rumours.
(n) Law and order problems.
(o) Unexploded enemy bombs.
7. The air raids of the enemy cause great destruction. By having an effective method of air
warning, a lot of property and lives can be saved.
ESCUE & RELIEF
1. Most of the rescue work has to be carried out under adverse conditions, such as confusion,
panic, smoke, fire, darkness, debris etc. All these go to make the scene of the incident very complex.
The leader of the rescue party on arrival at a place where damage has occurred, should quickly
appreciate and form a picture of the situation. Based on this, an appropriate method be adopted to
deal with that particular situation.
2 Rescue Operations are carried out by rescue parties, which are located in the CD posts. They
will be trained in rescue techniques and operations and will have a suitable vehicle (truck with a
tarpaulin cover), to carry out their duties.
(a) Organization : A Rescue party will consist of :-
(i) Leader: One
(ii) Members: Six (Two must be skilled)
(iii) Driver: one
(iv) Total: Eight.
(b) Procedure The Rescue party leader carries out a survey, based on ―information‖ and‖
observation‖, formulates his line of action and starts rescue operations systematically. The
leader carries out the following types of Survey :-
(i) Preliminary Survey. The leader of the party goes around the site and notes down
all important points, makes a quick appreciation of the situation and plans the action to be
(ii) Detailed Survey. During this stage the leader is likely to get more information
which will facilitate him to make a detailed plan, so that he can employ his resources and
can ask for additional help if required.
(iii) Specialised Survey. This is required when water, gas, and electric supply have
been damaged. The help of the representatives of the essential services who are
technically qualified will be necessary, so that he can employ these resources, and ask
for additional help required.
(c) Stages of Rescue. After assessing and planning the rescue work, it has to be executed
in progressive stages, so that no casualty is left in the debris or trapped in a damaged building.
This involves: -
(i) Stage I-Dealing with Surface Casualties. Surface casualties rescued, or
the casualties recovered from the outer edge of the damaged place are given first aid and
(ii) Stage II- Searching of Slightly Damaged Buildings. Contact with trapped
persons in a slightly damaged building must be maintained while extricating them.
(iii) Stage III- Exploration of Likely Survival Points. All possible places must be
searched where any persons could be trapped. Every effort should be made such as
tapping doors, calling names etc. to contact persons trapped in likely survival places so
that plans can be made to extricate them.
(iv) Stage IV-Selected Debris Clearance. Involves clearing of debris at selected
places where there is a likelihood of a trapped casualty.
(v) Stage V- General Debris Clearance. After all other methods of extricating
casualties have been exhausted the general debris clearance is undertaken.
3. DO‘S in Rescue Work.
(a) Keep yourself calm & cool.
(b) Carry out survey before starting work.
(c) Free nose & mouth of the casualty first, and ensure proper first aid.
(d) Care in removing debris in the vicinity of a casualty.
(e) Be sympathetic.
(f) Keep Casualty Warm and reduce shock effects.
(g) Keep close to the walls when on damaged stairs and upper floors.
(h) Arrange for proper medical attention for causalities.
4. DON‘TS in Rescue Work.
(a) Don‘t move injured person without first aid.
(b) Don‘t crawl over the debris unless forced to do so.
(c) Don‘t touch live electric wiring.
(d) Don‘t pull timber out of the wreckage indiscriminately.
5. Succor is provided to the victims of an air raid by the Civil Defence Organization, by way of
various services that are pressed into service. Relief is provided by the medical services, welfare
services, communication services, and engineering services. They carry out the following functions: -
(a) Rescue. By Rescue services alongwith volunteers.
(b) Render First Aid. Provided by Medical & Health services.
(c) Rehabilitation of Victims. Temporary shelters are provided by the Engineering
(d) Water, Gas & Electric Supply. Water, gas & electric supply of the damaged buildings
must be cut off immediately.
(e) Disposal of the Dead. For keeping the morale high it is important that the
dead are cremated at the earliest.
7. The Civil Defence organization plays a vital role in providing rescue and relief services to, and
during, enemy air attack.
ROLE AND ORGANISATION OF HOME GUARDS
1. Home Guards are one of the most important organizations, which are expected to undertake
certain Civil Defence duties, when the Nation goes to war. They are raised under the Home Guards
Act of the state.
Role of Home Guards During War & Peace
2. Role During Peace.
(a) They will serve as auxiliary to the police and generally help in maintaining internal
(b) They will help the community in any kind of emergency e.g., on air raid, fire, flood, and ex
epidemic and so on.
(c) The home guards may also have functional units to provide essential services such as
motor transport, pioneer and engineer groups, fire brigades, nursing, first aid, operation of
water and power supply installations to name a few.
3. Role During War.
(a) In Category -1 Towns. They will provide the following services: -
(i) Incidence control and reconnaissance parties.
(ii) Rescue parties.
(iii) Trailer Pump Parties.
(iv) Mobile Canteen.
(v) Part Time Instructors.
(b) In Category II Towns. Excepting six civil defence services, namely Headquarters,
Wardens, Communications, Casualty, Training and Five Services ,rest of the CD Services are
to be provided by the Home Guard but only to the extent required.
(c) In places other then Category I and II towns, Home Guards are to be trained
In air raid precautions and general civil defence duties, to serve as a nucleus of Disciplined are
in an emergency
4. The Home guards are classified into the following categories as per the nature of
of their duties & the place of their working. These are :-
(a) Urban Wing Home Guards. Recruited from all classes of people, from all walks of life.
(b) Rural Wing Home Guards. Reliance is on agriculture community.
(c) Border Wing Home Guards. Organised in states of Punjab and Rajasthan Fight along
with Army and BSF.
(d) Woman Wing Home Guards. From among the urban areas. Work in communication,
welfare, and first aid service of civil defence.
(a) Each state has a Central training school, headed by a Divisional Commandant, and are
under the jurisdiction of a Divisional Commissioner, All companies of rural home guards come
under the command of divisional commandant.
(b) For the Urban Wing, for every district, there is a District Training School.
(c) For the Rural Wing, there is a block regional training center for every community
6. Organisation. (Refer Appendix)
(a) Eligibility. Any individual who is physically fit in the age group of 18-50 years, with
relaxation for those who are specially qualified, can be a member. He will have liability to serve
within the state. In emergency they may be drafted to be employed outside the state.
(b) Organisation In urban areas, for very 25,000 of population, and in rural areas for every
block, a company of 110 men can be raised.
(c) The strength of any of the home guards wing consists of 110 personnel The company is
further sub divided into company head quarters and three platoons. The personnel of the
company are all volunteers and should be gainfully employed as home guards. They can have
only part time employment. Coy HQ has a Coy Cdr, Coy 2IC, CQMH/Clerk and a runner.
Strength of platoon is 35. Platoons have a Pl HQ Cdr with Pl Sergeant and three sections of 11
Home Guards each.
7. Home Guards as an Agency of Civil Defence. Home guards are trained for dealing with all
emergencies. This in one of the organisations which is to be employed in the event of an emergency,
and which will render all services in connection with civil defence The home guards as an agency for
civil defence, will be expected to perform various functions in the field such as communication,
reserve, welfare services, first aid and so on For this purpose, the organization works under the over
all command and control of the local authorities.
8. Since ANOs and NCC Cadets are expected to provide a trained a trained manpower reserve
to the nation during time for war or national disasters and calamities, they should per force be aware
of the organization, structure, and functioning of the Home Guards so as to optimize relief works
undertaken by them.
DY COMDT GENL
RURAL URBAN BORDER WING
BLOCK REGL. TRG. CENTRE CENTRAL TRAINING SCHOOL
DISTT. TRAINING SCHOOL
1 FOR EVERY 20 COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT BLOCKS 1 FOR EVERY DISTRICT
IN A LARGER STATE FOR AREAS
EQUIVALENT TO A DIVISIONAL
1 COY OF 110 PERSONNEL FOR
EVERY 25000 POPULATION
1 COY OF 110 PERSONNEL FOR DISTT. COMDT.
ALL COYS OF URBAN AND RURAL
1. In the event of a gas explosion, short-circuiting, Incendiary bomb attack etc., a large number of
fires may start simultaneously. The exiting fire fighting services in a town will not be able to meet the
situation unless Auxiliary Fire Service and House Fire Parties supplement them. Each householder will
also have to do his best to control the fire and not allow the fire to spread.
What is Fire
2. Fire When lights or flames are produced from combustion, it is called fire. A combustible
substance must be heated to a certain temperature before it can burn. The following three elements are
essential for combustion and its continuation, and must be present at the same time and the same
place, to produce a fire: -
(b) Heat / Temperature.
(c) Combustible material (solid, liquid or gas).
3. Control of Fire. Fire can be extinguished if any one or more of these three things or conditions
are removed. The fire can thus be extinguished by the following methods: -
(a) Starvation. This implies removal of fuel or segregation of fire and unburnt fuel by
removing either of them, for e.g., removing unburnt combustible material from a place of fire,
switching off fuel to an engine on fire, subdivision of large fire into several smaller ones to prevent
the radiated heat from setting alight combustible material at some distance.
(b) Cooling. Cooling implies removal of heat to lower the temperature of burning material
to a degree below its ignition point. This is usually done with water. When water is applied to a
burning material it absorbs heat, becomes hot and flows away from the fire, or gets converted into
steam The burning material loses the heat and the fire is extinguished. This however is not effective
against fires caused by petrol, oil and lubricants.
(c) Smothering. Smothering means restricting the supply of oxygen (air). This is also called
blanketing and is done by sealing off the burning material from oxygen by covering it with sand,
foam or by creating an atmosphere over the fire by inert gases or by simply beating it.
4. Modes of Spread of Fire.
(a) Conduction. Many materials, which cannot bum easily, particularly metals, are good
conductors for transmitting heat. In case of the fire, these materials on being heated by the fire may
ignite other combustible materials with which these may be in contact. In order to prevent this,
either the fire it to be extinguished or the conducting material removed or cooled.
(b) Convection. Hot smoke and gases tend to rise up to a ceiling or roof after which they
spread sideways, or in a mushroom manner, and ignite combustible materials located at higher
levels than the original fire.
(c) Radiation. Transmission of heat from the source of fire, without heating the medium,
i.e. air, is called radiation. This can be experimented by placing a piece of paper in front of fire in a
grate where the hot gases are going up the chimney. The paper will char. The effect of' radiant heat
can be countered by forming a water curtain between the burning building and the object to be
protected, or alternatively, the combustible material or the object may be removed or cooled.
(d) Direct Burning. This is self-explanatory. Direct burning is often due to a combination
of the above two or three factors, viz., conduction, convection and radiation.
5. Classification of Fires. Fires can be classified as under: -
(a) Class ‗A‘. Fire involving ordinary carbonaceous materials, such as paper, wood,
(b) Class ‗B‘. Fire involving inflammable liquid such as petrol, alcohol, kerosene diesel
(c) Class ‗C‘. Fire involving inflammable gas such as coal gas, hydrogen, methane,
acetylene, L.P.G etc.
(d) Class ‗D‘. Fire involving highly combustible and reactive metals such as Aluminum,
Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, Uranium, etc.
Fire Fighting Eqpt
6. Fire Extinguishers. These are of various types: -
(a) Extinguishers, which expel water or dilute chemical such as water (stored pressure)
extinguisher, Soda-Acid extinguisher. For Class ‗A‘ fires.
(b) Extinguishers, which expel ‗Foam‘. Such as chemical foam type. For Class ‗B‘ fires.
(c) Extinguisher, which expels vapour forming liquid or gas, such as CO2. Halon type. For
Class ‗A‘ fires.
(d) Extinguisher, which expels dry powder such as a D.P. extinguisher (stored pressure)
7. Buckets Water, Buckets Sand.
8. Shovel Gs, Pick Axe complete with helves, Axe felling complete with helves.
9. Ceiling hook, Fire Beaters.
10. Crow Bar of different sizes.
11. Extension ladder 7.5 meters in length.
12. Extinguisher fire trolley mounted 25 kg capacity with discharge hose and hand controlled
Fire Fighting Parties
13. Units and sub-units normally hold fire alarm practices once a week. Units publish the various
Fire Fighting Parties through the Battallion Routine order so that men know their duties and are
rehearsed, the equipment is adequate, in good working condition and suitable for the purpose
required. The various Fire Fighting Parties are :-
(a) Fire Fighting Party. This party fights the fire and extinguishes the fire during the
outbreak of fire.
(b) Salvage Party. This party is involved in extricating the men and material from the
place of fire.
(c) Reserve Party This party provides the medical and first aid and also acts as an
reserve to any party.
(d) Fire Picket Party This party encircles the place of fire to ensure unwanted persons
do not rush towards the incident of fire and also protect the property from being taken away /
14. (a) Organisation. An auxiliary Fire Service will consist of trailer pump parties Each trailer
pump party should have one leader, one driver cum mechanic, six firemen and one messenger.
These are to be manned by the Hume Guards.
(b) Scale. The scale is one trailer pump party per 2500 population with the provision of
a 25% reserve.
(c) Equipment. The equipment authorised at present comprises of one trailer pump per
15. House Fire Parties.
(a) Organisation. A House Fire Party consists of four persons. The house fire parties
should be regarded as an extension of the Warden‘s service and the Chief Warden and the
Divisional Wardens will also be responsible for the organisation of the House Fire Party's (HFP)
recruitment, training, storage and distribution of equipment. In each warden post area under a
post warden, his deputy will be in charge of HFP located within the area.
(b) Scale. One party per 500 populations may be set up.
(c) Equipment. The equipment for each party comprises-of one pump, two buckets, one
torch, hand axe, steel helmet and whistle.
16. Fires may cause considerable damage to equipment and buildings. They are normally
avoidable and as such reflect adversely on a unit‘s administration. It is essential, therefore that
adequate security arrangements are enforced and comprehensive Fire Fighting Orders are prepared
and practiced in every unit.
AID TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES - MAINT OF ESSENTIAL SERVICES
1. The maintenance of essential services is very necessary, as if disrupted, it will not only bring
down the morale of the public, but will also endanger life and property. These essential services
include electricity, water, gas, telephone and sewage system.
Problems Created Due to Breakdown of Essential Services
2. Water Supplies.
(a) Flooding of low-lying areas.
(b) Lack of water for fire fighting, drinking, sanitation.
(c) Working of hospital, factories etc disrupted.
3. Gas Supplies.
(a) Broken gas mains may get ignited.
(a) Asphyxiation of trapped victims in confined spaces by leaking gas.
(c) Disrupt work in institutions dependent on this service.
4. Electricity Supply.
(a) Broken wires - potential danger.
(b) Factories of war production likely to suffer due to disruption of electricity.
(a) Broken sewage may cause flooding.
(b) Contamination of water and outbreak of epidemic in case water mains break
Civil Defence Measures.
6. It will be necessary to adopt suitable measures well in advance to meet the likely problems
created by disruption and damage to public utility services. Each utility service should work in close
co-operation with the civil defence organization of the town, and its representative should be present
at the control centre to advise the controller in case of damage. The following steps would be
necessary in general: -
(a) Survey of vital plant or machinery needing protection.
(b) Estimation of extra manpower required for repairs etc. during an emergency.
(c) Obtain stocks of spares considered necessary.
(d) Consideration of renovation of obsolete plants.
(e) Arrangements for the housing of essential key personnel within the premises of the
(f) Arrange for independent power supply, other than electricity e.g. Generator.
(g) Arrangements for mutual aid with neighboring utility service.
(h) Arrange for alternative sources of water supply for fire fighting.
Maintenance and Alternative Measures.
7. Electricity Supply.
(a) Alternative measures may be planned by having interconnection between different /
neighbouring electrical undertakings.
(b) Provision for alternatives like generators etc.
(c) Construction of protective wells around essential parts of the plants.
8. Water Supply System.
(a) Use of wells and hand pumps.
(b) Development of natural ponds & tanks.
(c) Water carriage arrangements.
(d) Relaying of water by fire pumps for fire fighting service as well as augmenting water
9. Sewage Disposal System.
(a) Preparing list of vital places, building, culverts etc. to erect splinter proof partitions and
to divert sewage to other pumping stations.
(b) Provision of portable pumps.
(c) Cross connections, where feasible.
(d) Arranging for services of sweepers. '
(a) Alternative means of communication e.g. Radio etc.
(b) Arrangements for setting up duplicate/alternate exchange.
(c) Provision of direct lines where necessary.
(e) Maintenance of communication to vital points.
11. Gas Undertakings.
(a) Provisioning of coal, firewood etc,
(b) Independent source of water supply.
(c) Measures to protect vital plant.
(d) Provision for automatic safety valves.
12. Th e installations, which provide essential services, are likely to be attractive targets for enemy
action as also subversive elements. The CD organization should be able to identify the likely
problems as part of the disruption of essential services and the ways to remedy them.
AID TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES-NATURAL CALAMITIES
1. Nature‘s fury is tremendous, where even human strength or scientific might, can do little. To
minimise the after effects, aid to civil authorities needs to be provided in case of serious fire incidents,
earthquakes, floods, storms, major accidents etc
Serious Fire Outbreaks
2. In case of an incendiary causing fire, bomb attack, gas cylinder explosion or electric spark, a
large no of fires may be started off simultaneously. If all concerned know the principles of combustion
and the modes of spreading of fire, then the task of extinguishing it becomes that much simpler.
These are :-
(a) Causes of Fire. Some of the causes of fire could be : -
(i) Electric apparatus/ wiring.
(ii) Gas appliances.
(iii) Oil appliances (Stoves, lanterns etc.)
(iv) Matches and smoking material.
(v) Fire Works/ explosives.
(vi) Hot ashes.
(vii) Spontaneous combustion.
(viii) Forest Fire
(b) The following elements are essential for combustion and its continuation: -
(ii) Sufficient heat to raise the temperature of the fuel to its burning point.
(iii) Combustible Material.
(c) It follows from the above that fire can be extinguished if any one or more of the three
things are removed from the scene. Fire can be extinguished by: -
(i) Starvation. Removal of Fuel.
(ii) Cooling. Use water to lower temperature.
(c) Smothering. Supply of oxygen is restricted by use of sand/earth or chemicals.
3. Arrangements for Fire Fighting.
(a) House Fire Party. The Director of Civil Defence may set up a party of 4 persons for
every 500 population. A house fire party is equipped with one stirrup pump, two buckets, one
torch and hand axe. This party acts as ―Fire Watchman‖ for dealing with the fire in the
inception stages itself.
(b) Fire Brigade. The primary task of the fire brigade is to fight the fire. They are directly
under the civil defence authorities. They are equipped with latest equipment, vehicles, fire
tenders to deal with the situation.
(c) Home Guards. Civil defence authorities can call upon home guards also to assist
in fire fighting, mainly to protect the property and for security of the area.
4. Fire Services Day is celebrated on 14 April. In 1944, the seven thousand-ton ship ―FORT
STIKENE‖ caught fire on 14 Apr in the Bombay Dock. The order to abandon the ship was given. But it
was too late. There was a tremendous explosion, which blew the stern off the ship. This stern
wrenched from her mooring ―Jalapadama,‖ another ship nearby. This ship crashed info ―Fort Stikene‖.
In this incident, 48 firemen were killed, apart from 900 dead and 2000 or more injured. Since then,
Indian Fire Services celebrates 14 Apr as Fire Service Day.
Earthquakes and Land Slides
5. Quakes are caused by seismic waves, the tremors of which are felt from below the earth.
Earthquakes are measured on the ‗Richter Scale‘. An earthquake with a magnitude of 4-5 or above,
on the Richter scale, can be dangerous. The earthquakes of Latur in Maharashtra, Jabalpur in MP
,Bhuj in Gujrat and recently in J&K were from 7 to 7.5 on Richter Scale. An earthquake has the
following effects: -
(a) A large number of houses collapse and big towns are reduced to heaps of debris under
which a large number of people are buried and need to be rescued and extricated. Many more
will be required to be given first aid.
(b) Big fires develop due to earthquakes destroying human lives and property. The fires
have to be extinguished. Many buildings, which might have withstood the quake, succumb to
(c) Many buildings do not collapse but they develop big and dangerous cracks rendering
the building unfit for human habitation. Such buildings need to be demolished, for which expert
help is needed.
(d) Essential services like water and electricity are disconnected by cracks and breakdown.
Underground water pipes burst. Damage to sewage pipes leads to contaminated water supply
and bad sanitary conditions, which lead to spread of epidemics.
Accidents in Air & Railways
7. Many human lives are lost in air crashes and rail accidents every year. Due to air crashes a lot
of human lives are lost and identification of human bodies becomes a problem. If air crash occurs in a
built up area, many houses collapse and there is a likelihood of outbreak of fire. Road and rail traffic
is disrupted due to large-scale damage to railway lines, bridges and culverts. There is also large-
scale disruption of means of communication like telephones and telegraph system. This requires the
technical personnel to restore the means of communication. Rail accidents also pose special problem
of rescue in taking out victims buried under wreckage, steel bogies and twisted rails.
Floods and Cyclones
8. Floods are quite common during monsoons in most parts of the country. Assam faces
perpetual problem of floods where large-scale damage is caused to property, crop and lives. The
damage caused is follows: -
(a) House collapse, damage to property and the life of people and livestock.
(b) Means of communication and transportation is disrupted.
(c) Large number of people gets marooned who will have to be rescued.
(d) Results in epidemics.
(e) Large-scale losses of cattle wealth and crop are incurred in villages.
(f) A large number of people are rendered homeless requiring facilities like shelter,
clothing, feeding etc.
(g) Floods in rivers cause damage to dams, bunds and embankments. These breaches add
to the problems.
9. Cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes are winds of very high speed, which cause damage to
property, building, vegetation, telephone and electric poles etc. Great tidal waves are caused, causing
damage to ships and ports. Torrential rains flood the area. Speed of the rotating winds in a tornado
has been estimated at 200 to 500 miles per hour. Destruction is complete in the path of a tornado.
Emergency Relief Organization
9. Whenever large-scale disasters such as floods, famine, fire earthquakes etc. occur, the people
look to the Government for relief and rehabilitation. Relief and rescue operations cannot be organized
on an adhoc bases. Apart from the Government agencies, there are a large number of non-official
and semi official welfare organizations. Army also provides assistance in relief operations.
10. Civil Defence, which is meant to alleviate problem of the people during war, should also be
used during calamities-natural or others. All the agencies of the district administration like fire service,
medical services, transport, home guards etc., can be brought under one head to fight any calamity.
By doing so, civil defence organization can find their own draw backs and overcome them at the time
of war. The time lag in commencement of relief operations can be reduced drastically if the
responsibility is specified before hand.
11. Calamities cause a lot of destruction and damage to property worth crores due to fire, floods,
cyclones and accidents. Human lives and cattle are also destroyed. At this time of calamity, an
organization is required which can minimize the damage and save lives. It can provide help, relief,
shelter and medical aid. Civil defence is well equipped to do the job.
‘I am compelled to utter a truism-in asserting that physical catastrophes have their inevitable
and exclusive origin in certain combination of physical facts’.
1. Though Man has made tremendous technological progress in his relatively brief existence on
the earth, he is still virtually helpless against the vagaries of nature. Natural disasters such as floods,
cyclones, landslides and earthquakes ravage man‘s domain at will and causes much loss to life and
property. In addition to natural disasters, man has added to his miseries by waging wars and creating
other man made emergencies such as riots, conflicts, refugee situations, epidemics, industrial
accidents and environmental fall outs. All these require management to minimize loss of life &
property, & this is where ‗Disaster Management‘ comes in.
2. Disaster management has become a major theme of our times. As per WHO data there has
been a marked increase in disaster situations over the years. Globally, natural disasters account for
nearly 80 per cent of all disaster-affected people. The insurance industry estimates that natural
disasters represent 85 per cent of insured catastrophe losses globally. In 1996, 40 million disaster
affected people depended on humanitarian assistance, a 60 per cent increase over the average
figure of 25 million in the 1980s. Over the past 25 years, the cost of natural disasters stands at over
US$ 87 billion a year. The number of disasters in the first 60 years of the 20 th century totaled 4098
whereas in much shorter period of 30 years from 1962 to 1989 the number was 3380. Rightly so, the
UN declared 1990s as the international decade of natural disaster reduction (IDNDR), to enhance
disaster management capabilities all over the World.
3. Despite everyone‘s concern for disasters and technological developments in the world, the
response to disasters has been knee jerk and uncoordinated at international, national and state
levels. The problem is more acute in developing countries rather than in developed ones. The United
Nations and its specialised agencies have always had an interest and commitment to disaster relief.
Therefore, there are now disaster relief, preparedness, prevention and mitigation programmes being
carried out by various United Nations Organisations.
What is a Disaster?
4. Definitions of Disaster.
(a) The Oxford Dictionary defines disaster as ―sudden or great misfortune; calamity or
complete failure‖. To take a simple example, the sudden loss of four family members in a road
accident, would probably be described by that family as a disaster, but professionals involved
in counter disaster activities would probably describe this as an ‗accident‘, ‗incident‘,
occurrence‘ or ‗emergency‘.
(b) The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines disaster as any occurrence that causes
damage, economic destruction, loss of human life and deterioration in health services, on a
scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from out side the affected community or
(c) Therefore, a ‗disaster‘ occurs when there is a serious disruption to community life
arising with little or no warning; which threatens to or causes injury in that community and/or
damage to property, which is beyond the day-to-day capacity of the prescribed government or
statutory authorities and which requires the special mobilisation and organisation of resources,
other than those readily (normally) available to these authorities.
(d) The disaster agent is a catalyst, which has a potential to create or produce disasters.
For example- earthquake, cyclone, floods are disaster agents. Disaster is basically about
vulnerability, susceptibility of a potential victim to the life threatening impact of disaster agent.
For example, a drought or an earthquake in uninhabited land will not necessarily cause a
disaster. It is only when an agent exposes the vulnerability of people that the disaster agent
can lead to a disaster.
Types of Disasters
5. A wide variety of forces can cause disasters. These forces may be either natural or artificial or
combination of both.
(a) Man-made Disasters. Within this category of disasters, there are a variety of
conditions resulting in disaster: -
(i) Civil Disturbances. Riots. e.g.: Bombay Riots of 1992.
(ii) Warfare. Conventional, NBC warfare, LICO, terrorism, and mass movement of
people from one place to another.
(iii) Refugees. Forced movements of large numbers of people, usually across
frontiers; example: Bangladesh, refugees of Rwanda, Zaire.
(iv) Accidents. Collapse of buildings, industrial or mine disasters; example: Bhopal
Gas Tragedy of 1994 in India.
(b) Natural Disasters. In this category of disasters, are included :-
(i) Meteorological Disasters. Cyclones, hurricanes, cold wave, heat wave and
droughts (possibly causing famines).
(ii) Topological Disasters. Earthquakes, avalanches, landslides,
(iii) Biological Disasters. Epidemics of communicable diseases; example- plague in
Surat, malaria in Rajasthan, Bird Flu etc.
6. The division between natural and man-made is to some extent an over simplification, as many
disasters are actually caused by more than one, or combination of various, forces. Some disasters
set a chain reaction of disasters. For example: a flood, which may eventually result in an epidemic of
cholera, can follow a Cyclone.
7. The cumulative effects of several of these factors have caused some of the worst disasters.
For example, in November 1970, a cyclone was followed by one of the worst tidal waves, which led to
death of 50,000 people. The occurrence of this natural disaster came at a time of civil strife, followed
by Indo-Pak war of 1971 leading to liberation of Bangladesh. It forced ten million people to flee to
India, creating another relief operation. The combined natural and man-made disasters resulted in
one of the biggest relief operations since World War II. The long-term perspective will reveal to us
that disaster is an inter action of a combination of political, social, economic and environment factors.
There is no wonder if disasters appear more frequently in developing world than developed ones.
8. It is difficult to predict precisely where and when a man-made disaster will occur, therefore, it is
more difficult to prepare for one. It is possible however, with varying degrees of accuracy to predict
the occurrence of a natural disaster.
9. A flood is defined as a body of water rising, swelling and overflowing land areas. Most river
floods result from natural causes, such as excessive rainfall, melting snow, or ice jams. In general,
floods are classified as either regular or flash floods. Regular floods can be predicted.
10. ―India has always been visited by floods.‖ This is a seasonal and endemic term of disaster,
which causes great havoc and devastation each year. The primary cause of all floods in India is
heavy and concentrated rainfall. June to September is the rainiest period of the year. Rainfall also
occurs from October to December in East Coast of Southern Peninsula due to North East Monsoons.
Since preparatory and warning period is adequate, floods can be tackled satisfactorily
11. A cyclone, is a violent windstorm, usually accompanied by much rain, thunder and lightning.
Cyclones take form of very large revolving and moving form (200-300 miles per day), accompanied
by lashing winds (80 to 100 miles per day) & high tidal waves (10 to 20 feet). These are also known
as hurricanes or typhoons. In the Bay of Bengal, these normally occur from December to March. The
coastal areas and areas up to few hundred kilometres inland are more vulnerable to cyclone havoc,
particularly the coasts of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
12. The term ‗Tsunami‘ has been coined from the Japanese term Tsu meaning ‗harbour‘ and nami
meaning ‗waves‘. Tsunamis are waves generated by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or underwater
landslides and can reach 15m or more in height devastating coastal communities.
13. In most earthquakes the earth‘s crust cracks like porcelain. They generally occur on the so-
called plate boundaries, where moving plates are pulled apart, slide past or converge. The
earthquakes are usually preceded by foreshocks and followed by after shocks. Earth quakes strike
without warning and there is no time for last minute preparation and therefore speedy emergency
relief is of utmost importance. Although earthquakes may occur anywhere on the earth‘s surface,
including bottom of the sea, approximately 65% occur in certain seismic areas, for eg.,Latur and
Effects of Disaster
14. General. While each disaster has its own characteristics, it is possible to determine a
common base of disaster effect. This is necessary to evolve common disaster relief / management
operations to combat their effects.
(a) Extensive deaths and danger to Life. (Human Beings & animals)
(b) Destruction and Damage to Buildings.
(c) Lack of Water, Food and Essential Requirements. Need provision and distribution of
survival requirements like water, food, fodder, blankets and so on.
(d) Disruption of Communications. This complicates assessment of damage and
deployment of relief efforts.
(e) Outbreak or Danger of Epidemics. Preventive measures should include
inoculation/ vaccination, water treatment and sanitation as part of disaster relief.
(f) Threat to Crops, Vital Installations, Public Utilities or Fire Hazards. Suitable damage
control measures like crop spraying, reinforcements or demolition and fire services are
(g) Panic and Disorder. Effective public information measures and warden services
16. Special Features of Disaster Management. These are: -
(a) Lack of Early Warning and Information. This results in delayed response due to lack
of relief intelligence
(b) Inadequate Resources. Mobilisation of resources in men and material from multiple
sources is a critical planning and organisational problem.
(c) Varying Requirements. Each disaster situation requires separate
consideration, planning and expertise to deal with its specialised problems.
17. Crisis Management. The calm, deliberate, judicious and controlled mechanisms
instituted by a government to avert if possible, and if not, isolate and prevent further escalation, and
thereafter adopt measures to restore normalcy in available time frame.
18. Disaster Preparedness. It may be described as action designed to minimise loss of life and
damage, and to organise and facilitate timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation, in cases
of disaster. Preparedness is supported by the necessary legislation and means a readiness to cope
with disaster situations.
19. Disaster Prevention. It may be described as measures designed to prevent natural
phenomenon from causing or resulting in disasters or other related emergency situations. Prevention
concerns the formulation and implementation of long-range policies and programs to prevent or
eliminate the occurrence of disasters.
Stages of Disaster Management
20. Comprehensive disaster management, which involves both assessment and response, can be
seen to involve three chronological stages, although stages overlap. These phases are seldom
readily separable but need to be determined as part of the disaster management process.
21. Preparatory Stage. This corresponds to the pre-disaster period and will include disaster
prediction, warning and alert system, preventive measures & issue of contingency plans. It will mainly
involve government and specialised agencies. Key steps to be taken in preparation of a disaster
management plan are:
(a) Identify local disaster hazards.
(b) Appoint a committee to survey and study the hazard.
(c) Analyse the likely disaster relief problems. This should include use of map, numbers,
rescue of casualties and first aid of persons likely to be affected, requirement of mass shelter
and feeding arrangements.
(d) Take stock of community resources in relation to relief requirements.
(e) Reach agreement with NGOs and other groups about their participation in relief work.
(f) Develop plans for disaster preparedness in area of responsibility.
(g) Coordination of work with various agencies.
(h) Publicise the plan so that more people are aware of it.
(j) Periodically update plans.
22. Emergency/Response Stage. This stage commences after the disaster
strikes and immediately before it ,including reaction to warnings and emergency
relief activities. The major actors in the Relief System can be grouped into four
(a) The Governments. The government inevitably bears the prime
responsibility for the administration of relief operation. Usually the responsibility
for execution of relief programmes is transferred to the appropriate
ministry. However, the methods used by governments to administer disaster
relief vary greatly from one government to another.
(b) International Organisations. At international level, relief assistance
may be provided in the following manner:
(i) Bilateral inter-governmental contributions.
(ii) Voluntary Agencies such as Red Cross and OXFAM.
(iii) Aid through United Nations. The office of United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is usually involved in relief operation and for
natural disaster it is the office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Organisation
(UNDRO) that takes the necessary actions. The United Nations Children‘s Fund
(UNICEF), The Food and Agriculture Organisation World Food Programme (WFP) of
FAO and the World Health Organisation (WHO) are nearly always active in disaster
(c) Voluntary Agencies (NGOs & Red Cross). They also work as the ears and eyes of
the people and also acts as an intermediary between the people and the Government to avoid
duplication, to impress proper distributions of scarce resources, and to organise vigilance
group for prevention of misuse of resources.
(i) NGOs. During various stage of disaster management based on
identified type and their capabilities, the NGOs can be useful for: -
Pre Disaster : Awareness and information campaigns
: Training of local volunteers
: Advocacy and planning
During Disaster : Immediate rescue and first aid including
: Supply of food, water medicines & other immediate need
: Ensuring sanitation and hygiene
: Damage assessment
Post Disaster : Technical and material aid in
: Assistance in seeking financial aid & its
(ii) Red Cross. The Red Cross is the principle non-governmental network for
mobilising and distributing international assistance in times of disaster. It was founded
by Mr J Dunant in 1863 who had witnessed the horrors of the battle of Solteinne in
(d) Media. Large-scale damage and loss of life is always a news event and the
publicity moves the national and international community to respond generously with offers of
assistance to the disaster stricken area. Media also gives out the real needs of the victims,
badly administered relief operations. It provides useful publicity to achievements made by the
various agencies during disaster relief and later during rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Benefits of media disaster coverage cannot be overemphasized.
23. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Stage. Covers short and long term measures to
restore essential services, communication and normal community life. Rehabilitation phase involves
the following few weeks or months, while reconstruction may take long time, often years. The model
given in figure gives out progressive restoration of normal situation in relation to time.
Normality} Disaster Strike TIME
SEARCH NEW JOBS
Coordination and Control at National Level
24. For effective implementation of relief measures in the wake of a disaster, the cabinet has set
up a National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) in the Cabinet Secretariat. The concerned
Secretary shall provide all necessary information and seek directions of the Cabinet Committee in all
maters concerning relief and steps for effective implementation of its directions. In the absence of
such a Cabinet Committee all matters relating to relief shall be reported to the Cabinet Secretary.
25. The composition of the Committee is as under: -
(a) Cabinet Secretary - Chairman.
(b) Secretary to Prime Minister - Member.
(c) Secretary (MHA) - Member.
(d) Secretary (MOD) - Member.
(e) Director (IB) - Member.
(f) Secretary (R&AW) - Member.
(g) Secretary (Agriculture
& Cooperation) - Co-opted Member.
(h) An officer of Cabinet rank - Convener
26. Central Committee. A central committee is also constituted in time of crises. The composition
if this committee is also follows: -
(a) Special Secretary (ISP) MHA.
(b) OSD (R&AW), JS (R&AW).
(c) Special Dir IB & Joint Dir, IB Dir (R&AW).
(d) IG (Ops), BSF HQ, IG (Ops) CRPF & Additional DIG (Ops), CRPF.
(e) JS (P), MHA.
(f) JS & Dir (IS-I), MHA.
(g) Additional DGMO (A), & Dir MO 6, Army HQ.
(h) DS (CPO), MHA.
(j) Dir (G), MOD.
27. In addition, nodal Ministries for various disasters have been designated. These are: -
(a) Natural Disasters - Home Affairs
(b) Drought - Agriculture
(c) Nuclear, Chemical & - Home
(d) Epidemics - Health
(e) Civil Strife - Home.
(f) Air Accidents - Civil Aviation
(g) Railway Accidents - Railways
28. The resident Commissioners of the States affected by major natural calamity may be co-opted
on the CMG during the period.
29. States are primarily responsible for relief activities, The Central Government associates itself
with measures aimed at alleviating the suffering of the people on account of these calamities.
Towards this end, the Central Government with its resources, including finances, does provide the
needed help and assistance to buttress relief efforts in the wake of major calamities.
30. In sum, the management of disasters at various levels in our country is as under :-
National - Nodal Ministries
State - Relief and Rehabilitation Department/ Department of
District - Office of the District Magistrate
Block - Office of the Panchayat Samiti
Village - Village Disaster Management Committee
Role of NCC
31. Salient Aspects of NCC.
(a) NCC is spread over every nook and corner of the country.
(b) First to reach the affected location and provide selfless assistance.
(c) Organized and time tested organization.
(d) Cadets are young and exuberant.
(e) NCC is a voluntary organisation.
(f) Students available concentrated during camp.
(g) No specialized training in disaster control.
(c) Parental consent required.
32. NCC During Calamities. As per :-
The Gazette of India
Part II - Section 4
PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY
SRO, 15E in exercise of the powers conferred by Section 10 of the National
Cadet Corps Act, 1948 (31 of 1948), the Central Government hereby prescribes
the following duties which shall be performed by the National Cadet Corps Officers
(Senior, Junior and Girls Division) and Cadets (including girls) of the Senior Division
who are of the age seventeen years and above, namely:-
Passive Air Defence including rescue work, first aid, evacuation of casualties,fire- fighting
and removal of debris.
• Manning of Civil Defence posts including civil defence patrols and look outs.
• Maintenance of essential services such as motor transport, pioneer and engineer services,
water supply and power supply.
• Traffic Control
• Manning of static signal installations.
• Messenger service.
• Duties in Hospital.
• Administration and running of camps in case of movement of Civil population.
• Any other allied duties.
33. Requirements During Calamities.
(a) Reach the affected area speedily and assess the situation with reference to severity and
(b) Help in restoring law and order in affected area by traffic control
under supervision, ensuring collection, loading and speedy distribution of relief.
(c) Provide immediate rescue, first aid and assistance.
(d) Assistance in setting up and administration of relief camps.
(e) Cultural and recreational activities for victim.
(f) Collection, packing, marking and speedy dispatch of relief material.
Important Works performed by the NCC Cadets
34. Indo –Pak-War 1971 and Kargil War 1999.
(a) They assisted various organization in the States, to include hospitals,
Post and Telegraph department, traffic control police, communication system,
refugee camps and families of soldiers.
(b) NCC cadets were active in various States. They assisted the Police and the civil defence
authorities in numerous ways. They donated blood and girl cadets helped in nursing patients in
the hospitals. They kept a lookout, went on patrolling missions & carried messages. They
moved about enforcing blackout, helped in traffic control, manned sirens & first aid posts &
assisted in Prisoner – of War camps.
(c) Cadets of the technical units helped the Electrical and Mechanical Engineer
workshops of the Army.
(d) Some NCC Air Wing Officers performed useful duties at the airport.
(d) NCC officers and cadets helped the widows and dependents of
war casualties throughout the country. They visited such families, offered
help in rehabilitating them and assisted them in settling their claims or
securing concessions and benefits allowed to them.
(f) After the Kargil war, a visit of NCC girl cadets was organized to Kargil from 24 May to
01 Jun 2000. A total of 32 girl cadets representing all States and Union Territories of our
country, were airlifted by the Indian Air force to Leh from where they traveled by road to Kargil,
Drass and Srinagar. The visit was conducted by the Army. In the year 2005, Karnataka and
Goa directorate conducted a Motor Cycle expedition from Bangalore to Kargil. This expedition
reached Kargil on the occasion of Kargil Day i.e 26 July, wherein it paid homage to the
35. Assistance During Earthquake.
(a) Rescuing people who were still alive & buried in the debris.
(b) Removal of dead bodies from the area, helping in sprinkling of chemical powder on the
corpses, arranging bodies on ice slabs and getting them identified. Thereupon, assisting
bereaved relatives in arranging for wood for cremation.
(c) Safeguarding the valuables at site, management of traffic and preventing people from
coming near affected sites and debris.
(d) Working as stretcher bearers and assistance in nursing duties.
36. Assistance During Flood Relief.
(a) Evacuating the marooned families.
(b) Blocking the breaches.
(c) Giving assistance to the public utility services and helping ferrying men and materials in
the NCC Naval Wing boats from the flood affected areas to the places of safety.
(d) Distributing food, medicines and other essential supplies to the victims.
(e) Provision of safe drinking water through water tankers.
(f) Being locals and having detailed knowledge of the area, cadets render invaluable
service in traffic management and diverting traffic through serviceable roads & by lanes.
(g) Packaging and assisting in air dropping and distribution of relief items.
37. Assistance During Cyclones.
(a) Rescued marooned people.
(b) Distributed clothing, relief material and food packets.
(c) Unloaded relief material at the railway stations and carried out inventory control of relief
(d) Helped municipal authorities in clearing the roads of fallen trees and electrical
(e) Affected people were shifted from low level areas to safer places.
(f) Villagers were educated in hygiene and sanitation.
(g) Anti-cholera and typhoid injections were given to the villagers.
(h) Assisted IAF personnel in air dropping of relief material by helicopters.
38. Tsunami Relief Ooperations.
(a) Registration of victims and their families.
(b) Provision of food and clothing to the needy.
(c) Cadets, especially the girl cadets, were a great help in consoling the bereaved.
(d) The NCC Group Commander contacted various agencies within the district in order to
boost relief efforts. The Rotary Club thus provided more than 3000 plates and glasses to the
(e) Medicines worth Rs 18000/- were expended in the camp.
(f) Soon after the incident, 40 tents available with the Trichy group were pitched up to
accommodate the most severely affected families of ―Vanagiri‖ village in Nagapattinam district.
(g) Cadets helped in construction of forty low cost fire proof shelters which were handed
over on 14 Jan 05 (Pongal day) to the worst affected families of Vanagiri village.
(h) Making use of the expertise of cadets from various polytechnic colleges, fishing boats of
‗Pudupakkam village‘ were repaired. This enabled the fishermen of this village to start their
routine livelihood early.
(j) The Annual Training Camp of Madurai Group NCC was converted to tsunami relief work
camp. More than 200 cadets put in concerted effort for 12 days or so in Kanyakumari district
from 16 Jan to 27 Jan 05, providing relief work to the various villages. They prepared plinth
for 365 temporary shelters, assisted in shifting of construction material for 365 shelters,
and in filling up documents of 300 affected families (which enabled them to get Govt‘s
monetary relief), distributed relief materials like food packets, clothes and household items in
all the villages, and carried out area cleaning.
(l) NCC Group Madurai also adopted 110 orphaned children of two villages. Thereafter,
they mustered the support of various NGOs and philanthropists for organising a proper
orphanage for them.
(m) In order to make families self-reliant ,sewing machines were donated.
39. It is important to have an overview of the subject of Disaster Relief, as the NCC organization
can effectively contribute to the same. The NCC can speedily mobilise its well trained forces and can,
in addition to assisting during & post disasters, play a very important part in maintaining cohesion,
promoting communal peace and raising the morale of the populace by their own exemplary behavior.
SETTING UP OF RELIEF CAMP DURING DISASTER MANAGEMENT
1. The melee and panic that follows disaster forces victims to leave their belongings like clothes,
utensils, documents, etc behind and flee from the wrath of the nature‘s fury. Many of these affected
people including children, women and youth suffer from fear psychosis. The government, in its efforts
to bring back normalcy, first rushes in immediate necessities like food, water and shelter. It then
gears up to offer temporary relief to those who have turned pauper due to fury of the disaster. The
package of relief offered by the State Government is intended not only to provide immediate and
temporary relief but also cater to a long term and permanent rehabilitation to enable the victims to
turn a new lease of life with confidence to eke out a decent and dignified living which will enable them
to forget these traumatic and heart rending loss of close kith and kin and damage of tools and
implements that sustain their livelihood.
Dispersal, Relief and Settlement camps
2. Dispersal Camp is located at such a distance from the reception points so as to facilitate quick
reach by victims/evacuees. The evacuees are provided relief with shelter for a couple of days until
they can make their own arrangements with friends, relatives or disperse to other areas. All facilities
are provided to enable evacuees to find out their own accommodation. Those evacuees, who are
unable to go anywhere, are shifted to Camps known as Relief Settlement Camps. These include
education of children and vocational training for those who have lost the means of livelihood etc.
3. Arrangements in a Camp.
(a) Site. Use should be preferably made of existing built up accommodation. Alternatively,
tented accommodation should be arranged. There should be open level or gently sloping
ground accessible by a road. Source of drinking water should be nearby. The camping site at a
distance from the town should be preferred to the one nearer to it. Adequate arrangements for
water and lighting along with proper drainage facilities should be catered for.
(b) Hygiene and Sanitation. This requires special attention to prevent out-break of an
epidemic among the camp inmates. People have to be educated to use trench latrines and
urinals properly. Drinking water should be properly sterilized before consumption. Conservancy
area to be properly marked on the leeward side of the camp and should be at least 200
yards from living accommodation. Similarly bathing places, water point for animals are
earmarked. Trained volunteers should supervise the disposal of garbage within the camp lines
and sanitation in kitchen.
(c) Administrative Staff. The camp will have a Camp Commandant, who will be assisted by
Deputy Camp Commandant, Welfare Officer, Medical Officer, Accounts Officer, Supply Officer
and others. Since some of these officers will be handling rations, supplies etc., they should be
preferably government officials. To do a lot of other functions like guarding the lines, protecting
water points, supervising sanitation, helping in kitchens etc. voluntary help may be obtained
from the inmates of camp. These volunteers should be selected by the Camp‘s Welfare
Committee comprising of influential and reliable senior persons.
4. It becomes necessary to ensure that the facilities provided in the Relief camps established at
the time of disaster/natural calamities be such that it reduces the sufferings of the victims. Most of the
victims leave behind their essential belongings like clothes, utensils, documents, etc to escape timely
from the wrath of the nature‘s fury. Many of the affected people including children, women and youth
suffer from fear psychosis. The government, in its mammoth efforts to bring back normalcy, must rush
in with immediate necessities like food, water and shelter. It then should gear up to offer temporary
relief to those who have nothing to fall back upon.
COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF AIDS AND MESSENGER SERVICE
1. Disaster generally takes form of natural calamites such as floods, earthquakes, tsunami etc.
The frequencies of the above disasters have increased in the recent past. Reoccurrence of these
cannot be ruled out in future also. The disaster struck area is full of panic due to loss of men and
material, kith and kin. The command and control and also the smooth operation of collection and
distribution relief aids assume importance. It is imperative that smooth operations of Collection and
Distribution of relief Aids are launched with a view to overcome the problems as mentioned above
with the limited available resources. Suggested ways of operations is described in the succeeding
Various ways of Operations
2. Coordination Committee. Various agencies such as Army, Navy, Air Force, civil Authorities, and
NGOs etc will be operating in the area of disaster. These will also be operating according to the
orders issued by their superiors. Hence it is important that these operations are coordinated at all
levels. The relief aids will arrive by air, railways and roads depending upon their availability from
different agencies. The Coordinating Committee formed by representatives from each agency should,
therefore, be located at terminating rail stations, road heads and airports. The relief aids will be
collected and distributed under the supervision of the respective representatives for further
distribution under the directions of the head of the Committee. The head of the Committee should
also distribute the means of transportation as per their availability to optimize their services.
3. Bulk Breaking Point. Relief aids will generally comprise of medicines, rations, cooked food,
clothing tentage etc. They will reach the various terminating heads of transport in bulk. It is therefore
necessary that their bulks be broken in small quantities for further distribution to their destination as
per their requirement and priority.
4. Separation of Relief Aids. Various types of relief aids would arrive in the affected area. These
aids will be segregated as per types and classification so that these are further dispatched according
to their requirement without being mixed with each other. Teams will be formed located at each and
operating head of means of communication.
5. Sub Bulk Breaking Points. Disaster covers a large area. It is, therefore necessary to open
more than one bulk breaking points for smooth distribution. The relief aids are received in separate
type and quantity at these points. These are further separated and dispatched to their destination by
7. The Communication Services cater for a well organised force of messengers for the
transmission of messages in case of failure of telephone lines, maintenance, installation and care of
sirens for air raid warning, maintenance of wireless and telephone communications between places of
damage and Control/Sub-Control Centres and provision and maintenance of field telephones to
coordinate action at the place of damage or an alternative means of communication between places
of damage and Control/Sub-Control Centre.
8. Message Room. In this room only the reception and transmission of messages are dealt with.
Provision must be made to accommodate ―IN‖ and ―OUT‖ Telephonists and the Message Supervisor
in this room.
9. Message Supervisor. The Message Supervisor is in-Charge of the message room and looks
after the training, duty roster, telephoning and message procedure, proper receipt and despatch of
messages. He gets messages despatched as per the priorities allotted by the Officer-in-Charge and
may order OUT messages to go through IN telephones or through messengers whichever is best
possible under the circumstances. He maintains registers for all IN and OUT messages. He sends the
copies of all Out messages, or despatch slips to the Tally Board-cum-Record Clerk after the
messages have been despatched.
10. Circulation of Messages and their Records.
(a) ―IN‖ Messages. The IN telephonist makes 4 copies in a Control Centre and 3 copies in
a Sub-Control Centre or every message whether received by telephone or through a
messenger. He puts his initials and time of receipt on the message and passes them on to the
Message Supervisor. The Message Supervisor makes entry in the IN message register and
passes on to the Map Room. In the Map Room the IN messenger picks up the messages from
the IN hatch and gives to the Chart writer-cum-Plotting Clerk, who makes a record in his
register, gives the incident number to the message and marks it on all the copies. In a Control
Centre he gives one copy to the C.D. Controller, one copy to the Officer-in-Charge, one copy
to the representatives of the Essential Services, then after plotting the incident passes on the
fourth copy to the Tally Board-cum-Record Clerk. In a Sub-Control Centre he gives one copy
to the Office-in-Charge, one to the Tally Board-cum-Record Clerk and keeps the third copy
with him for plotting on the map.
(b) ―OUT‖ Messages. Out messages are prepared on CDM-3. Number of copies is two
more than number of addresses. They are initiated by the C.D. Controller or Officer-in-Charge
in a Control Centre and the Officer-in-Charge in a Sub-Control Centre. One copy is kept by the
Officer-in-Charge, one is given to the Tally Board-cum-Record Clerk which goes to the Incident
File, and the copies for addressees are sent to the message room through the out hatch. The
IN Messenger in the message room picks up the out messages and gives them to the
Message Supervisor, who passes them on to the OUT telephonist after making the records in
his ‗OUT‘ register. After dispatch, the telephonist put their initials and time of dispatch, the
copies are then sent back to the Tally Board-cum-Record Clerk, who then replaces the
previous copies by the one initialed by the out telephonist in case the message is sent through
an out messenger the Message Supervisor notes down the incident number, address to,
copies to etc. on a slip and sends it to the Tally Board-cum-Record Clerk to be kept in the
11. Multifarious problems will be faced in the disaster area. These problems are overcome by
conduct of smooth operations and better command and control. It must be ensured that relief aids
are distributed as per their requirement and priority by optimizing the services of available means of
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RIGHTS
1. The General Assembly of the UN adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights on 10 Dec 1948. Since that date, the Universal Declaration has provided the inspiration for the
vast effort that has been made around the world, both at the national and international level, to
promote and protect human rights.
2. The Government of India has for its part, drawn up an elaborate programme to commemorate
the Golden Jubilee of the declaration. A committee includes, amongst members, the Secretary
General of the NHRC, the Secretary of various ministries, human rights activities and experts and the
chairperson of the UGC.
3. Apart from programmes sponsored by Government, the observance of this important issue
includes holding of seminars and human rights awareness camps involving the corporate and
business sectors, educational and health institutions and NGOs. The Anniversary year, which
commenced on 10 Dec 1997, will culminate with special events planned for the decade till 10 Dec
4. Our late Dr Sharma, the Ex President of India who stressed upon the rights to life, to freedom
of expression, to protection from torture, inhuman treatment or arbitrary arrest of citizens, are far from
realization. Hence, it has been decided on the behest of MOD, to introduce HR education to NCC
cadets and ANOs.
What is Human Rights
5. It is not the conventional notions of human rights, which had earlier largely been confined to
civil and political rights. Now its scope has widened to a larger dimension to include :-
(a) Rights of working women.
(b) Rights of the disabled.
(c) Rights of those with mental disabilities.
(d) Rights of the Dalits and minorities.
(e) Rights of maids / bonded servants.
(f) Special need of certain vulnerable categories of society.
(g) Protection against sexual violation.
6. The very essence of our independence does not only encompasses liberty, justice, equality
and human dignity, but stresses on the importance of good governance for the realization of human
7. The great issues on the National agenda for attainment of human rights are:-
(a) Attainment of universal primary education.
(b) Eradication of child labour and child abuse.
(c) Protection of the vulnerable sections of society like women, disabled children etc., from
8. The most important Human Rights values are:-
(a) Compulsory education.
(b) Maternal and child health care.
(c) Rights of child with reference to their economic, social and cultural rights.
(d) Elimination of child labour.
(e) Elimination of child malnutrition and disparities in treatment between girls and boys.
(f) Assured social security benefits including medical aid.
(g) Code and conduct for children:-
(i) No bullying.
(ii) No sarcasm, helping attitude towards handicapped, disabled or impaired
(iii) Respect to elders and values of social life.
(iv) Respect to neighbours and other sections of society.
(V) Not to get influenced of drugs.
(vi) Not to get trapped into a materialistic way of life, and get under the claws of AIDs
(vii) Advent of undesirable affluence to be curbed.
(viii) No ragging in school/ colleges.
(ix) No eve teasing.
Human Rights – A Perspective
9. Two years ago, three important HR documents were released:-
(a) Code of conduct for law Enforcing Auth.
(b) Rights of prisoners.
(c) Human Rights Fax Hotline.
10. The chairperson of National Human Rights Commission Justice A S Anand also stressed the
Independence and integrity of National Institutions in order to enable them to stand fearlessly for civil
and political rights and to wage appropriate better for the fulfillment of various human rights. They
must act without fear, stand fearlessly for protection of civil liberties, stand for policies of justice and
equity at home and for similar policies at the global level, as the nuclear age is characterized by :-
(a) Beset with problems like continuance of deadly weapons, deadly conflicts.
(b) Acts of genocide and grotesque economic inequalities, which perpetuate HR violation
on massive scale.
11. Human Rights Commission recommends for compensation in case of violation of Human
Rights, such as :-
(a) Custodial death.
(b) Inhuman treatment of arrested people in the absence of lock-ups in, like handcuffing
arrested persons and tying them to pillars on trees in the absence of facilities.
(c) Killed doing prison labour, like carrying a heavy bag of wheat to the flour mill in the
12. Awareness on Human Rights Issues. To create awareness on this subject, and for stopping
the violation of such human rights, this needs to be discussed at micro level, i.e., at institution level,
so that everyone should know how to raise the issue. In NCC it should be brought to the notice of
every enrolled cadet during organised camp / institutional training.
13. Importance of Counter Insurgency and Environmental Realities in the Present Context of
(a) Factors in General.
(i) Modernisation has caused economic pressure on traditional societies, which are
keen to retain their origin, ethnic, tribal and special affinities.
(ii) Criminalisation of politics.
(iii) Lackadaisical attitude of bureaucrats and administrators.
(iv) Religion and fundamentalist sentiments.
(v) Pressure groups of castes and regions.
(vi) Economic disparity in a materialistic society.
(vii) Political bearings and alignments in a democracy.
(viii) Partition of law enforcing agencies.
(ix) All these cause discontentment & frustration amongst the youth and unemployed.
(b) Environmental Realities that affects the Operations of the Army.
(i) Prolonged exposure and resultant stress of Armed Forces.
(ii) No clear-cut enemies, boundaries, clear cut political directive to the Army.
(iii) Insurgency in present context is different from conventional war.
(iv) Soldier is unable to grasp clear-cut goals.
(v) Lack of knowledge of local conditions.
(vi) Lack of timely intelligence.
(vii) Inadequate co-operation from the local civil and police officials.
(viii) Difficulty in identification of dissidents from general population / innocent
(ix) Problem of isolating militants from innocent population and from their support
bases particularly in urban areas.
(x) Exploitation of media by dissidents against security forces.
(xi) Language problem.
(xii) Lack of concern by nation at large - an inglorious war.
(xiii) Dilution in standards of soldiering and discipline.
(c) How to Avoid Violation of Human Rights.
(i) Curbing of Fundamental rights. Must realize that military operations such as
search, checking, vehicle check etc. i cause concern to the civilian populace, as against
their fundamental rights, & hence must be carefully carried out.
(ii) Rape/molestation reports that appear in the media are a mix of actual and
propaganda warfare launched by militants. To check re-occurrences:-
(aa) Education of all.
(ab) Enforcement of discipline.
(ac) Liberal leave policy.
(ad) Effective media management.
(iii) Mass contact - Commanders at all levels must meet.
(iv) Illegal detention, fake encounters, attack on civilians, cross Fire deaths &
custody deaths must be avoided at all costs. Remember, a favorite tactic of militants is
to fire from a crowd, and use civilians as a shield.
(iv) Compensation. All victims should be compensated at the earliest. Legal
constraints like carrying police personnel for operations, frisking of women by women
police, signing of no claim certificate by the village elder etc are inescapable
requirements and have to be adhered to.
(v) Special powers to the Army.
14. Media Management Concept and Understanding of Human Rights
(a) Equality and justice for all.
(b) No one to be held without any charge or trial.
(c) Right to be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours of arrest.
(d) Right to fair and prompt trial.
(e) Freedom from torture and ill treatment by any agency.
(f) Protection against sexual violation.
(g) Right to life and to be treated humanely.
(h) Freedom from arbitrary and unlawful coercion.
(j) Right against any other excesses.
(k) Use of common sense in respect of understanding the importance of Human Rights.
15. The ‗New World Order‘ has Human Rights as one of its cardinal principles in shaping the
policies of economic and military goals. Under this ‗one world order ‗, infringement of human rights
should be curbed and its ramifications be made aware to all. For this, it is necessary to understand
the subject of Human Rights.
ROAD SIGNS AND ROAD DISCIPLINE
1. A driver will always see a number of road signs posted by the side of the roads. In order to
develop into a good driver with proper driving etiquette and road discipline, it is essential that he
should be fully conversant with road signs and understand their meaning / implication correctly, so
that he can take appropriate action well in time. Similarly he should also have knowledge of various
traffic and police signals so that proper road discipline is maintained. Ignorance of road signs, traffic
and police signals results in accidents, which could otherwise be avoided, as also prevent loss life
and damage to property.
Position of Road Signs
2. The main consideration while erecting road signs is that these should be clear to the passing
traffic on the roads. In order to achieve this, road signs are posted in the following manner: -
(a) Left of the road, though in certain circumstances it may be on the right side depending
on the state of the road site.
(b) Approximately 50 to 75 metres from the object, which they indicate.
(c) Height of signs should be at least 5 feet from the ground.
Types of Road Signs
3. The various types of road signs in use are as follow: -
(a) Cautionary Signs. These are road signs, which provides early warning of what is
ahead. These are: -
(i) Written inside a white triangle.
(ii) On approaching these/spotting them, the driver should slow down his vehicle,
check and move ahead.
(b) Informatory Road Signs. These are placed to provide certain basic information to road
users, for e.g., parking place, tow away zone etc. These are written inside a square on the
(c) Mandatory Signs. These are meant to convey certain orders to the road users, for
e.g., Silence Zone, Speed Limit, Dead Slow etc. These are written within a circular board and a
driver is duty bound to obey these signs. Anyone violating these signs is liable for prosecution.
(d) Provost Signs. These are generally meant for the armed forces personnel only, but in
certain cases all road users have to abide by these. E.g. Out of Bounds, TCP etc. There is no
hard and fast rule regarding their shape, size or colour but generally yellow coloured boards
are used, with black letters.
(e) Common road signs are given in the Appendix.
4. In order to avoid undue loss of life and to maint orderly and disciplined traffic, which can be
controlled easily, it is essential that all road signs are understood. This will ensure safe and trouble
free driving pleasure for all users.
(Ref to Para 3(e))
1. The rules of the road, which exist in all countries, are meant to ensure free flow of traffic and
also to assist individual drivers. Difficulties / violation of traffic rules occur only when a driver fails to
follow the traffic code which the majority are following and may prove to be a fatal menace for
everybody on the roads safe, it is imperative that we all follow the established traffic rules.
Basic Traffic Laws
2. The Basic Traffic Laws are as follows: -
(a) Keep left and allow traffic in the opposite direction to pass on your right.
(b) Overtake only from the right.
(c) Overtaking from the left is only permissible when the vehicle in front is about to turn
(d) Overtaking is not permitted if it is likely to cause inconvenience or danger to others, or
when the road ahead is not visible.
(e) When being overtaken, do not increase your own speed in order to prevent the other
vehicle from passing you.
(f) Slow down while approaching road junctions, intersections and corners, look and then
(g) While entering a main road from a junction give way to vehicles proceeding along the
main road. Give way to traffic approaching from the right at intersections. If you spot a sign
―Dead Slow - Major Road Ahead‖, give right of way to the vehicles on the left also.
(h) Drive slowly while passing a procession or while passing road repairs. In both cases
speed should not exceed 25 kmph.
(j) While turning left, driver stays to the left side of the road.
(k) When turning to the right, move to the center of the road, stop at junction / intersection if
necessary, then move ahead and after getting onto this road, move to the left of road
(l) While moving behind another vehicle, maintain a safe distance, (approx one car
length) when driving at 15 kmph, Double/triple that distance when driving on wet and slippery
(m) Ensure that the way is clear, before turning / reversing. Watch out for children and
(n) Do not park the vehicle in narrow streets, near bends, corners, and top of the hill, or in any
other dangerous position.
(o) Keep driving license, registeration & insurance papers at all times.
Do’s for Drivers
3. Some tips for safe driving which, must be followed by drivers are; -
(a) Give adequate signals by hand or otherwise, by slowing down while turning, overtaking and
before halting. .
(b) Give pass signal to overtaking vehicles.
(c) Pay attention lo road signals and police traffic signals.
(d) If vehicle breaks down, ensure that it docs not impede the other traffic on road.
(e) At night, dip headlights for oncoming vehicles.
(f) Negotiate bends slowly.
(g) Post a sentry if the vehicle breaks down near a bend, or on the slopes of a steep hill.
(h) Be considerate while passing a horse drawn/any other animal drawn vehicle.
(j) Always slow down while passing troops on the march and processions.
(k) As far as possible post a (Dandaman) in the rear of the vehicle who can inform the driver of any
vehicle wanting to pass.
(l) Check all documents before setting out on a journey.
(m) Ensure that vehicle is roadworthy before driving it.
Don’ts for Drivers
4. Some don‘ts for drivers are as follows: -
(a) Don‘t exceed speed limit.
(b) Don‘t monopolize the road, keep to the left.
(c) Don‘t‘ bully oncoming vehicles by staying in the centre of the road and forcing them off the
(d) Don‘t park in the middle of the road.
(e) Don‘t overtake unless signaled to do so by the driver of the vehicle in front.
(f) Don‘t overtake except on the right of the proceeding vehicle and that too never on a
(g) Do not fail to allow sufficient clearance after overtaking a vehicle and before pulling to
the left again.
(h) Do not fail in giving sufficient clearance while passing other vehicles.
(j) Do not fail to appreciate the speed of oncoming vehicles or of crossing vehicles.
(k) Don‘t drive dangerously.
(l) Don‘t leave a vehicle unattended.
(m) Don‘t smoke while on the wheel.
(n) Don‘t depend on horn to do the job of brakes.
(o) Don‘t forget, traffic on main road has the right of way.
(p) Don‘t drive fast through streets, camps and other inhabitation.
(q) Don‘t forget to render first aid to the injured in case of an accident.
5. All drivers should be aware of the rules of the road and code of conduct on the roads so that
there is smooth flow of traffic and the roads remain safe for all those using them.
1. NCC Cadets and ANOs often have to move in Military Transport (MT), or load carriers hired
from the civil. While moving from one place to another in a convoy, it is important to observe certain
rules of travelling in a convoy, which are known as Convoy Drills. Ignorance of convoy drills and bad
MT discipline can cause serious delays for a convoy and result in traffic congestion and accidents.
Duties of Officers
2. The responsibility of moving a convoy of vehicles from one place to another is the primary
responsibility of the convoy commander.
(a) Duties of Convoy Commander. This is a responsibility generally given to an officer of
sufficient seniority and experience. He has to do the following: -
(i) Coordinate move of all vehicles.
(ii) Brief drivers thoroughly on density, speed, halt, route, recovery arrangements etc.
(iii) Detail a vehicle commander for each vehicle.
(iv) Distribute route charts to each vehicle.
(v) Brief complete convoy of action to be taken under various contingencies.
(vi) Ensure drivers get adequate breaks and rest during long movements.
(vii) Remain overall in charge of convoy.
(viii) Detail a dandaman for each vehicle.
(b) Duties of Vehicle Commander. He is usually the senior most NCO in the vehicle and his
duties are: -
(i) Direct driver on the right route as per the route chart given.
(ii) Be responsible for vehicle and its occupants.
(iii) Investigate reasons for unscheduled halts.
(iv) Be responsible for the conduct of driver and occupants of a vehicle.
(v) Ensure all safety precautions are being followed.
(vi) Do not follow the vehicle in front blindly.
(vii) Ensure all convoy drills as taught are being adhered to by all
occupants of his vehicle.
(viii) Ensure that his vehicle reaches the destination safely.
(c) Duties of Dandaman.
(i) Each vehicle before moving must have a sentry/dandaman detailed, who will sit at
the tail end of the vehicle. His duty is to warn the driver of the following: -
(aa) VIP Cars approaching from behind.
(ab) Vehicle wanting to overtake from behind.
(ac) Halt vehicle in case of emergency
Important Aspects of Convoy Discipline
3. Density. This means the interval / gap, which has to be maintained between vehicles in the
convoy and is worked out in terms of vehicle to a kilometer, or, VTKM. This is laid down for each
movement in order to prevent congestion of traffic on the road / too large dispersion. Convoy density
should be observed at all times including halts.
4. Speed. This is usually worked out for each convoy depending on the number of vehicles in
terms of km in 2 hrs. This speed limit should never be exceeded even in order to close the gap
between vehicles in the convoy.
5. Double Parking and Overtaking. This should never be allowed except on orders from the
traffic controller. Individual vehicles, which get left behind, must wait for the complete convoy to halt
before they retain their place in the order of march of the convoy.
6. Halts. During halts it should be ensured that vehicles are parked clear off the road.
Arrangements must be made for sentries and traffic control men. Every effort should be made not to
park in a town/defile. Short halts are for 20 minutes and long halts for one hour. Short halts are
usually given after every 2 hrs of driving and long halts during movement lasting 6 hrs, or after
covering a distance of 100 kms, and, during meal times. During halts the occupants should debus
and move to the left of the road. These halts should be used for rest, maintenance and meals.
7. Breakdowns. Vehicles which breakdown must be parked on the verge of the road. A sentry
must be posted to wave on the rest of the convoy or any other vehicle approaching from either
direction and this is very important at night for obvious reasons.
8. Convoy Flags. The leading vehicle of the convoy will have a blue coloured flag near the
driver‘s compartment to indicate the lead vehicle, while last vehicle will have a green coloured flag in
order to indicate that it is the last vehicle of the convoy. Ammunition & FOL vehicles will have a red
coloured flag, while an ambulance / med aid vehicle will have white with red cross flag.
9. Whenever there is movement of two or more vehicles towards the same destination, it is
advisable to move the vehicle as a convoy. The detailment of a convoy commander and vehicle
commander is a must in order to ensure that convoy drills are followed, so that free flow of traffic is
ensured, accidents are avoided and time is saved.
ACTIONS FOR CASUALTIES IN MT ACCIDENT
1. The first action of any person, when an accident occurs must be to save the life of the injured or
provide first aid to those who are injured. Ignorance on the part of individuals regarding the correct
procedures to be adopted in case of an accident may result in the loss of lives and is an
Actions at the Scene of the Accident
2. The following actions should take place when an accident occurs: -
(a) Driver should stop the vehicle on the spot and switch off the engine.
(b) The senior most person in the vehicle should take charge of the situation
irrespective of the fact whether the vehicle belongs to his unit or otherwise.
(c) There should be no risk of fire, so engine should be switched off and the battery should
(d) First aid should be given to the injured and arrangements for evacuation to the nearest
hospital/doctor will be made.
(e) Traffic control to be organized to avoid congestions / jams.
(f) Particulars of the injured to be obtained and concerned authorities / families to be
(g) The accident report form should be completed and handed over to the police/civil
(h) In case of a fatal accident, the vehicle should not be moved until the permission of the
police has been obtained. It should be noted that for a layman it is difficult to make out whether
an injury is fatal or not therefore if alternative arrangements for evacuation of the casualties exist
it should be done and vehicle should not be moved, however if the site is at an isolated place
and evacuation of the casualties should be marked with stones, chalk etc as saving of life is
more important than legal implications later.
3. MT accidents resulting in fatal or serious casualties will be reported immediately to the parent
unit, Sub Area / brigade HQ / Station HQ, Military Police & the civil police. A detailed report will be
sent within 72 hrs.
4. MT Accidents resulting in death or serious injuries to any army or civil person will be reported
by the OC of the unit to his superior formation HQ, by the fastest means available, in accordance with
the provisions of Section 174 CRPC. The responsibilities of holding an inquest in cases of unnatural
death due to suicide, violence, accident or suspicious circumstances, devolves on the local civil
authorities, however, we should ensure that the actions to be taken by us are complete.
5. Ignorance on the part of drivers regarding the actions to be taken in case of MT accidents
could result in financial liabilities and legal complications with unnecessary correspondence and delay
in finalizing cases and paying of compensation by insurance agencies.
1. The tremendous population boom in our country, coupled with the rapid growth of
industries, has brought about a proportionate increase in the vehicles on roads, and
consequently a sharp rise in the number of road accidents.
2. In order to control traffic effectively and ensure free flow of t r a f f i c , t r a f f i c police a n d
vo lu n t a ry organizations, such as the Road Safety Patrol (formed in 1957) were created.
3. Drivers should use the following traffic signals on roads: -
(a) Ready to March Off. Right arm extended outwards, parallel to the ground with palm
facing the front
(b) Slow Down. Right arm extended outward parallel to the ground with palm facing down
ward and the arm moving up and down thrice, wrist kept loose.
(c) Going to Overtake. Right arm extended outwards, parallel to the ground and palm facing
(d) Allowing Vehicle to Overtake, Right hand extended outward, at 45 degrees with palm
facing the front. The arm is moved from the rear to the front thrice.
(e) Turning Right. Right arm extended outwards parallel to ground with palm facing down.
(f) Turning left. Right arm extended outwards, parallel to the ground with palm facing
down and arm rotating from the shoulder in an anti - clockwise direction thrice.
(g) Halting. Right arm raised vertically outside the drivers compartment with the palm facing
(h) Moving Straight Ahead. If visibility is good, then right forearm is raised vertically wheel
with the palm facing the front. In case of bad visibility the right arm is to be taken out towards
the front, parallel to the ground with the palm facing the policemen.
Traffic Police Signals
4. The following signals in vogue are recommended officially for situations occurring during traffic
control daily, but some other signals may be required for abnormal situations as per the layout of a
particular road junction: -
(a) Stop. In order to stop a vehicle approaching from the front or the rear, the policeman will
face the traffic coming towards him squarely and raises his right hand above the right shoulder,
palm facing towards the traffic and the left arm raised outwards parallel to the ground, with the
back of the palm towards the traffic coming from behind.
(b) Move Ahead. In order to allow a vehicle to pass from the front / rear, the policeman
looks towards the driver in front and moves his forearm forward, with arm raised to shoulder
level, palm facing toward him. Similarly, for traffic from rear, he moves his left arm back and
forth, with the back of the palm facing the vehicles at the back.
(c) To allow vehicles from the right and left, the policeman does the following.
(i) Right. The policeman looks at the direction of the driver and orders him by raising
his right arm to shoulder level and moves the right forearm sideways and towards his
head with palm facing towards himself.
(ii) Left. Similarly in case of the traffic on the right of the policeman, the traffic on the
left is signaled by raising the arm to the level of the shoulder with forearm vertical and
perpendicular to the arm and then forearm is moved sideways with palm facing the
Role of ANOs and Cadets
5. An ANO may be required to arrange traffic control schemes /camps for cadets under social
service schemes. In order to do so correctly, the cadets have to be fully conversant with traffic
control, before being employed on such duties. It is the duty of ANOs to train cadets in this aspect,
who can then, in turn, do so, as also, educate the masses utilizing placards such as :-
(a) Life is short, do not make is shorter.
(b) Think of those waiting for you at home.
(c) Speed thrills but kills.
(d) Be gentle on my curves.
6. In most big cities and towns, traffic control is being done by utilizing electronic light signals and
cadets should be aware of these. However when the power fails or in cities / towns where this form of
traffic control does not exist, hand traffic signals are very much in vogue. Traffic control is essential
for free flow of traffic and safety of pedestrians, thereby avoiding accidents and collisions.
ORGANISATION AND CONDUCT OF ROAD SAFETY WEEK
1. The mode of traffic and the number of vehicles on the roads are increasing day by day in this
modern world. The NCC makes a contribution to road safety by imparting training to NCC cadets, so
as to give them knowledge of traffic rules, road etiquette and traffic control. These NCC Cadets can
thereafter, create a better understanding of these aspects, amongst the students of their schools &
colleges, and thus contribute positively towards road safety. One of the ways in which this is done, is
by organizing a ‗Road Safety Week‘.
Road Safety Week
2. Road Safety Week is organized by NCC units as a concerted effort to give cadets an
opportunity to bring out original ideas in traffic control and safety, and to share it with the student
community so as to inculcate in them road sense and traffic awareness.
Points for Coordination
3. Organising a ‗Road Safety Week‘ involves a lot of training and coordination with various
agencies. The major aspects are : -
(a) Liaison with Traffic Police. Cadets should be trained in the art of traffic control, under
the guidance of traffic police, before undertaking this task. For this, the Circle Inspector of the
Traffic Police of that area should be given a written application at least two weeks in advance
so that he can detail constables to come and train the cadets regularly.
(b) Preparation of Nominal Rolls. A nominal roll and attendance register must be
maintained daily for such cadets so that optimum use of their expertise can be availed
(c) Practice. In order to provide the cadets adequate practice, they can be detailed on
specific areas in the school / college to: -
(i) Control traffic at the gate.
(ii) Help younger students to cross the road.
(iii) Regulate movement of traffic, vehicles coming to school / college to pickup
Conduct of Road Safety Week
4. In order to conduct the Road Safety Week successfully, some essential factors for
consideration are :-
(a) Location. The site should be selected carefully so as to enable easy access by
cadets, students and public. The area of conduct of Road Safety Week must be generally at
such a place where there is a concentrated flow of traffic.
(b) Selection of Time. The time selected for the conduct of Road Safety Week should be
such that the cadets, students and the public are free from their daily responsibilities, eg.,
continuous Government holidays.
(c) Liaison and Involvement of other Agencies.
(i) Police. The police should be informed well in advance. Their guidance and
help should be requisitioned for the conduct of various activities.
(ii) Voluntary Agencies. In every city there are a few voluntary
organizations, which show keen interest in such activities. Help and guidance should be
taken from such organizations.
(iii) Sponsorship. Fuel and oil companies or business houses should be approached
for sponsoring such programmes.
(iv) Publicity. This is an important aspect and should not be forgotten as the
success of such a campaign depends on publicity. It can be achieved by: -
(aa) Letters to institutions clubs and voluntary organizations well in advance
with details of the road safety week.
(ab) Press. Publishing the details of the road safety week in local papers and
(ac) Posters and Banners. Distribution of leaflets and placing of posters and
banners at strategic location in the city will add to the publicity.
(d) During the organization and conduct of the road safety week, the following activities will
be held: -
(i) Exhibition. An exhibition of road signs, models of traffic, road junctions and
photographs of road accidents can be displayed.
(ii) Painting Competition. On road traffic accidents etc., can be organized to
displayed better awareness (with suitable captions).
(iii) Seminars. Subject for seminars can be selected and sent to all participating
institutions along with dates for the presentation.
(iv) Lectures/ Demonstrations. These can be organized with the help of the traffic
police, who have certain innovative training aids to impart a very comprehensive
capsule on traffic rules and road safety.
(v) Slogan Competition. This can be organized to frame catchy slogans that
can further add to the publicity of road safety week. Rallies with banners and distribution
of leaflets can be organized to make a stronger
(e) Involvement of Cadets in Traffic Control. Prior to the road safety week, cadets
should be given training to expose them to actual problems of traffic for a longer duration. This
will enable them to bring out their training, initiative and improvisational skills. Care should be
taken to organize cadets into various groups under the guidance of traffic police and suitable
relief should be provided for each traffic control point.
5. Traffic control and Road Safety Weeks organized properly will not only create a better
awareness but bring about road etiquettes amongst the students which in turn will improve the
discipline of all road users and make the roads a safer place to be on.