1 EFFECT OF ORGANIC TRACE MINERAL COMPLEX ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER 1 2 S.M.R Huque & M.I Hossain Abstract This study attempted to find out the different organic trace mineral complexes on body weight of the broilers. This study also focused on the economic efficiency to use these organic trace minerals. The organic trace complex minerals were Availa Z/M and Availa Zn 40 of ZinPro Corporation, USA. The experiment was conducted with 1200 Arbor Acres day old chickens and divided into three treatment groups and supplied three diets. Three diets were prepared and provided to three treatment groups. The diet T1 contained 1 gm Availa Zn 40 per kg diet, T2 contained no organic trace mineral complex (control group) and T3 contained 1 gm Availa Z/M per kg diet. The dietary ingredients were used in the experiment are wheat, maize, rice polish, soybean meal, till oil cake, Peru fishmeal etc. The findings of the study indicated that there was a significant (P<0.05) influence of Availa A/M on body weight increase. The performance of Availa Z/M was quite significant (P<0.05) in increasing weight of the broiler in comparison to Availa Zn 40. The break-even analysis depicted that in case of T3 the break-even point in revenue and units (broilers) reached at the lowest point in comparison to T2 and T1. The findings of the study indicated that the poultry farmers would get higher meat production from the broilers by using Availa Z/M with normal ration. This will help to cover their production cost easily. Key words: Broilers, Organic trace mineral complex, Zinc manganese amino acids complex (Availa Z/M), Zinc amino acids complex (Availa Zn 40). 1 Student of MBA Program, Department of Business Administration Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 2 Professor, Department of Agricultural Statistics Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh (Received: July 27, 1999) 2 Introduction In case of broiler rearing, body weight is a primary consideration for farmers. This is due to the fact that higher body weight gives high return on investment. A large part of this increase in body weight depends on muscular tissue of substantial protein contents. The protein synthesis needs amino acids at correct proportions, otherwise, protein will not be perfectly synthesized (Ahmed-1996). Researches in the past demonstrate that mere increasing the levels of inorganic trace minerals feed to livestock and poultry do not always meet the nutrient requirements needed for profitable animal performance (Zinpro Technical Bulletin, 1996). Availamins offer a solution to this problem by providing highly bio-available sources of zinc, manganese, copper and iron to animal diets. Today’s nutritionists are emphasizing the need for proper balance of all nutrients. Another disadvantage to feeding elevated levels of inorganic trace minerals is the negative interaction or ‘tying up’ of other critical trace minerals (Zinpro Technical Bulletin, 1996). To overcome this problem a number of studies have tested organic trace minerals to assess broiler performance. A research aimed at improving broiler performance by supplying highly bio-available trace mineral complex (amino acids and trace minerals) provided valuable information for poultry nutritionist and producers (Zinpro Technical Bulletin – 1997). Kidd et al. (1993) reported zinc as the more biologically available form of ZINPRO (zinc- methionine complex) that develops the chick immune system and cell responses. An in- depth study was undertaken by Quarles (1997) to assess the effect of ZINPRO (Zinc- methionine complex) and MANPRO (Manganese-methionine complex) to reduce mortality, skin and gut lesion, and improve breast meat yield of broiler. Quarles (1997) opined that Availa Zn 40 (Zinc amino acids complex) has remarkable potentiality to improve the average body weight of broiler chickens. In another study Schugel (1996) reported that the incorporation of ZINPRO and MANPRO into standard dietary formulation of zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate could improve broiler performance, reduce mortality, improve breast meat yield and reduce skin and gut lesions. This study attempted to examine the performance of zinc amino acid complex (Availa Zn 40) and zinc manganese amino acid complex (Availa Z/M) on broiler performance. Availamins (both Availa Zn 40 and Availa Z/M) is a brand class of organic trace mineral complex from Zinpro Corporation, USA. Availamins is developed using a unique new process. Single free amino acid is attached with a specific trace mineral while producing it. In this two stages production system a highly pure source of protein that yields an intermediate product containing only free amino acids with no larger protein fragments. These free amino acids are then mixed to a specific trace mineral, such as zinc, manganese, copper or iron utilizing by Zinpro Corporation’s patented complexing technology. The result is a product with chemical structure in a 1:1 ratio, with one amino acid molecule bound to one metal ion (Zinpro Technical Bulletin, 1996). These zinc amino acid complex (Availa Zn 40) comprising 4% Zn and 8.03% amino acids and zinc- manganese amino acid complex (Availa Z/M) comprising 4% zinc, 4% manganese and 17.58% amino acids (Zinpro Technical Bulletin-1997). 3 Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in a typical medium sized farm (1000 sq. ft.) situated in Borpa thana of Narayangonj District. The experiment was conducted with 1200 Arbor Acres day old chickens for a period of 42 days. The shed was 50 feet long and 20 feet wide. The compartments were built on the floor space. The floor space was partitioned into twelve compartments with a consideration of 0.75 sq. ft. space for each chicken. Experimental Design A total of 1200 broiler chicks were randomly divided into three treatment groups having 4 replications in each. Birds contained in each treatment group are randomly distributed into four compartments. The number of chicks in each compartment was 100. Preparation of experimental diets Three diets were prepared with commonly available feed ingredients (e.g. wheat, maize, rice polish, soybean meal, till oil cake, Peru fishmeal etc). The treatment (T1) was prepared using 1 gm Availa Zn 40 per kg of diet. Treatment 3 (T3) was made with 1 gm Availa Z/M in per kg diet and the treatment 2 (T2) was prepared by using only normal feed ingredients needed for a broiler chicken (Table 1). Table: 1 Ingredient composition of the experimental diets (%) Ingredients Treatments T1 T2 T3 Wheat 20 20 20 Maize 35 35 35 Rice polish 16 16 16 Soybean meal 15 15 15 Till oil cake 5 5 5 Peru fishmeal 8 8 8 Oyster shell powder 0.5 0.5 0.5 Common salt 0.25 0.25 0.25 Rhodovit ‘B” 0.25 0.25 0.25 Lysine 0.10 0.10 0.10 Methionine 0.05 0.05 0.05 Choline Chloride 0.10 0.10 0.10 DOT 0.05 0.05 0.05 Availa Zn 40 0.10 - - Availa Z/M - - 0.10 Cumulative nutrient composition (100 kg mixed feed) Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 3089 3089 3089 Crude protein (gm/kg) 246.53 246.53 246.53 Added: vitamin and mineral premix, Rhodivit ‘B’ contained (in 2.5 gm) Vitamin-A, 12500 IU; vitamin-d3, 2500 IU; Vitamin-E, 0.02gm; vitamin-K3, 4.0 mg; vitamin-B1, 2.5 mg, vitamin-B2, 5.0 mg, vitamin-B6, 4.0 mg; Nicotinic acid, 400 mg; Pathothenic acid, 12.5 mg; vitamin-B12, 0.012 mg; Folic acid, 0.08 mg; Biotin, 0.1 mg; 4 Cobalt, 0.40 mg; Copper, 10 mg; Iron, 60 mg; Iodine, 0.4 mg; manganese, 60 mg; zinc, 50 mg; selenium’ 0.15 mg; DL Methionine’ 100 mg Choline Chloride, 300 mg, L-Lysine, 60 mg. T1 = the diet containing Availa Zn 40, 1 gm/kg with normal food ingredients. T2 = the diet containing no extra ingredients (Availa Zn 40 or Availa Z/M) (The broilers falling in this group may be considered as the control group). T3 = the diet containing Availa Z/M, 1 gm/kg with normal food ingredients. Data and sampling technique Data on body weight were collected on a weekly basis. A simple random sampling technique was used for collecting data. Five percent (5%) birds from each compartment (comprises 100 birds) were selected for collecting data. Body weights of the chickens were recorded at the end of each week. These data represent methods using analysis of variance (Zaman et. al. 1982) the mean values were tested by using Least Significant Difference (LSD) or DMRT test to find out the significant difference between means. Results and Discussion Statistical analysis on live weight gain of broilers The effect of different organic trace mineral complexes on weekly live weight gain of broiler chicks is shown in table 2. Week 1 It appears from table 2 that there did not exist any significant difference among the treatments (T1, T2 and T3). All the treatments show the same alphabetical notification. This indicates that all treatments had equal effect in increasing the weight at the end of week 1. Although there was no significant difference between these groups, a Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was employed to examine the reasons whether the difference among the treatments was due to the small change in weight or large experimental error. It was observed that the result was insignificant due to the small change in weight of the broilers. Week 2 to Week 4 It is clear from the table 2 that there exists a significant (p>0.05) difference in gaining weight of the chickens from second to fourth weeks. The weight gain of treatment 1 (T1) and treatments 3 (T3) is significantly (p<0.05) different from treatment 2(T2). Treatment 1(T1) and treatment 3 (T3) show a common alphabetical notation than treatment 2(T2). This result also indicates that there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in body weight gain between treatment 1(T1) and treatment 3(T3). These two treatments (T1 and T3) had equal affect on weight after mixing feed additives (Availa Zn 40 and Availa Z/M) with normal diets of the chickens. The rank of the treatment 3(T3) is higher than treatment 1(T1). This implies that treatment 3(T3) had a better performance though there was not any significant difference. 5 Table: 2 Effect of different organic trace mineral complex on live weight gain of broilers Periods Average weight Mean LSD Significanc Treatments Standard value e Level T1 T2 T3 deviations Week 1 121.5a 126.3a 124.8a 3.396 9.541 NS Week 2 343.1a 325.5b 342.1a - 15.65 * Week 3 737.4a 703.2b 764.8a - 29.66 * Week 4 1163a 1099b 1173a - 55.62 * Week 5 1589b 1455c 1681a - 62.03 * Week 6 1939b 1863b 2070a - 106.1 * All values indicate: * = (P<0.05) NS = Not significant. Common alphabetical notification in each row indicates not significantly different. Different alphabetical notification in each row indicates significantly different. Week 5 It was further observed that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference in body weight among three treatments groups (T1, T2 and T3) (Table: 2). Treatment 3(T3) was placed in the highest-ranking order. This indicates that the feed additive (Availa Z/M) had excellent influence in gaining weight of the broilers. Week 6 It is evident from the table 2 that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference between treatment 3(T3) and rest of the treatments (T1 and t2). Broilers belonging to the Treatment 3(T3) gained maximum weight and were placed in the highest-ranking order. The alphabetical notation of treatment 3(T3) is different than other treatment groups (T1 and T2). Treatment 1 (T1) and treatment 2 (T2) depicted an equal influence on weight increase. This indicates that the feed additive (Availa Zn 40) had no significant influence on increasing weight of the broilers during week 6. The ranking order indicates a better performance of treatment 1(T1) than treatment 2 (T2), although it seems that there doesn’t exist any significant influence of the feed additives on the body weight. Graphical analysis on live weight gain of broilers Average weekly live-weight (gm) per broiler in different treatments is shown in fig.1. In week 1, the average body weight was 4.8 gm and 1.5 gm., higher than treatment 1 and treatment 3. For rest of the weeks, weights of the chickens in treatment 3(T3) showed a striking 6 Figure: 1 weekly average weight of broilers 2500 2000 Weight (gm) 1500 Treatments T1 Treatments T2 1000 Treatments T3 500 0 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Result. The differences of weights in treatment 3 had increased gradually. In week 6, the differences of weights between treatment 1(T1) and treatment 2(T2) were 131.10 gm and 207.5 gm. respectively. From the graphical analysis, it can be inferred that there was a highly significant influence of feed additive (Availa Z/M) on the weight gain of broilers. Feed efficiency analysis Feed efficiency indicates feed consumption of chickens in relation to weight gain. Feed consumption (gm/kg) Feed efficiency: ------------------------------------- Body weight gain (gm/kg) Besides week 6, a tendency of poor feed efficiency ratio was observed in case of treatment 2 (T2) (table: 3). The treatment 3 (T3) shows an improved feed efficiency in comparison to treatment 1(T1) except week 2 and week 4. Figure: 2 indicates that 7 Table 3:Weekly feed efficiency pattern of broilers Week Treatment Treatment Treatment 3(T3) 1(T1) 2(T2) 1 1.53 1.44 1.43 2 1.24 1.38 1.26 3 1.67 1.75 1.56 4 1.86 2.00 1.94 5 2.36 2.82 1.98 6 2.84 2.44 2.55 3 2.5 2 Treatment 1 1.5 Treatment 2 Treatment 3 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure: 2 weekly feed efficiency pattern of broilers The specialized feed additives (Specially Availa Z/M) had a positive affect in increasing feed efficiency of the broilers. 8 Economic (cost-volume-profit) analysis Break-even analysis is used to determine the level of sales and the mix products, which are required to just recover all costs incurred during the period. The break-even point is the point at which cost and revenue are equal. There is neither a profit nor a loss at the break-even points. Since the objective of cost-volume-profit analysis is to determine the level of sales and the mix of products that are required to achieve a level of profit (Usry et. al. 1991) Break-even (Revenue) point: R (BE) = F 1–V Break-even (Quantity) point: Q (BE) = F P-C Where, R (Be) = Revenue break-even point of product sold Q (BE) = Quantity break-even point of product sold F = Total fixed cost V = Variables cost per Taka of sales revenue (i.e., total variable cost divided by total sales revenue) P = Sales price per unit C =variable cost per unit Comparison among treatments Table: 4 Break-even comparisons among the treatments Treatments Break-even point Break-even point Margin of safety (Revenue) (Units) T1 Tk. 50846.87 462 chickens Tk .81337.13 T2 Tk. 58615.24 564 chickens Tk. 66063.76 T3 Tk. 38449.25 312 chickens Tk. 109310.75 Table: 4 shows that in case of treatment 3 (T3) the break-even point in revenue and units (broilers) reached at the lowest point in comparison to treatment 2 and treatment 1. This implies that the entrepreneur would be successful in getting their money back (fixed cost and variable cost) by selling minimum number of broilers (312 broilers out of 1200 broilers). It was further observed that one would also be successful in betting his/her money back if he/she invest money on broilers belonging to treatment 1 (Availa Zn 40) 9 rather than on treatment 2 (control group). The whole analysis was done from the perspective of an entrepreneur. The margin of safety (planned units sales-break-even units sales, column 4) indicates that the safety margin of treatment 3 (T3) is higher than other treatments (T1 and T2). It is also clear that the situation of treatment 1 (T1) is better than treatment 2 (T2) and the safety margin of treatment 1 (T1) is higher than treatment 2 (T2). As a result, less risk is involved in treatment 1 (T1) rather than treatment 2 (T2) in running a project on broiler. There is lowest risk to use Availa Z/M with normal diet than other treatments (T1 and T2). Conclusions The graphical analysis on feed efficiency pattern has indicated that overall feed efficiency was higher in treatment 3 (group that has taken Availa Z/M as feed additive). However, the performance of treatment 2 (control group) was almost always poor in feed efficiency. Although there was sometimes an upward trend in feed efficiency pattern in case of treatment 1 (group that has taken Zn 40) This study marked that organic trace mineral complex (Availa Zn 40 and Availa Z/M) had significant influences in increasing the body weight of the broilers. The zinc-manganese amino acid complex (Availa Z/M) had significant influences in gaining weight of the broilers than the zinc amino acid complex (Availa Zn 40) and normal diet. It may be concluded that 1% Availa Z/M (organic trace –manganese complex) could be used in the broiler ration under Bangladesh condition. The break-even analysis shows that in case of treatment 3 (Availa Z/M) the break-even point in revenue and units (broilers) reached at the lowest point in comparison to treatment 2 and treatment 1. This implies that the entrepreneur would be successful in getting their money back (fixed cost and variable cost) by selling minimum number of broilers (312 broilers out of 1200 broilers). It was further observed that one would also be successful in getting his/her money back if he/she invests money on broilers belonging to treatment 1 (Availa Zn 40) rather than on treatment 2 (control group). The whole analysis was done from the perspective of a Bangladeshi entrepreneur. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the help of Mr. Syed S. Kaiser Kabir, Dr. Md. Rezaul Karim Miah, Dr. SMFB Abdus Sabur and Dr. Manzur Aziz of Renata Ltd.; Mr. Chowdhury Golam Kibria, Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Jahangirnagar University; and Late Professor M A Rahman, Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University at the various stages of this research. Literature Cited Ahmed, M.U 1996. A study on the Lysine requirement of broilers from fourth to eight weeks of age. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Poultry Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Kidd, M.T.; Anthony, N.B.; Newberry, L.A. and Lee, S.R. 1993. Effect of supplementation zinc in either a corn soybean or Milo and corn soybean diet on the performance of young broilers and their progeny. Poultry Science 72:1472-1499. 10 Quarles, C. 1997. Effect of Availa Zn (zinc amino acid complex) on intestinal lesion and performance of broiler exposed to Coccidiosis. Internal report. Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA. Shugel, L.M 1996. Summary of 13 broiler studies feeding zinc methionine and manganese methionine. Internal report. Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA. USry, MF and Rahim, and Howlader, M. 1982. Simple Lessons from Biometry- Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh. Zinpro Corporation. 1996. Internal report, TB-Availa-Z/M Zinpro Corporation. 1996. Internal report, TB-G-9655 Zinpro Corporation. 1997. Internal report, TB-Availa-Zn 40.