Near Field Communication - NFC by bestt571

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									                                                      Sami Pietinen




Location-aware mobile applications development, 7.2.2011
Definition
 ” Near field communication or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless
  communication technology which enables the exchange of data between
  devices over about a 10 centimeters (3.9 in) distance. The technology is a simple
  extension of the ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-card standard (proximity card,
  RFID) that combines the interface of a smartcard and a reader into a single
  device. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO/IEC 14443
  smartcards and readers, as well as with other NFC devices, and is thereby
  compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public
  transportation and payment. NFC is primarily aimed at usage in mobile
  phones.”
  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication)
 About 10 cents per piece (RFID-tag)
  (http://www.rfidlab.fi/sites/rfidlab.fi/files/images/RFIDLab%20Roadshow%20
  Kuopio-Joensuu-Lappeenranta.pdf, see this reference for general RFID info
  also)

                     Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
Essentials
   Like ISO/IEC 14443, NFC communicates via magnetic field induction, where two loop antennas are
    located within each other's near field, effectively forming an air-core transformer. It operates within
    the globally available and unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of 13.56 MHz. Most of the RF energy
    is concentrated in the allowed 14 kHz bandwidth range, but the full spectral envelope may be as wide
    as 1.8 MHz when using ASK modulation.[2]
   Working distance with compact standard antennas: up to 20 cm
   Supported data rates: 106, 212, 424 or 848 kbit/s
   There are two modes:
        Passive Communication Mode: The Initiator device provides a carrier field and the target device answers
         by modulating the existing field. In this mode, the Target device may draw its operating power from the
         Initiator-provided electromagnetic field, thus making the Target device a transponder.
        Active Communication Mode: Both Initiator and Target device communicate by alternately generating
         their own fields. A device deactivates its RF field while it is waiting for data. In this mode, both devices
         typically have power supplies.
   Baud Active device passive device 424 kBd Manchester, 10% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK 212 kBd
    Manchester, 10% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK 106 kBd Modified Miller, 100% ASK Manchester, 10% ASK
    NFC employs two different codings to transfer data. If an active device transfers data at 106 kbit/s, a
    modified Miller coding with 100% modulation is used. In all other cases Manchester coding is used
    with a modulation ratio of 10%.
 NFC devices are able to receive and transmit data at the same time. Thus, they need to check the radio
    frequency field and can detect a collision if the received signal does not match with the transmitted
    signal.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication)


                              Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
Application and Uses
   NFC technology is currently aimed mainly at being used with mobile phones. There are currently three specific uses for
    NFC:
         Card emulation: the NFC device behaves like an existing contactless card
         Reader mode: the NFC device is active and reads a passive RFID tag, for example for interactive advertising
         P2P mode: two NFC devices are communicating together and exchanging information.
   Plenty of applications are possible, such as:
         Mobile ticketing in public transport: an extension of the existing contactless infrastructure, such as Mobile Phone
          Boarding Pass.
         Mobile payment: the device acts as a debit/credit payment card.
         Smart poster: the mobile phone is used to read RFID tags on outdoor billboards.
         Bluetooth pairing: in the future pairing of Bluetooth 2.1 devices with NFC support will be as easy as bringing them close
          together and accepting the pairing. The process of activating Bluetooth on both sides, searching, waiting, pairing and
          authorization will be replaced by a simply bringing the mobile phones close to each other.
   Other applications in the future could include:
        Electronic ticketing: airline tickets, concert/event tickets, and others, Electronic money, Travel cards, Identity documents,
      Mobile commerce
        Electronic keys: replacements for physical car keys, house/office keys, hotel room keys, etc.
        NFC can be used to configure and initiate other wireless network connections such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Ultra-
         wideband.
   A patent licensing program for NFC is currently under development by Via Licensing Corporation, an independent
    subsidiary of Dolby Laboratories.
 A Public, platform independent Near Field Communication (NFC) library is released under the free GNU Lesser
    General Public License by the name libnfc.
 In December 2008 the application eCL0WN was released which allows you to read and copy the chip content of
    biometric passports.
 At the end of 2010 Telefónica, La Caixa and Visa participated in a pilot project in Sitges pioneer in Europe with over
    1,500 users and 500 shops
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication)
                                Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
Nokia NFC Enabled Phones
 6131


 Nokia NFC Shell CC-229D


 Nokia 6212 classic


 Nokia C7


               Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
Nokia’s NFC Future
 C7 is just 1/4 of the 2011 devices that contains NFC chip (C7
  is Symbian 3)
 C7 firmare update needed for getting NFC to work
 Nokia will be supporting only Symbian and Meego ->
  possibly all future models contain NFC chip
 Update:
    Windows mobile will be Nokias’ main OS (profit comes from
     applications, not from OS development)
    Symbian will continue to exists for now, at least for low-end
     phones
    Just couple of phones are published using Meego (not much
     resources put into further development)

                 Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
NFC Enabled Devices
NFC-enabled handsets
    Nokia C7-00
    Nokia 6216 Classic (Nokia has confirmed the cancellation of this phone in February 2010)
    Nokia 6212 Classic
    Nokia 6131 NFC
    Nokia 3220 + NFC Shell
    Samsung S5230 Tocco Lite/Star/Player One/Avila
    Samsung SGH-X700 NFC
    Samsung D500E
    SAGEM my700X Contactless
    LG 600V contactless
    Motorola L7 (SLVR)
    Benq T80
    Sagem Cosyphone
    Google Nexus S

Future devices
    On November 15, 2010, Eric Schmidt announced at the Web 2.0 Summit that the newest Version of Android, Codename
     "Gingerbread", will support NFC. The first Android handset which will support this technology will be the Nexus S.
    On January 25, 2011, Bloomberg published a report stating that Apple was actively persuing development of a mobile payment
     system employing NFC. New generations of iPhone, iPod and iPad products would reportedly be equipped with NFC capability
     which would enable small-scale monetary transactions.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Near_field_communication)
                                  Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
NFC vs. Barcodes
 Messages based on images of 2D-barcode have the
  disadvantage of sensitivity to lighting conditions and being
  slower to use.
 In NFC based phones, there is no need to start situation
  specific applications because the reader device can get the
  needed information from the phone without the need of extra
  button pushes.
(http://www.rfidlab.fi/nfc)
 Barcode can not always identify individual items but rather
  just item families and the producer company
        Example: EAN-13 number alias GTIN (Global Trade Item Number)
            The first 2 digits of the EAN-13 or GTIN (Global Trade Item Number) code are containing the country of the
             article. The country is coded with 2 numbers, e.g. the numbers 40, 41, 42 and 43 represent Germany.
            The next 5 digits code the producer of the article.
            The following 5 digits represent the article number which is given by the producer.
            The remaining last digit is the check digit.
              (http://www.activebarcode.com/codes/ean13.html)


                            Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
Next…
 Case Study
    Other Slides..(not for public use)
 UX vs. Usability
 Code Examples
    Nokia S40
    Android 2.3




                Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
Source: Virpi Roto/HU and TUT/IHTE

                     Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
NFC in S40
public class MyMidlet extends MIDlet implements NDEFRecordListener, CommandListener, TargetListener {

     public MyMidlet() {
         NDEFRecordType ndefrecordtypeEXTERNAL_RTD = new NDEFRecordType(NDEFRecordType.EXTERNAL_RTD,
             “urn:nfc:ext:cs.en:SomeTagIdentString");

         DiscoveryManager.getInstance().addNDEFRecordListener(this, ndefrecordtypeEXTERNAL_RTD);
     }

    public void recordDetected(NDEFMessage arg0) {
        NDEFMessage container = arg0; // NDEF = NFC Data Exchange Format
         //Get first record from the message
         NDEFRecord recordFromTag = container.getRecord(0);

         //We know for “sure” there is information so get the payload from the record
         byte[] data = recordFromTag.getPayload();

         //process the byte[] to string
         String st = "";
         for (int i = 0; i < data.length; i++) {
           st += (char) data[i];
         }
         System.out.print("record contains: "+st+"\n“);
     }
}


                                 Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
NFC in Android 2.3 (1/2)
 Parts from Manifest.xml:
<manifest>
    <application>
        <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.NFC" />
        <activity android:name="TagViewer"
           android:theme="@android:style/Theme.NoTitleBar“>
                <intent-filter>
                    <action android:name="android.nfc.action.TAG_DISCOVERED"/>
                    <category android:name="android.intent.category.DEFAULT"/>
                </intent-filter>
        </activity>
   </application>
   <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" />
   <uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.nfc" android:required="true" />
</manifest>



                        Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
NFC in Android 2.3 (2/2)
public class TagViewer extends Activity {
     protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
           String action = getIntent().getAction();

          if (NfcAdapter.ACTION_TAG_DISCOVERED.equals(action)) {
                 // Convert the raw messages to ndefMessages
                 Parcelable[] rawMsgs = intent.getParcelableArrayExtra(NfcAdapter.EXTRA_NDEF_MESSAGES);
                 NdefMessage[] msgs;

                if (rawMsgs != null) {
                       msgs = new NdefMessage[rawMsgs.length];
                       for (int i = 0; i < rawMsgs.length; i++) {
                              msgs[i] = (NdefMessage) rawMsgs[i];
                       }

                     // Parse just the first message as an example
                     List<ParsedNdefRecord> records = NdefMessageParser.parse(msgs[0]);
                     List<String> parsed = new ArrayList<String>();

                     final int size = records.size();
                     for (int i = 0; i < size; i++) {
                                  ParsedNdefRecord record = records.get(i);
                                  // if it's a textrecord
                                  if (record instanceof TextRecord) {
                                          // Get the textual record for viewing it later in some UI element
                                          parsed.add(((TextRecord) record).getText());
                                          Log.i(" TagViewer ", “text = “ + parsed.get(i).toString());
                                  }
                     }
                }
          }                           Location-Aware Mobile Applications, 7.2.2011
    }

								
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