Trace mineral complex in broiler premix

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     EFFECT OF ORGANIC TRACE MINERAL COMPLEX ON THE
                 PERFORMANCE OF BROILER

                                              1               2
                                S.M.R Huque & M.I Hossain

                                         Abstract

This study attempted to find out the different organic trace mineral complexes on body
weight of the broilers. This study also focused on the economic efficiency to use these
organic trace minerals. The organic trace complex minerals were Availa Z/M and Availa
Zn 40 of ZinPro Corporation, USA. The experiment was conducted with 1200 Arbor
Acres day old chickens and divided into three treatment groups and supplied three diets.
Three diets were prepared and provided to three treatment groups. The diet T1
contained 1 gm Availa Zn 40 per kg diet, T2 contained no organic trace mineral complex
(control group) and T3 contained 1 gm Availa Z/M per kg diet. The dietary ingredients
were used in the experiment are wheat, maize, rice polish, soybean meal, till oil cake,
Peru fishmeal etc. The findings of the study indicated that there was a significant
(P<0.05) influence of Availa A/M on body weight increase. The performance of Availa
Z/M was quite significant (P<0.05) in increasing weight of the broiler in comparison to
Availa Zn 40. The break-even analysis depicted that in case of T3 the break-even point
in revenue and units (broilers) reached at the lowest point in comparison to T2 and T1.
The findings of the study indicated that the poultry farmers would get higher meat
production from the broilers by using Availa Z/M with normal ration. This will help to
cover their production cost easily.

Key words: Broilers, Organic trace mineral complex, Zinc manganese amino acids
complex (Availa Z/M), Zinc amino acids complex (Availa Zn 40).




1      Student of MBA Program, Department of Business Administration
       Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342
2      Professor, Department of Agricultural Statistics
       Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
       (Received: July 27, 1999)
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                                      Introduction

In case of broiler rearing, body weight is a primary consideration for farmers. This is due
to the fact that higher body weight gives high return on investment. A large part of this
increase in body weight depends on muscular tissue of substantial protein contents. The
protein synthesis needs amino acids at correct proportions, otherwise, protein will not be
perfectly synthesized (Ahmed-1996).

Researches in the past demonstrate that mere increasing the levels of inorganic trace
minerals feed to livestock and poultry do not always meet the nutrient requirements
needed for profitable animal performance (Zinpro Technical Bulletin, 1996). Availamins
offer a solution to this problem by providing highly bio-available sources of zinc,
manganese, copper and iron to animal diets. Today’s nutritionists are emphasizing the
need for proper balance of all nutrients. Another disadvantage to feeding elevated levels
of inorganic trace minerals is the negative interaction or ‘tying up’ of other critical trace
minerals (Zinpro Technical Bulletin, 1996). To overcome this problem a number of
studies have tested organic trace minerals to assess broiler performance. A research
aimed at improving broiler performance by supplying highly bio-available trace mineral
complex (amino acids and trace minerals) provided valuable information for poultry
nutritionist and producers (Zinpro Technical Bulletin – 1997).

Kidd et al. (1993) reported zinc as the more biologically available form of ZINPRO (zinc-
methionine complex) that develops the chick immune system and cell responses. An in-
depth study was undertaken by Quarles (1997) to assess the effect of ZINPRO (Zinc-
methionine complex) and MANPRO (Manganese-methionine complex) to reduce
mortality, skin and gut lesion, and improve breast meat yield of broiler. Quarles (1997)
opined that Availa Zn 40 (Zinc amino acids complex) has remarkable potentiality to
improve the average body weight of broiler chickens. In another study Schugel (1996)
reported that the incorporation of ZINPRO and MANPRO into standard dietary
formulation of zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate could improve broiler performance,
reduce mortality, improve breast meat yield and reduce skin and gut lesions.

This study attempted to examine the performance of zinc amino acid complex (Availa Zn
40) and zinc manganese amino acid complex (Availa Z/M) on broiler performance.
Availamins (both Availa Zn 40 and Availa Z/M) is a brand class of organic trace mineral
complex from Zinpro Corporation, USA. Availamins is developed using a unique new
process. Single free amino acid is attached with a specific trace mineral while producing
it. In this two stages production system a highly pure source of protein that yields an
intermediate product containing only free amino acids with no larger protein fragments.
These free amino acids are then mixed to a specific trace mineral, such as zinc,
manganese, copper or iron utilizing by Zinpro Corporation’s patented complexing
technology. The result is a product with chemical structure in a 1:1 ratio, with one amino
acid molecule bound to one metal ion (Zinpro Technical Bulletin, 1996). These zinc
amino acid complex (Availa Zn 40) comprising 4% Zn and 8.03% amino acids and zinc-
manganese amino acid complex (Availa Z/M) comprising 4% zinc, 4% manganese and
17.58% amino acids (Zinpro Technical Bulletin-1997).
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                              Materials and Methods

The experiment was carried out in a typical medium sized farm (1000 sq. ft.) situated in
Borpa thana of Narayangonj District. The experiment was conducted with 1200 Arbor
Acres day old chickens for a period of 42 days. The shed was 50 feet long and 20 feet
wide. The compartments were built on the floor space. The floor space was partitioned
into twelve compartments with a consideration of 0.75 sq. ft. space for each chicken.

                                 Experimental Design
A total of 1200 broiler chicks were randomly divided into three treatment groups having 4
replications in each. Birds contained in each treatment group are randomly distributed
into four compartments. The number of chicks in each compartment was 100.

Preparation of experimental diets
Three diets were prepared with commonly available feed ingredients (e.g. wheat, maize,
rice polish, soybean meal, till oil cake, Peru fishmeal etc). The treatment (T1) was
prepared using 1 gm Availa Zn 40 per kg of diet. Treatment 3 (T3) was made with 1 gm
Availa Z/M in per kg diet and the treatment 2 (T2) was prepared by using only normal
feed ingredients needed for a broiler chicken (Table 1).

Table: 1 Ingredient composition of the experimental diets (%)

Ingredients                                             Treatments
                                         T1                   T2                 T3
Wheat                                    20                   20                 20
Maize                                    35                   35                 35
Rice polish                              16                   16                 16
Soybean meal                             15                   15                 15
Till oil cake                             5                    5                 5
Peru fishmeal                             8                    8                 8
Oyster shell powder                      0.5                  0.5               0.5
Common salt                             0.25                 0.25               0.25
Rhodovit ‘B”                            0.25                 0.25               0.25
Lysine                                  0.10                 0.10               0.10
Methionine                              0.05                 0.05               0.05
Choline Chloride                        0.10                 0.10               0.10
DOT                                     0.05                 0.05               0.05
Availa Zn 40                            0.10                   -                  -
Availa Z/M                                -                    -                0.10
Cumulative nutrient composition (100 kg mixed feed)
Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg)          3089                 3089              3089
Crude protein (gm/kg)                  246.53               246.53            246.53

Added: vitamin and mineral premix, Rhodivit ‘B’ contained (in 2.5 gm)
Vitamin-A, 12500 IU; vitamin-d3, 2500 IU; Vitamin-E, 0.02gm; vitamin-K3, 4.0 mg;
vitamin-B1, 2.5 mg, vitamin-B2, 5.0 mg, vitamin-B6, 4.0 mg; Nicotinic acid, 400 mg;
Pathothenic acid, 12.5 mg; vitamin-B12, 0.012 mg; Folic acid, 0.08 mg; Biotin, 0.1 mg;
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Cobalt, 0.40 mg; Copper, 10 mg; Iron, 60 mg; Iodine, 0.4 mg; manganese, 60 mg; zinc,
50 mg; selenium’ 0.15 mg; DL Methionine’ 100 mg Choline Chloride, 300 mg, L-Lysine,
60 mg.


T1     = the diet containing Availa Zn 40, 1 gm/kg with normal food ingredients.
T2     = the diet containing no extra ingredients (Availa Zn 40 or Availa Z/M)
        (The broilers falling in this group may be considered as the control group).
T3     = the diet containing Availa Z/M, 1 gm/kg with normal food ingredients.


Data and sampling technique
Data on body weight were collected on a weekly basis. A simple random sampling
technique was used for collecting data. Five percent (5%) birds from each compartment
(comprises 100 birds) were selected for collecting data. Body weights of the chickens
were recorded at the end of each week. These data represent methods using analysis of
variance (Zaman et. al. 1982) the mean values were tested by using Least Significant
Difference (LSD) or DMRT test to find out the significant difference between means.

                              Results and Discussion

Statistical analysis on live weight gain of broilers
The effect of different organic trace mineral complexes on weekly live weight gain of
broiler chicks is shown in table 2.

Week 1
It appears from table 2 that there did not exist any significant difference among the
treatments (T1, T2 and T3). All the treatments show the same alphabetical notification.
This indicates that all treatments had equal effect in increasing the weight at the end of
week 1. Although there was no significant difference between these groups, a Duncan’s
Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was employed to examine the reasons whether the
difference among the treatments was due to the small change in weight or large
experimental error. It was observed that the result was insignificant due to the small
change in weight of the broilers.

Week 2 to Week 4
It is clear from the table 2 that there exists a significant (p>0.05) difference in gaining
weight of the chickens from second to fourth weeks. The weight gain of treatment 1 (T1)
and treatments 3 (T3) is significantly (p<0.05) different from treatment 2(T2). Treatment
1(T1) and treatment 3 (T3) show a common alphabetical notation than treatment 2(T2).

This result also indicates that there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in body weight
gain between treatment 1(T1) and treatment 3(T3). These two treatments (T1 and T3)
had equal affect on weight after mixing feed additives (Availa Zn 40 and Availa Z/M) with
normal diets of the chickens. The rank of the treatment 3(T3) is higher than treatment
1(T1). This implies that treatment 3(T3) had a better performance though there was not
any significant difference.
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Table: 2 Effect of different organic trace mineral complex on live weight gain of broilers

Periods               Average weight                  Mean          LSD         Significanc
                        Treatments                   Standard       value         e Level
               T1          T2              T3                     deviations
Week 1       121.5a      126.3a          124.8a         3.396       9.541             NS
Week 2       343.1a      325.5b          342.1a           -         15.65              *
Week 3       737.4a      703.2b          764.8a           -         29.66              *
Week 4        1163a      1099b           1173a            -         55.62              *
Week 5        1589b      1455c           1681a            -         62.03              *
Week 6        1939b      1863b           2070a            -         106.1              *
 All values indicate:
* = (P<0.05)
NS = Not significant.
Common alphabetical notification in each row indicates not significantly different.
Different alphabetical notification in each row indicates significantly different.



Week 5
It was further observed that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in body weight
among three treatments groups (T1, T2 and T3) (Table: 2). Treatment 3(T3) was placed
in the highest-ranking order. This indicates that the feed additive (Availa Z/M) had
excellent influence in gaining weight of the broilers.

Week 6
It is evident from the table 2 that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference between
treatment 3(T3) and rest of the treatments (T1 and t2). Broilers belonging to the
Treatment 3(T3) gained maximum weight and were placed in the highest-ranking order.
The alphabetical notation of treatment 3(T3) is different than other treatment groups (T1
and T2). Treatment 1 (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) depicted an equal influence on weight
increase. This indicates that the feed additive (Availa Zn 40) had no significant influence
on increasing weight of the broilers during week 6. The ranking order indicates a better
performance of treatment 1(T1) than treatment 2 (T2), although it seems that there
doesn’t exist any significant influence of the feed additives on the body weight.

Graphical analysis on live weight gain of broilers

Average weekly live-weight (gm) per broiler in different treatments is shown in fig.1. In
week 1, the average body weight was 4.8 gm and 1.5 gm., higher than treatment 1 and
treatment 3. For rest of the weeks, weights of the chickens in treatment 3(T3) showed a
striking
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Figure: 1 weekly average weight of broilers




              2500


              2000
Weight (gm)




              1500                                                Treatments T1
                                                                  Treatments T2
              1000                                                Treatments T3


              500


                0
                     Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6




Result. The differences of weights in treatment 3 had increased gradually. In week 6, the
differences of weights between treatment 1(T1) and treatment 2(T2) were 131.10 gm
and 207.5 gm. respectively.
From the graphical analysis, it can be inferred that there was a highly significant
influence of feed additive (Availa Z/M) on the weight gain of broilers.

Feed efficiency analysis
Feed efficiency indicates feed consumption of chickens in relation to weight gain.

                    Feed consumption (gm/kg)
Feed efficiency: -------------------------------------
                    Body weight gain (gm/kg)

Besides week 6, a tendency of poor feed efficiency ratio was observed in case of
treatment 2 (T2) (table: 3). The treatment 3 (T3) shows an improved feed efficiency in
comparison to treatment 1(T1) except week 2 and week 4. Figure: 2 indicates that
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      Table 3:Weekly feed efficiency pattern of broilers

                      Week          Treatment           Treatment   Treatment 3(T3)
                                      1(T1)               2(T2)
                          1            1.53                1.44           1.43
                          2            1.24                1.38           1.26
                          3            1.67                1.75           1.56
                          4            1.86                2.00           1.94
                          5            2.36                2.82           1.98
                          6            2.84                2.44           2.55




 3

2.5

 2
                                                                                   Treatment 1
1.5                                                                                Treatment 2
                                                                                   Treatment 3
 1

0.5

 0
         1            2            3            4            5        6

      Figure: 2 weekly feed efficiency pattern of broilers

      The specialized feed additives (Specially Availa Z/M) had a positive affect in increasing
      feed efficiency of the broilers.
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Economic (cost-volume-profit) analysis
Break-even analysis is used to determine the level of sales and the mix products, which
are required to just recover all costs incurred during the period. The break-even point is
the point at which cost and revenue are equal. There is neither a profit nor a loss at the
break-even points. Since the objective of cost-volume-profit analysis is to determine the
level of sales and the mix of products that are required to achieve a level of profit (Usry
et. al. 1991)

Break-even (Revenue) point:

R (BE)         =        F
                       1–V

Break-even (Quantity) point:

Q (BE)         =        F
                       P-C

Where,
R (Be) = Revenue break-even point of product sold
Q (BE) = Quantity break-even point of product sold
F = Total fixed cost
V = Variables cost per Taka of sales revenue
(i.e., total variable cost divided by total sales revenue)
P = Sales price per unit
C =variable cost per unit
Comparison among treatments

Table: 4 Break-even comparisons among the treatments

    Treatments            Break-even point         Break-even point     Margin of safety
                             (Revenue)                  (Units)
         T1                 Tk. 50846.87             462 chickens        Tk .81337.13
         T2                 Tk. 58615.24             564 chickens        Tk. 66063.76
         T3                 Tk. 38449.25             312 chickens        Tk. 109310.75

Table: 4 shows that in case of treatment 3 (T3) the break-even point in revenue and
units (broilers) reached at the lowest point in comparison to treatment 2 and treatment 1.
This implies that the entrepreneur would be successful in getting their money back (fixed
cost and variable cost) by selling minimum number of broilers (312 broilers out of 1200
broilers). It was further observed that one would also be successful in betting his/her
money back if he/she invest money on broilers belonging to treatment 1 (Availa Zn 40)
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rather than on treatment 2 (control group). The whole analysis was done from the
perspective of an entrepreneur. The margin of safety (planned units sales-break-even
units sales, column 4) indicates that the safety margin of treatment 3 (T3) is higher than
other treatments (T1 and T2). It is also clear that the situation of treatment 1 (T1) is
better than treatment 2 (T2) and the safety margin of treatment 1 (T1) is higher than
treatment 2 (T2). As a result, less risk is involved in treatment 1 (T1) rather than
treatment 2 (T2) in running a project on broiler. There is lowest risk to use Availa Z/M
with normal diet than other treatments (T1 and T2).

                                     Conclusions
The graphical analysis on feed efficiency pattern has indicated that overall feed
efficiency was higher in treatment 3 (group that has taken Availa Z/M as feed additive).
However, the performance of treatment 2 (control group) was almost always poor in feed
efficiency. Although there was sometimes an upward trend in feed efficiency pattern in
case of treatment 1 (group that has taken Zn 40)

This study marked that organic trace mineral complex (Availa Zn 40 and Availa Z/M) had
significant influences in increasing the body weight of the broilers. The zinc-manganese
amino acid complex (Availa Z/M) had significant influences in gaining weight of the
broilers than the zinc amino acid complex (Availa Zn 40) and normal diet. It may be
concluded that 1% Availa Z/M (organic trace –manganese complex) could be used in the
broiler ration under Bangladesh condition.

The break-even analysis shows that in case of treatment 3 (Availa Z/M) the break-even
point in revenue and units (broilers) reached at the lowest point in comparison to
treatment 2 and treatment 1. This implies that the entrepreneur would be successful in
getting their money back (fixed cost and variable cost) by selling minimum number of
broilers (312 broilers out of 1200 broilers). It was further observed that one would also
be successful in getting his/her money back if he/she invests money on broilers
belonging to treatment 1 (Availa Zn 40) rather than on treatment 2 (control group). The
whole analysis was done from the perspective of a Bangladeshi entrepreneur.

                               Acknowledgements
The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of Mr. Syed S. Kaiser Kabir, Dr. Md. Rezaul
Karim Miah, Dr. SMFB Abdus Sabur and Dr. Manzur Aziz of Renata Ltd.; Mr.
Chowdhury Golam Kibria, Lecturer, Department of Business Administration,
Jahangirnagar University; and Late Professor M A Rahman, Department of Poultry
Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University at the various stages of this research.

                                Literature Cited
Ahmed, M.U 1996. A study on the Lysine requirement of broilers from fourth to eight
weeks of age. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural
University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Kidd, M.T.; Anthony, N.B.; Newberry, L.A. and Lee, S.R. 1993. Effect of supplementation
zinc in either a corn soybean or Milo and corn soybean diet on the performance of young
broilers and their progeny. Poultry Science 72:1472-1499.
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Quarles, C. 1997. Effect of Availa Zn (zinc amino acid complex) on intestinal lesion and
performance of broiler exposed to Coccidiosis. Internal report. Zinpro Corporation, Eden
Prairie, Minnesota, USA.

Shugel, L.M 1996. Summary of 13 broiler studies feeding zinc methionine and
manganese methionine. Internal report. Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota,
USA.

USry, MF and Rahim, and Howlader, M. 1982. Simple Lessons from Biometry-
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh.

Zinpro Corporation. 1996. Internal report, TB-Availa-Z/M

Zinpro Corporation. 1996. Internal report, TB-G-9655

Zinpro Corporation. 1997. Internal report, TB-Availa-Zn 40.

				
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