Housing Project for Low Income Groups - DOC

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					                                            HOUSING

INTRODUCTION AND ANALYSIS

       [The three primary functions of housing are to provide: 1) physical shelter; 2) a setting,
both within the structure and in its neighborhood, for the day-to-day activities of the family
members; and 3) the grouping of families within the larger neighborhood or community.

        Housing provides more than just shelter from the natural elements. It embodies the
social, economic and emotional values of families and individuals. Collectively, housing
represents a community's aspirations which are in turn influenced by larger economic and social
processes.] Housing provides more than just shelter from the natural elements. A person’s
home is not only a place of security and comfort, but also a place for entertainment and
recreation. Housing also allows a person to express his/her individual living styles by
providing a place from which one can seek a psychological, sociological, economic and
aesthetic balance. If the various functions that take place in the home do not meet the
individual’s personal and social needs, a housing problem may exist for that person.
Housing programs, therefore, influence and are influenced by the many diverse needs of a
person or persons.

       In an economic setting, the construction of housing is an essential contributor to business,
industry and employment. The location of housing on the other hand is [dependant] dependent
upon the location of other economic and employment opportunities, such as agriculture or resort
developments.

         In the physical and environmental setting, housing and its residential land use component
[, residential use,] utilizes a significant portion of the County's urban lands. The placement or
settlement patterns of these residential lands and the form of housing [is a] are major
[influence] influences on the environment and aesthetic setting of the island.

        In the social and human realm, [the adequacy of a house is a major factor of a family's
sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction.] adequate housing is one of the primary factors that
provides a person a sense of satisfaction and well being. For most families, it is a major
expenditure of the household income and represents, in varying degrees, long term commitments
to a place and/or community. In turn, these commitments contribute to a community's sense of
well being and stability. When the cost of land, land improvements and home construction
increases beyond a commensurate rise in personal income, it tends to discourage and
prevent many individuals and families from purchasing a home.

        From governments' perspective, adequate housing for [its] residents is part of the
considerations of public health, welfare and safety. Housing and residential use of land is a
generator of government revenue through local real property taxes. The revenues are balanced by
significant expenditures of public funds for roads, schools, protective services and other capital
[improvements] improvement projects [which] that service residential areas. Thus, the
provision of housing requires the coordination of planning and implementation on all levels of

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                                                                                            Housing
government.

        The availability of housing is [dependant] dependent on a number of interrelated factors,
including the availability of appropriately zoned land [, the availability of infra-structure,] and
infrastructure, and the [costs] cost of raw land and [the] its development [of the land]. The
Housing element must consider future costs of constructing a house and the ability of individuals
to purchase or rent these units. In the social sense, the provision of housing needs to consider the
kinds of people who reside here or are likely to reside here and [what the] their preferences [are]
with respect to type, size, location and other factors.

        In the collective sense, the Housing Element is related to all other elements of the General
Plan. It is most directly related to the Land Use element, Single family and Multiple family
residential sections. Moreover, the Housing Element is directly influenced by the growth
directions [which] that the County wishes to take.

The Role of Government

       Since the l930s, the Federal government has played a major role in the provision of
housing and home ownership through direct housing construction projects, home mortgage
insurance programs, loan programs for special groups such as veterans and farmers, and direct
subsidies to State governments.

        The Territory of Hawaii and subsequently, the State of Hawaii, through the Hawaii
Housing Authority, has been responsible for administering Federal housing programs. Until the
mid-l970, the State Hawaii Housing Authority served as the major agency to develop rental
housing projects for low income families and [to] provide housing for sale to low and moderate
income groups. In 1998, three State housing agencies, including the Hawaii Housing
Authority, were consolidated into the Housing and Community Development Corporation
of Hawaii (HCDCH). The Hawaii Community Development Corporation of Hawaii seeks
to expand the supply of safe and affordable housing; provide for well-maintained, socio-
economically integrated housing projects; assist residents in reaching higher levels of self-
sufficiency; and effectively address the housing needs of Hawaii’s residents.

       In addition, through a 1920 Congressional act, lands have been set aside for eligible
native Hawaiians for residential and agricultural purposes. Through the State Hawaiian Homes
Commission and Department of Hawaiian Home Lands, houselots on a leasehold basis are made
available to eligible native Hawaiians. In the mid-80s, the Department established an accelerated
program to provide lands for residential and agricultural purposes.

       Since the adoption of the County of Hawaii's General Plan[,] in 1971, Federal housing
and community redevelopment programs have been reorganized under the 1974 Housing and
Community Development Act. This federal legislation placed much of the initiative for
addressing community housing needs to the local government level.

       Additionally, county governments have been granted similar and parallel authorities to

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                                                                                             Housing
the State's Hawaii Housing Agency. As a result, the County [has] established [a] the Hawaii
County Housing Agency (HCHA) and [an] the Office of Housing and Community Development
(OHCD)[.] that provides staff services to the HCHA. The [Housing Agency] Hawaii County
Housing Agency, which is comprised of the members of the Hawaii County Council, has the
capability to develop affordable housing either on its own, in conjunction with the State, or
through joint programs with the private sector. The [OHCD] Office of Housing and
Community Development administers the Federal Section 8 rental assistance program
benefiting low income families, manages several housing projects and administers grants funded
under the 1974 Housing and Community Development Act. Consequently, the County has the
authority and the funds to directly address the housing problems of the County along with the
Federal and State governments.

        Since l975, the [Agency] Office of Housing and Community Development has
developed on its own, and/or coordinated various housing projects with other government
agencies, developers, and nonprofit housing corporations. These projects have been aimed at
providing housing for a variety of need categories such as employee housing, low and moderate
income groups, special needs groups and [for] the elderly. [To date l,795] Since the
construction of the first affordable housing project in Hilo in 1951, approximately 5,600
units, both single family and multiple family units have been constructed or rehabilitated
through various projects of the [Housing Agency] Office of Housing and Community
Development, [Hawaii Housing Authority] Housing and Community Development
Corporation of Hawaii (HCDCH) and the private sector. In 1999, there were approximately
1,299 contracts for rental assistance through the Office of Housing and Community
Development, with 474 persons on the waiting list. The Housing and Community
Development Corporation of Hawaii has also participated in the provision of housing units
for low income groups.

        While the County has been granted more authority in the provision of housing, in recent
years, the programs administered by both the Federal and the State governments have changed.
The State's programs are giving greater emphasis to distributing funds for housing and/or rental
programs and serving as a coordinator of financing programs and has placed less emphasis on
both direct housing construction activities and the management of housing programs. The State
as a major landowner, however, has the ability to release lands for housing projects.

         In support of the County’s ongoing efforts to provide adequate affordable housing
to its residents, the Hawaii County Council established an affordable housing policy in
1998 through the adoption of Ordinance No. 98 1. The objectives of this affordable
housing policy are to: 1) implement the goals and policies of the General Plan relative to
housing; 2) promote and assist private development of affordable housing for senior
citizens and qualified households; 3) use available governmental grants and funds in the
development of affordable housing and increase the capabilities of qualified households to
obtain affordable housing; 4) support innovative, lower-cost approaches that may be used
in the development of affordable housing; and 5) require large resort and industrial
enterprises to address related affordable housing needs as a condition of rezoning
approvals, based upon current economic and housing conditions.

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                                                                                          Housing
        The change in the Federal programs are largely reflected in drastic reductions in funds for
housing projects and programs, and reduced subsidies to the State. It is also apparent that there
will continue to be a reduction in Federal funds, particularly for the construction of housing for
low and moderate income groups. As the major source of funds for housing programs, these
changes have had major implications on the County's role in the provision of housing for its
residents; particularly since significant factors [which] that contribute to the ability of residents
to purchase homes are outside the direct influence of the County government and are external to
the economy of Hawaii. These factors include loan interest rates [which] that are significantly
impacted by federal financial and monetary policies.

         The development of assisted housing in Hawaii County will increasingly depend on non-
Federal funds. Additionally, a broad range of mechanisms must be utilized by the County to
facilitate, coordinate and implement the development of both assisted and market residential
housing.

Profile

       In order to identify and anticipate the housing needs within the County of Hawaii, and to
encourage the opportunities for housing, the demographic, economic, housing construction and
land inventory data for the County [is] are provided in [the following] tables[.] on the following
pages.

Analysis - Trends

        Several [of the] major issues and problems faced by Hawaii County continue to involve
housing. Rapid population growth in some areas of the County has not been accompanied by
parallel growth in affordable residential housing construction. [In addition, the] The rate of
increase in the price of land, [particularly in West Hawaii, has grown proportionately more than]
the cost of housing construction and [more importantly,] the rate of growth in earning power of
many residents[.] also contribute to the lack of affordable housing opportunities. Thus,
proportionately fewer residents are able to afford the purchase of a home. [As indicated in Table
2, 44% or 12,992 of the island's households earned less than $15,000 per year in l980.] In 1997,
SMS Research & Marketing Services and Locations, Inc., in cooperation with the State
Housing Finance and Development Corporation (HFDC) and the various Counties’
housing agencies, prepared the Hawaii Housing Policy Study Update 1997 that reviewed
various housing issues throughout the State of Hawaii. According to the study, a family
with a median annual income of approximately $30,300 would qualify for an “affordable”
home priced in the neighborhood of $140,000. However, this study also concluded that
approximately 36 per cent of the total households on this island fall below the median
annual income.

      According to the 1999 Homeless Needs Assessment Study-Summary of Findings
prepared by the State Housing and Community Development Corporation of Hawaii, the
Department of Hawaiian Home Lands and the various counties, the most prominent need

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                                                                                              Housing
for unsheltered homeless people within the County of Hawaii is housing placement. The
study found that existing housing placement services were only able to service 40 per cent
of the unsheltered homeless people residing in the County, the largest percentage of who
were lifetime or long-time residents. The study also estimated that there are between 585
and 733 sheltered/unsheltered homeless people islandwide. There are an estimated 10,871
individuals in the County defined as “hidden homeless”, or those who share
accommodations with others dependent on public assistance for monthly shelter payments.
 According to experts in homeless services, the most prominent need of service providers
was additional funding for services such as transitional housing, affordable housing, job
and life skills training, and other assistance services.

       The ability of households to purchase or rent a home, or what is commonly understood as
"affordability", is [dependant] dependent upon many factors [which] that vary among
households and individuals' choices in lifestyles and also differ due to location and financing.
While quantitative descriptions of need groups and limitations may be made for the present, only
general trends and order of magnitude estimates may be made for the future. It is expected,
however, that the proportion of the resident population [needing] requiring some assistance in
purchasing a home will continue to increase.

         Housing sales activity, both new and resale, has been uneven and difficult to predict. The
housing industry's traditional construction cycle has been complicated by [a sustained period]
periods of high interest rates. Federal housing policies and funding have also changed. The net
result is that housing activity and housing programs will be difficult to predict for the foreseeable
future. Housing priorities and programs today may be very different from those in [three to five
years.] the future.

        In existing urban areas, the supply of readily available housing and residential zoned
lands is nearing a point where flexibility in choice of location and price will be limited and will
contribute to rising costs of housing unless additional and alternative areas are made available for
residential development.

        In rural and agricultural areas, affordable housing for both independent farmers and
agricultural employees place competitive demands on the land. In addition to the expanding
urban needs, rural and agricultural lands are being sought for rural/residential estate use. [This is
part of a growing and continuing nationwide trend of the "gentrification of the land" and will
contribute to rising costs of land.]

        In addition, in rural areas, the age of the existing housing stock [suggest] suggests that
future new housing will be [needed] necessary to replace these units.

       The increasing role of [diversified] agriculture [in our economy also] has created
implications for housing of the agricultural worker. The residents of the rural areas of the
County constitute a special population by virtue of their relative isolation, lower average
incomes, lack of employment opportunities and mobility. The housing problems of these areas


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                                                                                              Housing
are proportionately more acute in the rural areas and communities than in the urbanized areas in
the State.

        [Furthermore, the] The residents of the rural areas tend to be [farm and] agricultural
workers or individuals directly employed in self-contained destination resort areas; industries
[which] that play a vital role in Hawaii's economy but [which] tend to be associated with
relatively low average annual income, particularly compared to non-service industry jobs.

                                             Table 1
                                          County Profile

                                           Population                        Households
 2000                                           148,677                      not available
 1997                                           141,848                         49,617
 1990                                           120,317                         42,413
 1980                                           92,053                          29,237
 [1970                                          63,468                          18,397
 % Growth                                        45%                             9%]
Estimate-County of Hawaii Planning Department
Estimate-County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Inventory - Housing Units
             [Total              SF                    DUP.          APT.              OTHER
 1985        39,157            29,688                  768           7,624               1,077
 1980        34,792            26,755                  696           6,267               1,074
 1970        19,957            17,020                  550           1,636                751]


                                                                            Multiple Family,
                      Total                       Single Family
                                                                          Condominium, Other
 1997               54,643                             43,979                    10,664
 1992               45,408                             36,170                     9,238
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997




                                                 2   162
                                                                                             Housing
           Occupancy                                   Fee                Rental
 1997                                      33,446 72%                   12,825 28%
 1992                                      26,977 68%                   12,812 32%
 1980                                      17,731 61%                   11,506 39%
 [1970                                     10,744 56%                   8,439 44%]
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997



                                             Occupied                     Vacant
 1997                                      47,793 95%                   2,770   5%
 1992                                      41,461 95%                   2,231   5%
 1980                                      29,237 86%                   4,717 14%
 [1970                                     18,397 96%                   786     4%]
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997



 [Age of Structure            0-5                      6-15    16-30                30+
 1985                        4,587                     9,533   5,087               11,513
 1970                        5,255                     2,822   4,752               6,364]



 Age of Structure             0-7                      8-20    21-30                30+
 1997                        9,627                 11,335      10,398              12,619
 % of Total Units             21.9                     25.8     23.6                28.7
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997




                                                   2   163
                                                                                           Housing
Dwelling Units by Tax Map Zones
             Total       1997              1985                1980          1970       %Growth (annual)
 Zone 1     Puna             10,902         4,925               4,126           1,891            [160] 8.6
 Zone 2     S.Hilo           16,346        15,188              14,301           9,585             [58] 2.3
 Zone 3     N.Hilo              626           621                 581            511              [21] 1.0
 Zone 4     Hamakua           2,019         1,768               1,741           1,441             [23] 1.2
 Zone 5     N. Kohala         1,599         1,206               1,122            932              [29] 2.1
 Zone 6     S. Kohala         5,798         2,681               2,218            980              [74] 8.8
 Zone 7     N. Kona          12,254         9,150               7,540           2,485            [268] 9.1
 Zone 8     S. Kona           2,714         1,971               1,722           1,169             [69] 3.6
 Zone 9     Ka'u              2,385         1,647               1,441            963              [71] 3.9
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997




     Parcel Inventory           1999           1985                   1969          %Growth (1985-1999)

 County       Total             124,930        120,353                101,848                     [18] 3.8
 Zone 1       Puna               57,363            56,992              54,654                      [4] 0.7
 Zone 2       S. Hilo            19,440            18,126              14,323                     [27] 7.3
 Zone 3       N. Hilo              1,508               1,416            1,217                     [16] 6.5
 Zone 4       Hamakua              3,801               3,601            2,857                     [26] 5.6
 Zone 5       N. Kohala            2,957               2,284            1,712                    [33] 29.5
 Zone 6       S. Kohala            6,218               4,822            2,526                    [91] 30.0
 Zone 7       N. Kona            11,169            10,094               5,100                    [98] 10.7
 Zone 8       S. Kona              5,529               5,737            4,770                    [20] -3.6
 Zone 9       Ka'u               16,945            17,281              14,689                    [18] -1.9
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997
Estimates – Planning Department




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                                                                                                    Housing
                                             Table 2
                                        Income Distribution

             [LESS THAN $10,000                         $10,000 TO $15,000                     $15,000 TO $25,000

            1960        1970         1980       1960            1970          1980         1960        1970        1980

Puna        1,019         783        1,340              69          254           701             0      146         965

S. Hilo     4,109       3,623        3,856          682         2,131          1,884           242      1,612      3,079

N. Hilo       498         282          161              32           62            90             0          80      172

Hamakua     1,029         662          388              48          254           237            12      132         524

N. Kohala     691         412          381              25          214           184            18      105         330

S. Kohala     274         317          284              24          123           323            16          97      510

N. Kona       682         622        1,110              41          313           649            26      202       1,275

S. Kona       514         377          526              21          185           313             4      199         420

Ka'u          591         510          343              41          153           222             0          88      417

TOTAL       9,407       7,588        8,389          983         3,689          4,603           330      2,661      7,692



                   $25,000 to $50,000                     OVER $50,000                   TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS

            1960         1970           1980             1970          1980             1960          1970        1980

Puna                0           33           672                6          148           1,100         1,222       3,826

S. Hilo            81          403          3,694              92          728           5,114         7,861      13,241

N. Hilo             0            5           102                0             0           530           429          525

Hamakua             4           25           383               13           38           1,093         1,086       1,570

N. Kohala           4           16           123               11           18            738           758        1,036

S. Kohala           0           18           287                7          145            314           562        1,549

N. Kona            17           72          1,175              13          349            766          1,222       4,558

S. Kona             4           29           423                6          116            543           796        1,798

Ka'u                0            5           163                0             9           632           756        1,154

TOTAL          110             606          7,022             148         1,551         10,830        14,692      29,257]




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                                                                                                                  Housing
                   LESS THAN $10,000                 $10,000 TO $15,000                 $15,000 TO $25,000

                 1970     1980      1990       1970         1980        1990         1970        1980      1990

 Puna              783     1,340     1,709       254          701             863      146         965     1,414

 S. Hilo          3,623    3,856     2,322     2,131         1,884       1,209        1,612       3,079    2,341

 N. Hilo           282       161        425          62           90          316          80      172       678

 Hamakua           662       388        131      254          237              88      132         524       259

 N. Kohala         412       381        157      214          184             116      105         330       240

 S. Kohala         317       284        248      123          323             182          97      510       378

 N. Kona           622     1,110        707      313          649             590      202        1,275    1,376

 S. Kona           377       526        361      185          313             199      199         420       499

 Ka'u              510       343        212      153          222             270          88      417       350

 TOTAL            7,588    8,389     6,272     3,689         4,603       3,833        2,661       7,692    7,535
U.S. Census
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
1989 General Plan



                   $25,000 TO $50,000                 OVER $50,000                      Total Households

                1970      1980     1990       1970         1980        1990         1970        1980      1990

 Puna              33       672     2,098            6       148       1,045         1,222       3,826     7,129

 S. Hilo          403     3,694     4,404       92           728       3,559         7,861      13,241    13,835

 N. Hilo            5       102     1,025            0            0      418          429         525      2,862

 Hamakua           25       383         509     13            38         222         1,086       1,570     1,209

 N. Kohala         16       123         495     11            18         291          758        1,036     1,299

 S. Kohala         18       287     1,143            7       145       1,134          562        1,549     3,085

 N. Kona           72     1,175     2,953       13           349       2,290         1,222       4,558     7,916

 S. Kona           29       423         848          6       116         781          796        1,798     2,688

 Ka'u               5       163         504          0            9      220          756        1,154     1,556

 TOTAL            606     7,022    13,979      148         1,551       9,960        14,692      29,257    41,579
U.S. Census
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
1989 General Plan




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                                                                                                          Housing
        The United States Department of Agriculture-Rural Development Agency, formerly
known as the Farmers Home Administration, has programs [which] that have historically been
targeted to rural households. However, these programs have been experiencing increased interest
rates, cut backs in program funds, and a general curtailment in the effectiveness of the program.

        At the same time, the smaller [diversified] agricultural operators will not [as easily] be
able to easily carry the costs of providing homes for their employees, nor will it be as easy to
identify the magnitude of the need and distribute opportunities for employee housing as it has
been in the past with major sugar companies.

        Housing for the elderly also presents changes for the future. Nationwide changes in the
growing segment of the older population, due to technological advances in medicine have also
[had their impact in the County of Hawaii.] impacted the County. The 60 and over age group
will be the fastest growing sector of the population over the next twenty years. This group [is
projected to increase from 13.7% of the total population in l985 to 16.7% in the year 2000.]
represented 13.7 per cent of the total population in 1985 and 17.3 per cent in 1990.
According to the State Executive Office on Aging, the number of individuals statewide age
60 and over grew by 52.5 per cent between the years of 1980 and 1990 while the total State
population grew by only 14.9 per cent. Those 85 years and older grew by 87 per cent
during the same period. It is anticipated that by the Year 2020, one in every four residents
in the State will be 60 years and older. Changes in social attitudes and expectations on both
the part of the elderly and young may dictate changes in the types of structures [which will be
required] necessary or desired by the elderly population.

       In addition to the [naturally] increasing size of this population, the encouragement of
retirement communities or the attractiveness of Hawaii as a [retirement place] place of
retirement will require a reassessment of [their] housing and public service needs.

       GOALS

              Attain safe, sanitary, and livable housing for the residents of the County of
               Hawaii.

              Attain a diversity of socio-economic housing mix throughout the different parts of
               the County.

              Maintain a housing supply [which] that allows a variety of [choice.] choices.

              [Develop better places to live in Hawaii County by creating] Create viable
               communities with [decent] affordable housing and suitable living environments
               [for our people].

              Improve and maintain the quality and affordability of the existing housing [stock.]
               inventory.

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                                                                                               Housing
    Seek sufficient production of new affordable rental and fee-simple housing in the
     County in a variety of sizes to satisfactorily accommodate the needs and desires of
     families and individuals.

    Ensure that housing is available to all persons regardless of age, sex, marital
     status, ethnic background, and income.

    Make affordable housing available in reasonable proximity to employment
     centers.

    [The cornerstone of the County's housing programs and activities shall continue to
     be the encouragement and expansion of appropriate] Encourage and expand
     home ownership opportunities for [our] residents.

POLICIES

    [The County shall encourage] Encourage a volume of construction and
     rehabilitation of housing sufficient to meet growth needs and correct existing
     deficiencies.

    [The] Encourage the construction of specially designed facilities or
     communities for elderly persons needing institutional care and small home care
     units for active elderly persons[shall be encouraged].

    [The County shall encourage] Encourage corporations and nonprofit
     organizations to participate in Federal, State and private programs to provide
     new and rehabilitated housing for low and moderate income [households.]
     families.

    Support the construction of housing for minimum wage and agricultural
     workers.

    [The County shall continually] Continue to review [its] codes and ordinances [to
     see if there are] for overly stringent restrictions [which] that may impose
     unnecessary hardship and adopt amendments if warranted.

    [The County shall] Continue to study and implement appropriate measures to
     curb property speculative practices [which] that result in increased housing costs.

[   The County shall protect residential property values from depreciating influences.]

    Large industries or developments [which] that create a demand for housing shall
     provide employee housing based upon a ratio to be determined by an analysis of
     the locality's needs.
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                                                                                   Housing
   [The County shall formulate] Formulate a program for housing [which] that
    identifies specific mechanisms to implement the housing goals.

   [The County shall utilize its] Utilize housing powers and programs to
    accomplish [its] housing goals and [shall utilize existing programs and] seek out
    new programs and resources to address the housing needs of [its] the residents.

   [The County shall initiate] Initiate and participate in activities with the private
    sector including the provision of leadership and expertise to neighborhoods and
    nonprofit organizations in the development of housing and community
    development projects.

   Increase rental opportunities and choices in terms of quality, cost, amenity, style
    and size of housing, especially for low and moderate income households.

   Support programs [which] that improve, maintain, and rehabilitate the existing
    housing [stock] inventory to maintain the viability of existing communities.

   Accommodate the housing requirements of [the] special need groups including the
    elderly, handicapped, homeless and those residents [living] in rural areas [of the
    County].

   Investigate, develop, and promote the creation of new innovative and timely
    financing techniques and programs to reduce the cost of housing [in Hawaii
    County].

   Encourage the use of suitable public lands for housing purposes in fee or lease.

   [The County shall encourage] Encourage the construction of homes for lease or
    lease with option to purchase.

   Promote research and development of methods, programs, and activities including
    the review of regulatory requirements and procedures as they affect housing, to
    reduce the costs consistent with the public health, safety and welfare.

   [The County shall adopt] Adopt appropriate ordinances and rules as necessary to
    implement its housing programs and activities.

   Utilize financing [technique] techniques that reduce the cost of housing,
    including the issuance of tax-exempt bonds and the implementation of interim
    financing programs.

   [Seek to ensure] Ensure that adequate infrastructure is available in appropriate
    locations to support the timely development of affordable housing.
                                     2   169
                                                                                  Housing
             Investigate the use of the County's taxing powers as a possible means to increase
              the supply of affordable housing.

             [The County shall work] Work with, encourage and support [the] private sector
              efforts in the provision of affordable housing.

             Encourage the development of affordable retirement communities.

             Vacant lands in urban areas and urban expansion areas should be made
              available for residential uses before additional agricultural lands are
              converted into residential uses.

             Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing to achieve a
              diversity of socio-economic housing mix.

       STANDARDS

       Housing standards shall consist of and comply with:

       [     Housing Code]

             Building Code

             Electrical Code

             Plumbing Code

             Zoning Code

             Subdivision Code

             Standards of the single-family and multiple residential land use [element.]
              elements.

[DISTRICT PROFILE]

DISTRICTS

       The following are [brief and summarized] summary profiles and [analysis] analyses of
each [of the districts.] district.




                                              2   170
                                                                                            Housing
PUNA

Profile

        The Puna district [has experienced a] continues to experience tremendous growth in
population and housing construction. The availability of residential sized lots at relatively
inexpensive prices, and its proximity to the Hilo urban and employment center has contributed to
this growth.

        Most of the growth in housing construction has been single-family residential units.
[(3,034 additional units since 1970) with few (69) multiple dwelling units added to the initial
stock of 6 in l970. Moreover, most of this] This growth [has] occurred in the non-conforming
subdivisions [which were] created prior to the adoption of the zoning and subdivision codes and
are without basic [utility systems.] infrastructure. As a result, many of the homes are served by
individual water catchments, electric generators, [and] propane tanks[.] and substandard
roadways.

        [In l984, Puna Sugar Company ceased operating its sugar plantation. Since its closure the
company has sold its plantation camp houses to its employees and has also made available one
acre subdivided parcels to its former employees. There may however be future problems as the
plantation houses are old and while the structures are individually owned, the land is held in joint
tenure with others in the plantation camp. Future subdivision or transfers in ownership in this
situation are likely to be complex.

        While the district has shown an 177% increase in home construction, this district also has
the largest number of vacant parcels, (51,002) which indicates further potential for in-filling of
the subdivisions.] According to the Hawaii Housing Policy Update Study 1997, an additional
3,780 single family dwellings were constructed in the Puna District between the years 1990
and 1996; more than double the number constructed in the other districts. However, the
Puna District also has the largest number of vacant parcels, which indicates further
potential for in-filling of existing subdivisions.

       The Hawaii Island Community Development Corporation (HICDC) has provided
assistance with the construction of self-help housing within the Puna district. Since 1985,
the Hawaii Island Community Development Corporation assisted with the development of
the 15 single-family residential units within the Pacific Paradise Gardens development and
additional 20 units within Keaau.




                                                2   171
                                                                                             Housing
DISTRICT: PUNA

PROFILE

                                            Population                             Households
 2000                                           31,335                         Not available
 1990                                           20,781                                7,136
 1980                                           11,751                                3,831
 [1970                                             5,154                              1,626
 % Growth                                       128.00                               135.61]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985 Units: 4,925          SF: 4,822                 DUPX: 20          MF: 69           OTHER: 14
 1980      Units: 4,127        SF: 4,028               DUPX: 16          MF: 69           OTHER: 13
 1970      Units: 1,891        SF: 1,870               DUPX:         6   MF:   3          OTHER: 12]


                                                                                   Multiple Family,
                     Total                         Single Family
                                                                                    Condominium
 1997               10,872                               10,818                          54
 1992                 7,456                                  7,418                       38
Hawaii Housing Policy Study – SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                               2,842                         74.18%
          Rental                                              989                      25.82%
 1970     Fee                                            1,024                         57.63%
          Rental                                              753                     42.37%]

                          Single Family                                   % of All Units
                          % Fee Simple                                   Owner Occupied
 1997                          97                                              59
 1992                          96                                              56
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997



                                                   2   172
                                                                                                      Housing
[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                    3,831                             86.99%
           Vacant                                                     573                           13.01%
 1970      Occupied                                               1,626                             91.50%
           Vacant                                                     151                            8.50%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                   1,099         22.66%           1970          0-5                 788        44.10%
                 6-15              1,941         40.03%                         6-15                278        15.56%
                 16-30              510          10.52%                         16-30               336        18.80%
                 30-               1,299         26.79%                         30-                 385       21.54%]

                                                    1950-             1960-    1970-     1980-        1990-
                         No data    <1950                                                                        Total
                                                    1959              1969     1979      1989         1997
 Single Family                 0           696        263               364    2,077     3,638        3,780     10,818
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                               0             2          0                23       28            1         0           54
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                 Totals         Sec 1                                  Sec 2            Sec 3                 Sec 4
 1970                  1,891                  48                         55              62                   115
 1980                  4,126                 137                         95             132                   344
 1985                  4,925                 226                        118             168                   426
 Diff                  3,034                 178                         63             106                   311
 l970-85
                       Sec 5                Sec 6                      Sec 7            Sec 8                 Sec 9
 1970                    363                 379                        361             248                   260
 1980                  1,486                 841                        430             353                   308
 1985                  1,739                1,030                       462             415                   341
 Diff                  1,376                 651                        101             167                    81
 1970-85




                                                            2   173
                                                                                                                 Housing
Parcel Inventory
                   Totals          Sec 1                 Sec 2        Sec 3             Sec 4
 1969              54,654          10,976                2,464        2,621             4,714
 1985              56,992          11,786                3,686        2,853             5,664
 Vacant            51,002          11,505                3,491        2,606             5,105

                    Sec 5          Sec 6*                Sec 7        Sec 8             Sec 9
 1969              13,284          14,367                 931         4,313               984
 1985              13,508          11,725                1,124        5,469             1,177
 Vacant            11,468          10,754                 403         4,886               784
*King's Landing Subdivision

        According to 1980 census data, approximately half of the households in the Puna district
earn incomes of less than $15,000 per year, with 35 % reporting incomes of less than $l0,000.
Nevertheless, approximately 74% of the dwelling units are owned in fee, and approximately a
fourth of the occupied units are rented. Rental assistance through Section 8 housing programs
within the county numbers 122, with a wait list of 180 for the district.] According to the Hawaii
Housing Policy Study Update 1997, there are approximately 8,155 households in the Puna
District. Approximately 33 per cent of the households in Puna have annual household
incomes of less than $25,000. Approximately 18 per cent have annual household incomes of
less than $15,000. Nevertheless, approximately 82 per cent of the housing units are owned
in fee. Another interesting figure is that 98 per cent of all housing units in the Puna
District are single family dwellings, the highest percentage of all the districts on this island.

        [Available housing in spite of the low income data, does not appear to be a problem for
this district. However, lack of infrastructure, particularly the internal substandard roadways and
water systems is a problem. Lot owners may have difficulty in securing conventional home
mortgage financing as a result of this lack of infrastructure.]

        Courses of Action

        [      Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety housing choice for this area.

               Since the sugar company has lands zoned for residential use within existing urban
                areas, they should be encouraged to make these lands available on the private
                market.]

               Consider and encourage the use of a variety of mechanisms to provide the
                necessary infrastructure in [the] nonconforming subdivisions.

               Encourage the maintenance and rehabilitation of the existing housing [stock]
                inventory to maintain the viability of existing communities.
                                               2   174
                                                                                            Housing
SOUTH HILO

Profile

        The South Hilo district remains the center for commercial, industrial, governmental and
service activities for Hawaii County. The growth in population and housing construction in the
[area continues to increase at rates exceeding the years prior to 1970.] district has slowed from
its peak in the 1970’s, which saw the construction of approximately 3,600 homes.
Approximately 2,350 homes were constructed in the 1980s and in the last six years ending
in 1996, an additional 1,710 homes were built.

       [Of the additional dwelling units constructed since l970, 3,679 were single family
residential units, with 1,774 new multiple family units being constructed.]

       Within [the city of] Hilo, residential subdivisions have occurred mostly within the
Kaumana, Waiakea Homesteads[;] and Waiakea Uka areas (southwest portion of the city).
[There are approximately 3,227 vacant parcels in these residential sections of the city of Hilo.]

        Nevertheless, available and accessible lands for residential use within the city limits and
southeast of Wailuku River are very nearly reaching the limits presently allowed by the General
Plan. Existing areas allowed for alternate urban expansion in the area between Kaumana and
Waiakea will require infrastructure (including major access roads) improvements and are also
severely limited by drainage and floodway zones. Without improvements in the channelization
or diversion at upper elevations, there is limited potential for use.

         Other housing problems continue to revolve around the provision of housing for low-
income and elderly housing needs. According to [l980] 1990 census data, approximately [43%
of the households] 11 per cent of all families in the district of Hilo [reported incomes of less
than $15,000.] were below the poverty level. [These account for 5,440 households in the
district. There were approximately 513 contracts for rental assistance through the County's
Office of Housing and Community Development, with 753 persons on the waiting list in l985.
The Hawaii Housing Authority has also participated in the provision of 290 additional units for
low income groups.]




                                                2   175
                                                                                             Housing
DISTRICT: SOUTH HILO

PROFILE
                                                Population                       Households
 2000                                                  47,386                   Not available
 1990                                                  44,639                       15,533
 1980                                                  42,278                       13,251
 [1970                                                 33,915                        9,415
 % Growth                                               24.66                       40.74]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985 Units: 15,188         SF: 11,505            DUPX: 444           APT: 2,681      OTHER: 558
 1980     Units: 14,301         SF: 10,787         DUPX: 432           APT: 2,525      OTHER: 557
 1970     Units:   9,585        SF: 7,826          DUPX: 354           APT    907      OTHER: 498]


                                                                                Multiple Family,
                     Total                             Single Family
                                                                                 Condominium
 1997               16,035                               13,829                      2,206
 1992               14,600                               12,398                      2,202
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                                8,031                     60.61%
          Rental                                          5,220                     39.39%
 1970     Fee                                             6,183                     64.05%
          Rental                                          3,471                     35.95%]


                           Single Family                                  % of All Units
                           % Fee Simple                                  Owner Occupied
 1997                           94                                             61
 1992                           93                                             62
Hawaii Housing Policy Study – SMS Research, 1997



                                                   2   176
                                                                                                   Housing
[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                 13,251                               95.13%
           Vacant                                                    678                              4.87%
 1970      Occupied                                             9,415                               97.52%
           Vacant                                                    239                             2.48%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                    949           7.94%         1970               0-5             2,180         22.58%
                 6-15              3,183         26.62%                            6-15            1,524         15.79%
                 16-30             2,607         21.80%                            16-30           2,686         27.82%
                 30-               5,217         43.63%                            30-             3,264         33.81%]


                                                  1950-             1960-         1970-    1980-      1990-
                         No data     <1950                                                                         Total
                                                  1959              1969          1979     1989       1997
 Single Family                0       2,743        1,622            1,766         3,610    2,369      1,719       13,829
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                            340            53           6             433           983      101           290     2,206
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                               Sec 2               Sec 3              Sec 4
 1970                     9,585                 540                    2,265               1,455              2,169
 1980                    14,301                 926                    2,751               1,810              4,151
 1985                    15,188                 984                    2,818               1,890              4,656
 Diff                     5,603                 444                         553             435               2,487
 l970-85
                          Sec 5                 Sec 6                  Sec 7               Sec 8              Sec 9
 1970                       992                  880                    678                483                   123
 1980                     1,567                 1,325                   741                903                   127
 1985                     1,669                 1,341                   758                941                   131
 Diff                       677                  461                        80             458                     8
 1970-85




                                                          2   177
                                                                                                                   Housing
Parcel Inventory
                     Totals           Sec 1               Sec 2         Sec 3            Sec 4
 1969                14,323           1,354               3,231         1,558            3,323
 1985                18,126           1,234               3,011         1,640            5,893
 Vacant                4961             456                553            286            1,932

                      Sec 5           Sec 6               Sec 7         Sec 8            Sec 9
 1969                 2,267             819               1,032           565            174
 1985                 2,890             957               1,253         1,005            243
 Vacant               1,127             195                226            150               36]

        There has been a recurring shortage of housing for students at the University of Hawaii at
Hilo [College]. A study prepared for the State in 1985[,] concludes that the shortage of student
housing has been a deterrent to the realization of [higher levels of] an increase in enrollment at
the Hilo Campus. A 1990 Housing Program Review found that in addition to the recurring
housing shortage, all of the housing facilities are faced with serious maintenance and
renovation needs.

       [In the future, since it will not as easily be possible to identify single developments which
generate large needs for employee or low income housing in the Hilo/Puna area, it appears that
the provision of low income and/or employee housing in this area will largely become the
responsibility of the public or governmental sector.]

       The [Hawaii Housing Agency] State’s housing agency and the Office of Housing and
Community Development has also participated in constructing [156] 182 units for elderly
housing within the district. Since 1985, the Hawaii Island Community Development
Corporation has assisted with the construction of eight self-help single family dwellings in
Pepeekeo. The Hawaii County Economic Opportunity Council is responsible for the
development of 30 single family self-help dwellings on Hawaiian Home Lands in Keaukaha
during the past decade.

       The State and County [has] have been active in the Hilo area through subdivisions of
State-owned lands for low and moderate income families[, these accounted for 677 lots].

        Courses of Action

              Encourage the State to provide student, faculty, and staff housing for the
               University of Hawaii at Hilo and the Hawaii Community College.

              [Participate] Aid and encourage in a variety of programs for the replacement or

                                                2   178
                                                                                             Housing
               rehabilitation of housing units [in the Hilo area].

              [Participate in and coordinate] Aid and encourage housing projects for low and
               moderate income families, "gap-groups" and the elderly [in this area].

              Aid and encourage the development of State lands [in the South Hilo area] for
               housing for all socio-economic levels through leasehold or purchase.


NORTH HILO

Profile

       The communities of this district are the direct result of the former sugar industry.
Housing in the past [has been] was provided by the sugar companies. [However one of the sugar
companies has been phasing out of their employee rental housing program.] The closing of Hilo
Coast Processing sugar company in 1994 also terminated the sugar company’s employee
rental housing program.

        The district has had little activity with respect to housing construction. Over half [(68%)]
of the residential structures in the district are over 30 [or more] years old. Further, this district
has [the smallest percentage of] seen a dramatic increase in fee home ownership [(40%).]
during the 1990s. [Thus replacement housing for the sugar employees and continued sale of
homes to the employees continue to remain a housing need for the district. In addition,
approximately 66% of the households in the district (251) reported incomes of less than $15,000
in l980. Clearly some housing assistance will become necessary.] In the mid 1980s, only 40
per cent of homes in the district were owned in fee simple. With the closing of the sugar
companies came the opportunity for many former plantation workers to purchase their
homes. This dramatic change in homeownership is evidenced by 98 per cent of all homes in
this district now owned in fee simple.

         The district also has a limited supply of vacant parcels available for housing and the least
amount of subdivision activity over the past [l5 years.] few decades. However, since the
district's economic and employment opportunities are anticipated to remain stable with little or
no population growth, this limitation on the availability of lots is not likely to present or cause
major housing problems for the district.




                                                 2   179
                                                                                              Housing
DISTRICT: NORTH HILO

PROFILE
                                             Population                       Households
 2000                                              1,720                  Not available
 1990                                              1,541                         506
 1980                                              1,679                         510
 [1970                                             1,881                         534
 % Growth                                       -10.74                          -4.49]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory – Housing Units
 [1985      Units: 621       SF: 566                   DUPX: 36    APT: 11            OTHER: 8
 1980       Units: 581          SF: 537                DUPX: 36    APT:   0           OTHER: 8
 1970       Units: 511          SF: 468                DUPX: 36    APT:   0           OTHER: 7]


                                                                           Multiple Family,
                     Total                         Single Family
                                                                            Condominium
 1997                 626                                    612                  14
 1992                 599                                    585                  14
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                               204                    40.00%
          Rental                                         306                    60.00%
 1970     Fee                                            163                    27.63%
          Rental                                         427                    72.37%]


                         Single Family                               % of All Units
                         % Fee Simple                               Owner Occupied
 1997                         98                                          66
 1992                         98                                          46
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997



                                                   2   180
                                                                                              Housing
[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                 510                                92.06%
           Vacant                                                   44                             7.94%
 1970      Occupied                                            534                                90.51%
           Vacant                                                   56                             9.49%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                    31           5.30%         1970             0-5                53         8.98%
                 6-15               73          12.48%                          6-15               54         9.15%
                 16-30              81          13.85%                          16-30              95        16.10%
                 30-               400          68.38%                          30-               388        65.76%]


                                                 1950-             1960-       1970-    1980-       1990-
                         No data    <1950                                                                      Total
                                                 1959              1969        1979     1989        1997
 Single Family                0          235           49                38      109         98         83          612
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                              0           10            0                 0        0          0          4           14
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                              Sec 2             Sec 3               Sec 4
 1970                      511                  19                       47              0                   17
 1980                      581                  20                       51              0                   17
 1985                      621                  21                       57              0                   17
 Diff                      110                   2                       10              0                    0
 1970-85
                          Sec 5                Sec 6                  Sec 7             Sec 8               Sec 9
 1970                      171                 134                         1             0                   122
 1980                      178                 179                         1             0                   135
 1985                      207                 183                         1             0                   135
 Diff                       36                  49                         0             0                    13
 1970-85




                                                         2   181
                                                                                                                  Housing
Parcel Inventory
                      Totals           Sec 1              Sec 2          Sec 3            Sec 4
 1969                 1,217             151               156               7              86
 1985                 1,416             144               208             16               86
 Vacant                 313              22                27               7               8
                      Sec 5            Sec 6              Sec 7          Sec 8            Sec 9
 1969                  303              411                 8             13               82
 1985                  385              460                13             17               87
 Vacant                 97              126                 7               4              15]

          [Courses] Course of Action

          [    Encourage the sugar companies to continue assistance in providing their
                employees with suitable housing before phasing out of the rental housing market.

               Since the majority of the lower lands in this district are owned by the sugar
                companies, they should be encouraged to also make lands available for the private
                market.

               Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area to
                achieve a diversity of socio-economic housing mix.

               Support the plantations’ plans to centralize housing in certain areas.]

               Coordinate and participate with the State and [the sugar companies] Federal
                governments in providing [for] rural housing programs for low and moderate
                income families, "gap groups" and the elderly.

HAMAKUA

Profile

        Most of the historical population growth in the communities of this district [have been
the direct result of the past] was directly related to the growth of the now defunct sugar
industry. However, a number of the dispersed communities in the area [have been the result of]
were created through the Homesteading Acts of the Territory of Hawaii.

       The district has increased slightly in population from [4,648 in l970 to] 5,128 in l980[.] to
approximately 6,108 in 2000. This was an increase of 10 per cent over a 20-year period.
The relative proximity of this district to the South Kohala resort areas and urbanizing Waimea

                                                2   182
                                                                                                Housing
has contributed to [its role] defining the Hamakua District as a residential "bedroom"
community to these employment centers. [Recently, the sole remaining sugar company in the
district was sold by its former owner, Theo H. Davies, Co. to a privately held family corporation
which has expressed its intention to continue sugar operations in the district.

        Early plans by the Davies Hamakua Sugar Company to exchange good privately held
sugar cane lands for lands closer to Honokaa have been partially implemented, and have resulted
in subdivision activity and housing construction activity around Honokaa.] Upon the closing of
the Hamakua Sugar Company in 1994 and the cessation of its housing programs for its
employees, the Office of Housing and Community Development (OHCD) coordinated the
use of Federal funds totaling $1,600,000 to preserve the economic vitality and secure the
social structure of communities from Hilo to Hamakua. This was accomplished by
assisting the non-profit Hamakua Housing Corporation to subdivide the defunct Hamakua
Sugar plantation camps into individual houselots. Assistance in obtaining title to the newly
subdivided houselots was then provided to those former Hamakua Sugar Company’s
employees who participated in the final harvest. Upon completion of the conveyance
process, OHCD established a program by which qualified owners of the plantation homes
were given a $2,250 grant specifically for emergency improvements to the plantation
homes. Over 300 plantation homeowners benefited from this program. Other programs
included the design of water distribution systems in Paauilo and Ookala, training for six
newly formed community associations, and the closing of existing gang cesspools and
sewage lagoons.

      Other subdivision and home construction activity has occurred in the homestead areas
between Kalopa and Ahualoa.

        In spite of the [increase in the number of] continued construction of new dwelling units
[(327),] within the district, [68%] approximately 60 per cent of all of the district's residential
structures are 30 years or more in age.

      [Nearly 40% of the population reported incomes of less than $l5,000 in l980.] In 1990,
approximately 5.7 per cent of all households within the district fell below the poverty level.

       Housing concerns for the district are likely to focus on replacement housing for plantation
employees, suitable dwellings for the elderly and the availability of a wide variety of housing
opportunities. With respect to the latter, Honokaa residents and business community
representatives have expressed a desire for the community to continue and expand its role as a
residential "bedroom" community for South Kohala resort workers.




                                               2   183
                                                                                           Housing
DISTRICT: HAMAKUA

PROFILE
                                            Population                      Households
 2000                                           6,108                    Not available
 1990                                           5,545                          1,209
 1980                                           5,128                          1,577
 [1970                                          4,648                          1,445
 % Growth                                       10.33                          9.13]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U. S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985 Units: 1,768         SF: 1,650              DUPX: 22        MF: 44          OTHER: 52
 1980     Units: 1,741        SF: 1,625            DUPX: 20        MF: 44          OTHER: 52
 1970     Units: 1,441        SF: 1,369            DUPX: 20        MF: 11          OTHER: 41]


                                                                            Multiple Family,
                     Total                         Single Family
                                                                             Condominium
 1997                2,019                               1,906                   113
 1992                1,783                               1,729                     54
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                                   830               52.63%
          Rental                                             747               47.37%
 1970     Fee                                                648               42.91%
          Rental                                             862               57.09%]


                         Single Family                              % of All Units
                         % Fee Simple                              Owner Occupied
 1997                         98                                         67
 1992                         82                                         48
Hawaii Housing Policy Study – SMS Research, 1997



                                                   2   184
                                                                                               Housing
[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                  1,577                            93.87%
           Vacant                                                   103                           6.13%
 1970      Occupied                                             1,445                            95.70%
           Vacant                                                     65                          4.30%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                     31           1.86%         1970             0-5             251         16.62%
                 6-15               285          17.12%                          6-15            137          9.07%
                 16-30              208          12.49%                          16-30           321         21.26%
                 30-               1141          68.53%                          30-             801         53.05%]


                                                  1950-             1960-       1970-    1980-     1990-
                         No data     <1950                                                                     Total
                                                  1959              1969        1979     1989      1997
 Single Family                0           788           192           136         293      283         214        1,906
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                             40            16             2                1        5       13          36         113
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                               Sec 2             Sec 3             Sec 4
 1970                     1,441                  21                        42            252                 247
 1980                     1,741                  29                        46            283                 300
 1985                     1,768                  29                        46            283                 304
 Diff                       327                   8                         4             31                  57
 l970-85

                          Sec 5                 Sec 6                  Sec 7             Sec 8             Sec 9
 1970                      570                  122                        56            106                 25
 1980                      710                  165                        65            115                 28
 1985                      730                  168                        65            115                 28
 Diff                      160                   46                         9               9                 3
 l970-85



                                                          2   185
                                                                                                                  Housing
Parcel Inventory
                      Totals           Sec 1             Sec 2        Sec 3           Sec 4
 1969                 2,857            141               109           311             390
 1985                 3,601            133               118           440             596
 Vacant                 810             26                35           115             137
                      Sec 5            Sec 6             Sec 7        Sec 8           Sec 9
 1969                   793            352               183           167             411
 1985                 1,018            453               220           205             418
 Vacant                 263            101                20            43               70]

          [Courses] Course of Action

          [    Support the sugar company’s plan to centralize housing in certain areas. This
                would not only minimize cost of services within the communities but would also
                maximize the efficiency of the available services.

               Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area to
                attain a diversity of socio-economic housing mix including elderly housing.

               Since much of the lands in and around the existing urban centers are owned by the
                sugar company, it should be encouraged to also make lands available for the
                private market.]

               [Encourage] Aid and encourage programs to rehabilitate and replace the existing
                housing [stock,] inventory, including consideration for self-help programs.

NORTH KOHALA

Profile

        Since 1971, Kohala Sugar Company has terminated its sugar operations and many of the
plantation's former employees moved out of the district to seek employment elsewhere. [The
overall decline in population amounted to only a 2% decrease. However, the number of
households has increased. Thus while there has been an out migration of some of the former
residents of North Kohala, it appears that there has also been an in-migration of others into the
area who form smaller, but more households.] However, the district witnessed only a 2 per
cent decrease in its population during the 1970s. Population in the 1980s grew at an annual
rate of 3.2 per cent with the 1990s averaging about 2 per cent. The population increases by
about 40 per cent between 1990 and 2000. Most of the residents of North Kohala are
employed in agriculture, including ranching, as well as the visitor industry. Approximately

                                               2   186
                                                                                          Housing
[54%] 6.4 per cent of the households in the district reported incomes [of less than $15,000.]
below the poverty level in 1990.


DISTRICT: NORTH KOHALA

PROFILE
                                            Population                          Households
 2000                                           6,038                       Not available
 1990                                           4,291                              1,351
 1980                                           3,249                              1,022
 [1970                                          3,326                                880
 % Growth                                       -2.32                             16.14]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985     Units: 1,206      SF: 1,174                 DUPX: 14        APT: 7          OTHER: 11
 1980      Units: 1,122        SF: 1,092               DUPX: 12        APT: 7          OTHER: 11
 1970      Units:   932        SF:    903              DUPX: 12        APT: 7          OTHER: 10]

                                                                                Multiple Family,
                     Total                             Single Family
                                                                                 Condominium
 1997                1,599                                1,496                      103
 1992                1,228                                1,210                        18
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                                   692                   67.71%
          Rental                                             330                   32.29%
 1970     Fee                                                579                   60.82%
          Rental                                             373                   39.18%]




                                                   2   187
                                                                                                   Housing
                             Single Family                                            % of All Units
                             % Fee Simple                                            Owner Occupied
 1997                              96                                                      66
 1992                              97                                                      62
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                1,022                              91.17%
           Vacant                                                   99                            8.83%
 1970      Occupied                                                880                           92.44%
           Vacant                                                   72                            7.56%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                   105         8.88%          1970            0-5               517         54.31%
                 6-15              188         15.91%                         6-15              100         10.50%
                 16-30             167         14.13%                         16-30             213         22.37%
                 30-               722         61.08%                         30-               122         12.82%]


                                                1950-             1960-      1970-     1980-      1990-
                         No data    <1950                                                                     Total
                                                1959              1969       1979      1989       1997
 Single Family                0          211       283              141        215        276         370     1,496
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                              0            3         3                3         10         28          56         103
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                             Sec 2             Sec 3              Sec 4
 1970                       932                2                      68                185                 308
 1980                     1,122                2                      91                212                 338
 1985                     1,206                2                      96                214                 351
 Diff                       274                0                      28                 29                  43
 l970-85




                                                        2   188
                                                                                                              Housing
                     Sec 5           Sec 6              Sec 7         Sec 8           Sec 9
 1970                 314              14                5             16              20
 1980                 409              16                6             17              31
 1985                 469              16                6             18              34
 Diff                 155               2                1              2              14
 l970-85

Parcel Inventory
                     Totals          Sec 1              Sec 2         Sec 3           Sec 4
 1969                1,712             34               160            285             429
 1985                2,284             33               202            317             505
 Vacant                774             29                92             62             105
                     Sec 5           Sec 6              Sec 7         Sec 8           Sec 9
 1969                 601              57                66             43              37
 1985                 855             110                79             64             119
 Vacant               328              60                25             30              43]

        Although the population in North Kohala declined slightly in the years between 1970 and
1980, the North Kohala district [has experienced] continues to experience moderate increases
in housing construction and subdivision activity. [Nevertheless, approximately 60%]
Approximately 41 per cent of the district’s housing [stock] inventory was built over 30 years
ago. [The area around Hawi has experienced the greatest number of housing and subdivision
activity in the past decade due to the subdivision and opening of both Kohala Corporation and
State lands for residential use.] While subdivision activity continues to occur throughout the
district, most are limited to smaller subdivisions by individual landowners who seek to
subdivide their large agricultural parcels into smaller parcels. Exceptions include the 113-
lot Maliu Ridge subdivision and the 477-lot Kohala Ranch subdivision.

       Since 1985, the Hawaii Island Community Development Corporation has assisted
with the construction of ten self-help single family dwellings in Ainakea Village.

       [North Kohala has recently been the focus of plans to subdivide vacant lands into rural
and agricultural lots. These have ranged in size from one acre to 20 acres. Locationally they
occur both within windward areas as well as on the leeward areas of North Kohala.

       In addition, plans have been submitted for urban and resort uses along the leeward North
Kohala coast. Both the subdivision of rural and agricultural lands and the encroaching urban
uses will have implications on the costs of housing in the North Kohala district.]

                                              2   189
                                                                                            Housing
          Courses of Action

          [     Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area to
                 attain a diversity of socio-economic housing mix including elderly housing.]

                Require [that] developments [which] that create a demand for employee housing
                 [shall] provide for that need.

                [Encourage] Aid and encourage programs to rehabilitate and replace the existing
                 housing [stock,] inventory, including consideration for self-help programs.


SOUTH KOHALA

Profile

       [In l970, South Kohala had a population of 2,3l0 and by 1980, the population nearly
doubled to 4,607 persons.] Since the 1970s, the population of South Kohala nearly doubled
with every passing decade with a 1990 population of 9,140. According to the 2000 census,
the population of South Kohala was13,131 for a 44 per cent increase since 1990. [The
increase in dwelling units however grew by nearly four-fold the l970 housing stock. Major
increases in the number of apartments and/or condominium units accounted for approximately
20% of the overall increase in dwelling units.] Between the years 1992 and 1997, the number
of housing units within the South Kohala District grew by 23 per cent.

        Housing construction and subdivisions of land have been most active [in two areas;] on
the eastern side of Waimea and in Waikoloa Village. Slightly more than half of the newly
created parcels in the district occurred at Waikoloa. Housing construction in Waikoloa Village
increased by 589 units (including multiple-family apartments and condominiums) between the
years l970 and l985[.] with a total of 2,170 units by the end of 1997.

        Government agencies have participated jointly with private developers and nonprofit
housing corporations to provide employee housing for the coastal resort developments in South
Kohala at Waimea and Waikoloa. [These projects have amounted to 43 units.] In addition,
Boise Cascade, the original developer of Waikoloa Village, provided lots in the Waikoloa
Village subdivision to its initial employees. Waikoloa Village contains a sizable amount of
undeveloped, residential-zoned lands that will eventually contribute significantly to the
district’s housing inventory. While these residential-zoned lands will most likely be
developed as market-priced homesites, approximately 300 acres of land situated makai of
Waikoloa Village was dedicated by the Waikoloa Development Company to the County of
Hawaii for affordable housing projects.




                                                2   190
                                                                                           Housing
       By the end of 1997, 177 single family dwellings and 94 apartment units were
constructed. Since 1985, a total of 12 self-help single family dwellings were constructed in
Ouli. An additional ten self-help units are currently under construction.

      The continuing resort development along the coast is anticipated to increase the need for
employee housing and other residential needs as more in-migration occurs.

       [Although there is still a sizeable number of residential zoned and subdivided parcels
available at Waikoloa, market prices of existing parcels preclude purchase by persons of low
income. Other residential zoned but not subdivided lands are also available at Waikoloa,
development of these lands however are dependent upon plans by new owners.]

       It is apparent that in addition to residential lands, other commercial and urban lands will
be required to service incoming populations.

DISTRICT: SOUTH KOHALA

PROFILE
                                            Population                       Households
 2000                                           13,131                      Not available
 1990                                           9,140                           3,095
 1980                                           4,607                           1,483
 [1970                                          2,310                              803
 % Growth                                       99.44                          84.68]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985 Units: 2,681         SF: 1,989            DUPX: 50          APT/COND: 637      OTHER: 5
 1980      Units: 2,218       SF: 1,692          DUPX: 10          APT/COND: 511      OTHER: 5
 1970      Units: 980         SF:   821          DUPX: 10          APT/COND: 146     OTHER: 3]


                                                                             Multiple Family,
                     Total                         Single Family
                                                                              Condominium
 1997                5,798                               3,625                     2,173
 1992                4,722                               2,841                     1,881
Hawaii Housing Policy Study – SMS Research, 1997




                                                   2   191
                                                                                                Housing
Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                                        879                            59.27%
          Rental                                                  604                            40.73%
 1970     Fee                                                     393                            46.29%
          Rental                                                  456                            53.71%]

                             Single Family                                            % of All Units
                             % Fee Simple                                            Owner Occupied
 1997                              90                                                      38
 1992                              89                                                      30
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                1,483                              75.70%
          Vacant                                                  476                            24.30%
 1970     Occupied                                                803                            94.58%
          Vacant                                                    46                           5.42%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                   529         25.58%         1970            0-5               345         40.64%
                 6-15              759         36.70%                         6-15              195         22.97%
                 16-30             374         18.09%                         16-30             209         24.62%
                 30-               406         19.63%                         30-               100         11.78%]


                                                1950-             1960-      1970-     1980-      1990-
                         No data    <1950                                                                     Total
                                                1959              1969       1979      1989       1997
 Single Family                0          189      194               214        804      1,168     1,056       3,625
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                             43            7        9                    6     147      1,122         839     2,173
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997




                                                        2   192
                                                                                                              Housing
[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                 Sec 2        Sec 3            Sec 4
 1970                  980             23                 13            2              253
 1980                2,218             25                 98            2              667
 1985                2,681             25                175            2              794
 Diff                1,701              2                162            0              541
 l970-85
                     Sec 5           Sec 6               Sec 7        Sec 8            Sec 9
 1970                 377             131                 30            13             138
 1980                 519             229                 45           421             212
 1985                 562             252                 48           602             221
 Diff                 185             121                 18           589               83
 1970-85

Parcel Inventory
                     Totals          Sec 1               Sec 2        Sec 3            Sec 4
 1969                2,526            138                 64            6             1,387
 1985                4,822            141                308            8             1,916
 Vacant              2,328              74               124            7               907
                     Sec 5           Sec 6               Sec 7        Sec 8            Sec 9
 1969                 387             284                 50                8          202
 1985                 559             378                117          1167             228
 Vacant               202               99                33            815              67]

        Courses of Action

              [The County shall require that] Require developments [which] that create a
               demand for employee housing [shall] provide for [the] that need.

              Aid and encourage the development of State lands [in this area] for housing for all
               socioeconomic levels through leasehold or purchase.

        [     Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area to
               attain a diversity of socio-economic housing mix.]


                                               2   193
                                                                                           Housing
              [Participate and coordinate] Aid and encourage housing programs for low and
               moderate income, "gap groups" and the elderly.

              County-owned land at Waikoloa Village shall be made available for the
               development of affordable housing.


NORTH KONA

Profile

       [Of all the districts in the County of Hawaii, the] The North Kona district [has] had the
second greatest percentage increase in population[,] over the last 30 years, from 4,832 persons
in 1970 to [13,748 persons in 1980] 28,543 in 2000. The Puna District saw a slightly greater
percentage increase in population during the same period.

       Housing units have increased from [2,485 in 1970 to] 9,150 in l985[.] to 12,254 in 1997,
representing an annual growth rate of approximately 2.8 per cent. [Approximately 43%
were multiple family units.]

        [Both single-family housing construction activity and subdivision activity occurred
largely in the areas from Kaloko mauka through Holualoa.]

        In spite of [the increase in both] continuing moderate growth of subdivision activity
and housing construction in the North Kona district, housing problems for the low and moderate
income groups have been particularly acute. [Although the proportion of low income households
in the North Kona area has decreased from l970, in terms of the actual households, there has been
an increase from 935 households to 1,759 reporting incomes of less than $15,000 in l980.] In
1990, approximately 7 per cent of all households within the district reported incomes below
the poverty level. In addition, these families compete with the visitor market for rental of
apartment and condominium units.

        State and County housing agencies have participated directly in the provisions of house
and lot packages at Kealakehe Houselots, [which] that account for 92 single family units for low
and moderate income groups. Additionally, both have participated jointly either with private
developers and/or nonprofit housing corporations to provide both low income and elderly units
[which has resulted in] for a total of [271] 1,025 units constructed in the district[.] since the
early 1970s. The Department of Hawaiian Home Lands developed the Kaniohale
(La’i’opua) Residential Subdivision in Kealakehe, just north of Kailua-Kona. The project
consists of 184 developer-built single family dwellings, 41 self-help homes and a community
center. This project is part of a 1,015-acre master-planned community called the Villages
of La’i’opua, which will consist of 4,082 single-family and multiple-family residential units,
recreational facilities, and community and neighborhood commercial complexes. This
project is being managed by the State Housing Finance and Development Corporation
(HFDC).

                                               2   194
                                                                                              Housing
        Since 1985, the Hawaii Island Community Development Corporation has assisted
with the construction of 19 self-help single family dwellings in Kalaoa View subdivision, an
affordable housing development located north of Kailua. Hualalai Elderly complex, a 30-
unit affordable housing complex, was also constructed in Kailua.

       [While sizable areas mauka of Ali'i Drive have been designated for residential and other
urban uses through the l970 General Plan, actual rezoning of these lands has not occurred at a
pace which could have opened lands for residential use.]

       It is anticipated that the rate of in-migration into the district will continue, as will the need
for housing for residents. [Recent rezoning] Rezoning actions for large scale residential
subdivisions have occurred in the [Kealakehe mauka] area between Kailua and Keauhou[,].
[which when] When subdivided, [may provide] additional lands will be provided for residential
use. Nevertheless, land costs and market prices [which] that have been influenced by investor
and resort/residential markets may preclude purchase of house and lot packages by [most
households] many households in the district.


DISTRICT: NORTH KONA

PROFILE
                                             Population                         Households
 2000                                           28,543                         Not available
 1990                                           22,284                             7,898
 1980                                           13,748                             4,602
 [1970                                           4,832                             1,733
 % Growth                                       184.52                            165.55]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985     Units: 9,150     SF: 4,697         DUPX: 132        APT/COND: 3,941         OTHER: 380
 1980      Units: 7,540       SF: 4,105       DUPX: 122        APT/COND: 2,934         OTHER: 379
 1970      Units: 2,485       SF: 1,748       DUPX: 74         APT/COND:        527    OTHER: 136]




                                                 2   195
                                                                                                Housing
                                                                                                  Multiple Family,
                         Total                                  Single Family
                                                                                                   Condominium
 1997                    12,258                                    6,880                               5,378
 1992                    10,890                                    6,067                               4,823
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                                         2,536                             55.11%
          Rental                                                   2,066                             44.89%
 1970     Fee                                                          873                           49.49%
          Rental                                                       891                           50.51%]

                             Single Family                                               % of All Units
                             % Fee Simple                                               Owner Occupied
 1997                                 93                                                      39
 1992                                 92                                                      33
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                    4,602                              66.75%
          Vacant                                                  2,292                              33.25%
 1970     Occupied                                                1,733                              98.24%
          Vacant                                                        31                            1.76%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                     1,327         26.21%          1970          0-5                824         46.71%
                 6-15                2,200         43.46%                        6-15               286         16.21%
                 16-30                679          13.41%                        16-30              310         17.57%
                 30-                  856          16.91%                        30-                344         19.50%]

                                                    1950-             1960-     1970-     1980-        1990-
                         No data       <1950                                                                      Total
                                                    1959              1969      1979      1989         1997
 Single Family                   0           227      277               605     2,330      2,254       1,187         6,880
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                            226                5        0               410     2,127      1,792          818        5,378
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997




                                                            2   196
                                                                                                                     Housing
[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                 Sec 2         Sec 3            Sec 4
 1970                2,485             41                 31             105            161
 1980                7,540             49                 38             978            662
 1985                8,650             51                 55           1,168            765
 Diff                6,165             10                 24           1,063            604
 l970-85

                     Sec 5            Sec 6              Sec 7         Sec 8            Sec 9
 1970                  764             275               356             364            388
 1980                2,659             677               860           1,121            496
 1985                3,275             770               940           1,427            199
 Diff                2,511             495               584           1,063            189
 l970-85

Parcel Inventory
                     Totals           Sec 1              Sec 2         Sec 3            Sec 4
 1969                5,100              86               144             877             187
 1985               10,035             117               108           2,682           1,025
 Vacant              4,074              60               100             837             369
                     Sec 5            Sec 6              Sec 7         Sec 8            Sec 9
 1969                1,131              709               696            814             456
 1985                1,980            1,086              1,246         1,109             682
 Vacant                813              572               572            531             220]

        Courses of Action

              [Since the lands in this district are sloped, the County shall] Encourage the use of
               innovative types of housing developments, such as cluster and planned unit
               developments, [which] that take advantage of the steep topographic conditions.

        [     Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area to
               attain a diversity of socio-economic housing mix.]



                                               2   197
                                                                                            Housing
                [The County shall require that] Require developments [which] that create a
                 demand for employee housing [shall] provide for that need.

                Increase affordable housing opportunities in the Kailua-Kona area.


SOUTH KONA

Profile

        Moderate growth in both population and housing construction has occurred in the district
of South Kona. Although the district is still [dependant] dependent upon [diversified]
agriculture, [nevertheless] some of the growth has been the result of the urban and resort growth
in North Kona. This is reflected in an even distribution of new housing construction in sections
from Kealakekua town through Captain Cook. Subdivision activity has not occurred at equal
rates to housing construction and suggests an in-filling of existing agricultural and rural parcels.

          [Of the 802 new dwelling units, at least 80 were multiple family dwellings.

        The district has a sizable number of parcels, 5,737 of which 3,359 are vacant in
comparison to the number of households in the district. Some of these parcels are still in
agricultural use. The potential in-filling of these parcels as rural/residential estates at market
prices comparable to urban uses does present problems of competitive use with the agricultural
needs and also precludes the purchase of these lots by low and moderate income households.]

        Sales of these agricultural parcels have sometimes been accompanied by the demolition
of older structures [which has] that served as employee housing, farm tenant household, or low
and moderate income families.

        Construction of government-assisted affordable housing projects within the district
were limited to two projects, Hale Hookipa (32 units) in 1976 and the Captain Cook
Elderly project (21 units) in 1992. The Hawaii County Economic Opportunity Council was
responsible for the development of 46 single family self-help homes on State lease land in
Milolii during the past decade.

        While there are some non-conforming residential lot sized subdivisions in South Kona,
they are not serviced by adequate infrastructure [nor] or public services. There is the potential
[here also] of in-filling [much as] that has occurred in the nonconforming subdivisions of Puna
though it is anticipated to occur at a slower pace because of the distances to employment centers.




                                                 2   198
                                                                                             Housing
DISTRICT: SOUTH KONA

PROFILE
                                            Population                       Households
 2000                                           8,589                       Not available
 1990                                           7,658                            2,591
 1980                                           5,914                            1,853
 [1970                                          4,004                              996
 % Growth                                       47.70                            86.04]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

[Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985 Units: 1,971          SF: 1,846             DUPX: 30        APT/COND:80       OTHER: 15
 1980      Units: 1,722        SF: 1,631           DUPX: 28        APT/COND:48       OTHER: 15
 1970      Units: 1,169        SF: 1,130           DUPX: 20        APT/COND: 8       OTHER: 11]


                                                                             Multiple Family,
                     Total                         Single Family
                                                                              Condominium
 1997                2,714                               2,539                     175
 1992                2,254                               2,146                     108
Hawaii Housing Policy Study – SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                               977                     52.73%
          Rental                                         876                     47.27%
 1970     Fee                                            441                     42.36%
          Rental                                         600                     57.64%]


                          Single Family                                % of All Units
                          % Fee Simple                                Owner Occupied
 1997                          81                                           57
 1992                          81                                           50
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997



                                                   2   199
                                                                                                Housing
[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                  1,853                            90.30%
           Vacant                                                   199                           9.70%
 1970      Occupied                                                 996                          95.68%
           Vacant                                                     45                          4.32%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                    283          15.11%         1970             0-5             135         12.97%
                 6-15               530          28.30%                          6-15            179         17.20%
                 16-30              280          14.95%                          16-30           251         24.11%
                 30-                780          41.64%                          30-             476         45.73%]

                                                  1950-             1960-       1970-    1980-     1990-
                         No data     <1950                                                                     Total
                                                  1959              1969        1979     1989      1997
 Single Family                  0         257           203           197         586      706         590        2,539
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                             74             1             2                1       16       32          49         175
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                               Sec 2             Sec 3             Sec 4
 1970                     1,169                 321                     261              221                 164
 1980                     1,722                 515                     384              292                 226
 1985                     1,971                 611                     438              328                 245
 Diff                       802                 290                     177              107                  81
 1970-85



                          Sec 5                 Sec 6                  Sec 7             Sec 8             Sec 9
 1970                      10                    57                        48             32                 55
 1980                      42                    75                        61             52                 75
 1985                      43                    80                        81             67                 78
 Diff                      33                    23                        33             35                 23
 1970-85



                                                          2   200
                                                                                                                  Housing
Parcel Inventory
                     Totals          Sec 1              Sec 2        Sec 3           Sec 4
 1969                4,763             761              493           644             487
 1985                5,737           1,010              781           769             521
 Vacant              3,367             374              334           281             195
                     Sec 5           Sec 6              Sec 7        Sec 8           Sec 9
 1969                 162             240               603          1,052            321
 1985                  95             276               665          1,195            425
 Vacant                50             188               557          1,088            300]

        Courses of Action

        [     The County shall provide assistance and encourage the State to negotiate with
               large landowners for land exchange or purchase to provide for those people who
               would be affected by the future plans of landowners.]

              [Since the lands in this district are sloped, the County shall encourage]
               Encourage the use of innovative types of housing developments, such as cluster
               and planned unit developments, [which] that take advantage of the steep
               topographic conditions.

        [     Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area to
               attain a diversity of socio-economic housing mix.]

              Increase affordable housing opportunities in South Kona.




                                              2   201
                                                                                         Housing
KA'U

Profile

        Several [of the] communities in this district [are the] were established as a direct result
of the former sugar industry. [Though the major employer in the district has converted some of
its sugar lands into macadamia fields, the district has seen little change in terms of its population
size.
        Some housing construction and subdivision activity has occurred as the sugar company
has actively pursued creating residential subdivisions to provide fee simple land for their
employees. It has also participated jointly with the Hawaii Housing Authority in the construction
of employee housing. This has been reflected in the increased rate of fee home ownership, from
42% in l970 to approximately 67% in l980.] Prior to the closing of its sugar operations in
Ka’u in 1996, Ka’u Agribusiness was the primary employer within the district. The
company, in cooperation with the Housing and Community Development Corporation of
Hawaii, also facilitated the construction of housing for its employees. The closing of Ka’u
Agribusiness sugar operations saw the end of these company-supported housing programs.
 Nevertheless, these efforts resulted in fee home ownership increasing over the years from
42 per cent of all single family residential units in 1970 to 94 per cent in 1997.

       [The district has a resort area which has been long planned by C. Brewer. To date
development of this resort includes a golf course and tennis courts, restaurant, condominiums
and conference center. Should the Punaluu resort area continue to expand to planned capacities,
employee housing needs should be anticipated.] The district has a resort area at Punalu’u that
encompasses a total of 432 acres. Situated between the towns of Naalehu and Pahala, the
Punaluu Resort and Seamountain Golf Course complex is the only resort destination area
within the Ka’u District. Currently, the only accommodation available at this complex is
the 56-unit Colony One at Sea Mountain. The golf course remains in operation, but no
other facilities or amenities are available. C. Brewer Properties, Inc., the original
landowner, initially proposed a 300-room hotel, 410 residential units and related facilities
within this resort area. Plans for the area by the current landowner are not known at this
time. Future expansion of facilities at Punalu’u Resort will need to include employee
housing.

        This district has large non-conforming subdivisions [which were] created prior to the
adoption of the present Subdivision and Zoning Codes. [Some building] Building activity [has
occurred] continues in these subdivisions [, however,]. However, the subdivisions lack basic
infrastructure systems such as water and, in some cases, electricity. Most of the interior roads of
the subdivisions are substandard. [Thus while] While continued in-filling of the subdivisions
may occur, the lack of adequate infrastructure will continue to present problems, and may
restrain the ability to secure conventional mortgage loans for housing construction. These
subdivisions are also not located near areas of employment.



                                                2   202
                                                                                              Housing
DISTRICT: KA'U

PROFILE
                                              Population                             Households
 2000                                           5,827                               Not available
 1990                                           4,438                                     1,530
 1980                                           3,699                                     1,108
 [1970                                          3,398                                       965
 % Growth                                          8.86                                  14.82]
Economic Assessment, PKF Hawaii, January 2000
County of Hawaii Data Book, 1998
U.S. Census, 2000

Existing Inventory - Housing Units
 [1985     Units: 1,647      SF: 1,439             DUPX: 20                APT/COND: 54        OTHER: 34
 1980      Units: 1,441           SF: 1,258        DUPX: 20                APT/COND:129        OTHER: 34
 1970      Units:   963           SF:   885        DUPX: 18                  APT: 27           OTHER: 33]


                                                                                         Multiple Family,
                      Total Units                            Single Family
                                                                                          Condominium
 1997                     2,385                                    2,278                      107
 1992                     1,876                                    1,776                      100
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

Occupancy
 [1980 Fee                                                   740                           66.79%
          Rental                                             368                           33.21%
 1970     Fee                                                440                           42.07%
          Rental                                             606                          57.93%]

                          Single Family                                        % of All Units
                          % Fee Simple                                        Owner Occupied
 1997                          94                                                   55
 1992                          92                                                   53
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997




                                                   2   203
                                                                                                       Housing
[Occupied/Vacant
 1980 Occupied                                                 1,108                                81.41%
           Vacant                                                   253                             18.59%
 1970      Occupied                                                 965                             92.26%
           Vacant                                                    81                              7.74%]

Age of Structure
 [1985       0-5                   233          15.74%         1970              0-5               162         15.49%
                 6-15              374          25.27%                           6-15               69          6.60%
                 16-30             181          12.23%                           16-30             331         31.64%
                 30-               692          46.76%                           30-               484         46.27%]

                                                 1950-             1960-        1970-    1980-       1990-
                         No data    <1950                                                                        Total
                                                 1959              1969         1979     1989        1997
 Single Family                0          480           120           133          374      543           628        2,278
 Multiple Family,
 Condominium
                              0            0             1             4           86         12           4         107
Hawaii Housing Policy Study - SMS Research, 1997

[Dwelling Units by Tax Map Sections
                    Totals         Sec 1                              Sec 2              Sec 3               Sec 4
 1970                       963                 0                          69             24                   21
 1980                     1,441                 0                      192                30                   49
 1985                     1,647                 0                      285                32                   93
 Diff                       684                 0                      216                 8                   72
 l970-85
                          Sec 5                Sec 6                  Sec 7              Sec 8               Sec 9
 1970                      334                 378                         0              9                    128
 1980                      444                 567                         0              9                     50
 1985                      475                 578                         0              9                    175
 Diff                      141                 200                         0              0                     47
 l970-85




                                                         2   204
                                                                                                                    Housing
Parcel Inventory
                    Totals           Sec 1             Sec 2        Sec 3           Sec 4
 1969               14,689             9               11,568        147            1,377
 1985               17,281            12               12,721        154            2,243
 Vacant             15,450            10               12,395        106            2,098
                    Sec 5            Sec 6             Sec 7        Sec 8           Sec 9
 1969                854             528                19            7              180
 1985                832             761                21            8              529
 Vacant              259             131                20            6              425]

        [Courses] Course of Action

        [    Aid and encourage the development of a wide variety of housing for this area in
              order to attain a diversity of housing mix.

             Encourage the sugar company to continue their assistance in providing employees
              with suitable housing before phasing out of the rental housing market.

             Since many of the lands in and around the existing communities are owned by the
              sugar company, they should be encouraged to make lands available for the private
              market.]

             [The County shall require] Require developments [which] that create a demand
              for employee housing [shall] provide for that need.




                                             2   205
                                                                                        Housing

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Housing Project for Low Income Groups document sample