How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment

Document Sample
How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment Powered By Docstoc
					   THE ACADEMY OF ECONOMIC STUDIES
                    MASTER DAFI




    Performance measurement instruments
               – Balanced Scorecard
     - strategy valuation and optimization –




Author: Andreea BĂLĂLĂU
Coordinator: Prof. univ. dr. Anamaria CIOBANU




                          Bucharest

                            2009
I.       The Balanced Scorecard concept

     The Balanced Scorecard concept was first developed during a one year multi company
study – “Measuring Performance in the Organization of tomorrow” sponsored by Nolan
Norton Institute, the research arm of KPMG. The study was motivated by the need to
investigate if that time existing performance-measurement approaches, primarily relying on
financial accounting were preventing the organizations to create a real economic value.

     The group discussions and the case studies about innovative measurement systems
already implemented in other companies (Analog Devices, 1987) led to the development of a
new supervision method called “Balanced Scorecard”. Later on, as the importance of
connecting indicators with a certain strategy or to find the suitable indicators for a strategy
was noticed, the concept extended its applicability to the strategic management field.

     The Balanced scorecard system analyzes the company from four different perspectives:
the financial perspective, the client perspective, the internal processes perspective and the
learning and development perspective.

     The financial perspective helps to correlate the long term vision of the company with its
financial objectives. In a correct built system each indicator should be a part of a cause –
effect relationship that will result in improving the financial perspective.

     The client perspective is necessary for identifying potential consumers and the market
segment on which the company should compete. An important criterion for measurement in
this perspective is the market segmentation according to regional preferences. Nowadays, the
customer satisfaction is one of the mandatory requirements for successful sales.

     The internal processes perspective identifies the critical processes for meeting the
stockholders and the clients’ requirements. The objectives and measurements are defined
after the first two perspectives are created in order to be subordinate to these ones. Important
steps in this perspective are innovation, operational process and the post sales services.

     The efficient usage of BSC forth perspective offers the infrastructure for obtaining
excellent results in the other three perspectives.      Kaplan and Norton consider that this
perspective is best defined by three categories of factors: the employees’ abilities, the
information systems capacity and the motivation.
    To better understand how the four perspectives are linked to the company’s vision and
strategy we can use the map below:




Source: Performance Management and Balanced Scorecard CFO Services Self – study Guide, Deloitte Consulting LLP,
February 2004


    A Balanced Scorecard should be created when the organization needs a new performance
management system, when a new strategy is necessary or the goals of the employees and the
improvement initiatives should be aligned. The proper organizational unit for a BSC to be
created and implemented is, according to Kaplan and Norton (1996), a business unit, a unit
where we can track and monitor activities related to all value chain: operations, marketing,
services and sales.

    In time, a lot of controversies where engaged over this concept. Its maintainers praise the
BSC ability to:

-   improve organizational alignment;

-   improve external and internal communication in an organization;

-   link the operations to strategy;

-   to integrate the planning faze with the strategical management principles;

    The challenges generated by developing and implementing these systems are considered
to be the following:

-   the lack of an involved management;
-     measuring what really matters;

-     the belief that BSC is a short term project ; it is not – it’s implementation will change the
      organization radically on the long run;

-     the lack of strategic thinking;

-     not taking into account the whole organizational structure when projecting the system;

      The criticism on the concept can be fought against by using its popularity and Kaplan and
Norton’s (1996) arguments. There only is one aspect, in my opinion, that isn’t quite well
documented: how can we evaluate the results of a BSC and check its correctness? The
authors suggest that we should use the strategic feedback feature of the scorecard developed
in the forth perspective in order to track what it’s going wrong and what should be changed.
Yet they don’t offer us any receipt to do that.

II.       Techniques used for evaluating the strategy

      The proposed solution will use multicriteria decision methods to hierarchically arrange
the perspectives and the indicators according to their importance in the eyes of a carefully
selected audience. Then we’ll calculate the utility function for each period of time and each
factor by using the results in the timeframes selected. The next step is to picture the factors in
an importance – performance diagram that we’ll help us see if we have issues, where the
issues are located and what should we do in order to improve the strategy.

      The method used for the hierarchical arrangement is called AHP – Analytical
Hierarchical Perspective. This method offers a rational framework for structuring a decision
problem, for the representation and quantification of its elements and for linking these
elements to the goals. The problem is decomposed in sub problems which can be analyzed
and evaluated separately. The evaluation can be done using real values (like quantity, for
example) or subjective decisions. These decisions are then converted into numerical values.
A priority – weight is calculated for each element of the hierarchy, allowing us to compare
elements that differ in signification and measurement method consistently. The scale used for
comparison is the following:
Source: Saaty, Thomas L. (2008-06). „Relative Measurement and its Generalization in Decision Making: Why Pairwise
Comparison are Central in Mathematics for the Measurement of Intangible Factors – The Analytic Hierarchy/Network
Process”.RACSAM (Review of the Royal Spanish Academy of Sciences, Series A, Mathematics) 102 (2): 251–318, 257


     AHP proves its efficacy especially when large teams are involved in solving complex
issues that implies hard to quantify elements and long term consequences.

     The method used for calculating utility is called Successive Weighting Method. This
method is used to calculate and differentiate the utilities when we know the weight of each
criterion. This decisional problem is characterized by a consequence matrix:

                                                        Nature conditions

                                     N1                            N2                         N3

         Criterions

         Alternatives       C1        ..        Cn          C1      ..        Cn         C1    ..        Cn

    V1                   a111         ..   a1n1        a112        ..    a1n2       a11r       ..   a1nr

    V2                   a211         ..   a2n1        a212        ..    a2n2       a21r       ..   a2nr

    ..                   …            …    ..          ..          ..    ..         ..         ..   ..
       Vm                am11      ..      amn1        am12       ..   amn2       am1r    ..   amnr

       Weights           п1        ..      пn          п1         .. пm           п1      .. пr



        In order to calculate the utilities we should transform the matrix of consequences into a
    utilities matrix. The next step is to normalize the matrix:

                                        rij = aij / ∑ aij , i=1..m, j = 1..n

        Each decisional alternative is associated with a utility function:

    f:V→R, f(Vi) = ∑ пj * rij / ∑ пj i = 1..m

        The alternatives are then ordered in the descending order of the utility functions.

        The graphical representation of factors in relation with their weight and score (utility) is
done by using the Performance – Score analysis. The technique is based on constructing a score
importance diagram split into four quadrants:


    Importance
                              Quadrant 2                           Quadrant
          High
                         Concentrate here                      Keep1 the good work
                                                                   up




          Low                 Quadrant                                 Quadrant 4
                              3
                              Low                                      Possible
                              priority                                 overkill

                                Low                                            High
                                                                                         Score

        Depending on the quadrant the indicator will fall in, we’ll have to follow one of the four
    indications.
III.       Balanced Scorecard in organizations. Appling the strategy and evaluating
           the results.

       In this case study we’ll describe the strategy applied in a department of Hewlett-Packard
and how it’s quantified through the BSC concept. We’ll then use the techniques presented in
the last chapter to investigate the efficiency of the strategy on 2008 timeframe.

       The strategic objective at corporation’s level is to establish HP as the world’s leading
Technology Company. The strategic framework prepared to sustain this objective is:

-      Invent and develop technology solutions for customers;

-      Drive select industry trends;

-      Become the best-in-class in the industry.

       The operating framework has as objectives: efficiency, targeted growth and capital
strategy.

       The Volume Operations department is a global structure designed to support the business
units on daily basis. The department vision and mission are aligned with the overall vision
and mission. The strategy objectives split omong the four perspectives of the BSC are the
following:

Financial perspective:

-      Cut costs;

-      improve the efficiency of key elements: risk assessment, documentation;

-      simplifying the business programs by introducing standardized promotions;

-      periodic analysis of prices related to profitability;

-      support growth on emergent markets and new business initiatives.

Client perspective:

-      automatisation of orders and reducing the time to process the order;

-      improving delivery time;
    -     standardized procedures for global accounts;

    -     increase customer satisfaction;

    -     reduce the number of disputed invoices.

    Internal processes perspective:

    -    standardization and alignment at global level for configuration , call-center , catalogues
         and prices;

    -    using Six Sigma to optimize costs;

    -    reducing the amount and value of field inventory;

    -    increasing the number of orders delivered in the negotiated period of time;

    -    Reducing the number of claims.

    Learning and growth perspective:

    -    improving management communication;

    -    specialized trainings;

    -    Diversity.

         By applying AHP technique on the indicators chosen to represent these objectives we
    obtained a weight for each perspective and for each indicator:

                                 Pespective                                 The weight in BSC

Financial Perspective                                                             0.48

                                                                The weight in
                     Indicator                                   perspective          The weight in BSC

                     Employee number                                 0.04                       0.02

                     Sales turnover                                  0.54                       0.26

                     Expenses                                        0.26                       0.12

                     % of time worked per employee                   0.16                       0.08

Client Perspective                                                                0.23

                                                                The weight in
                     Indicator                                   perspective          The weight in BSC
                    % of electronic orders                                  0.07                   0.02

                    Time of completion                                      0.64                   0.15

                    Disputed invoices                                       0.28                   0.06

Internal Business Perspective                                                         0.16

                                                                      The weight in
                    Indicator                                          perspective       The weight in BSC

                    Standardised procedures                                 0.10                   0.02

                    Six-sigma certificates                                  0.05                   0.01

                    Field inventory                                         0.18                   0.03

                    % standard agreed time                                  0.42                   0.07

                    % claims                                                0.26                   0.04

Learning and development perspective                                                  0.14

                                                                      The weight in
                    Indicator                                          perspective           The weight in BSC

                    Trust in management                                     0.27                   0.04

                    Carrier plans                                           0.12                   0.02

                    Specialized trainings                                   0.61                   0.08




         By applying the Successive Weighting Method, we then determined the utility functions
    for each of the timeframes selected: Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 for 2008 for overall strategy and
    each indicator.

                                                Utility functions

                                        f(Q1)                 0.523724997

                                        f(Q2)                 0.592609384

                                        f(Q3)                 0.589100354

                                        f(Q4)                 0.661348188




         The indicators were represented in an Importance – Score analysis diagram:
                                                               The graph on indicators clustering
           0.270
           0.255
           0.240
           0.225
           0.210
           0.195
           0.180
           0.165
           0.150
  Weight




           0.135
           0.120
           0.105
           0.090
           0.075
           0.060
           0.045
           0.030
           0.015
           0.000
               0.000                  0.030       0.060           0.090                0.120                0.150          0.180              0.210              0.240
                                                                                           Utility

                   Cifra de afaceri                  Rata completarii                          Cheltuieli                             Traininguri specializate
                   % de timp muncit per angajat      % de incadrare in timpul agreat           Comenzi disputate (factura, produse)   % de plangeri primite
                   Increderea in manageri            Produse ramase in inventar                Numarul de angajati                    % de comenzi electronice
                   Planuri de cariera                Proceduri standardizate                   Certificare Six-sigma




           According to the result on this diagram we recommend that the time of completion which
is located in quadrant 1 should be carefully supervised. Also the sales turnover should be
carefully checked because of the economic conjuncture and of their decrease in the last
couple of months. For better results, the cutting costs policy should also be continued.

           The proposed methods can be used in strategy valuation exercises as well as in projects
designed for optimizing different processes, systems or procedures.
IV.    Bibliography:

1. Kaplan R S, Norton D P, „The Balanced Scorecard – Measures that drive performance”,
    Harvard Bussiness School Press, Boston Massachusetts, 1992
2. Kaplan R S, Norton D P, „Putting the Balanced Scorecard to Work”,, Harvard Bussiness
    School Press, Boston Massachusetts,1993
3. Kaplan R S, Norton D P, „Using Balanced Scorecard as a Strategic Manangement
    System” Harvard Bussiness School Press, Boston Massachusetts,1996
4. Kaplan R S, Norton D P, "The Balanced Scorecard :translating strategy into action:”,
    Harvard Bussiness School Press, Boston Massachusetts, 1996
5. Kaplan R S, Norton D P, "The Strategy-Focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard
    Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment”, Harvard Bussiness School Press,
    Boston Massachusetts, 2000
6. Kaplan R S, Norton D P, “Double – Loop Management: Making Strategy a continous
    process”, Harvard Bussiness School Press, Boston Massachusetts,2000
7. Niven, Paul R. "Balanced Scorecard. Step-by-step. Maximizing Performance and
    Maintaining Results", John Wiley&Sons, Inc, 2002.
8. Kenny, Graham „Balanced Scorecard: Why it isn’t working”, Business Performance
    Measurement, Le Magnus University Press, 2005
9. Nørreklit, Hanne, “The Balanced Scorecard: what is the score? A rhetorical analysis of
    the Balanced Scorecard”, Accounting,Organizations and Society, 2003
10. Saaty, Thomas L. (2008-06). „Relative Measurement and its Generalization in Decision
    Making: Why Pairwise Comparison are Central in Mathematics for the Measurement of
    Intangible Factors – The Analytic Hierarchy/Network Process”.RACSAM (Review of
    the Royal Spanish Academy of Sciences, Series A, Mathematics) 102 (2): 251–318
11. Dobre I, Bădescu A., Irimiea N., Teoria deciziei – studii de caz, Editura Scripta, 2000
12. Williams, Albert E., Neal, Larry L., „Motivational Assesment in Organization: An
    application of Importance – Performance Analysis”, Journal of Park and Recreation
    Administration, 1993
13. Martilla, J.& James J. (1977) Importance – performance analysis. Journal of
    marketing,41(1), 77-79
14. Kendrick J., Saaty D., “Use Analytic Hierarchy Process for Project Selection”, Six Sigma
    Forum Magazine, 2007
15. Derringer, Goerge C., “A balancing act: optimizing a product’s properties”, Quality
    progress Magazine, 1994
16. Mehnen, J, Trautmann H., “Integration of expert’s preferences in Pareto optimization by
    desirability function techniques”, Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering,
    2000
17. Harrington J., “The desirability function. Industrial quality control, 21/10: 494 – 498,
    1965
18. Rohm H., “A balancing act”, Performance measurement in action, Vol. 2, Issue 2,2004
19. http://people.revoledu.com/kardi/tutorial/AHP
20. http://www.geocities.com/lbu_measure/qestlime/qestlime.htm
21. http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Efficient-BSC-For-Management.htm
22. http://ezinearticles.com/?Components-of-BSC-Analysis.htm
23. www.balancedscorecard.org

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment document sample