THE SPORTING SCENE DRUGSTORE ATHLETE est. To beat the competition, ﬁrst you have to beat the drug t BY MALCOLM GLADWELL t the age of twelve, Christiane Anabolic steroids have been used to A K n a ck e - Sommer was pluck e d from a small town in Saxony to train enhance athletic performance since the early sixties, when an American physi- with the élite SC Dynamo swim club, in cian gave the drugs to three weight lifters, East Berlin. After two years of steady who promptly jumped from mediocrity progress, she was given regular injections to world records. But no one ever took and daily doses of small baby-blue pills, the use of illegal drugs quite so far as which she was required to take in the the East Germans. In a military hospital presence of a trainer. Within weeks, her outside the former East Berlin, in 1991, arms and shoulders began to thicken.She investigators discovered a ten-volume developed severe acne. Her pubic hair archive meticulously detailing every began to spread over her abdomen.Her national athletic achievement from the libido soared out of control. Her voice mid-sixties to the fall of the Berlin Wall, turned gruff. And her performance in each entry annotated with the name of the pool began to improve dramatically, the drug and the dosage given to the ath- culminating in a bronze medal in the lete. An average teen-age girl naturally hundred-metre butterﬂy at the 1980 Mos- produces somewhere around half a mil- cow Olympics.But then the Wall fell and ligram of testosterone a day. The East the truth emerged about those little blue German sports authorities routinely pre- pills. In a new book about the East Ger- scribed steroids to young adolescent girls man sports establishment,“Faust’s Gold,” in doses of up to thirty-ﬁve milligrams a Steven Ungerleider recounts the moment day. As the investigation progressed,for- in 1998 when Knacke-Sommer testiﬁed mer female athletes, who still had mas- in Berlin at the trial of her former coaches culinized physiques and voices, came and doctors: forward with tales of deformed babies, inexplicable tumors, liver dysfunction, “Did defendant Gläser or defendant Binus internal bleeding, and depression. Ger- ever tell you that the blue pills were the ana- man prosecutors handed down hundreds bolic steroid known as Oral-Turinabol?” the prosecutor asked. “They told us they were vi- of indictments of former coaches, doc- tamin tablets,” Christiane said, “just like they tors, and sports ofﬁcials, and won nu- served all the girls with meals.” “Did defen- merous convictions. It was the kind of dant Binus ever tell you the injection he gave was Depot-Turinabol?” “Never,” Christiane spectacle that one would have thought said, staring at Binus until the slight, middle- would shock the sporting world. Yet it aged man looked away. “He said the shots didn’t. In a measure of how much the were another kind of vitamin.” “He never said he was injecting you with use of drugs in competitive sports has the male hormone testosterone?” the prose- changed in the past quarter century, the cutor persisted. “Neither he nor Herr Gläser trials caused barely a ripple. ever mentioned Oral-Turinabol or Depot- Turinabol,” Christiane said ﬁrmly. “Did you Today, coaches no longer have to co- take these drugs voluntarily?” the prosecutor erce athletes into taking drugs. Athletes asked in a kindly tone. “I was ﬁfteen years take them willingly. The drugs them- old when the pills started,” she replied, be- ginning to lose her composure. “The training selves are used in smaller doses and in motto at the pool was, ‘You eat the pills, or creative combinations, leaving few tell- you die.’ It was forbidden to refuse.” tale physical signs, a n dd rug testers con- cede that it is virtually impossible to As her testimony ended, K n a ck e - catch all the cheaters, or even,at times, to Sommer pointed at the two defendants do much more than guess when cheat- and shouted, “They destroyed my body ing is taking place. Among the athletes, and my mind!”Then she rose and threw meanwhile, there is growing uncertainty her Olympic medal to the ﬂoor. about what exactly is wrong with dop- 52 THE NEW YORKER, SEPTEMBER 10, 2001 TNY—09/10/01—PAGE 5 2 ing. When the cyclist Lance Armstrong tion. No athlete of Johnson’s calibre has measured in hundredths of a second; asserted last year, after his second con- ever been exposed so dramatically, but athletes, once they have reached their secutive Tour de France victory, that his disgrace was not quite the victory for early twenties, typically improve their he was drug-free, some doubters won- clean competition that it appeared to be. performance in small, steady increments, dered whether he was lying, and others Johnson was part of a group of world- as experience and strength increase.But simply assumed he was, and wondered class sprinters based in Toronto in the these were quantum leaps, and to Francis why he had to. The moral clarity of the nineteen-seventies and eighties and the explanation was obvious. “Angella East German scandal—with its coer- trained by a brilliant coach named Char- wasn’t losing ground because of a talent cive coaches, damaged athletes, and cor- lie Francis.Francis was driven and ambi- gap,” he writes;“she was losing because of a drug gap, and it was widening by the day.”(In the case of Koch, at least, he was right. In the East German archives, in- vestigators found a letter from Koch to the director of research at V.E.B. Je- napharm,an East German pharmaceuti- cal house, in which she complained,“My drugs were not as potent as the ones that were given to my opponent Bärbel Eck- ert, who kept beating me.” In East Ger- many, Ungerleider writes, this particular complaint was known as “dope-envy.”) Later, Francis says, he was confronted at a track meet by Brian Oldﬁeld, then one of the world’s best shot-putters: “When are you going to start getting seri- ous?” he demanded. “When are you going to tell your guys the facts of life?” I asked him how he could tell they weren’t already using steroids. He replied that the muscle density just wasn’t there. “Your guys will never be able to compete against the Americans—their careers will be over,” he persisted. Among world-class athletes, the lure of steroids is not that they magically transform performance—no drug can do that—but that they make it possible to train harder. An aging baseball star,for instance, may realize that what he needs a est e “Only c reless and stupid people ever get caught in drugst,”one steroid xpert says. to hit a lot more home runs is to double the intensity of his weight training. Or- rupted competitions—has given way to tious, eager to give his athletes the same dinarily, this might actually hurt his per- shades of gray. In today’s climate, the opportunities as their competitors from formance. “When you’re under that kind most telling moment of the East Ger- the United States and Eastern Europe, of physical stress,” Charles Yesalis, an man scandal was not Knacke-Sommer’s and in 1979 he began discussing steroids epidemiologist at Pennsylvania State outburst. It was when one of the sys- with one of his prize sprinters, Angella University, says,“your body releases cor- tem’s former top ofﬁcials, at the begin- Taylor. Francis felt that Taylor had the ticosteroids, and when your body starts ning of his trial, shrugged and quoted potential that year to run the two hun- making those hormones at inappropriate Brecht:“Competitive sport begins where dred metres in close to 22.90 seconds, a times it blocks testosterone. And instead healthy sport ends.” time that would put her within striking of being anabolic—instead of building distance of the two best sprinters in the muscle—corticosteroids are catabolic. erhaps the best example of how world, Evelyn Ashford, of the United They break down muscle.That’s clearly P murky the drug issue has become is the case of Ben Johnson, the Canadian States, and Marita Koch, of East Ger- many. But, seemingly out of nowhere, something an athlete doesn’t want.”Tak- ing steroids counteracts the impact sprinter who won the one hundred me- Ashford suddenly improved her two- of corticosteroids and helps the body tres at the Seoul Olympics, in 1988. hundred-metre time by six-tenths of a bounce back faster. If that home-run Johnson set a new world record, then second. Then Koch ran what Francis hitter was taking testosterone or an ana- failed a post-race drug test and was calls,in his autobiography,“Speed Trap,” bolic steroid,he’d have a better chance of promptly stripped of his gold medal and a “science ﬁctional” 21.71. In the sprints, handling the extra weight training. suspended from international competi- individual improvements are usually It was this extra training that Francis THE NEW YORKER, SEPTEMBER 10, 2001 53 T NY—09/10/01—PAGE 5 3—133SC.—LIVE OPI ART—R 10308—133SC,—MAT CHPRINT TO ARRI VE ON FRIDAY A.M. POUCH!!! and his sprinters felt they needed to reach ment in “Speed Trap” comes when Fran- itive—and Reynolds’s sample was num- the top. Angella Taylor was the ﬁrst cis describes his bewilderment at being bered H5. Reynolds lost the prime years to start taking steroids. Ben Johnson fol- informed that his star runner had failed of his career. lowed in 1981,when he was twenty years a drug test—for the anabolic steroid We may never know what really hap- old, beginning with a daily dose of ﬁve stanozolol. “I was ﬂoored,” Francis writes: pened with Johnson’s assay,and perhaps it milligrams of the steroid Dianabol, in doesn’t much matter.He was a doper.But three-week on-and-off cycles. Over To my knowledge, Ben had never injected clearly this was something less than a vic- time, that protocol grew more complex. stanozolol. He occasionally used Winstrol, an tory for drug enforcement. Here was a oral version of the drug, but for no more than In 1984, Taylor visited a Los Angeles a few days at a time, since it tended to make man using human growth hormone, doctor, Robert Kerr,who was famous for him stiff. He’d always discontinued the tablets Dixarit, inosine, testosterone, and Fura- his willingness to provide athletes with at least six weeks before a meet, well beyond zabol, and the only substance that the the accepted “clearance time.” . . . After seven pharmacological assistance. He sug- years of using steroids, Ben knew what he testers could ﬁnd in him was stanozolol— gested that the Canadians use human was doing. It was inconceivable to me that he which may have been the only illegal drug growth hormone, the pituitary extract might take stanozolol on his own and jeopar- ’t that he hadn used. Nor is it encouraging dize the most important race of his life. that promotes lean muscle and that had that Johnson was the only prominent ath- become, in Francis’s words, “the rage in lete caught for drug use in Seoul.It is hard elite track circles.” Kerr also recom- Francis suggests that Johnson’s urine to believe, for instance, that the sprinter mended three additional substances, all sample might have been deliberately Florence Grifﬁth Joyner, the star of the of which were believed to promote the contaminated by a rival, a charge that is Seoul games, was clean.Before 1988, her body’s production of growth hormone: less preposterous than it sounds. Docu- best times in the hundred metres and the the amino acids arginine and ornithine ments from the East German archive two hundred metres were, respectively, and the dopamine precursor L-dopa. “I show, for example, that in international 10.96 and 21.96. In 1988, a suddenly would later learn,” Francis writes, “that competitions security was so lax that huskier FloJo ran 10.49 and 21.34, times one group of American women was using urine samples were sometimes switched, that no runner since has even come close three times as much growth hormone as stolen from a “clean” athlete, or simply to equalling. In other words, at the age of Kerr had suggested,in addition to 15 mil- “borrowed” from a noncompetitor.“The twenty-eight—when most athletes are ligrams per day of Dianabol, another 15 pure urine would either be infused by a beginning their decline—Grifﬁth Joyner milligrams of Anavar, large amounts of catheter into the competitor’s bladder (a transformed herself in one season from a testosterone,and thyroxine,the synthetic rather painful procedure) or be held in career-long better-than-average sprinter thyroid hormone used by athletes to speed condoms until it was time to give a spec- to the fastest female sprinter in history.Of the metabolism and keep people lean.” imen to the drug control lab,”Ungerlei- course, FloJo never failed a drug test. But But the Canadians stuck to their initial der writes.(The top East German sports what does that prove? FloJo went on to regimen,making only a few changes:Vi- ofﬁcial Manfred Höppner was once in make a fortune as a corporate spokes- tamin B12,a non-steroidal muscle builder charge of urine samples at an interna- woman.Johnson’s suspension cost him an called inosine, and occasional shots of tional weight-lifting competition.When estimated twenty-ﬁve million dollars in testosterone were added; Dianabol was he realized that several of his weight lost endorsements. The real lesson of the dropped in favor of a newer steroid called lifters would not pass the test, he broke Seoul Olympics may simply have been Furazabol; and L-dopa, which turned open the seal of their specimens, poured that Johnson was a very unlucky man. out to cause stiffness, was replaced with out the contents,and,Ungerleider notes, the blood-pressure drug Dixarit. “took a nice long leak of pure urine into he basic problem with drug testing is Going into the Seoul Olympics,then, Johnson was a walking pharmacy. But— them.”) It is also possible that Johnson’s test was simply botched.Two years later, T that testers are always one step be- hind athletes. It can take years for sports and this is the great irony of his case— in 1990, track and ﬁeld’s governing body authorities to ﬁgure out what drugs ath- none of the drugs that were part of his claimed that Butch Reynolds, the world’s letes are using, and even longer to devise formal pharmaceutical protocol resulted four-hundred-metre record holder, had effective means of detecting them. Ana- in his failed drug test. He had already tested positive for the steroid nandro- bolic steroids weren’t banned by the Inter- reaped the beneﬁt of the steroids in in- lone,and suspended him for two years.It national Olympic Committee until 1975, tense workouts leading up to the games, did so despite the fact that half of his almost a decade after the East Germans and had stopped Furazabol and testos- urine-sample data had been misplaced, started using them.In 1996,at the Atlanta terone long enough in advance that all that the testing equipment had failed Olympics, ﬁve athletes tested positive traces of both supplements should have during analysis of the other half of his for what we now know to be the drug disappeared from his system by the time sample, and that the lab technician who Bromantan, but they weren’t suspended, of his race—a process he sped up by tak- did the test identiﬁed Sample H6 as pos- because no one knew at the time what ing the diuretic Moduret. Human growth Bromantan was. (It turned out to be a hormone wasn’t—and still isn’t—de- Russian-made psycho-stimulant.) Human tectable by a drug test, and arginine, or- growth hormone, meanwhile, has been nithine, and Dixarit were legal. Johnson around for twenty years, and testers still should have been clean. The most strik- haven’t ﬁgured out how to detect it. ing (and unintentionally hilarious) mo- Perhaps the best example of the difﬁ- 54 THE NEW YORKER, SEPTEMBER 10, 2001 TNY—09/10/01—PAGE 5 4—LIVE ART #22919—PLEASE INSPECT AND REPORT ON QUALIT Y. culties of drug testing is testosteron e .I t has been used by athletes to enhance performance since the ﬁfties, and the In- ternational Olympic Committee an- nounced that it would crack down on testosterone supplements in the early nineteen-eighties.This didn’t mean that the I.O.C. was going to test for testos- terone directly, though, because the testosterone that athletes were getting from a needle or a pill was largely indis- tinguishable from the testosterone they produce naturally. What was proposed, instead, was to compare the level of testosterone in urine with the level of an- other hormone, epitestosterone, to de- termine what’s called the T/E ratio. For most people, under normal circum- stances,that ratio is 1:1,and so the theory was that if testers found a lot more testos- terone than epitestosterone it would be a sign that the athlete was cheating. Since a small number of people have naturally high levels of testosterone, the I.O.C. avoided the risk of falsely accusing any- one by setting the legal limit at 6:1. Did this stop testosterone use? Not at all. Through much of the eighties and nineties, most sports organizations con- ducted their drug testing only at major competitions. Athletes taking testoster- one would simply do what Johnson did, and taper off their use in the days or weeks prior to those events.So sports au- thorities began randomly showing up at athletes’ houses or training sites and de- manding urine samples. To this, dopers responded by taking extra doses of epi- testosterone with their testosterone, so their T/E would remain in balance.Test- • • ers, in turn, began treating elevated epi- testosterone levels as suspicious, too. But that still left athletes with the claim that smoothing over the old, incriminating the test for that period, you can probably they were among the few with naturally spikes. The patch has another advan- pass the test. And if you don’t want to elevated testosterone.Testers,then,were tage: once you take it off, your testos- take that chance, you can just keep your forced to take multiple urine samples, terone level will drop rapidly, returning testosterone below 6:1, which, by the way, measuring an athlete’s T/E ratio over sev- to normal, depending on the dose and still provides a whopping performance eral weeks. Someone with a naturally el- the person, in as little as an hour.“It’s the beneﬁt. “The bottom line is that only evated T/E ratio will have fairly consis- peaks that get you caught,” says Don careless and stupid people ever get caught tent ratios from week to week. Someone Catlin, who runs the U.C.L.A. Olympic in drug tests,” Charles Yesalis says.“The who is doping will have telltale spikes— Analytical Laboratory.“If you took a pill élite athletes can hire top medical and times immediately after taking shots this morning and an unannounced test scientiﬁc people to make sure nothing or pills when the level of the hormone comes this afternoon, you’d better have a bad happens, and you can’t catch them.” in his blood soars. Did all these precau- bottle of epitestosterone handy. But, if tions mean that cheating stopped? Of you are on the patch and you know your ut here is where the doping issue course not. Athletes have now switched from injection to transdermal testoster- own pharmacokinetics,all you have to do is pull it off.” In other words,if you know B starts to get complicated,for there’s a case to be made that what looks like fail- one patches, which administer a con- how long it takes for you to get back ure really isn’t—that regulating aggressive tinuous low-level dose of the hormone, under the legal limit and successfully stall doping, the way the 6:1 standard does, is THE NEW YORKER, SEPTEMBER 10, 2001 55 —LIVE OPI ART #A6723—133SC. TNY—09/10/01—PAGE 5 5 a better idea than trying to prohibit drug rider who had a hematocrit above ﬁfty if he didn’t, how on earth did he win? use. Take the example of erythropoietin, per cent would be suspended—a delib- The problems with hematocrit testing or EPO. EPO is a hormone released by erately generous standard (like the T/E have inspired a second strategy, which your kidneys that stimulates the produc- ratio) meant to avoid falsely accusing was used on a limited basis at the Sydney tion of red blood cells, the body’s oxygen someone with a naturally high hemat- Olympics and this summer’s World carriers. A man-made version of the hor- ocrit. The hematocrit rule also had the Track and Field Championships. This mone is given to those with suppressed beneﬁt of protecting athletes’ health. If test measures a number of physiological red-blood-cell counts, like patients un- you take too much EPO, the profusion markers of EPO use, including the pres- dergoing kidney dialysis or chemother- of red blood cells makes the blood slug- ence of reticulocytes,which are the im- apy. But over the past decade it has also gish and heavy, placing enormous stress mature red blood cells produced in large become the drug of choice for endurance on the heart. In the late eighties, at least numbers by EPO injections.If you have athletes,because its ability to increase the ﬁfteen professional cyclists died from a lot more reticulocytes than normal, amount of oxygen that the blood can suspected EPO overdoses. A ﬁfty-per- then there’s a good chance you’ve used carry to the muscles has the effect of cent hematocrit limit is below the point EPO recently. The blood work is fol- postponing fatigue. “The studies that at which EPO becomes dangerous. lowed by a conﬁrmatory urinalysis.The have attempted to estimate EPO’s im- But, like the T/E standard, the hema- test has its weaknesses. It’s really only portance say it’s worth about a three-, tocrit standard had a perverse effect: it useful in picking up EPO used in the four-, or ﬁve-per-cent advantage, which set the legal limit so high that it actually previous week or so, whereas the beneﬁts is huge,” Catlin says. EPO also has the encouraged cyclists to titrate their drug of taking the substance persist for a advantage of being a copy of a naturally use up to the legal limit. After all, if you month. But there’s no question that, if occurring substance, so it’s very hard to are riding for three weeks through the random EPO testing were done aggres- tell if someone has been injecting it. (A mountains of France and Spain,there’s a sively in the weeks leading to a major cynic would say that this had something big difference between a hematocrit of competition, it would substantially re- to do with the spate of remarkable times forty-four per cent and one of 49.9 per duce cheating. in endurance races during that period.) cent. This is why Lance Armstrong On paper, this second strategy sounds So how should we test for EPO? One faced so many hostile questions about like a better system. But there’s a per- approach, which was used in the late EPO from the European press—and verse effect here as well. By discourag- nineties by the International Cycling why eyebrows were raised at his ﬁve- ing EPO use, the test is simply pushing Union, is a test much like the T/E ratio year relationship with an Italian doctor savvy athletes toward synthetic com- for testosterone. The percentage of your who was thought to be an expert on pounds called hemoglobin-based oxygen total blood volume which is taken up by performance-enhancing drugs. If Arm- carriers,which serve much the same pur- red blood cells is known as your hemat- strong had, say, a hematocrit of forty- pose as EPO but for which there is no ocrit. The average adult male has a four per cent, the thinking went, why test at the moment. “I recently read off a hematocrit of between thirty-eight and ’t wouldn he have raised it to 49.9, partic- list of these new blood-oxygen expanders forty-four per cent. Since 1995, the cy- ularly since the rules (at least, in 2000) to a group of toxicologists, and none cling authorities have declared that any implicitly allowed him to do so. And, had heard of any of them,” Yesalis says. “That’s how fast things are moving.”The attempt to prevent EPO use actually pro- motes inequity: it gives an enormous ad- vantage to those athletes with the means to keep up with the next wave of phar- macology. By contrast, the hematocrit limit, though more permissive, creates a kind of pharmaceutical parity.The same is true of the T/E limit. At the 1986 world swimming championships, the East German Kristin Otto set a world record in the hundred-metre freestyle, with an extraordinary display of power in the ﬁnal leg of the race. According to East German records, on the day of her race Otto had a T/E ratio of 18:1. Test- ing can prevent that kind of aggressive doping; it can insure no one goes above 6:1. That is a less than perfect outcome, of course, but international sports is not a perfect world. It is a place where Ben Johnson is disgraced and FloJo runs ate “My guess is our tax reb has arrived.” free, where Butch Reynolds is barred for —LIVE OPI ART #A4566—133 LS. TNY—09/10/01—PAGE 5 8 two years and East German coaches pee him: at the very least, a masseur, a doc- into cups—and where athletes without tor, a coach, an agent, and a nutritionist. access to the cutting edge of medicine He is not in medical school. He does not are condemned to second place. Since go hiking in rocky terrain before major drug testers cannot protect the purity of track meets. When Bannister told him, sport, the very least they can do is to last summer, how he had prepared for make sure that no athlete can cheat more his four-minute mile, El Guerrouj was than any other. stunned. “For me, a rest day is perhaps when I train in the morning and spend he ﬁrst man to break the four- the afternoon at the cinema,” he said. El T minute mile was the Englishman Roger Bannister, on a windswept cinder Guerrouj certainly has more than his share of natural ability, but his achieve- track at Oxford, nearly ﬁfty years ago. ments are a reﬂection of much more Bannister is in his early seventies now, than that: of the fact that he is better and one day last summer he returned to coached and better prepared than his op- the site of his historic race along with the ponents, that he trains harder and more current world-record holder in the mile, intelligently, that he has found a way to Morocco’s Hicham El Guerrouj. The stay injury free, and that he can recover two men chatted and compared notes so quickly from one day of ﬁve-hour and posed for photographs. “I feel as if I workouts that he can follow it, the next am looking at my mirror image,” Ban- day, with another ﬁve-hour workout. nister said, indicating El Guerrouj’s sim- Of these two paradigms, we have al- ilarly tall, high-waisted frame. It was a ways been much more comfortable with polite gesture, an attempt to suggest that the ﬁrst: we want the relation between he and El Guerrouj were part of the talent and achievement to be transpar- same athletic lineage. But, as both men ent, and we worry about the way ability surely knew, nothing could be further is now so aggressively managed and aug- from the truth. mented. Steroids bother us because they Bannister was a medical student violate the honesty of effort:they permit when he broke the four-minute mile in an athlete to train too hard ,b eyond what 1954. He did not have time to train seems reasonable. EPO fails the same every day, and when he did he squeezed test. For years, athletes underwent high- in his running on his hour-long midday altitude training sessions,which had the break at the hospital. He had no coach or same effect as EPO—promoting the trainer or entourage, only a group of manufacture of additional red blood running partners who called themselves cells. This was considered acceptable, “the Paddington lunch time club.” In a while EPO is not, because we like to typical workout,they might run ten con- distinguish between those advantages secutive quarter miles—ten laps—with which are natural or earned and those perhaps two minutes of recovery be- which come out of a vial. tween each repetition, then gobble down Even as we assert this distinction on lunch and hurry back to work. Today, the playing ﬁeld, though, we defy it in that training session would be consid- our own lives. We have come to prefer a ered barely adequate for a high-school world where the distractable take Ri- miler. A month or so before his historic talin, the depressed take Prozac, and the mile, Bannister took a few days off to unattractive get cosmetic surgery to a go hiking in Scotland. Five days before world ruled, arbitrarily, by those fortu- he broke the four-minute barrier, he nate few who were born focussed,happy, stopped running entirely, in order to rest. and beautiful. Cosmetic surgery is not The day before the race, he slipped and “earned” beauty, but then natural beauty fell on his hip while working in the hos- isn’t earned,either. One of the principal pital. Then he ran the most famous race contributions of the late twentieth cen- in the history of track and ﬁeld.Bannis- tury was the moral deregulation of social ter was what runners admiringly call an competition—the insistence that advan- “animal,” a natural. tages derived from artiﬁcial and extraor- El Guerrouj, by contrast, trains ﬁve dinary intervention are no less legitimate hours a day, in two two-and-a-half- than the advantages of nature. All that hour sessions. He probably has a team athletes want, for better or worse, is the of half a dozen people working with chance to play by those same rules. o THE NEW YORKER, SEPTEMBER 10, 2001 59 TNY—09/10/01—PAGE 59—133SC.
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