Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and Livelihoods Project

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					Environmental Assessment Report




Initial Environmental Examination
Project Number: 30232
September 2007



NEP: Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and
Livelihoods Project




Prepared by [Author(s)]
[Firm]
[City, Country]
Prepared by District Development Committee, Baitadi for the Asian Development Bank
(ADB).
Prepared for [Executing Agency]
                [Implementing Agency]


 The views expressed herein are those of the consultant and do not necessarily represent those of ADB’s
The initial environmental examination is a document of the borrower. The views expressed herein do not
 members, Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in nature.
necessarily represent those of ADB’s Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary
in nature.
                                               TABLE OF CONTENTS



ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................................................................... I
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (NEPALI)……..…………………………………………………………......II
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (ENGLISH).......................................................................................................V
SALIENT FEATURE.................................................................................................................................VIII


1.0         INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 1
    1.1          BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................ 1
    1.2          RELEVANCY OF THE PROPOSAL...................................................................................... 1
    1.3          NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE PROPONENT ..................................................................... 2
    1.4          DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSAL .................................................................................... 2
    1.5          CONSTRUCTION APPROACH ........................................................................................... 5
    1.6          OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................... 5
    1.7          METHODOLOGY ADOPTED ............................................................................................. 5
2.0         REVIEW OF RELEVANT ACTS, REGULATIONS AND GUIDELINES............... 9
3.0         EXISTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION..........................................................13
    3.1          PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT .............................................................................................13
    3.2          BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT .........................................................................................15
    3.3          SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT ......................................................16
4.0         PROJECT ALTERNATIVES........................................................................................20
    4.1          NO ACTION OPTION .......................................................................................................20
    4.2          PROPOSAL ALTERNATIVES ............................................................................................20
    4.3          ALTERNATIVE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION APPROACH .............................................20
    4.4          ALTERNATIVE SCHEDULE AND PROCESS .......................................................................21
    4.5          ALTERNATIVE RESOURCES ...........................................................................................21
5.0         IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS..........................................22
    5.1          BENEFICIAL IMPACTS ....................................................................................................22
    5.2          ADVERSE IMPACTS ........................................................................................................24
6.0         MITIGATION MEASURES ..........................................................................................28
    6.1          MITIGATION MEASURES DURING PRE-CONSTRUCTION PHASE.....................................28
    6.2          BENEFIT AUGMENTATION MEASURES ..........................................................................28
    6.3          ADVERSE IMPACTS MITIGATION MEASURES ................................................................30
7.0         ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN............................................................34
    7.1           INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR ROLES .................................................................................34
    7.2          REPORTING AND DOCUMENTATION ..............................................................................35
    7.3          ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN .......................................................................36
    7.4          MITIGATION COST .........................................................................................................39
    7.5          IMPLEMENTATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES ............................................................39
    7.6          ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING ...................................................................................40


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
8.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..........................................................44
   8.1        CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................44
   8.2        RECOMMENDATION .......................................................................................................44
9.0       MISCELLANEOUS........................................................................................................45

Tables
Table. 1 Project Activities Of The Proposed Shreebhavar-Hat Road ........................................... 2
Table 3.1 Topography, Geology And Soil Type Along The Road.................................................13
Table 3.2 Summary Of Streams Along The Road Alignment........................................................14
Table 3.3 Summary Of Land Use Pattern Along The Road Alignment.........................................14
Table 3.4 Community Forests Along Road Alignment..................................................................15
Table 3.5 Settlements And Population Within The Zoi Of Road Alignment.................................16
Table 5.1 Evaluation Of Identified Environmental Impacts...........................................................27
Table 7.1 Framework Of Implementing Environmental Management Plan .................................36
Table 7.2. Cost Estimate For Environmental Enhancement And Mitigation Measures.................39
Table 7.3 Environmental Monitoring Cost.....................................................................................41
Table 7.4 Framework For Monitoring Environmental Issues ........................................................42

Figures
Figure 1. Map Of Nepal Showing The Location Of Shreebhavar Road In Baitadi District............ 3
Figure 2. Map Showing The Alignment Of Shreebhavar-Hat Road In Baitadi District ................ 4
Figure 3. Map Showing The Alignment Of Shreebhavar-Hat Road .............................................. 4
Figure 7.1Environmental Management Organization Structure.....................................................36

ANNEX
Annex I              Terms of Reference for IEE study
Annex II             Abstract of cost
Annex III            DRILP Environmental Checklist
Annex IV             Public notice
Annex V              Deed of enquiry (muchulka)
Annex VI             Name of the organizations
Annex VII            List of persons contacted
Annex VIII           Recommendation letters from Municipality and VDCs
Annex IX             a. Distribution of household by major occupation
                     b. Summary of public services and infrastructures according to settlement
                     c. Land holding pattern of settlements within ZoI
                     d. Number of households belonging to different food security category
Annex X              List of tress
Annex XI             Minimization of slope cutting and preservation of vegetation cover
Annex XII            Photographs




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                                    ABBREVIATIONS

ADB    Asian Development Bank                  GIS  Geographical Information System
AP    Affected Person                          Ha   Hectare
BG     Building Group                          Hh   Household
Ch     Chainage                                IEE  Initial Environmental Examination
CBO    Community Based Organization            Km    Kilometer
CDC   Compensation Determination               LDO  Local Development Officer
      Committee                                LEP  Labour based, environment friendly
CEA    Country Environmental Analysis               and participatory
CF    Community Forest                         LRMP Land Resource Management Project
CFUG Community Forest Users Group              M    meter
CISC Central Implementation Support
      Consultants                              MoPE Ministry of Population and
CITES Convention on International Trade in           Environment
      Endangered Species of Flora and          MoEST Ministry of Environment, Science
      Fauna                                          and Technology
DADO District Agriculture Development          Ml    Milliliter
      Office                                   MLD Ministry of Local Development
DDC District Development Committee             NGO Non-Governmental Organization
DFO District Forest Office/Officer             NRs   Nepali Rupees
DG    Director General                         NTFPs Non timber forest products
DISC District Implementation Support           OP    Operational Plan
      Consultants                              PAM Project Administrative
DIT   District Implementation Team                   Memorandum
DoLIDAR Department of Local                    PCU Project Coordination Unit
      Infrastructure Development and           RES Rapid Environmental Screening
      Agricultural Roads                       RIDP Rural Infrastructure Development
DPO District Project Office                          Project
DRCC District Road Coordination                RP    Resettlement Plan
      Committee                                RS    Resettlement Survey
DSCO District Soil Conservation Office         SF    Social Funding
DTO District Technical Office                  SA    Social Appraisal
DRILP Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and   SDC Swiss Agency for Development and
      Livelihood Project                             Cooperation
DTMP District Transport Master Plan            SM    Social Mobilizer
EA    Environmental Assistant/Assessment       SMC Social Mobilization Coordinator
EAS Environmental Assessment Specialist        TA    Technical Assistance
EIA   Environmental Impact Assessment          ToR   Terms of Reference
EMP Environmental Management Plan              TWS Technical Walkover Survey
EMS Environmental Management Section
EPA Environmental Protection Act               VDC Village Development Committee
EPR Environmental Protection Rules             VWRCC Village Works and Road
ESD Environment Screening Document                 Construction Committee
FGD Focus Group Discussion                     ZoI Zone of Influence
GoN Government of Nepal

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                            i
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
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>Lefj/—xf6 ;8ssf] k|f/lDes jftfj/0fLo k/LIf0f k|ltj]bg                                               iii
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                                  Executive Summary


The proposed Shreebhavar-Hat road lies in Baitadi district of Far-Western Development
region of Nepal which was started by the Department of Road (DoR). Road section of 1.20
km from Dholyamod to Dholedhar was already constructed by the DoR. This is a district road
linking Hat, Kotila, Bhumiraj, Malladehi and Shikharpur VDCs to the market center of
Shreebhavar and Khodpe as well as district headquarter of Baitadi. The starting point of the
road alignment is Dholyamod near Shreebhavar, and ending point is Khadikhet in Hat VDC.
Road formation width is 5.0 m and the total length of proposed road section for rehabilitation
and new construction from Dholyamod to Hat is 24.470 kms. The total project cost is NRs.
186,976,420.34.

Baitadi district is connected with the other part of the country by Dhanagadhi- Baitadi
highway. The proposed road project provides connectivity to district headquarters of Baitadi
for the people of eastern and northern part of the district. This proposed road is also linked
with Baitadi-Bjhang highway at Dholyamod. Moreover, construction of this road will bring
more pilgrims from other part of the Far-Western region and Uttarakhand (India) to visit
Dilasaini Bhagawati temple. This will contribute in the local economy.

This road will save considerable travel time and improve income generation potentials,
enhance commercial opportunities and improve market accessibility. Moreover, this road will
also provide short term employment opportunity by engaging the rural poor people in
construction of the road. Such people based development efforts will reinstall economic
activities in the area by creating long term employment and other opportunities.

The District Development Committee (DDC), Baitadi is the executing agency at the district
level under DRILP and the proponent of the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) study
for Shreebhavar-Hat road sub-project.

The main objective of the IEE study is to identify the impacts of physical, biological, socio-
economic and cultural environment of the sub-project area. The specific objectives of the
proposed IEE study include to:
       identify the major issues that may arise as a result of proposed works on bio-physical,
       socio-economic and cultural environment of the project area,
       recommend practical and site specific environmental mitigation and enhancement
       measures, prepare and implement environmental monitoring plan for the sub-project,
       and
       make sure that IEE is sufficient for the proposed road sub-project.

The findings and conclusions of the report are based on the analysis of the information
collected from the field during July 2007 by undertaking a walk-through environmental
survey along the proposed route and secondary information supplemented by information
collected by the social and technical teams working on the resettlement survey and detail
survey.

The dominant forest and fodder species reported in the road alignment are Quercus
leucotricophora (Banjh), Rhododendron arboreum (laligurans), Alnus nepalensis (Utis),
Schima wallichii (Chilaune), Prunus cerasoides (paiyun), Bahunia variegata (koiralo), Pinus
roxburghii (khote salla), Myrica esculenta (kafal), Quercus semicarpifolia (Kharsu), Cedrela
toona (tuni). The main NTFP species found along the road alignments are: Allo, Rubia
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    v
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
manjith (Majitho), Gaultheria fragrantissima (Dhasingare) etc. There are 5 CFs along the
proposed road alignment.

Panthera pardus (Leopard), Barking deer, Hystix indica (Porcupine), Canis aureus (Jackal),
Macaca mulatta (Monkey), Lophura lencomelana (Kalij pheasant), Columba livia (Pigion))
are the wild animals and birds reported in the community forests of proposed road area.
However, none of these wild lives are endangered species. The road does not fall under any
protected or buffer zone area.

There are 30 settlements along the ZoI of the proposed road alignment in Shikharpur,
Bhumiraj, Kotila, Malladehi and Hat VDCs with total population of 12,314 persons (2,122
households) and average family size of 5.80. Diverse ethnic groups such as, Brahmin,
Thakuri, Chhetri and occupational caste (Damai, Kami, Sarki) live along the ZoI of road
alignment. Occupational caste households are distributed in almost all the settlements.

The main occupation of all people residing within the ZoI of the proposed road alignment is
agriculture and livestock. Due to limited transportation facilities and high altitude, agriculture
farming is not enough for subsistence level. Therefore, people are carrying out other
economic activities like majority of the people work as labour and porters while some people
work in government and non government organizations and a few are doing business.
Moreover, significant section of the economically active male population migrates seasonally
during slack framing season in various parts of India for employment which is the main
means of livelihood.

Beneficial Impacts
The development efforts particularly the development of transportation network will have
multifold beneficial impacts. The immediate beneficial impacts from road development are
apparent in the construction phase like there will be various employment opportunities
(21,741skilled and 502,732 unskilled person days) for the local population, supports for the
transfer of construction work skills and technical know-how to the local workers.

During operation stage, an improved road access will bring an improvement of food security
situation and overall economic and social stability. The road will also provide cheap, safe and
fast transport of goods and services from rural areas to urban centers and vice versa. The
farmers will be more interested to increase agricultural production due to market accessibility.
This will contribute significantly to increase the productivity in rural areas and eventually
improve the overall socio-economic condition of the people.

Once this road is on operation, trade and business activities will be further promoted. There is
a possibility of increased economic opportunities and significant growth and extension of the
local markets along the road alignment like in Khamhale, Khadayat gaun, Salledhara, Ratoka,
Tirkali, Dharudi, Malladehi, Babida, Upar gaun and Khadikhet. In addition, construction of
road will lead to appreciation of land values particularly near the market and settlement areas.

Adverse Impacts
The physical adverse impacts during construction will be due to change in land use, slope
instability and air, dust and water pollution, quarry sites and spoil disposal. Similarly,
biological impacts during construction will be loss of 2.706 ha of community forest area and
disturbance to wildlife and bird habitat. Total 3,970 numbers of trees and bamboos will be
cleared. Socio-economic impacts during road construction will be loss of 6.413 ha of
agricultural land, 0.453 ha of public and 14.815 ha of barren land as well as exposure to
health and safety problems in some extent during road construction.

The adverse physical impacts during road operation are slope instability and management, air
and noise pollution, road safety. Likewise, biological impacts are depletion of forest resources
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        vi
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
and disturbance to wildlife. Socioeconomic impacts are due to new settlement and market
center development, change in social behavior etc.

Mitigation Measures
Impacts from the proposed road projects can be both beneficial as well as adverse. An
effective implementation of benefit maximization measures and adverse impacts mitigation
measures would optimize the benefits expected from the project and avoid/minimize the
adverse impact from the project. Based on the impact assessment and identification, beneficial
augmentation and adverse impact mitigation measures are presented in both constructions as
well as in operation stage of the road.

Environmental Management Plan
Environmental management plan is an important tool to ensure the implementation and
monitoring of mitigation measures for minimizing adverse impacts and maximizing the
beneficial impacts. Similarly, environmental monitoring generates useful information and
improves the quality of implementation of mitigation measures. The proponent, DDC Baitadi
will develop monitoring mechanism to show its additional commitment for environmental
improvement and mitigate undesirable environmental changes, if any during construction and
operational stage. DDC will be supported by DIT (DPO and DISC) team in the district and
Environmental team from the CISC for the environmental monitoring.

Conclusion and Recommendation
The IEE study of the proposed Shreebhavar-Hat road project reveals that the benefits from the
implementation of the proposed road project are more significant and long term in nature
against the adverse impacts most of which could be mitigated or avoided. Therefore, this IEE
is sufficient for approval of the proposed sub-project. This sub-project is recommended for
implementation with incorporation of mitigation measures and environmental monitoring
plan.

A Resettlement Plan will be required to ensure that the persons affected by the losses are
properly compensated.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    vii
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                                 SALIENT FEATURE
1. Name of the Project                          : Shreebhavar-Hat Road
2. Location
      2.1Geographical Locations
          2.1.1 Start Point                     : Dholyamod, Shreebhavar
          2.1.2 End Point                       : Khadikhet
      2.2 Geographical Feature
         2.2.1 Terrain                          : Mountainous
         2.2.2 Alignment                        : Valley and Ridge
         2.2.3 Altitude                         : 2,458 to 1270 m.s.l.
         2.2.4 Climate                          : Sub-Tropical
          2.2.5 Soil                            : Basically alluvial soil, colluvial soil,
                                                conglomerates and metamorphic rock
3. Classification of Road                       : District Road (Rural Road) Class A
4. Status of road                               : New construction proposed for fair weather

5. Length of Road                               : 24.470 km
6. Standard of Pavement                         : Earthen
7. Construction Period                          : 270 days
8. Major Settlements:
      8.1 Major Settlements                     : Dholyamod, Dholedhar, Khampur, Rapana,
                                                Guphakhola, Ratauka, Mallagaun, Babida,
                                                Lamagada, Uparigaun, Bhita Khola,
                                                Khadikhet
      8.2 No. of Household                      : 2,122 HHs
      8.3 VDCs along the Road                   : Shikharpur, Bhumiraj, Kotila, Malladehi
                                                and Hat
9. Cross Section
        9.1 Right of way                        : 10 m each side (center line)
        9.2 Formation width                     :5m
        9.3 Carriageway width                   :3m
        9.4 Lane                                : Single
10. Structures
        10.1 Retaining Structures
          10.1.1 Dry Stone Wall                : 10930.421 Cum.
          10.1.2 Gabion Wall                   : 31507.35 Cum.
          10.1.3 Stone Masonry                 : 145.25 Cum.
          10.1.4 Stone Pitching                : 6864.97 Cum.
11. Bio-Engineering                            : 3% to total cost (Nrs. 4,363,307.22)
12. Earth Work
        12.1 Cutting                           : 235,441.170 Cum
        12.2 Filling                           : 58,798.460 Cum
13. Project cost
        13.1 Net Cost (NRs)                    : 186,976,420.34
        13.2 Costs per km (NRs.)               : 7641047.01
14. Employment generation
         14.1 Total person days
           14.1.1Skilled                       : 21,741
           14.1.2 Unskilled                    : 502,732
         14.2 Total employment generation (no. of laborer) for 90 working days
           14.2.1 Skilled                      : 242
           14.2.2 Unskilled                    :5,586



Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                  viii
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____________________________________________________________________


                                   1.0     Introduction


1.1     Background
1.      The Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and Livelihood Project (DRILP) is a project
being implemented with Loan 2092-NEP (SF) from Asian Development Bank (ADB), grant
from Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), counterpart funding from
Government of Nepal (GoN), participating districts and contributions from project
beneficiaries. The loan agreement was signed by GoN and ADB on December 23, 2004
(2061/09/08) and the loan has become effective from October 31, 2005 (2062/07/15).

2.       The project goal is to reduce rural poverty in 18 very poor remote hill and mountain
districts affected by the conflict. The purpose is to achieve sustainable increased access to
economic and social services, and enhanced social and financial capital for people in the
project area, particularly poor and disadvantaged groups. The Project will invest in small,
community infrastructure; and provide jobs, empower rural communities for development,
increase institutional capacity and improve accountability and transparency. The Project
through specific rural transport subprojects will also extend the network of improved rural
transport infrastructure, consisting of roads, trails and pedestrian bridges.

3.      Labor-based, environmentally friendly, and participatory (LEP) approaches will ensure
that the investment in construction and rehabilitation of infrastructure results in sustainable,
improved access to economic and social services, and enhanced social and financial capital.

4.       Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads (DoLIDAR)
is the executing agency for DRILP supported sub-projects. The implementing arrangements
are as following: DoLIDAR has established a Project Coordination Unit (PCU) in Kathmandu,
headed by a project coordinator to coordinate all project activities. The PCU will be
responsible for guiding and monitoring District Development Committees (DDCs) as they
implement project components. At the district level, project implementation will be the
responsibility of the District Project office (DPO) within the District Technical Office (DTO)
of each DDC. A local engineering consultant to cover technical issues, and a local Non-
Government Organization (NGO) engaged for social mobilization and support for rural
infrastructure building groups, will support the DPO as District Implementation Support
Consultants (DISC). Overall back stopping support to the district will be provided by Central
Implementation Support Consultants (CISC).

1.2     Relevancy of the proposal
5.      An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) of the proposed road is necessary in order
to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed rural road rehabilitation and
construction activities and suggest appropriate, practical and site specific mitigation and
enhancement measures. This is Rural Road Class "A" District road according to Nepal Rural
Road Standard (2055). Therefore, it is a legal requirement by the Government of Nepal (GoN)
according to article 3 of Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1997 and article 3 of
Environmental Protection Regulation (EPR) 1997 (amended in 2007) as mentioned in schedule
1. Preparation of IEE report by concerned District Development Committee (DDC) and
approval of IEE report by the Ministry of Local Development (MLD) according to Nepali
legal provision is considered sufficient by the ADB according to Project Administrative
Memorandum (PAM) subject to prior review of an agreed sample of sub-project IEEs by
ADB. DRILP falls under category B project where IEE is mandatory for all sub projects
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      1
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
according to Environmental Assessment Guidelines of ADB (2003). Nepali legal provisions in
essence satisfy ADB's requirements, however, ADB approval is also required if the project
cost exceeds more than $ 30,000 per km according to Report and Recommendation of the
President to the Board of Directors.

6.      This IEE report of Shreebhavar-Hat Road sub-project in Baitadi district is prepared
based on the Terms of Reference (ToR) approved on 2063/06/02 by the Minister level decision
of the Ministry of Local Development (MLD) which is given in Annex I.

7.      The findings and conclusions of the report are based on the analysis of the information
collected during July 2007 from the field by undertaking a walk-through environmental survey
along the proposed route (for which a checklist was used) and secondary information,
supplemented by information collected by the social and technical teams working on the
resettlement survey and detail survey.

1.3       Name and Address of the Proponent
8.        The District Development Committee (DDC), Baitadi is the executing agency at the
district level under DRILP and the proponent of the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
study for the rehabilitation and construction of Shreebhavar-Hat road sub-project.
Address: District Development Committee, Baitadi
Khalanga, Baitadi
Telephone No. - 095-520144
Fax No. - 095-520144

1.4      Description of the proposal
9.       The proposed Shreebhabhar-Hat road lies in Baitadi district of Far-Western
Development region of Nepal which was started by the Department of Road (DoR). Road
section of 1.20 km from Dholyamod to Dholedhar was already constructed by the DoR.
However, only 0.50 km road is motorable and 0.70 km road needs rehabilitation. This is a
district road linking Hat, Kotila, Bhumiraj, Malladehi and Shikharpur VDCs to the market
center of Shreebhavar and Khodpe as well as district headquarter of Baitadi.

10.     The starting point of the road alignment is Dholyamod near Shreebhavar, 27.0 km
North of Khodpe in Dadeldhura-Bajhang feeder road and ending point is Khadikhet in Hat
VDC. Road formation width is 5.0 m with additional width for switchback, lay-byes, extra
widening in curves, mass balancing and safe disposal site for the excess excavated material.
The total length of proposed road section for rehabilitation and new construction from
Dholyamod to Hat is 24.470 kms. The description of the project works is given in the table 1
and the location and alignment of the road is given in Figure 1, 2 and 3. The total project cost
is NRs. 186,976,420.34 and per km cost is NRs. 7,641,047.01(equivalent to US $ 119,391.36)
as shown in Annex II.

Table. 1 Project activities of the proposed Shreebhavar-Hat road
SN     Section                     Chainage              Length           Description
                                                         (km)
1      Dholyamode-Rapana           0+00 to 7+030         7.03             Total 1.20 km
                                                                          already
                                                                          constructed
2      Rapana- Ratoka              7+030 to 12+480       5.45             New construction
3      Ratoka- Jogedhunga          12+480 to 18+260      5.78             New construction
4      Jogedhunga- Khadikhet       18+260 to 24+471      6.21             New construction
       Total                                             24.47



Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      2
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Figure 1. Map of Nepal showing the location of Shreebhavar road in Baitadi
District

11.     Direct beneficiaries of this road project will be the people of Shikharpur, Bhumiraj,
Kotila, Malladehi and Hat VDCs and indirect beneficiaries will be the people living in
Mahadevsthan, Maithairaj, Talladehi, Bijayapur, Nwadeu, Kuwakot and Bhatana VDCs.

12.      This road will save considerable travel time and improve income generation potentials,
enhance commercial opportunities and improve market accessibility. Moreover, this road will
also provide short term employment opportunity by engaging the rural poor people in
construction of the road. Such people based development efforts will reinstall economic
activities in the area by creating long term employment and other opportunities.

13.      Baitadi district is connected with the other part of the country by Dhanagadhi- Baitadi
highway. The proposed road project provides connectivity to district headquarters of Baitadi
for the people of eastern and northern part of the district. This proposed road is linked with
Baitadi-Bajhang highway at Dholyamod. Dilasaini Bhagawati temple is located just above the
proposed road alignment which is famous temple of that area. Pilgrims from Uttarakhand part
of India and other part of the Far-western region visit this temple during Dashain. So, the
construction of this road will bring more pilgrims benefiting local people. Similarly, this road
will also open the easy accessibility for the people of Darchula via Gokuleswar.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      3
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Figure 2. Map showing the Alignment of Shreebhavar-Hat road in Baitadi
district




Figure 3. Map showing the alignment of Shreebhavar-Hat road


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                            4
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
1.5      Construction Approach
14.      This road will be constructed using the labour-based, environment-friendly and
participatory (LEP) approach, the important features of which are:
         Use of local people as labour, hand tools and small equipment, rather than heavy
         machinery for construction.
         Balancing cut and fill and reuse of excavated materials as construction materials, and
         thus not generating excess spoils, as far as possible.
         Use of bio-engineering techniques: integrated use of vegetation, simple civil
         engineering structures and proper water management systems for slope protection.

1.6     Objectives
15.     The main objective of the IEE study is to identify the impacts of physical, biological,
socio-economic and cultural environment of the sub-project area. The specific objectives of
the proposed IEE study include to:
        identify the major issues that may arise as a result of proposed works on bio-physical,
        socio-economic and cultural environment of the project area,
        recommend practical and site specific environmental mitigation and enhancement
        measures, prepare and implement environmental monitoring plan for the sub-project,
        and
        make sure that IEE is sufficient for the proposed road sub-project.

1.7      Methodology adopted
16.      The IEE approach, methodology and procedure were generally followed according to
the provisions of the EPA, 1997 and EPR, 1997. Data collection was done in July 2007 by the
staff of DISC team (Engineer, Sub-Engineer, Social Mobilisation Coordinator (SMC), Social
Mobiliser (SM), Enumerators and Environmental Assessment team from CISC.

1.7.1 Desk review
17.      The following steps were followed during the desk review:
    Collection and review of secondary information from various sources
    Initial interaction and consultation with the local community and district level stakeholders
    Delineation of geographical boundary of the influence area on the topographical map
    Preparation of project specific checklist

Collection and review of secondary sources of information from various sources
18.      Secondary information was collected through published and unpublished reports and
interpretation of maps and photographs. The sources of information were District
Development Committee (DDC), District Forest Office (DFO), other line agencies, related
NGOs and other project offices in the district.

Initial interaction and consultation with the local community and district level stakeholders
19.      During the IEE report preparation, EAS, EA and DISC team met, discussed and
interacted with concerned staff of the Government of Nepal, DDC, VDCs in the district head
quarter and teachers, community based organization member and knowledgeable key persons
of surrounding areas within the Zone of Influence (ZoI).

Delineation of geographical boundary of the influence area on the topo-map
20.     The geographical boundary of ZoI (one and half hours walk from the road or 5 km
distance) was drawn on the topographical maps with the help of DISC Engineer, SMC and SM
for collecting socioeconomic data for the IEE report. For the collection of environmental
features related to biophysical environment, maximum 100 meter distance observable from the
center of the road alignment was taken as an influence area.



Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       5
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Preparation of project specific checklist
21.     A checklist was prepared to collect physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural
environment related information in the field as given in Annex III. This check list was based
on APPROACH manual prepared by DoLIDAR. In addition, ZoI household survey
questionnaire was used to collect socio-economic information of the households. Similarly,
household listing survey report was used for the listing of agricultural land, forest, trees,
houses and other affected properties prepared during resettlement survey.

1.7.2 Field survey
22.      Field survey comprised of walkthrough survey, consultation with community, site
inspection and observation. The road alignment from the starting point at Dholyamod to end
point at Khadikhet in Hat VDC was visited and observed. The following tools were used for
the collection of primary data.
         Focus group discussion (FGD) - To conduct consultation with the local communities
         at different settlements, FGD was organized with key informants and other
         knowledgeable persons at each settlement. It was done to collect biological, socio-
         economic and cultural environment related information using a checklist (refer Annex
         III).
         ZoI household survey - Questionnaire was used to collect socio-economic information
         of all the households within the ZoI.
         Household listing survey - Total enumeration was done for the listing of agricultural
         land, forest, trees, houses and other affected properties.
         Stripe map - It was used during walkthrough survey to document environmental
         features according to the chainage.
         Topographical map - It was used to show environmental features on the map during
         walkthrough survey.
         Photographs - Necessary photographs were taken to show different environmental
         features.

1.7.3 Compilation of existing information, impact identification and prediction
23.     The information collected from different sources were processed and analyzed
according to the physical, biological, socioeconomic and cultural environment within the zone
of influence. The collected secondary data were the major sources for verification and
crosschecking of primary data during the field survey. The generated information from
primary source was analyzed, tabulated and prioritized.

24.      Based on the identification of the impacts, their prediction was done to forecast the
changes in local environment. The methods adopted in impact predictions were done by using
various methods, such as trend analysis, cause and effect relationship, expert judgment etc.
The assessment of environmental impact was derived exclusively in terms of magnitude,
duration and extent. The significance of positive and negative impacts associated with
construction and subsequent operation of the road were identified and predicted considering
the ZoI.

1.7.4 Mitigation Measures and Environmental Management Plan
25.     Based on the identified impacts their nature, extent and magnitude, the mitigation and
management prescriptions were developed. A realistic approach was applied for the
application of the mitigation measures in the local context. Environmental management plan
was developed to assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures and implementation
status.

1.7.5 Public consultation and Disclosure
26.     In order to ensure the public involvement, the following procedures were followed
during IEE report preparation:

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    6
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
    Publication of notice- a 15 days public notice was published on 16th of Kartik 2063 in the
    Gorkhapatra, a national daily newspaper (refer Annex IV) seeking written opinion from
    concerned VDCs, DDC, schools, health posts and related local organizations. A copy of
    the public notice was also affixed in the above mentioned organizations and deed of
    enquiry (muchulka) was collected (Annex V for deed of enquiry and Annex VI for the
    names of organizations).
    IEE team also carried out interaction with local communities and related stakeholders
    during field survey to collect the public concerns and suggestions (see Annex VII for the
    list of persons consulted). Moreover, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to
    collect and solicit information regarding the bio-physical and socio-economic and cultural
    aspects of Shreebhavar - Hat road. The FGDs were held at different 30 settlements along
    the ZoI of the road (refer table 3.5 for the names of settlements) and the results of FGD are
    mentioned under the chapter III, Existing Conditions and summary tables are given in
    Annex IX a,b,c,d.
    Draft IEE report was sent to Sikharpur, Bhumiraj, Kotila, Malladehi and Hat VDCs for
    public disclosure and recommendation letters were also obtained which are given in
    Annex VIII. Draft IEE was also kept in information center of DDC Baitadi for public
    disclosure. After reviewing draft IEE report and incorporating the suggestions from the
    concerned stakeholders, final IEE report was prepared and sent to PCU for approval from
    MLD and ADB.
    The approved IEE report will be accessible to interested parties and general public through
    information center of DDC Baitadi and websites of ADB, DoLIDAR and DRILP.

1.7.6 The Final Report
27.     The IEE report was prepared by Environmental Assessment Specialist and
Environmental Assistant with DISC support and submitted to DDC for review. After
reviewing the final IEE report according to ToR, it will be submitted to MLD for approval.

1.7.7 Organization of the IEE Report
28.     The IEE report is organized as following:
Table of Contents
Abbreviations
Executive Summary (Nepali)
Executive Summary
Salient Features of the Project
Section 1.0:     Introduction
Section 2.0:    Review of Relevant Acts, Regulations and Guidelines
Section 3.0:     Existing Conditions
Section 4.0:     Project Alternatives
Section 5.0:     Identification and Assessment of Impacts
Section 6.0:     Mitigation Measures
Section 7.0:     Environmental Management Plan
Section 8.0:     Conclusion and Recommendation
Section 9.0:     Miscellaneous

Annexes
Annex I         Terms of Reference for IEE study
Annex II        Abstract of cost
Annex III       DRILP Environmental Checklist
Annex IV        Public notice
Annex V         Deed of enquiry (muchulka)
Annex VI        Name of the organizations
Annex VII       List of persons contacted
Annex VIII      Recommendation letters from Municipality and VDCs
Annex IX        a. Distribution of household by major occupation
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       7
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                b. Summary of public services and infrastructures according to settlement
                c. Land holding pattern of settlements within ZoI
                d. Number of households belonging to different food security category
Annex X         List of tress
Annex XI        Minimization of slope cutting and preservation of vegetation cover
Annex XII       Photographs




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                               8
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
       2.0      Review of Relevant Acts, Regulations and Guidelines


29.     Government of Nepal has adopted various acts, regulations and guidelines to ensure
the integration of development and conservation of environment. The IEE study was being
guided by the requirements and provisions of the following acts, rules and guidelines as
applicable.

2.1     Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1997
30.     Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1997 and Environmental Protection Regulation
(EPR) 1997 were enforced by the government which became effective with the enforcement of
Environment Protection Regulations (EPR) in June 1997 and later its amendment in April
1999. The Act requires any development project, before implementation, to pass through
environmental assessment, which may be either IEE or an EIA depending upon the location,
type and size of the projects. The Act recognizes the interdependence between development
and the environment and shows the concerns for minimizing the impacts of environmental
degradation on people, animal, and plant species and their physical surroundings.

31.    The Act obliges the proponent to undertake IEE and EIA of proposal, plans or projects
which may cause changes in existing environmental condition and authorizes then (MoPE)
now MoEST) to clear all EIA and line ministries for IEE study.

2.2     Environmental Protection Regulation (EPR) 1997 (amendment, 1999)
32.     The EPR, 1997 obliges the proponent to inform the public on the contents of the
proposal in order to ensure the participation of stakeholders. EPR contains the elaborative
provisions on the process to be followed during the preparation and approval of projects
requiring IEE and EIA including scoping document, terms of reference, information
dissemination, public consultation and hearing and environmental monitoring and auditing.
Rule 12 of the EPR, requires the proponent to comply with the matters mentioned in the report
and other conditions, if any, prescribed by the approving agency or concerned agency, while
Rule 13 and 14 are related to environmental monitoring and environmental auditing.

2.3      Forest Act, 1993
33.      The use of forestland for rural road project is subject to forest law and regulation. The
road projects need to comply with the provisions of forest law when it requires the use of
forestland for road construction. The Act requires decision makers to take account of all forest
values, including environmental services and biodiversity, not just the production of timber
and other commodities.

34.      The Forest Act, 1993 (amendment, 1998) contains several provisions to ensure the
development, conservation, management and sustainable use of forest resources, based on an
approved work plan. It also recognizes the importance of forests in maintaining a healthy
environment. Sections 68 of the Forest Act, 1993 empowers the government in case of no
alternatives, to provide parts of any types of forests for the implementation of a national
priority plan with assurance that it does not adversely affect the environment significantly.
Section 49 of the Act prohibits reclaiming lands, setting fires, grazing, removing or damaging
forest products, felling trees or plants, wildlife hunting and extracting boulders, sand and soil
from the national forest without prior approval.


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        9
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
2.4     Forest Rules, 1995
35.     The Forest Rules, 1995 further elaborate legal measures for the conservation of forests
and wildlife. Rule 65 of the Forest Regulation stipulates that in case the execution of any
project having national priority in any forest area causes any loss or harm to any local
individual or community, the proponent of the project itself shall bear the amount of
compensation to be paid. Similarly the entire expenses required for the cutting and
transporting the forest products in a forest area to be used by the approved project shall be
borne by the proponent of the project.

2.5      National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973
36.      The National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973 addresses for conservation of
ecologically valuable areas and indigenous wildlife. The Act prohibits any movement of a
person without written permission within the parks and the reserves. The Act further prohibits
wildlife hunting, construction of houses and huts, damage to plants and animals etc. within the
park and reserve, without the written permission of the authorized person. The Act has also
listed 26 species of mammals, 9 species of birds and 3 species of reptiles as protected wildlife.

2.6     Local Self Governance Act (1999) and Rules (2000)
37.     The Local Self Governance Act has been enacted to provide greater political,
administrative and financial autonomy to local bodies and facilitate community participation at
the local level. The Local Self Governance Act, 1999 empowers the local bodies for the
conservation of soil, forest and other natural resources and implements environmental
conservation activities. Sections 28 and 43 of the Act provide the Village Development
Committee (VDC) a legal mandate to formulate and implement programs related to the
protection of the environment during the formulation and implementation of the district level
plan.

2.7     Land Acquisition Act, 1977 and Land Acquisition Rules, 1969
38.     The Land Acquisition Act, 1977 and the Land Acquisition Rules, 1969 are the two
main legal instruments that specify procedural matters of land acquisition and compensation.
Government can acquire land at any place in any quantity by giving compensation pursuant to
the Act for any public purposes or for operation of any development project initiated by
government institutions. The powers given under these two sections are very broad as
government is empowered to acquire any land in the name of public works. However, the
Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1990 has provision for compensation to be paid to the
individual if the state takes land for development purposes.

2.8      National Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines, 1993
39.      In order to integrate the environmental aspects in development projects and programs,
the government has developed the National EIA Guidelines (1993). The guidelines provide
guidance to project proponent on integrating environmental mitigation measures, particularly
on the management of quarries, borrow pits, stockpiling of materials and spoil disposal,
operation of the work camps, earthworks and slope stabilization, location of stone crushing
plants etc.

2.9      APPROACH for the Development of Agricultural and Rural Roads, 1999
40.      With respect to agriculture sector, roads and irrigation sub-sectors play an important
role since these are directly related to agriculture. The rural roads that are termed as
"Agricultural Road" link farms to market centers or to nearby strategic road. The existing rural
road network, at present has a limited economic impact because of its low density. Therefore,
among all the rural infrastructure development activities, rural road sub-sector is considered
vital. The approach given in this manual is, therefore prepared in line with the poverty
alleviation objectives and the decentralized participatory development concepts of the
government. In addition of poverty alleviation objectives, this manual emphasizes labor based

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       10
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
technology and environmental friendly, local resource oriented construction methods to be
incorporated actively in rural infrastructure process.

2.10    Reference Manual for Environmental and Social Aspects of Integrated Road
        Development, 2003
41.     This Manual is designed to help integrate social and environmental considerations,
including public involvement strategies, with technical road construction practices. It suggests
stepwise process of addressing environmental and social issues alongside the technical,
financial and others. The main objective of the Manual is to assist in the effective
implementation of environmental and social plans and actions, to advice and suggest
appropriate methodologies to achieve sustainable development. The Manual recommends
various environmental and social approaches, actions and strategies to assist developers in
following mandatory requirements of the law and improving public involvement.

2.11    Green Roads in Nepal, Best Practices Report: An Innovative Approach for Rural
        Infrastructure Development in the Himalayas and Other Mountainous Regions,
        1999
42.     The green road concept is a new conservation oriented rural mountain road
construction approach mainly focusing on participatory, labor based and environment friendly
technology that has been gradually developing in Nepal since the mid 1970's. Proper
alignment selection, mass balancing, proper water management, and bioengineering are the
major features of the Green Road technology, yet some of them are sometimes difficult to
apply. Green Roads are fair weather, low volume earth roads that are built in different phases
using labor-based methods. Many of the environmental advantages of the technology are
obviously not immediate. The Green Road Concept comprises a "phased construction"
approach meaning construction of road in different phases.

2.12   Batabaraniya Nirdesika (Nepali), 2057
43.    The directive is focused in the practical implementation of small rural infrastructures
through the minimization of environmental impacts. This directive includes the simple
methods of environmental management in the different phases of the project cycle. More
emphasis is given to prevention rather than cure. So, the recommendations for the mitigation
measures are provided only when it is necessary.

2.13    IEE Rural Access Programme (RAP) Guideline
44.     The Rural Access Programme guidelines for IEE, 2003 clearly indicates the objectives
and process of IEE in terms of project screening, preparation of terms of reference, desk
review, field work, data analysis and interpretation (identification, prediction and analysis of
impacts), mitigation measures, monitoring plan and reporting.

2.14    The GoN Tenth Five Year Plan, 2002-2007
45.     The Tenth Plan has adopted following major policies and policy actions for the sector
of environment management:
    • Local institutions will be made capable and responsible for management of local
        natural resources on the basis of Local Self Governance Act, 2055, so as to increase
        the involvement of local institutions in environmental protection.
    • Environmental aspects will be taken into account while building rural and agricultural
        roads, and appropriate technology or labor-oriented roads will be adopted in order to
        enhance employment opportunities.

2.15   Three Years Interim Plan, 2007/08-2009/10
46.    The long term vision of environmental management is to create a clean and healthy
environment through effective environmental management and to achieve sustainable
development through the wise use of natural resources. By integrating environmental aspects

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      11
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
in social and economic development programs through EIA system, improvements will be
made in the quality of environment by means of environment friendly development. Road
projects will be formulated and constructed based on methods that optimally utilize the local
skill and resources and generate employment opportunities.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                   12
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                      3.0       Existing Environmental Condition


47.     Baseline information on the existing physical, biological as well as socio-economic
and cultural environment of the proposed sub-project are described here.

3.1     Physical Environment
48.     This section describes the physical condition of the area that comes under the ZoI of
the road section along its entire length and surrounding area. The data has been collected from
both secondary and primary sources.

3.1.1 Topography
49.      The proposed road lies in mountain region. The highest elevation of the proposed road
at starting point at Dholyamod is 2,458 m and lowest elevation at end point is 1350 m at
Khadikhet. The location of the road is at 29° 19' to 29º 41' north (latitude) and 80º 15' to 80º
54' east (longitude). Shreebhavar-Hat road alignment passes through the upper valley slope in
middle hills. The topographical setting of the road section is characterized by ridge in the
beginning and valley at the end point.

50.     The slope varies from 10° to 65°. Major portion of the road passes along the north and
west facing slope. The ZoI of this road lies within 30 settlements of Shikharpur, Bhumiraj,
Kotila, Malladehi and Hat VDCs.

3.1.2     Geology and soil type
51.     The road section comprises of different types of rocks. The road corridor falls
in the Lesser Himalayan Sediments zone that comprises rocks such as sandstones,
phyllites, shales and schists. In the beginning of the road alignment slates and
quartzites are found.

52.      In general soil type along the alignment can be classified as alluvial, colluvial and
residual. The detail topography, geology and soil type along the road alignment is presented in
the table 3.1.

Table 3.1 Topography, geology and soil type along the road

S       Section       Chainage    Length   Elevation     Aspect      Geology           Soil type
N                                          (m)
1       Dholyamode    0+00 to     7.03     2,458-1,976   Northern    Metamorphic       Alluvial soil
        -Rapana       7+030                                          and
                                                                     conglomerates
2       Rapana-       7+030 to    5.45     1,976-1,648   North-      Congolomerates    Colluvial soil
        Ratoka        12+480                             Western     and metamorphic
3       Ratoka-       12+480 to   5.78     1,648-1,596   North-      Conglomerates     Alluvial and
        Jogedhunga    18+260                             Western                       colluvial soil
4       Jogedhunga-   18+260 to   6.21     1,596-1,270   Western     Metamorphic,      Alluvial and
        Khadikhet     24+471                                         conglomerates     colluvial soil
        Total                     24.47
Source: Field survey, 2007



Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      13
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
3.1.3 Climate
53.     Shreebhavar-Hat road lies in the sub-tropical and temperate climatic region. Generally,
rainy season starts from June and ends in September. The meteorological record shows
unevenly distributed monsoon rain in the project area with the total average annual rainfall is
1243 mm. In Dholyamod, climate is temperate and as the road descends, the climatic condition
also changes to subtropical at Hat area. The general climatic condition is cold in winter and hot
in summer with average minimum temperature of 5° C and average maximum temperature of
34°C.

3.1.4   Hydrology and Drainage System
54.     There are five streams crossing the road alignment as given in the table 3.2

Table 3.2 Summary of streams along the road alignment

SN      Chainage         Name of the Stream        Type              Remarks
1       8+430            Anar Khola                Perennial         Dry stone causeway
2       10+640           Gupha Khola               Perennial         Dry stone causeway
3       10+667           Kafali Khola              Perennial         Dry stone causeway
4       17+382           Nainigad Khola            Perennial         Dry stone causeway
5       17+719           Paira Khola               Perennial         Dry stone causeway
Source: Field survey, 2007

55.      In addition, there are many dry streams along the road alignment. No wetlands are
found within the vicinity of the road. There are three irrigation canals (kulo) and one water
pipe line at the following chainage:
    • Ch 8+680 to 8+740 - Irrigation canal
    • Ch 11+240 to 11+500 - Irrigation canal
    • Ch 13+375 to 13+430 - Irrigation canal
    • Ch 9+080 to 9+200 - Drinking water pipe line

3.1.5 Soil Erosion and Sedimentation
56.      The stability of slopes along the road corridor depends upon slope angle, the material
constituting the slope, rock discontinuities and hydrological conditions. There is one small
landslide at Ch 9+040. At Ch 18+150, the road alignment passes 90 m above a landslide
(about 30 years old) namely Ritha pairo (also known as Babida pahiro). Some portion of this
landslide is still active but upper eastern part is more or less stabilized due to the various
activities done by District Soil Conservation Office, Baitadi. They had constructed bamboo
and gabion check dams and planted grasses and Alnus nepalensis (Uttis).

3.1.6 Land use
57.     Land use pattern of the area through which the road passes have been classified into
four types: cultivated land, forest, public and barren land as shown in table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Summary of land use pattern along the road alignment

SN   Land use                                  Area in (ha)        Remarks
1    Cultivated land                              6.413            5m either side is taken
2    Community forest area                        2.706            5m either side is taken
3    Public land                                  0.453            5m either side is taken
4    Barren including Kharbari                   14.815            5m either side is taken
     Total                                       24.387
Source: Fileld survey, 2007.

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       14
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
3.1.7 Air, Noise and Water Quality
58.      The air quality observed was good and expected to be within national ambient air
quality standards of Nepal. Likewise, water quality in the proposed road section is observed to
be good since it is free from any kind of pollution sources. There is no defecation problem
observed around the drinking water sources. However, during the monsoon season the quality
of water may be polluted due the accumulation of silt, landslide, gully erosion etc. The
proposed area does not have any sources of noise nuisance.

3.2     Biological Environment
3.2.1 Vegetation
59.     The dominant forest and fodder species reported in the road alignment are Quercus
leucotricophora (Banjh), Rhododendron arboreum (laligurans), Alnus nepalensis (Utis),
Schima wallichii (Chilaune), Castonopsis indica (Katus), Ficus roxburghii (timilo), Prunus
cerasoides (paiyun), Bahunia variegata (koiralo), Sapindus mukorossi (ritha), Grewia
oppositiafolia (bhimal), Ficus semicordata (khanyo), Pinus roxburghii (khote salla), Myrica
esculenta (kafal), Quercus semicarpifolia (Kharsu), Ficus nerifolia (dhudhilo), Cedrela toona
(tuni).

3.2.1.1 NTFP
60.      Non timber forest products (NTFPs) are defined as any kind of products derived from
forest species other than timber and fuel wood. The main NTFP species found along the road
alignments are: Allo, Rubia manjith (Majitho), Gaultheria fragrantissima (Dhasingare),
Swertia chirayita (Chirayito) etc.

3.2.1.2 Community Forest
61.      In Baitadi district, there are 344 CFUGs having 12,672.94 ha of community forest
benefiting 43,241 households. This is about 26 % of total potential community forest area
(DFO, Baitadi, 2005). There are 5 CFs along the proposed road alignment as given in the
table 3.4.

Table 3.4       Community Forests along road alignment

S.N.  Name              of Chainage               Total Area Main Species
      Community                                   (ha)
      Forest
1     Basanta Hariyali     0+120 to 0+600             1.246       Kaulo,             Kharshu,
                           0+740 to 1+186                         Laliguransh
                           2+340 to 2+440
                           2+780 to 2+840
2     Sunagadi Hariyali    5+180 to 5+500              0.46       Uttis, Kaulo, Angeri, Bajh,
                           5+800 to 5+940                         Laliguransh
3     Okhalkate            9+560 to 9+880              0.7        Shrubs and bushes
                           9+940 to 10+260
4     Gupha                10+700 to 10+940            0.24       Shrubs and bushes
5     Madhu                22+365 to 22+425            0.06       Utish, Salla, Kaphal
      Total                                           2.706
Source: Field survey, 2007

3.2.2 Wildlife
62.     Panthera pardus (Leopard), Barking deer, Hystix indica (Porcupine), Canis aureus
(Jackal), Macaca mulatta (Monkey), Felis chaus (Jungle Cat) are the wild animals reported in
the forests of proposed road area. Similarly birds are Lophura lencomelana (kalij pheasant),
Columba livia (Pigion), etc. However, none of these wild lives are endangered species. The
road does not fall under any protected or buffer zone area.
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                     15
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
3.3      Socio-economic and Cultural Environment
3.3.1 Population, Household and Ethnicity
63.      There are 30 settlements along the ZoI of the proposed road alignment in Shikharpur,
Bhumiraj, Kotila, Malladehi and Hat VDCs. with total population of 12,314 persons (2,122
households) and average family size of 5.80 as illustrated by Table 3.5. Diverse ethnic groups
such as, Brahmin, Thakuri, Chhetri and occupational castes (Damai, Kami, and Sarki) live
along the ZoI of road alignment. Occupational caste households are distributed in almost all
the settlements.

Table 3.5 Settlements and population within the ZoI of road alignment

 S.N. Major Settlements         VDCs & ward no.        Total Households     Total
                                                                            Population
    1   Dhole                   Shikharpur-3                   110                638
    2   Rapana                  Bhumiraj-9                     136                789
    3   Khadayat Gaun           Bhumiraj-8                     76                 441
    4   Mankali                 Bhumiraj-2                     54                 314
    5   Kafal Dhunga            Bhumiraj-1                      50                290
    6   Mudeli                  Bhumiraj-6                     45                 261
    7   Maina                   Bhumiraj-3                     45                 261
    8   Kuyeli Gaun             Bhumiraj-4                      80                464
    9   Tirkali                 Bhumiraj-5                     90                 522
   10   Dharudi                 Bhumiraj-7                     85                 493
   11   Bhawane                 Kotila-1                        60                348
   12   Salleli Gaun            Kotila-2                        42                244
   13   Manhasti Patgaun        Kotila-3                       124                720
   14   Airadi                  Kotila-4                       118                685
   15   Kotila                  Kotila-5                        75                435
   16   Ratoka                  Kotila-6                        50                290
   17   Aeri Gaun               Kotila-7                       31                 180
   18   Aeri Gaun               Kotila-8                         2                 12
   19   Awasthi Gaun            Kotila-9                       75                 435
   20   Malladehi               Malladehi-1                    150                870
   21   Babida                  Malladehi-8                     80                464
   22   Upar Gaun               Malladehi-9                     50                290
   23   Kot, Khetali            Malladehi-6                     65                377
   24   Nwaghar                 Malladehi-7                     94                546
   25   Garkha                  Malladehi-2                     38                221
   26   Serisalla               Malladehi-5                     30                174
   27   Dandpur                 Malladehi-3                     84                488
   28   Lamani                  Malladehi-4                    107                621
   29   Dadimbot                Hat-4                           40                232
   30   Dandakot                Hat-3                           36                209
        Total                                                 2,122             12,314
Source: Field survey, 2007

3.3.2 Main occupation
64.      The main occupation of all people residing within the ZoI of the proposed road
alignment is agriculture and livestock. Due to limited transportation facilities agriculture
farming is not enough for subsistence level. Therefore, people are carrying out other economic
activities like labour and porters (84%), working in government and non government
organizations (10%), business (5%), employment in foreign countries (1%). Details of
occupations of the people according to the settlements are shown in Annex IX a.
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    16
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
3.3.3 Public Services and Infrastructures
65.     There are various social sector facilities and infrastructure in different settlements as
given below. Details about public services and infrastructures according to the settlements are
shown in Annex IX b.

Education
66.     The proposed project area consists of a total of 53 educational institutions ranging
from primary level to college level education. Primary schools are found in majority of the
settlements. In addition, there is only one campus in Dadimbot settlement of Hat VDC-4 and
one high school in Kafal Dhunga settlement of Bhumiraj VDC-1.

Health Facility
67.    In health sector, there are four health post in Khadayat Gaun, Bhawane, Upar Gaun
and Dadimbot settlements. For serious health problem, people go to district hospital in Baitadi
or Dadeldhura.

Communication
68.     Regarding communication, most of the settlements do not have telephone facilities
except few settlements namely Dhole, Rapana, Bhawane, Malladehi, Nwaghar, Dadimbot
mostly with CDMA connection and there are two post offices in Nwaghar and Dandakot
settlements.

Electricity
69.      Since the national grid line has not yet reached in the project area, for electricity
supply about 27% of settlement (8 settlements) depends upon micro hydro scheme ranging
from 3 to 7 kw capacity. One to six hhs in ten settlements (total 31 hhs) have solar power for
lighting.

Business Facilities
70.      There are grocery shops, tea stalls, restaurants and lodges available in the almost all
settlements except Airi Gaun and Garkha. Number is more in potential market centers like
Tirkali, Dharudi, Malladehi, Babida, Upar Gaun. The number of business facilities varies from
1 to 11.

Water Supply
71.     Drinking water supply facility is available to all settlements. The water supply
schemes generally use spring sources located at higher altitudes. The water is conveyed by
pipes from the sources to the public taps through gravity flow. These taps are located in
common places so that each serves a few households. No house has a private connection.

Irrigation
72.      Irrigation facility is available to all settlements except Dhole, Mankali, Dharudi,
Salleli Gaun through gravity fed canals.

Other Infrastructures
73.     There are 40 water mills mainly used for grinding purpose. There are 11 foot trail
bridges in various streams.

Industries
74.     There are only four cottage industries like rice and flour mill, weaving industry located
in Bhawane, Ratoka, Upar Gaun settlement.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       17
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Financial Institutions
75.      There are 12 saving and credit cooperatives found in nine settlements such as, Dhole,
Rapana, Mankali, Kafal Dhunga, Mudeli, Maina, Kuyeli Gaun, Tirkali, Dharudi run by the
local groups.

Community Development Facilities
76.     Community based organizations particularly, women saving and credit groups,
community forest users group are found in 14 settlements. Similarly, community use structures
like ghat (cremation place), play ground, community centers are also found in some of the
settlements.

3.3.3 Land holding pattern
77.     Land holding pattern within the ZoI of the road project demonstrates that most of the
population (40%) have 1-5 ropani (approximately 1 ha = 20 ropani) land while one fourth
households (26%) fall under 5-10 ropani land holding category. Very few hhs (0.24%) are
landless and few hhs (10%) have less than one ropani land. While one sixth (18%) of the
households have 10-20 ropani land and another few (6%) are big farmers having more than 20
and less than 50 ropani land. Details about land holding pattern are given in Annex IX c.

3.3.4 Food Security
78.     Large percentage of the households is food deficit for varied time period as shown in
the table given in Annex IX d. Majority of the households (71%) have food sufficiency for
three to nine months. Even about one fourth hhs (23%) have food sufficiency for less than
three months only. This shows the poverty situation within the ZoI of the project area. On the
contrary, very few percentage (5%) of households of the project area have food sufficiency for
whole year while less than one percent households (4 hhs) are reported as food surplus ones
who are in the well off category of selling their surplus farm products.

3.3.6 Migration pattern
79.     Permanent migration takes place in limited scale towards Terai (Kailali and
Kanchanpur) and other places like Kathmandu. However, about ten percent people go to India
in search of employment opportunity and stay more than six moths. Likewise, from all the
settlements, majority of the people (73%) migrate seasonally during slack framing season from
Mangsir to Poush mainly in various parts of India like Pithoragarh, Delhi working as coolie,
labour and guard. This shows poor economic status of the people in the proposed road
corridor. This could be reduced by providing employment opportunities at the local level.

3.3.7 Potential Development area
80.     The proposed road passes through a potential area for Iron mine in Airigaun of ward
no.7, Kotila VDC, Dhole of ward no.3, Shikharpur VDC, Rapana of ward no.9, Bhumiraj
VDC and Malladehi of ward no.1, Malladehi VDC. Similarly, Dharudi is also potential for the
production of vegetables. Dadimbat is potential area for electricity generation from Triveni
River.

81.      Dikakot area of ward no.6, Bhumiraj VDC is potential for rural tourism development
as panoramic view of eight districts of Nepal and Dharchula of India is seen from here.
Malladehi is famous for Dilasaini Bhagawati temple where pilgrims visit from various district
of Far Western region and Uttarakhand state of India. More tourists will visit this area due to
easy accessibility. Mudeli, Maina, Khamlek areas have potential to become market centers for
local trade in future. Similarly, this road will also open the easy accessibility for the people of
Darchula via Gokuleswar.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                         18
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
3.3.8 Religious, Cultural and Historical Sites
82.     The following historical and religious sites are within ZoI of the proposed project area
(outside road alignment and RoW):
        Kedar temple, Bhumiraj temple, Beureshwor temple, Dandabag temple, Durga temple,
        Masani temple, Bhaunele temple, Mahadev temple, Atmal temple, Dilasaini
        Bhagawati Temple, Babida Temple, Lathinath temple, Bhumiraj temple, Triveni
        Ratashila temple.
        Triveni Ghat
        Shrikot Killa

83.     These sites are visited and used for worship, by the local residents. However, these
temples and religious sites don't fall in the proposed road alignment and their displacement is
not needed.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      19
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                                4.0       Project Alternatives


84.     Alternative analysis has been considered as an integral part of IEE study, which
involves an examination of alternative ways of achieving objectives of the proposed project.
The aim of alternative analysis is to arrive at a development option, which maximizes the
benefits while minimizing the adverse impacts. The various alternatives to achieve the project
objectives with minimum environmental degradation are discussed as follows:

4.1     No action option
85.     This alternative does not allow the implementation of the proposal. This alternative
has both beneficial and adverse impacts on the environment. If the proposal is not
implemented, the transportation time and cost for the local people to the district headquarter
and markets and vice versa will be increased resulting into low level of productivity and
prevalence of poverty. The no action option will conserve some of the environmental adverse
impacts at the cost of poverty and hardship of the people.

4.2     Proposal alternatives
86.     The people living within the ZoI require an efficient and safe mode of transportation to
have the access to the market and other service centers. At the same time, there is need to
conserve the physical, biological and socio-economic and cultural environment. Therefore,
construction of ropeway, airport and road could be the options for achieving the above
mentioned objectives.

87.       Ropeway can be another mode of transportation to enhance accessibility of the people
within ZoI. The ropeway primarily serves to transport goods and it normally does not provide
facilities for human mobility except it is built with cable car facilities. It is very costly if built
with cable car. Hence, ropeway without cable car will not serve the transportation need.

88.      Air connection will be expensive and out of reach for poor people. There is an airport
in Patan but transportation by air will be very expensive and bulk transportation may not be
feasible. Moreover, there are no flights in operation and the airport has already been closed.

89.      Considering other project alternatives, the proposed road project can be the best option
to serve the purpose of efficient transportation requirement.

4.3     Alternative Design and Construction Approach
90.     There are two types of road design and construction methods. They are conventional
and green road approach. In conventional method, heavy machineries and equipment,
explosives, heavy concrete structures with the application of bituminous surfacing, side drains,
bridges and culverts etc. are extensively involved.

91.     Green road approach which is normally referred as a labour based, environmental
friendly and participatory (LEP) focuses to conserve the delicate mountain ecology through
the protection of vegetation cover as means of soil conservation. Under this approach,
construction work is done manually from the local labour without using heavy machinery and
explosives. Spoil disposal is balanced with cutting and filling volume. Simple dry stone walls
and stone causeways will be used at maximum possible extent. Preservation of vegetation
cover is maintained. The proposed road has been designed considering the green road design
concept and construction will be done accordingly.
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                            20
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
4.4     Alternative schedule and process
92.     During the rainy season, the construction work is stopped to allow the natural
compaction of the road. Rehabilitation and construction work will be carried out during the
remaining months. The construction period is more appropriate from October to June as the
local people are more or less free from farming activities.

4.5     Alternative Resources
93.     The physical resources consumed for the construction of the proposed road will
mainly include boulders for gabions and stone for dry masonry wall. The proposed
construction will optimally use the local labour force and local materials.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                 21
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                5.0     Identification and Assessment of Impacts


94.      The identification and assessment of impacts has been carried out by considering the
proposed proposal activities in terms of construction and operation stage. The impact of the
activities will be on physical, biological. socio-economic and cultural resources within the ZoI.
The impacts generated are both beneficial as well as adverse. The environmental impacts have
been identified for a number of issues based on the analysis of the environmental baseline
information and activities that are to be undertaken (during construction, rehabilitation and
subsequent operation phase). Most of the identified impacts have been quantified to the extent
possible.

95.     The impacts have been predicted in terms of their magnitude if significance (minor,
moderate and high), extent (site specific, local and regional) and duration (short, medium and
long term) as illustrated in table 5.1. The possible impacts from the proposal during the
construction and operation stages are presented as following:

5.1     Beneficial Impacts
96.     The development efforts particularly the development of transportation network will
have multifold beneficial impacts. Road projects are generally intended to improve the
economic and social welfare of the people. The largest beneficial impacts will be on the
physical and socioeconomic environment as given below:

5.1.1 Construction Stage
Employment Generation and Increase in Income
97.         One of the major direct beneficial impacts of the road during construction stage is
the creation of employment opportunity to the local community. Total 21,741 skilled and
502,732 unskilled person days work will be created during construction of the road.
Construction of this road will generate employment for the local people which will minimize
seasonal migration to other parts of the country and India. The amount of money that is earned
by the wages will directly enhance the operation of various economic activities and enterprise
development.

Enterprise Development and Business Promotion
98.     During construction period, different types of commercial activities will come into
operation in order to meet the demand of workers. Since they will have good purchasing
power, they will regularly demand for different types of food, beverage and other daily
necessary items. To meet these demands, many local and outside people may operate a number
of small shops and restaurants around the vicinity of the construction sites. Various farm based
enterprises including wide range of agricultural and livestock products will also gain
momentum as a result of increased demand by labors during construction period. This will
increase local trade and business in the area.

Enhancement of Community Development Service
99.      Due to increase in employment opportunities, trade, business and agricultural income,
considerable amount of money may be channeled into the local economy in the area. This will
increase the income level of the individual household and the local community of the area. It is
possible that some money may be spent by the individual for the community development
activities such as education, school, health and sanitation services.

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       22
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Awareness on Resource Management
100.    The project will adopt bioengineering treatments. This activity will enhance the local
understanding on the importance of vegetation, particularly the trees and shrubs, including
grasses for road slope stabilization. It is also likely that local people will have the opportunity
to be aware about the importance of plants and its contribution to the stability of the road.

5.1.2 Operation Stage
101.    Following beneficial impacts of the proposed road project are anticipated during the
operational stage:

Access to Inputs and Services due to Transportation Facility
102.     Access to inputs and services is expensive and not regular at present. Once the road is
in operation, people would have cheaper and improved access to many inputs such as seeds,
chemical fertilizer and technology leading to increased agricultural production and
diversification. The transportation cost is expected to come down heavily for many of the
inputs that are used by farmers in the farm and other goods.

Trade and Business
103.    When completed, this road will bring more opportunities for the promotion of trade
and business. This will also ensure regular and cheaper transportation facilities to the people of
Bhumiraj, Shikharpur, Kotila, Malladehi and Hat VDCs to Khodpe and district headquarter of
Baitadi as well as other part of the country. This will ensure continuous flow of products and
commodities to Khamhale, Khadayat gaun, Salledhara, Ratoka, Tirkali, Dharudi, Malladehi,
Babida, Upar gaun and Khadikhet market centers along the road alignment.

Increased Crop Productivity and Sale of Farm Products
104.     Due to easy and cheaper availability of agricultural inputs and technologies,
productivity will be increased along the road alignment. Sale of farm and livestock products
will be increased in the settlements along the road corridor like, Rapana, Kafaldhunga, Kuyeli
gaon, Maina, Malladehi, Ratoka and Khadikhet. The major areas for the production vegetables
are Dharudi, Bhawane, Salleli gaun, Kotila, Airi gaun, Awasthi gaun, Babida, Upar gaun and
Garkha.

Development of Market centers
105.    There is a possibility of increased economic opportunities and significant growth and
extension of the minor local markets along the road like in Khamhale, Khadayat gaun,
Salledhara, Ratoka, Tirkali, Dharudi, Malladehi, Babida, Upar gaun and Khadikhet area. The
farmers will be more interested to increase agricultural production due to market accessibility.

Appreciation of Land Value
106.    The construction of road leads to appreciation of land values particularly near the
market and settlement areas. The land price would increase due to the availability of reliable
transportation facilities. There will be rapid increase in the commercial production of
agricultural crops due to road accessibility which is also a major factor to raise the land value.
This activity would likely uplift the economic condition of the local people.

Enhancement of Community Development Services
107.    Local people may spend more on health and sanitary facilities, education facilities and
other community services due to reduced transportation cost. The operation of road will also
contribute to raise quality services in social sectors as more competent agencies and people
will enter in the area to provide services. This will also encourage students to enroll in
campuses for higher studies. People will get health services easily due to the regular and
cheaper transportation facilities.


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                         23
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Promotion of Tourism Activity
108.    Dikakot area of Bhumiraj VDC-6 is potential for rural tourism development as
panoramic view of eight districts of Nepal and Dharchula of India is seen from here. Malladehi
is famous for Dilasaini Bhagawati temple where pilgrims visit from various district of Far
Western region and Uttarakhand state of India. More tourists will visit this area due to easy
accessibility. Flow of tourists due to road construction will contribute in the enhancement of
economic activities of the area which will increase the living condition of the local people.

Women Empowerment
109.     All the people will be benefited from the road upgrading. However, women in
particular may be benefited more from improved access to the market centers and various
service providing agencies like health centers, banks, training institutions, women
development office etc. Frequency of visit to such agencies will increase awareness level and
empower the women.

5.2     Adverse Impacts
110.    The proposed road project activities during construction and operation will create
following adverse impacts on the local environment:

5.2.1 Construction Stage
111.    The proposed road will be rehabilitated and constructed according to LEP approach.
Therefore, there will not be severe damage to environment compared to conventional
construction approach. However, it is likely to occur following impacts on physical,
biological, socio-economic and cultural resources of the proposed road area.

Physical Impacts
Change in Land Use
112.    The land acquired for the implementation of the project can undergo a long-term
permanent change in the land use. Changes of land use due to the construction of road are
mainly conversion of agricultural land, community forest, public land and barren land into
built up area. Cultivated land (6.413 ha) of the local people will be permanently lost during
road construction. Similarly, 2.706 ha of community forest, 0.453 ha of public and 14.815 ha
of barren land will be lost due to road construction work. The changes in land use will have
impact on loss of agricultural land, which directly reduce the agricultural production.

Slope Instability
113.     Removal of vegetation and open cuts with exposed soil to rain will cause soil erosion
as well as landslide. This can become a major source of silt that the monsoon runoff carries
away. The stability of slopes along the road corridor depends upon slope angle, the material
constituting the slope, rock discontinuities and hydrological conditions. There is one small
landslide at Ch 9+040. At Ch 18+150, the road alignment passes 90 m above a landslide
(about 30 years old) namely Ritha pairo (also known as Babida pahiro). Some portion of this
landslide is still active but upper eastern part is more or less stabilized due to the various
activities done by District Soil Conservation Office, Baitadi. Since, the proposed road
alignment passes about 90 m above this landslide; there will be no significant adverse impact
to the proposed road at present.

Drainage and Cross Drainage Works and Disruption of Related Infrastructures
114.     The concentrated water from the road outlet causes erosion and landslide eventually
affecting the stability of the road itself. Local water supply pipes and their sources and
irrigation canals are likely to be affected during construction work of the road project.

Air Dust, Noise and Water Pollution
115.   The ambient air quality data of the project area is not available at present. The road
side dwellers and workers may be affected by emission of dust during road construction. This
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    24
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
may affect the health of the laborers and people living nearby areas. The proposed project area
does not experience significant noise pollution. Water quality data of water sources within the
project area is not available. However, the water quality of water bodies within the project area
appears to be good and without pollution. During the road construction, these water bodies
may be affected due to excavated materials.

Quarrying
116.    Quarry identified for the extraction of boulder stone is on hill slopes. The extraction of
materials from inappropriate places or in excessive amount can damage the local environment.
The potential adverse impacts of quarrying are accelerated erosion, landslides, disturbance in
natural drainage patterns, water logging and water pollution.

Spoil Disposal
117.    Fresh cuts whenever is required, invites landslides and erosion during the monsoon.
The common likely problems from the inappropriate disposal of spoils are: gullying and
erosion of spoil tips especially when combined with unmanaged surface water runoff, damage
to farm lands, destruction of vegetation, crops and property at downhill through direct
deposition or indirectly as result of mass flow.

Decline in Aesthetic Value
118.     Landscape degradation relates particularly to poorly designed or monitored activities
resulting from quarrying operations, from landslides that could have been avoided, and from
indiscriminate dumping of spoil material. Road induced activities may lead to the generation
and mismanagement of wastes in the roadsides and create scars on the landscape.

Biological Impacts
119.    The following are possible identified impacts based on baseline information related
with the rehabilitation and construction of the proposed road.

Loss of Forest Vegetation
120.    Total of 2.706 ha of community forest will be lost due to road construction. The
proposed road passes through five CFs. From these CFs and private cultivated land, total 3,970
numbers of trees including bamboo will be removed (see annex X for list of tress) during road
construction.

Disturbance to Wildlife and Bird
121.    The proposed area is not significant habitat for wildlife and bird species, however, the
construction of road may disturb wildlife and bird species due to increased noise level.

Socio-economic Impacts
Loss of Agricultural land
122.     There will be loss of 6.413 ha of agricultural land due to road construction. This will
lead to loss of food grain production among the families losing lands to the project. Moreover,
spoils on farm land will also affect the production of agricultural crops. Consequently, it will
affect the livelihood of the households residing near the road alignment.

Health and Safety Matters
123.    During construction, workers will be exposed to various risks and hazards. Potential
impacts to health are respiration and eye diseases due to exposure to dust, risk of accident
during work, stomach problems due to drinking water.

5.2.2 Operation stage
124.    The following are possible identified impacts based on baseline information related
with the operation of the road:

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        25
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Physical Environment
Slope Instability and Management
125.    The destabilization of slope may also be expedited due to human activities in the road
neighborhood such as quarrying stones or soil, animal grazing, irrigated cultivation. This may
cause damage to road section, disruption to transportation and other social impacts in the
nearby areas. The inadequate maintenance of the road due to the blockage of drains damages
the road surface that can lead to slides and slope failure.

Air and Noise Pollution
126.    The operation of vehicles can disturb silent ambience of the existing area. Similarly,
in long-term operation period, air pollution will be increased by the emission from the vehicles
as well as dust from the road.

Biological Environment
Depletion of Forest Resources
127.    The forest resources depletion may occur due to ineffective drainage works,
inappropriate spoil disposal and construction practices. The development of market centers
may exert pressure on forest and eventually deplete the forest resources. However, provision
of forest products distribution in community forest operational plan will minimize the
depletion of forest resources.

Disturbance to Wildlife and Illegal Hunting
128.     Although the wildlife population is reported low, however, they may be disturbed due
to the frequent movement of the vehicles. Vehicular flow, horn blowing in the forest area will
have impact on the wildlife and bird species. During the road operation people residing near
the market centres may start illegal hunting of the wild animals and birds due to the demand by
the outside people.

Socioeconomic and Cultural Impacts
New Settlement and Market Center Development
129.     The existing trend is to settle along the road side for the economic activities. This is
primarily attributed to increased opportunities for trade and commerce through the
establishment of shops, restaurants, stalls and hotels. So, there is expansion of settlement area
and development of market centers. This may trigger the practice of encroaching right of way
(RoW). Consequently, this will reduce road capacity and increase road accidents. The
increasing trend of roadside settlement is likely to increase household waste as well as
wastewater on the road.

Change in Social behavior
130.    Flow of tourists and other visitors may influence the changes in the social behavior.
This may increase economic opportunities along the road corridor. People may leave their
family in their villages to dwell near the new spots for economic incentives. This will
ultimately affect the traditional bonds, norms and functions of the family. This will also cause
impact on social and cultural transition.

Road Safety Measures
131.    Movement of vehicles in the road will invite accidents. Inadequate provisions of road
safety measures like no provisions of signals and lack of enforcement of traffic rules during
operation period may invite accidents.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       26
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Table 5.1                       Evaluation of Identified Environmental Impacts
Beneficial Environmental Impacts
Phase      Impact                                               Magni              Extent     Duration
                                                                tude
          Employment Generation and Increase in income          H                  Lc         St
Constru
          Enterprise Development and Business Promotion         M                  Lc         Mt
Stage
ction
          Enhancement of Community Development Service          H                  Lc         Lt
          Awareness on Resource Management                      M                  Lc         Lt
          Access to Inputs and Services due to Transportation   M                  R          Lt
          Trade and Business                                    M                  Lc         Lt
          Increased Crop Productivity and Sale of Farm M                           Lc         Lt
Operation Stage




          Products
          Development of Market centers                         M                  R          Lt
          Appreciation of Land value                            M                  Lc         Lt
          Enhancement of Community Development Services         M                  Lc         Lt
          Promotion of Tourism Activity                         M                  Lc         Lt
          Women Empowerment                                     M                  Lc         Mt
Adverse Environment Impacts
Pha Aspect          Impact                                      Magni              Extent     Duration
se                                                              tude
                    Change in Land Use                          H                  Lc         Lt
                    Slope Instability                           H                  Ss         Lt
                    Drainage and Cross Drainage works and M                        Ss         St
                    Disruption of Related Infrastructures
                    Air Dust, Noise and Water Pollution         L                  Lc         St
Construction Stage

                     Physical




                    Quarrying                                   M                  Ss         St
                    Spoil Disposal                              H                  Ss         St
                    Decline in Aesthetic Value                  M                  Ss         Mt
      Biological    Loss of Forest Vegetation                   H                  Lc         Lt
                    Disturbance to the Wildlife and Birds       M                  Lc         Mt
       Socio-       Loss of Agricultural land                   H                  Lc         Lt
      economic      Health and Safety Matters                   H                  Lc         St
      Physical      Slope Instability and Management            M                  Ss         St
                    Air and Noise Pollution                     M                  Lc         Lt
Operation Stage




      Biological    Depletion of Forest Resources               M                  Lc         Lt
                    Disturbance to Wildlife and Illegal Hunting M                  Lc         Mt
      Socio-        New Settlement and Market Center M                             Lc         Mt
      economic      Development
                    Change in Social behavior                   M                  Lc         St
                    Road Safety Measures                        M                  Lc         Mt

132.    Note:
    Magnitude: This can be low-L (minor), medium-M (moderate), and high-H (major),
    depending on the scale or severity of change.
    Geographical extent: If the action is confined to the project area, it is referred as site-
    specific (Ss), if it occurs outside area but close to project area, the extent of impact is local
    (Lc), if it occurs far away from the project, it is referred as regional (R).
    Duration: It can be short term (St - i.e. less than 3 years), medium term (Mt - i.e. 3-20
    years), and long term (Lt - i.e. more than 20 years).




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                           27
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                              6.0     Mitigation Measures


133.     Impacts from the proposed road projects can be both beneficial as well as adverse. An
effective implementation of benefit maximization measures and adverse impacts mitigation
measures would optimize the benefits expected from the project and avoid/minimize the
adverse impact from the project. Based on the impact assessment and identification, beneficial
augmentation and adverse impact mitigation measures are presented below.

6.1     Mitigation Measures During Pre-construction phase
134.    The mitigation measures adopted during design or pre-construction phases are of
preventive in nature with two basic objectives:
        (i)     Avoiding costly mitigation measures, and
        (ii)    Increasing awareness among the stakeholders for environmental management
                of road construction, rehabilitation and operation.

6.1.1 Route Selection
135.     Since, this is an existing road and proposed for rehabilitation, there is no new route
selection rather designing geometrical improvements (as required) and widening of the road
formation to the specified width i.e. 5.0 m. Local conditions (structures, switchback, lay-byes,
mass balancing and safe disposal site for the excess excavated material, community utilities,
slopes, sensitive spots etc.) will be taken into due consideration as to which side widening will
take place in order to minimize land acquisition from forest, cultivable lands, settlement and
cultural properties.

6.1.2 Detailed Survey and Design
136.    The road design will follow the rural road standards developed by DOLIDAR. The
works will be executed through labor intensive construction method as far as possible and
practical in this program. Bio-engineering technique will be applied for stabilization of slopes,
which is sustainable, environment friendly and can be done by using local resources and
manpower.

6.1.3 Land and Property Acquisition, Compensation and Resettlement
137.    Being a governmental agency the proponent will assist to form Compensation
Determination Committee (CDC) under the Chairmanship of Chief District Officer. The Chief
of Land Revenue Office, DDC representative, DTO will be members in the CDC and other
representatives from DFO, DADO, Survey Office, VDC and affected person will be invited if
needed. The Committee will decide the rates applicable for compensating different types of
houses, land, trees and crops in accordance to established market rates. A separate
Resettlement Plan will be prepared to address land and property acquisition as well as
compensation issues.

6.2     Benefit Augmentation Measures
6.2.1 Construction Stage
Employment Generation and Increase in income
138.    During the road construction and rehabilitation, large number of local people (502,732
unskilled person days and 21,741 skilled person days). Total 242 skilled and 5,586 unskilled
persons will get employment for 90 days will work as labourer giving more emphasis to
women (at least 40%), ethnic minority and dalit (occupational caste). They will get direct
employment and it will contribute significantly in their livelihood. This will also increase their
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        28
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
economy and keep them occupied in earning and skill learning job during agricultural lean
season. To utilize their money earned from the project works, DRILP will implement life skill
training for income generation activities to improve their livelihood. These programmes will
generate multiplier effect in the local economy and support significantly to uplift the
socioeconomic condition of the local people particularly poor, dalit, ethnic minority and
women.

Enterprise development and business promotion
139.    To meet the demands of the workers, many local and outside people may operate a
number of small shops and restaurants around the vicinity of the construction sites. Various
farm based enterprises including wide range of agricultural and livestock products will also
gain momentum as a result of increased demand by labors during construction period. This
will increase local trade and business in the area. The benefit enhancement measures will be
supporting local entrepreneurs and promotion of linkages with cooperative and bank and other
financial institutions.

6.2.2 Operation Stage
Promotion of Small Scale Industries
140.     After the completion of the road, local people will have cheaper and easy access to sell
their products to bigger markets at better price. This will encourage local people to establish
small scale industries, cultivate vegetables and other cash crops, timber and NTFPs. The
benefit augmentation measures will be to promote cooperative and provide linkage with bank
and other financial institutions for setting up business enterprises.

Enhancement of community development services
141.     Due to increase in employment opportunities, trade, business and agricultural income,
considerable amount of money may be channeled into the local economy which will increase
the income level of the individual household and the local community of the area. Promotion
of community development activities such as education, school, health and sanitation services
will be supported and linkage with social infrastructure services will be developed.

Access to inputs and services
142.    Once the road is in operation, people would have cheaper and improved access to
many inputs such as seeds, chemical fertilizer and technology leading to increased agricultural
production and diversification. The transportation cost is expected to come down heavily for
many of the inputs that are used by farmers in the farm and other goods. Agricultural support
services will be improved for the increased income from the farm products.

Increased crop productivity and sale of farm products
143.    Sale of farm and livestock products will be increased in the settlements along the road
corridor. Farmers will be more interested to increase agricultural production due to market
accessibility. For this, market linkages will be developed.

Development of market centers
144.    There is a possibility of growth and extension of the minor local markets along the
road like in Khamhale, Khadayat gaun, Salledhara, Ratoka, Tirkali, Dharudi, Malladehi,
Babida, Upar gaun and Khadikhet area. Sewerage and other basic facilities will be supported
in the market centers.

Appreciation of land value
145.    The construction of road leads to appreciation of land values particularly near the
market and settlement areas. There will be rapid increase in the commercial production of
agricultural crops due to road accessibility which is also a major factor to raise the land value.
This activity would likely uplift the economic condition of the local people. Benefit

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        29
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
enhancement measures will be promotion of land development activities and control of
encroachment within RoW.

Promotion of tourism activity
146.    Flow of tourists and pilgrims due to road construction will contribute in the
enhancement of economic activities of the area which will increase the living condition of the
local people. Development of lodges, restaurants and hotels for the tourists and pilgrims will
be supported.

6.3     Adverse Impacts Mitigation Measures
6.3.1 Construction Stage
Physical Environment
Spoil Disposal
147.    Spoils should be safely disposed and managed with minimum environmental damage
using LEP approach which includes balanced cut and fill volume, re-use of excavated
materials and minimum quantity of earth works. The following mitigation measures will be
adopted:
        Wherever possible, surplus spoil will be used to fill eroded gullies, quarries and
        borrow pits, depressed areas etc.
        Excess spoils will be disposed in specified tipping sites in a controlled manner.
        Spoils should not be disposed on fragile slopes, farmland, marshy land, forest areas,
        natural drainage path, canals and other infrastructures.
        After the disposal, the site will be provided with proper drainage, vegetation and
        adequate protection against erosion.
        Provisions of toe walls and retaining walls would protect the disposal of soil.

Slope Instability and Soil Erosion
148.    Earth excavation, particularly in unstable zones, drainage work, quarrying and spoil
disposal will aggravate slope instability and soil erosion. The proposed road adopts green road
approach. Adequate slope stabilization measures will be provisioned in design. The following
mitigation measures will be adopted during the construction and rehabilitation of the proposed
road:
        Ensuring minimum cut slope
        Selecting cut and fill slope at correct angle depending upon the soil type
        Re-vegetation of cut and fill slope or exposed areas as soon as possible by using native
        plant species
        Adoption of bio-engineering techniques
        Ensuring minimum damage of vegetation during construction
        No construction work during rainy season

Quarrying
149.     Stones and boulders needed for road construction will be extracted from the nearest
relatively good quality natural deposits. Following mitigation measures will be adopted against
the impacts of quarrying:
         Unstable sites, erosion prone area, dense forest area, settlements, fertile farm land will
         be avoided for quarrying operation.
         After the extraction is completed, the quarry site will be rehabilitated to suit the local
         landscape.

Drainage and Cross Drainage works and Disruption of Related Infrastructures
150.    The concentrated water from the road outlet causes erosion and landslide eventually
affecting the stability of the road itself. Local water supply pipe and irrigation canals are likely
to be affected during construction work of the road project. For this, following mitigation
measures will be adopted as appropriate:

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                          30
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
        Adequate numbers of drainage structures will be provided in order to have minimum
        interference on natural drainage pattern of the area
        Drain water discharge into farmland or risky locations will be avoided
        No diversion of water away from natural water course unless it is absolutely necessary
        Restoration/reinstating of all disturbed infrastructures
        Coordination with concerned local authorities like District Irrigation Office, District
        Drinking Water Supply Office and water users groups for the maintenance of
        disturbed infrastructure

Air, Noise and Water Pollution
151.    The proposed project area does not experience significant noise pollution. The road
side dwellers and workers may be affected by emission of dust during road construction.
Water bodies may be affected due to excavated materials during the road construction. The
following mitigation measures will be adopted:
        Use of face mask by the workers to minimize air pollution due to dust generation
        Plantation of local species along the roadside
        Use of ear muffles to lessen noise pollution during rock breaking and quarrying
        Avoiding the disposal of excavated materials in the water bodies

Decline in Asthetic Value
152.     Landscape degradation relates particularly to poorly designed or monitored activities
resulting from quarrying operations, from landslides that could have been avoided, and from
indiscriminate dumping of spoil material. Road induced activities may lead to the generation
and mismanagement of wastes in the roadsides and create scars on the landscape. The
following mitigation measures will be adopted:
         Indiscriminate dumping of spoil material will be discouraged.
         After the extraction is completed, the quarry site will be rehabilitated to suit the local
         landscape.

Biological Environment
Loss of Vegetation and Use of Forest Product
153.     During the road construction, total 3,970 numbers of trees and bamboos will be
removed as part of the site clearance from private land and community forests. The forest
products from the community forests will be distributed by the CFUGs according to their
operational plans. The loss of trees can not be minimized; however, it can be compensated by
the plantation. According to the Work Procedure for Providing the Forest Land for Other
Use, 2063 of Government of Nepal, project has to carry out plantation equivalent to the forest
area lost from the construction of the road or pay for the plantation and protection cost for five
years to the District Forest Office. Concerned CFs will carry out 2.706 ha of plantation in their
community forests with project support.

Disturbance to Wildlife and Illegal Hunting
154.   There may occur illegal hunting during construction period by building group
members and project staff. The following mitigation measures will be adopted:
       The construction activities near forest area will be appropriately managed so that there
       will be least disturbance to the wildlife and birds.
       Restriction to work during night time
       Restriction to wildlife harassment by the workers
       Coordination with DFO and CFUGs to control the activities like illegal hunting and
       poaching by enforcing acts and regulations strictly.
       The project will launch wildlife conservation awareness program for the construction
       workers.



Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                         31
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Socio-economic and Cultural Environment
Acquisition of Land and Property
155.     Productive land and house acquisition for the road alignment will be minimized as far
as possible. There are no structures found along the road alignment up to 15 kms. However,
compensation for the loss of property (land and trees) will be provided to the 136 affected
households. A separate Resettlement Plan will be prepared to address land and property
acquisition as well as compensation issues.

Change in land use
156.    Changes of land use due to the construction of road are mainly conversion of
agricultural land, community forest, public land and barren land into built up area. The
changes in land use will have impact on loss of agricultural land, which directly reduce the
agricultural production. The following mitigation measures will be adopted:
        Plantation in community forests
        Improving agricultural extension services
        Applying additional protective measures that the remaining land will not be lost due to
        erosion

Health and Safety
157.     The workers will be provided with helmets, masks, muffles (earplugs) depending on
the nature of the construction work. Drinking water facility and temporary pit latrine will be
established at construction sites to control open defecation and pollution of water bodies by the
workers. Workers will be provided with first aid and health facilities. There will be provision
for group accidental insurance for the workers. First aid training will be provided to field staffs
like sub-engineer, social mobilizers and supervisors.

6.3.3 Mitigation Measures During Operation Stage
Physical Environment
Slope Instability and Erosion
158.     The impact of slope instability and erosion will be in terms of damage of agricultural
land, forest area, other properties as well as reduction in agricultural production. The following
mitigation measures will be adopted:
         Correction of maintenance of the slope protection measures and drainage works
         Minor landslide and mass wasting will be immediately cleared and slope restored with
         appropriate technology (bioengineering)
         Soil conservation will be promoted in the right of way and vulnerable areas beyond
         the road alignment
         CFUGs will be promoted to conserve and manage their CFs properly

Air, Noise and Water Pollution
159.    The movement of vehicles on the road may cause air and noise pollution at some
extent. Similarly, run-off from road surface may cause water pollution. Following mitigation
measures will be adopted:
        Vehicle emission standard will be maintained
        Speed limit of the vehicles will be maintained near the settlements
        Use of horns should be restricted near dense forest, health posts, schools and
        settlements
        Plantation will be done along the right of way (RoW) near the settlements.

Biological Environment
Depletion of Forest Resources
160.    The pressure on forest resources during road operation is likely to occur. The
mitigation measures recommended are:
        CFUGs will be supported to conserve and manage their CFs according to operational
        plans
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                         32
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
        Installation of improved stoves will be promoted to minimize the consumption of fire
        wood

Disturbance to Wildlife and Birds
161.    Wildlife and birds will be disturbed due to the vehicle movement. Appropriate sign
boards will be erected informing drivers about:
        Prohibition of blowing horns in the dense forest areas
        Potential areas for wildlife crossing

Socio-economic and Cultural Environment
Road Safety Measures
162.   During road operation, there are likely chances of accidents. The mitigation measures
adopted will be:
       Applying appropriate road safety measures with the help of 3-Es i.e. Engineering,
       Enforcement and Education.
       Enforcement is usually made through traffic laws, regulation and controls like
       restriction on vehicle speed.
       Education is done by sufficient publicity and awareness raising programs. It aims at
       improving the human factor in traffic performance.
       Engineering phase is the one which is constructive. It deals with improvement of road
       geometrics, providing additional road facilities and installation of suitably designed
       traffic control devices.

New Settlement Along the Road
163.    There will be chances of growing ribbon settlements along the road during operation
phase. This may cause congestion to road users and invite accidents. The following mitigation
measures will be adopted:
        Awareness raising programme through local organizations to plan proper settlements
        Regulate settlement growth with proper panning along RoW
        Plantation of trees along the road.

Change in Social Behavior
164.    People may leave their family in their villages to dwell near the new spots for
economic incentives. This will ultimately affect the traditional bonds, norms and functions of
the family. This will also cause impact on social and cultural transition. The mitigation
measures recommended will be facilitating awareness raising programmes to the communities
about negative social behavior like gambling, excess use of alcohol etc.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    33
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                     7.0     Environmental Management Plan


165.    The environmental management plan (EMP) is prepared to guide implementation of
mitigation measures and monitoring requirements. It includes institution and their roles,
environmental management activities, environmental management organizational structure and
budget for mitigation measures.

7.1 Institutions and Their Roles

166.     The Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MoEST) is the main
institution mandated to formulate and implement environmental policies, plans and
programmes at the national level. It is also charged with the responsibility for preparing and
issuing environmental regulations and guidelines; development and enforcement of
environmental standards; pollution control, commissioning environmental research and
studies; and monitoring of programmes implemented by other agencies.

167.     The main responsibility for IEE and environmental management plan (EMP)
implementation is with DDC, Baitadi. During the implementation in the district, DISC team
will assist DDC through DPO. The DDC will also receive necessary assistance from the CISC
team for the implementation and monitoring of the EMP.

168.     The Ministry of Local Development (MLD), District Development Committees
(DDCs), and the Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads
(DoLIDAR) are the institutions directly involved in the IEEs of DRILP funded sub-projects.
The environmental management organizational structure is illustrated by Figure 7.1. The roles
of these institutions are as following:

Ministry of Local Development (MLD):
169.    As the concerned line ministry, it is responsible for review and final approval of ToRs
and study reports of IEEs, and for managing environmental monitoring. MLD has established
an Environmental Management Section (EMS) which is mandated with the overall
environmental responsibility of the Ministry.

Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads (DoLIDAR):
170.    It is the executing department of the DRILP under MLD and responsible for various
project implementation activities including environmental management. It is responsible for
providing back-up support to DDC in carrying out its tasks and advising MLD as necessary.

Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and Livelihood Project – Project Coordination Unit
(DRILP- PCU):
171.     It is the technical unit which is responsible to assist in project implementation in the
districts.

Central Implementation Support Consultant (CISC):
172.    It is responsible for supporting the implementation of DRILP activities in the central
and districts. It also provides additional human resources capacity, technical assistance and
advisory support for project management and monitoring, institutional capacity strengthening
and training, social mobilisation and development, planning, engineering design and
supervision, maintenance, environmental management and impact evaluation.
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       34
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
District Development Committee, Baitadi:
173.    DDC has overall responsibility for the Project implementation at district level. As
project implementer at district level, DDC Myagdi is responsible for screening and ToR
preparation, commissioning IEE studies, and carrying out mitigating works as well as
environmental monitoring.

District Technical Office (DTO):
174.    The DTO is the office responsible for all infrastructure related works of DDC. It takes
responsibility for the implementation of all technical and rural infrastructure development
works on behalf of DDC. The DTO chief is the project manager in the district.

District Project Office (DPO):
175.     The DPO established within DTO has the responsibility of implementing the project
activities in the district.

District Implementation Support Consultant (DISC):
176.     With technical and social staff, it supports in the implementation of the project
activities in the district.

District Road Coordination Committee (DRCC):
177.    It is a sub-committee of the DDC for the implementation of the road construction and
operation activities within the district.

Village Works and Road Construction Committee (VWRCC):
178.    It coordinates road issues among beneficiaries and institutions at VDC level.

Building Groups (BGs):
179.   Responsible for road construction activities.

7.2      Reporting and Documentation
180.     As part of EMP, reports should be produced at regular time intervals depending upon
type and size of project by the EMP team or unit. Since, the construction period is less than 2
years, three monthly reports will be prepared and submitted to the DDC and DDC will send to
the PCU and DoLIDAR.

181.    The Contract will need to state that the DDC must approve the building
groups/contractor's arrangements for environmental protection, health and safety, waste
management and other environmentally related actions identified during the detailed design
phase and these must be written into the Contract Document.

182.    The environmental consultant will inform the DDC/DTO in case of non-compliance
and of any other environmental issues that require immediate attention. The contract will detail
the remedies for non-compliance by the BG/Contractor.

183.     The monthly reports will be based on recurrent site inspections and will report on the
effectiveness of the mitigation measures; the Contractor's compliance with the environmental
specifications; measures recommended in the events of non-compliance and recommendations
for any other remedial actions, etc.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      35
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                           Ministry of Local Development (MLD)

                                                                   DRILP-PCU
                                   DoLIDAR                                CISC
DDC                                                                  Environmental
                                                                  Assessment Specialist




                                          DTO                  DPO                    DISC


                                     DRCC


                                    VWRCC


                      Building Group/Contractor

Figure 7.1      Environmental Management Organization Structure

7.3      Environmental Management Plan
184.     The DDC with project support will be responsible for the implementation of
mitigation measures and environmental monitoring. Overall implementation of the EMP will
become proponent’s responsibility. Framework for implementing environmental management
plan is shown by Table 7.1.

Table 7.1 Framework of Implementing Environmental Management Plan
   Potential     Benefit Augmentation/Mitigation           Concerned       Period      Verification
    Impacts                    Measures                     Agency                      Method
 Benefit Augmentation
 Employment Involvement of women, dalit and ethnic         DPO/DISC       Construct   Records,
 generation   minority poor people and providing life                     ion         discussion
 and increase skill training for income generation
 in come      activities
 Enterprise   Support to local entrepreneurs and           DPO/DISC/D     Construct   Records and
 development promotion of cooperative and linkage          epartment of   ion and     discussion
 and business with bank and other financial                Cottage and    operation
 promotion    institutions                                 Small
                                                           Industries
 Enhancement      Support promotion of community           DDC/DPO/D      Construct   Records,
 of               development activities and development   ISC            ion and     discussion

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                               36
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
 community        and linkage of social infrastructure                       operation
 development      services
 services
 Access to        Improve agricultural support services      DDC/DADO/       Operatio    Records and
 inputs and       for the farmers                            local farmers   n           discussion
 services
 Increased        Promotion of market linkages and           DDC/DADO/       Operatio    Observation,
 crop             networking for better market price         NGO/local       n           records
 productivity                                                farmers
 and sale of
 farm
 products
 Development      Support sewerage and other drainage        DDC/local       Operatio    Observation,
 of market        facilities in the market centers           club            n           records
 centers
 Appreciation     Promotion of land development              DDC/VDC         Operatio    Records,
 of land value    activities and check encroachment                          n           discussion
                  within RoW
 Promotion of     Facilitate development of lodges,          DDC/VDC/lo Operatio         Observation
 tourism          restaurants and hotels                     cal people n
 activity
 Mitigation Measures
 Physical Environment
 Change in      Plantation in community forest and           DFO/CFUG/       Construct   Records,
 land use       improving agricultural extension             DDC/DISC        ion and     observation
                services. Applying additional protective                     operation
                measures that the remaining land will
                not be lost due to erosion
 Slope          Bio engineering application should be        DDC/DSCO/       Construct   Observation
 instability    used to stabilize the mountain slopes        BG/Contract     ion
                                                             or
                  Effective, well designed drainage          DSCO/DDC        Construct   Observation
                  system should be utilized                                  ion &
                                                                             Operatio
                                                                             n
                Efficient spoil management should be         DDC/DPO         Construct   Observation
                maintained                                                   ion
 Spoil          Balance cut and fill volume within a         DDC/DPO/D       Construct   Observation
 disposal       reasonable haulage length. Where             ISC             ion
                possible, use surplus spoil to fill eroded
                gullies and depressed areas. Spoil
                should not be disposed on fragile
                slopes, farmland, marshy land, forest
                areas and natural drainage path
 Drainage       Adequate      numbers     of     drainage    DDC/DISC/       Construct   Observation,
 works      and structures will be provided in order to      District        ion         records
 disruption of have minimum interference on natural          Irrigation
 related        drainage pattern of the area.. Drain         Office/
 infrastructure water discharge into farmland or risky       District
                locations will be avoided. No diversion      Drinking
                of water away from natural water             Water Supply
                course unless it is absolutely necessary.    Office/water
                Restoration/reinstating of all disturbed     users groups
                infrastructures
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                  37
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
 Air pollution    Provide mask to construction workers        DDC/DPO/D     Construct   Observation,
                  and plantation of local species along the   ISC/DFO       ion         records
                  road side
                  Vehicle emission standard and speed         DDC/DPO/D     Operatio    Observation
                  limit will be maintained                    ISC           n
 Noise            Uses of ear muffles should be                DDC/DPO/     Construct   Observation,
 Pollution        maintained                                  DISC          ion         records
                  Use of the unwanted horns at the public     DDC/DPO       Construct   Observation,
                  places and settlement area should be                      ion and     records
                  prohibited                                                operation
 Water            Avoiding the disposal of excavated          DDC/DPO       Construct   Observation
 pollution        materials in the water bodies                             ion
 Quarrying        Proper management and rehabilitation        DDC/DPO/D     Construct   Observation
                  of quarry sites after extraction of         ISC           ion
                  materials.
 Decline in       Discouraging indiscriminate dumping         DDC/DPO/D     Construct   Observation
 aesthetic        of spoil material                           ISC           ion
 value
 Biological
 Loss of forest   Plantation of trees in the community        DDC/CFUG/     Construct   Observation,
 vegetation       forest and private land.                    DFO           ion         records
 and forest       Supporting CFUG to manage their             DDC/CFUG/     Operatio    Observation,
 degradation      community forests. Promote the              DFO           n           records
                  installation of improved cooking stoves
 Disturbance      Construction activities near forest area    DDC/CFUG/     Construct   Observation
 to wildlife      will be properly managed and workers        DFO           ion/Oper
 and illegal      are restricted to disturb and harass                      ation
 hunting          wildlife
                  Erecting appropriate sign boards for        DDC/CFUG/     Operatio    Observation
                  drivers near the forest area                DFO           n
 Socioeconomic
 Loss of       Promotion of high value crops and              DDC/DADO/     Construct   Observation,
 agricultural  commercial farming and increase the            NGO/local     ion         records
 land          cropping pattern                               farmers
 Health and    Workers will be provided with helmet,          DDC/DPO/D     Construct   Observation,
 safety        masks and muffles depending on the             ISC/VWRCC     ion         records
 matters       nature of work. Drinking water facility
               and temporary pit latrine will be
               established. Workers will be provided
               with first aid and health facilities. They
               will be insured for accidental insurance
 New           Regulate settlement growth with proper         DDC/DPO       Operatio    Observation,
 settlement    panning along RoW and discourage                             n           records
 development ribbon settlement
 Change in     Aware, educate and prohibit                    DDC/DPO/V     Operatio    Observation,
 social        communities about negative social              WRCC          n           records
 behavior      behavior like gambling, excess use of
               alcohol
 Road Safety   Appropriate spoil disposal sites should        DDC/DPO       Construct   Observation
 Measures      be identified and utilized                                   ion
               Enforcement of road safety measures            DDC/Traffic   Operatio    Observation
               like speed limit and erecting road sign        police        n


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                38
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
7.4      Mitigation cost
185.     The estimated cost for beneficial augmentation measures like awareness raising
program, skill training, promotion of small scale industries, and income generation activities
will be covered by the Community Development and Livelihood Restoration component of the
DRILP. Costs for income generation and awareness programme activities for Affected Persons
(APs) are included in Resettlement Plan. The design and cost estimate for most of the
suggested mitigation measures such as slope stabilization, quarry site management, spoil
disposal, supply of face masks, helmets, muffles, accidental insurance, bioengineering
measures, land slide rehabilitation, plantation and supporting CFUGs shall be incorporated in
the design and cost estimates. Therefore, most of the mitigation measures suggested would be
a part of road design and construction without additional cost. All proposed mitigation
measures will be integrated in the project design so that these measures may automatically
form part of the construction and operational phases of the project. The indicative cost for
environmental enhancement and mitigation is presented in the Table 7.2.

Table 7.2. Cost Estimate for Environmental Enhancement and Mitigation
Measures
SN Measures                                     Estimated cost Remarks
                                                (NRs.)
1    Benefit Augmentation Measures                             Included in Resettlement
                                                               Plan for (APs) and for
                                                               others will be included in
                                                               Community Development
                                                               and Livelihood Restoration
                                                               component of the project
2    Adverse Impact Mitigation Measures                        Included in project cost
     (Spoil disposal, slope stability)
3    Occupational health and safety                                Included     in    Particular
                                                                   conditions of contract
4    Bioengineering (3% of total project          4,363,307.22     Included in project cost
     cost)
5    Plantation and protection cost for            201,694.41      Covered                under
     CFUGs                                                         bioengineering cost
6    Manage water supply pipeline and               7,196.40       Included in project cost
     rehabilitation of irrigation canal
7    Resettlement and rehabilitation cost         3,829,978.40     Included in Resettlement
                                                                   Plan

7.5     Implementation of Mitigation Measures
186.    The mitigation measures should be integrated into project design and tender
documents. Using this approach, the mitigation measures will automatically become part of
the project construction and operation phase. By including mitigation measures in the contract
or in specific items in the Bill of Quantities, monitoring and supervision of mitigation
implementation could be covered under the normal engineering supervision provisions of the
contract.

187.     Project Design - The mitigation measures should be integrated in the design of the
project itself. Such a step will enhance the mitigation measures in terms of specific mitigation
design, cost estimation of the mitigation measure, and specific implementation criteria. The
mitigation measure integration in the design phase will also help in strengthening the benefits
and sustainability of the project.

188.     Project Contract. - The project contractor should be bound by the parameters
identified in the environmental assessment pertaining to specific mitigation measures in the

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      39
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
contract. The final acceptance of the completed works should not occur until the
environmental clauses have been satisfactorily implemented.

189.    Bill of Quantities - The tender instruction to bidders should explicitly mention the site-
specific mitigation measures to be performed, the materials to be used, labor camp
arrangements, and waste disposal areas, as well other site specific environmental requirements.

190.     Supervision and Monitoring - The purpose of supervision is to make sure that specific
mitigation parameters identified in the environmental assessment and as bound by the contract
is satisfactorily implemented. Likewise, monitoring is necessary such that the mitigation
measures are actually put into practice.

7.6     Environmental Monitoring
191.    The IEE prescribes the mitigation measures in order to minimize adverse impacts and
to enhance beneficial impacts. Environmental monitoring plan is an important tool to ensure
the implementation of mitigation measures for minimizing adverse impacts and maximizing
the beneficial impacts. Environmental monitoring generates useful information and improves
the quality of implementation of mitigation measures.

7.6.1 Monitoring Responsibility
192.    Monitoring is an integral part of the project proponent so as to know the unlikely
impacts and implement corrective measures. The proponent, DDC Baitadi will develop in-built
monitoring mechanism to show its additional commitment for environmental improvement
and mitigate undesirable environmental changes, if any during construction and operational
stage. DDC will be supported by DIT (DPO and DISC) in the district and Environmental team
from the CISC for environmental monitoring. There is a need to support these organizations to
carry out environmental monitoring effectively. Therefore, environmental monitoring training
will be conducted together with technical, social, resettlement and project performance
monitoring and evaluation training.

193.    According to EPR, 1997, the MLD/DoLIDAR is responsible for monitoring and
evaluation of the impact due to implementation of the project. The MLD/DoLIDAR checks
whether the DDC is carrying out monitoring activities as per the IEE, and if the prescribed
mitigation measures are being implemented.

194.    DDC with DRILP PCU support should make arrangements for sub-project level
monitoring. It should constitute a monitoring team, which must be independent from the
implementation team and should consist of relevant persons in the context of a sub-project
being monitored, for example persons from the forest, agriculture, social and NGO sectors.
The monitoring team will be constituted separately for each monitoring event. Project's district
management team should be responsible for forming the monitoring team, financing the
monitoring works, providing logistics and other necessary support. Thus, it is recommended
that an external team hired by DDC takes responsibility for periodic monitoring of the
environmental performance, in addition to the regular supervision and guidance provided by
the DISC at the site. The sub-project specific monitoring plan as given in Table 7.4 should be
followed. At least one monitoring in each construction season is necessary.

195.    The sub-project level monitoring team should submit its report to DRILP district
management, which should forward a copy to the DRILP Project Coordination Unit. Total cost
of environmental monitoring (field visits, observation, review of reports and report
preparation) is estimated NRs. 425,000 as given in Table 7.3.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        40
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Table 7.3 Environmental Monitoring Cost
 Manpower requirement             Duration (month)          Rate (NRs)       Amount (NRs)
 Team Leader/Environmental        2                         75,000           150,000
 Specialist
 Engineer                         1                          60,000          60,000
 Forester                         1                          60,000          60,000
 Socio-economist                  1                          60,000          60,000
 Support staff                    1                          25,000          25,000
 Transportation cost                                         LS              50,000
 Report preparation                                          LS              20,000
 Total                                                                       425,000

7.6.2 Types of Monitoring and Monitoring Parameters
196.    Monitoring is an on going component of the environmental assessment process and
subsequent environmental management and mitigation activities. There are basically two types
of environmental monitoring:
          1. Compliance Monitoring - It verifies whether contract environmental clauses and
             the mitigation measures are properly implemented in the field.
          2. Impact Monitoring - It confirms whether the environmental mitigation measures
             specified in the project design and contract are correctly formulated.

197.    The nature and purpose of environmental monitoring will be different in the pre-
construction, stage, construction stage and operation stage of the project.

7.6.3   Pre-construction Stage
198.    Monitoring at this stage of project is to:
        Confirm that plan, route selection and design of the road has considered the
        recommendation made by IEE
        Judge the level of preparation for implementing the construction related mitigation
        measures, and
        Prepare up-to-date environmental status of specific site where the impacts are
        assessed to be significant

7.6.4 Construction Stage
199.    This stage of monitoring is to check compliance with the best practices, norms and
standards and on implementation of the mitigation measures prescribed by IEE. The following
parameters will mainly be focused on:
        Disposal of spoil and construction wastes and its consequences
        Disruption of natural water courses, drainage work and its consequences
        Slope protection measures
        Loss, stratification or degradation of forest vegetation
        Care, sensitivity or disruption of community infrastructures
        Loss or degradation or threat to private properties
        Care, sensitivity or disruption to cultural sites
        Quarrying

7.6.5 Operation Stage
200.    The monitoring in this stage is mainly related to road features, road induced activities
and their impacts on receiving environment. The following parameters are mainly monitored
during operation stage:
        Drainage structures, their outfall and damage to private properties, community
        properties and natural resources
        Effectiveness of the slope protection and soil erosion measures
        Encroachment into road side, public land, forest or marginal land
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      41
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
        Status of waste disposal sites and quarry sites
        Symptoms of emergence of road side settlements, changes in agricultural pattern
        Activities of road neighbouring communities
        Illegal felling of trees and hunting of wildlife

201.    Table 7.4 presents environmental issues, methods, schedule, and responsible agency
for environmental monitoring.

Table 7.4        Framework for Monitoring Environmental Issues

 SN Issues/Monitoring            Procedure/Method                 Schedule            Responsible
      indicators                                                                      agency
 A. Pre Construction

 1    Integration of local  Review of study and design            During the study    DDC with
      people's              reports, discussion with local        and design          DISC
      environmental         residents, representatives, and       process and         support
      concerns              designers                             prior to approval
 2    Undertaking level of Review of screening and IEE            Prior to project    DDC with
      environmental         documents                             approval            DISC
      assessment                                                                      support
 3    Incorporation of      Review detail design and              During project      DDC with
      mitigation measures   drawings to ensure                    approval            DISC
      and environmental     environmental monitoring                                  support
      codes of conduct into provisions are included
      designs
 B. During Construction phase

 4     Construction and          Site inspections at places       During              DISC
       location of drainage      where such drains are required   construction
       facilities
 5     Care and safe storage     Inspection of site clearance     Weekly during       DISC
       of top soil for later     activities                       construction
       use
 6     Care for vegetation       Inspection of site clearance     Weekly during       DISC,
       in the immediate          activities                       construction        CFUG
       vicinity
 7     Safeguarding of           Site observation, discussion     During and          DISC
       community                 and seeking of feasible          immediately
       infrastructures           solutions                        after
                                                                  construction
 8     Safe disposal of          Disposal site observation and    Weekly              DISC
       excavated materials       disposal practice
       and other
       construction wastes
 9     Impacts on                Site observation and discussion Weekly               DISC
       agricultural land due     with local residents
       to spoil, soil erosion,
       water logging etc
 10    Proper reclamation        Observation of finished          Before starting,    DISC
       of disposal sites         disposal sites                   in between, and
                                                                  after completion
 11    Plantation of             Site observation                 Periodically as     DISC,
       vegetation in the cut                                      per season          CFUG
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                    42
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
       slope
 12    Timely construction     Community based                     Immediately       DISC
       of other slope          planting/slope maintenance          after
       protection measures     programme                           construction
 13    Quality of surface      Use field kit / visual              Weekly or         DISC
       water                   observation                         during
                                                                   construction
                                                                   near water body
 14    Air pollution near      Observation of good                 Monthly           DISC
       settlements             construction practices and
                               discussion with residents and
                               workers
 15    Protection of           Site observation, discussion        Upon demand       DISC
       culturally sensitive    with local residents
       spots
 16    Operation and           Site inspection, discussion         During quarry     DISC
       closure of quarries     with local residents                operation or
                                                                   weekly
 C. Operation Period

 17    Encroachment/           Field visit to forest, discussion   Half yearly       DDC, DTO,
       degradation of forest   with local people, CFUG, local                        CFUG,
                               forest authority                                      DFO
 18    Inappropriate use of    Discuss with local people,          Upon demand,      DDC, DTO,
       marginal lands          reference to prior mapping          Half yearly       DRCC
 19    Surface flow            Visit the area, mapping,            Upon demand,      DDC, DTO,
       interruption and its    discussion with local people.       Half yearly       DRCC
       consequences
 20    Air pollution,          Travel along the road,              Upon demand,      DDC, DTO,
       vehicular emission,     discussion with local people,       Half yearly       DRCC
       noise, traffic volume   pedestrians, passengers,
                               transport operators
 21    Maintenance of road     Check maintenance record,           Annually          DDC, DTO,
                               inspection of road and road                           DRCC
                               structures
 22    Condition of            Inspection and discussion with      Annually          DDC, DTO,
       environmental           maintenance workers                                   DRCC
       mitigation measures
       used in the road




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                43
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                    8.0      Conclusion and Recommendations


8.1      Conclusion
202.     The IEE study of the proposed Shreebhavar-Hat road sub-project does not pass
through any environmentally sensitive area and have minimal detrimental effects associated
with loss of forest and agricultural land. Most of the adverse impacts predicted are of low
significance and short term as well as of reversible nature. The beneficial impacts with the
facility of access to market centers and location of social services will enhance productivity in
rural area and improve the quality of life of the people. In addition, local people will get direct
employment as workers which will contribute significantly in improving their livelihood.
These benefits from the implementation of the proposed road project are more significant and
long term in nature against the adverse impacts most of which could be mitigated or avoided.

203.   The IEE has shown that none of the anticipated environmental impacts of constructing
the proposed road is significant enough to need a detailed follow-up EIA or special
environmental study. Therefore, this IEE is sufficient for approval of the sub-project.

8.2     Recommendation
204.    The proposed road project is recommended for implementation with incorporation of
mitigation measures and environmental monitoring plan.

205.    A key consideration in selecting the road alignment is to minimize the acquisition of
valuable agricultural and forest land. However, some agricultural and forest land and possibly
some built areas will have to be acquired for construction of the proposed road. A
Resettlement Plan will be required to ensure that the persons affected by these losses are
properly compensated.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                         44
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                                  9.0     Miscellaneous


References

ADB     2005  Aide Memoire for Loan No. 2092-NEP (SF): Decentralized Rural
              Infrastructure and Livelihood Project, January 2005.
ADB 2003 Environmental Assessment Guidelines. Asian Development Bank, Manila,
              The Philippines.
DFO 2005. Annual Monitoring and Evaluation Report of Community Forest Users
              Group, FY 062/63 District Forest Office, Baitadi.
DoLIDAR 1999 APPROACH for the Development of Agricultural and Rural Roads.
              Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads,
              1999
DRILP 2006 Project Procedural Manual (Final Draft), Decentralized rural Infrastructure
              and Livelihood Project, GoN, DoLIDAR.
DRILP 2006 Environmental Guidelines (Draft), Decentralized rural Infrastructure and
              Livelihood Project, GoN, DoLIDAR.
GoN 2006 Environmental and Social Management Framework. Road maintenance
and
              Development Project, Department of Roads, Ministry of Physical Planning
              and Works, November 2006.
GTZ, SDC, 1999 Green Roads in Nepal, Best Practices Report – An Innovative Approach
              for Rural Infrastructure Development in the Himalayas and Other
              Mountainous Regions.
HMG/N 1998 Environmental Guide for Small Rural Infrastructure Projects.
              Government of Nepal, Ministry of Local Development in collaboration with
              IUCN, July 1998
HMG/N 1997 Environmental Protection Act, 1997. Ministry of Law and Justice, GoN,
              Kathmandu
HMG/N 1997 Environmental Protection Regulation, 1997. Ministry of Law and Justice,
              GoN, Kathmandu
HMG/N 2003 REFERENCE MANUAL for Environmental and Social Aspects of
              Integrated Road Development. Ministry of Physical Planning and Works
              Department of Road, Kathmandu 2003
HMG/N 1993 Forest Act, 1993
HMG/N 1995 Forest Rules, 1995
HMG/N 1973 National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973
HMG/N 1999 Local Self Governance Act, 1999 Land Acquisition Act 1977
HMG/N 2000 Local Self Governance Rules, 2000
RAP     2001 Initial Environmental Examination Guidelines (Draft). Department for
              International Development (UK) Rural Access Programme Nepal, March
              2001
Uprety B.K.2003 Safeguarding the Resources ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  ASSESSMENT Process and Practice. December 2003




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                            45
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
ANNEX
    Annex I
Terms of Reference
  Terms of Reference (ToR)
                     for
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
                   of
      Shreebhabar-Hat Road




                Submitted to:
    Ministry of Local Development,
        Government of Nepal



                  Proponent:
  District Development Committee
            Baitadi, Khalanga
            Telephone No. - 095-520144
               Fax No. - 095-520144




                 August/2006
                                                        Table of Content

1.0     NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE PROPONENT ........................................................................ 1
2.0     INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 1
  2.1       GENERAL INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 1
  2.2       BACKGROUND OF THE PROPOSAL ................................................................................................... 1
  2.3       OBJECTIVES ..................................................................................................................................... 4
  2.4       RELEVANCY OF THE PROPOSAL ....................................................................................................... 4
3.0     REVIEW OF RELEVANT LAWS, RULES AND GUIDELINES ............................................. 4
4.0     PROCEDURE TO BE ADOPTED WHILE PREPARING THE REPORT ............................. 5
  4.1       DESK REVIEW .................................................................................................................................. 5
  4.2       PUBLIC CONSULTATION .................................................................................................................. 5
  4.3       FIELD WORK .................................................................................................................................... 5
5.0     ALTERNATIVES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROPOSAL........................... 5
6.0     REQUIREMENT OF THE IEE STUDY ....................................................................................... 5
  6.1       TIME SCHEDULE .............................................................................................................................. 6
  6.2       ESTIMATED BUDGET AND STUDY TEAM .......................................................................................... 6
7.0     ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE................................................................................................... 6
8.0     ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION......................................................................................... 7
9.0     IDENTIFICATION, PREDICTION AND EVALUATION OF IMPACT ................................ 7
  9.1       BENEFICIAL IMPACTS ...................................................................................................................... 7
  9.2       ADVERSE IMPACTS .......................................................................................................................... 7
10.0    MITIGATION MEASURES ........................................................................................................... 8
11.0    ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PLAN ............................................................................... 8
12.0    IEE REPORT FORMAT ................................................................................................................. 8
                                    Abbreviation


ADB- Asian Development Bank
CISC- Central Implementation Support Consultant
DDC- District Development Committee
DFID- Department for International Development
DISC - District Implementation Support Consultant
DIT- District Implementation Team
DoLIDAR- Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads
DPO- District Project Office
DTO- District Technical Office/Officer
DRILP- Decentralized Rural Infrastructure and Livelihood Project
DRCC- District Road Coordination Committee
DTMP-District Transport Master Plan
EA- Environmental Assessment
EIA-Environmental Impact Assessment
EPA- Environmental Protection Act
EPR- Environmental Protection Rules
ESD- Environment Screening Document
EMP-Environmental Management Plan
EMS- Environmental Management Section
IEE- Initial Environmental Examination
Km- Kilometer
LDO- Local Development Officer
LRMP- Land Resource Management Project
MLD- Ministry of Local Development
NGO-Non-government Organization
PCU- Project Coordination Unit
RAP - Rural Access Programme
RES- Rapid Environmental Screening
SDC- Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
TA- Technical Assistance
ToR- Terms of Reference
USADP - Upper Sagarmatha Agricultural Development Project
VDC-Village Development Committee
1.0      Name and Address of the Proponent
The District Development Committee (DDC), Baitadi is the executing agency at the district
level and the proponent of the Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) study for the
rehabilitation and construction of Shreebhabar-Hat Road sub-project. The Ministry of Local
Development (MLD) is the concerned authority for the approval of IEE study report.

Address of the Proponent
District Development Committee, Baitadi
Khalanga, Baitadi
Telephone No. - 095-520144
Fax No. - 095-520144

2.0      Introduction
2.1      General Introduction
Government of Nepal has received a loan from ADB and grant assistance from Swiss Agency
for Development and Cooperation (SDC) to finance the Decentralized Rural Infrastructure
and Livelihood Project (DRILP). The project goal is to reduce rural poverty in 18 very poor
remote hill and mountain districts affected by the conflict. The purpose is to achieve
sustainable increased access to economic and social services, and enhanced social and
financial capital for people in the project area, particularly poor and disadvantaged groups.
Labor-based, environmentally friendly, and participatory approaches (LEP) will ensure that the
investment in construction and rehabilitation of infrastructure results in sustainable, improved
access to economic and social services, and enhanced social and financial capital.

Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agricultural Roads (DoLIDAR) is the
executing agency. The implementing arrangements are as following: DoLIDAR has established
a project coordination unit (PCU) in Kathmandu, headed by a project coordinator to coordinate
all project activities. The PCU will be responsible for guiding and monitoring district
development committees (DDCs) as they implement project components. At the district level,
project implementation will be the responsibility of the district project office (DPO) within the
district technical office (DTO) of each DDC. A local engineering consultant to cover technical
issues, and a local non-government organization (NGO) engaged for social mobilization and
support for rural infrastructure building groups, will support the DPO.

This Terms of Reference (ToR) is prepared to conduct an IEE of Shreebhabar-Hat road sub-
project in Baitadi District. This road has been selected after the walkover survey of four roads
from the sub-list on the basis of prioritization criteria. This is a high priority road in Baitadi
district and is proposed for construction under DRILP.

2.2     Background of the proposal
The proposed Shreebhabar-Hat road sub-project was started by the Department of Road
(DoR). About 1.20 km section of road from Dholemod to Dholedhar was constructed by the
DoR. This is a district road linking Hat, Kotila, Bhumiraj, Malladehi and Shankarpur VDCs
to the market center of Shreebhabar and Khodpe. The starting point of the road alignment is
Dholemod (Shreebhabar), 27.0 km North of Khodpe in Dadeldhura-Bajhang feeder road and
ending point is Hat.

The total length of this road section is 19.37 kms. The description of the project works is
given in the table 1 and the location of the road is given in the figure 1 and 2.




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                        1
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Table 1. Project activities of the proposed Shreebhabar-Hat road

Road section                    Chainage          Length (km)       Description
Dholemod-Dholedhar              0+000 to 2+350    2.350             Up     to    0.5    km
                                                                    motorable           and
                                                                    satisfactory while 0.70
                                                                    km section needs
                                                                    rehabilitation
Dholedhar-Hat                   2+350 to 19+370   17.020            New construction

Total                                             19.37




  Figure 1. Map of Nepal showing the location of Shreebhabar-Hat road sub-project in
                                   Baitadi District




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                            2
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
Figure 2. Map showing the Alignment of Shreebhabar-Hat road in Baitadi district




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                     3
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
2.3     Objectives

The objectives of the proposed IEE study includes to:
       identify the major issues that may arise as a result of proposed works on bio-physical,
       socio-economic and cultural environment of the project area,
       identify any environmental problems/difficulties that are existing now due to the
       existing road, and assess nature/extent/significance of the problems/difficulties,
       identify the significant environmental issues/ concerns (physical, biological, and
       socio–economic, cultural) that can arise from the proposed rehabilitation and
       construction activities,
       recommend practical and site specific environmental mitigation and enhancement
       measures, prepare and implement environmental monitoring plan for the sub-project,
       and
       recommend whether the IEE is sufficient for the proposed road or whether EIA will
       be required as a result of the environmental issues that may arise due to the project
       implementation.

2.4       Relevancy of the proposal
The proposed Shreebhabar-Hat road project provides connectivity to district headquarters of
Baitadi, Bajhang and Dadeldhura Districts. This is a one of the main linkage road for the ultra
poor, deprived and disadvantaged people residing in five VDCs of Purchaudi area of Baitadi
district..

An IEE of the proposed road is necessary in order to assess the environmental consequences
of the proposed rural road rehabilitation and construction activities and suggest appropriate,
practical and site specific mitigation and enhancement measures. An IEE of a district road is a
legal requirement according to Environmental Protection Act, 1996 (EPR, 1996) and
Environmental Protection Rules, 1997 (EPR, 1997). Preparation of IEE report by concerned
District Development Committee (DDC) and approval of IEE report by the Ministry of Local
Development (MLD) according to Nepali legal provision is considered sufficient by the ADB.

3.0      Review of relevant laws, rules and guidelines
Government of Nepal has adopted various acts, regulations and guidelines to ensure the
integration of development and conservation of environment. The IEE study will be guided by
the requirements and provisions of the following acts, rules and guidelines as applicable.
     • Environment Protection Act, 1996 and Environment Protection Rules, 1997
         (amended 1999)
     • Batabaraniya Nirdesika (Nepal; MoLD), 2057
     • National Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines, 1993
     • APPROACH for the Development of Agricultural and Rural Roads, 1999
         (DoLIDAR)
     • REFERENCE MANUAL for Environmental and Social Aspects of Integrated Road
         Development, 2003 (Department of Road)
     • Green Roads in Nepal, Best Practices Report – An Innovative Approach for Rural
         Infrastructure Development in the Himalayas and Other Mountainous Regions. GTZ,
         SDC, 1999.
     • Forest Act, 1993 and Forest Rules, 1995
     • National Park and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973
     • Local Self Governance Act, 1999 and Local Self Governance Rules, 2000
     • Land Acquisition Act 1977
     • DFID/RAP Initial Environmental Examination Guideline (Draft), 2001




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                     4
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
4.0     Procedure to be adopted while preparing the report
The IEE approach, methodology and procedure should generally follow the provisions of the
EPA and EPR. Following approach and methodology will be adopted during the IEE report
preparation.

4.1     Desk review
The following steps will be followed during the desk review:

    Collection and review of secondary sources of information from various sources
    Initial interaction and consultation with the local community and district level
    stakeholders
    Delineation of geographical boundary of the influence area on the topographical map
    Preparation of project specific checklist

4.2     Public consultation
The role of public consultation and participation is to ensure the quality, comprehensiveness,
effectiveness of IEE as well as to ensure that the public view's are adequately taken into
consideration in the decision making process. It is done during the preparation of an IEE. In
order to ensure the public involvement, the following procedures will be followed during IEE
report preparation:
    Publication of notice- a 15 days public notice will be published in a national level daily
    newspaper seeking written opinion from concerned VDCs, DDC, school, health posts and
    related local organizations. A copy of the public notice will be affixed in the above
    mentioned organizations and deed of enquiry (muchulka) will be collected.
    Recommendation letter from concerned VDCs and/or municipality will also be obtained.
    IEE team will also carryout interaction with local communities and related stakeholders
    and will also collect the public concerns and suggestions.

4.3      Field work
The IEE team will walk through along the road alignment visiting the significant
environmental features in the probable influence corridor, and make necessary measurements,
inspect/ observe and discuss it with the local stakeholders. The information collection will be
made covering physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural aspects of the environment.

5.0      Alternatives for the implementation of the proposal
Alternative analysis has been considered as an integral part of IEE study, which involves an
alternative ways of achieving the objectives of a proposed sub-project. The aim of alternative
analysis is to arrive at a development option, which maximizes the benefits while minimizing
the unwanted impacts.

The study team will conduct alternative analysis considering the following issues:
        No action option
        Project alternatives
        Alternative alignment
        Alternative design and construction approach
        Alternative schedule and process
        Alternative resources, and
        Any other alternatives

6.0     Requirement of the IEE Study
This includes time schedule, estimated budget and appropriate manpower (experts) for
conducting IEE study.



Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                     5
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
6.1     Time Schedule
IEE report will be completed within eight weeks after the approval of ToR. An indicative time
frame for conducting IEE is given in the table 2 below:

Table 2. Proposed work schedule for conducting IEE study

SN      Activities                                                   Week
                                            1       2       3      4    5      6     7       8
1       Orientation training to the team

2       Desk study and review

3       Public notice publication

4       Field visit for survey and
        consultation with community

5       Collection of suggestions and
        recommendations from
        stakeholders
6       Analysis and interpretation

7       Draft report preparation

8       Comments on draft report

9       Final Report preparation and
        submission
10      Approval of the final report.


6.2      Estimated budget and study team
Most commonly an IEE of an infrastructure sub-project in the district need expert inputs from
the following sectors:
                Landslides, slope stability and erosion
                Forestry and wildlife
                Geology
                Road engineering
                Social, economic and culture.

The IEE team will consists of DISC Engineer and Social Mobilization Coordinator and they
will be trained to provide the above needed expertise for IEE preparation. IEE report
preparation work will be supported by CISC environmental team under the supervision of
DTO. Since, the IEE report will be prepared by the DISC team with the support of the CISC
environmental team, no separate budget and manpower is required.

7.0      Environmental baseline
This will describe environmental setting of the project location and surrounding areas and will
contain information on relevant bio-physical, socio-economic and cultural factors and
features. The updated, processed and analyzed information and data on each of the relevant
bio-physical, socio-economic and cultural aspects will be presented in the IEE study. As far as
possible, other environmental features such as, sensitive area, population and settlements,
forests, geological features will be shown in the map.


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                     6
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
8.0      Analysis and interpretation
Both secondary and primary information and data collected will be analyzed and interpreted.
The bio-physical information will be tabulated to the extent possible. The socio-economic,
cultural and religious information will be cross checked and analyzed.

9.0     Identification, prediction and evaluation of impact
The identification and prediction of impacts shall be carried out by considering the proposed
project actions/activities in terms of rehabilitation and construction of the road project. The
impacts of the activities shall be on bio-physical, socio-economic and cultural resources in a
defined immediate zone of influence (i.e.1.5 hours walking distance from the road alignment).
The impacts shall be classified in terms of extent (site specific, local and regional), magnitude
(low, medium and high) and duration (short term, medium term and long term) as well as
reversible, irreversible, severe, moderate and significant. The likely impact shall be assessed
covering both adverse and beneficial ones. The methodology adopted for impact identification
and prediction will be checklists and matrix method. The likely impacts of the proposed road
construction as well as operation are described in the following sections.

9.1     Beneficial Impacts
Beneficial impacts due to the rehabilitation and construction of the road shall be assessed by
the study team in terms of impacts on physical, biological, socioeconomic and cultural
systems of the project area. The impacts shall also be assessed in the category of extent,
duration and magnitude. Based on the identification and prediction of the impacts, the suitable
enhance measures to maximize the project benefits shall be explored and designed.

9.2     Adverse Impacts
The likely adverse impacts during construction and subsequent operation and maintenance in
terms of physical, biological, socioeconomic, cultural and religious aspects due to project
actions shall be identified, predicted and evaluated. Based on the identified impacts,
appropriate mitigation measures shall be recommended.

9.2.1 Construction Stage - Though the sub-projects will apply LEP approach during the
implementation, it may not be possible to avoid all likely impacts; the study shall take into
account the following issues:

9.2.1.1 Physical environment - The issues and concerns generally related to physical
environment typically include, but not necessarily limited to:
        Slope instability and soil erosion due to various activities including slope cutting,
        spoil disposal, concentrated flows due to water diversions and inappropriate drain
        outfalls
        Quarry site operation
        Impacts on water resources (irrigation, drinking water and other water bodies) and
        drainage pattern
        Degradation of air quality ( particularly dust) and increase in vibration/noise and its
        impact to the local people
        Change in land use including development or expansion of roadside settlements
        Impact of road safety

9.2.1.2 Biological environment - The issues and concerns generally related to biological
environment typically include, but not necessarily limited to:
        Loss or degradation of forests and vegetation. This includes all forest areas including
        state or community or leasehold or religious or private forest.
        Impact on wildlife including birds due to loss or degradation of habitat, increased
        hunting and other form of human pressure.
        Impacts on flora and fauna (as listed in CITES and IUCN Red data book)
        Impacts on the local ecology and ecological balance/functions.
Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                       7
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
9.2.1.3 Socio-economic and cultural environment - The issues and concerns generally
related to socio-economic and cultural environment typically include, but not necessarily
limited to;
         Loss or degradation of farm land and productivity directly or indirectly (such as due
         to occupation of land, disposal of spoils, diversion of water/ drain waters, or
         disruption of hydrology, natural drainage, quarrying, burrow pits etc.)
         Loss or degradation of private properties such as houses, farm sheds, and other
         structures, crops and fodder/ fruit trees
         Impact on community infrastructure such as irrigation, water supply, schools, health
         post, trail and trail bridges.
         Impacts on cultural, religious and archeological sites
         Impacts on social structures, employment opportunities, economy, cultural values
         Impacts on health and sanitation.

9.2.2 Operation and maintenance stage - The following issues will be taken into account
during operation and maintenance stage:

9.2.2.1 Physical environment
        Road slope stability and management
        Impact on water resources
        Impact due to air pollution
        Impact due to noise pollution
        Road safety measures
9.2.2.2 Biological environment
        Impact on forest resources
        Illegal poaching and impact on wild life
        Impact of natural habitat
        Increased access to and demands on forests due to road construction
9.2.2.3 Socio-economic and cultural environment
        Population pressure and impact due to new settlement along the road alignment
        Impact on economic activities
        Impact on living condition
        Impact on farming practices
        Changes in employment and income pattern of the local people
        Impact on cultural and religious activities
        Impact due to migration of the people

10.0     Mitigation Measures
The IEE study will propose site-specific mitigation measures to minimize/mitigate avoid or
control of proposal's adverse impacts. The mitigation measures will be selected based upon
appropriateness and cost analysis and these will be suggested for pre-construction,
construction and post construction phase of the project. Mitigation measures will be proposed
for the impacts on physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural environment.

11.0     Environmental Monitoring Plan
The study will identify the key environmental monitoring indicators with respect to activities,
methods and responsibilities in order to monitor the environmental condition and adoption of
suitable mitigation measures.

12.0    IEE report format
This format will be in line with provision made in the Schedule 5 of EPR, 1997 and should be
adapted to project specific situation. The IEE report will contain the following sections:


Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                     8
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
i.      Cover page with name of the proposal and proponent and address
ii.     Executive Summary that includes:
        Objective of the sub-project
        Impacts on land use
        Adverse Impacts on environment, effects on people’s livelihood, and population
        pressure
        Loss or degradation of local properties and assets
        Main mitigation measures
        Conclusions and recommendations
iii.    Table of content
iv.     List of Abbreviation (acronyms)
v.      Introduction: This section should describe the project in simple terms and concisely,
without missing relevant points but avoiding unnecessary details. The project description
should provide following information:
     1. Background
     2. Name of the proponent
     3. Description of proposal
     4. Objective of IEE
     5. Methodology adopted for IEE study

vi.      Review of related policy, legislations, standards, guidelines and institutions:
During the study relevant policies, legislations and guidelines should be reviewed and their
salient features should be mentioned in this section. Similarly related institutions should be
consulted.

vii. Existing Environmental condition. Baseline information on the existing physical,
biological as well as socio-economic and cultural resources of the proposed sub-projects is
described here.
Environmental features such as sensitive areas, population and settlements, forests should be
shown in a map

viii. Project Alternatives: This section summarizes the alternatives by environmental
comparison. This may include the following sub-headings.
a. Project alternative
b. Alternative routes
c. Alternative design and construction approach
d. Alternative schedule and process
e. Alternate resources
f. Any other alternatives

viii. Identification and Assessment of Impacts and Mitigation Measures- This section
contains the process, findings and conclusions of analysis and interpretations. The criteria for
significance assessment should be summarized with the results of assessment. This may be
presented and discussed in the following:

a) Physical and Chemical Impacts: such as land, air, water, noise, infrastructure impacts and
other factors

b) Biological Impacts: such as flora, and fauna, population, and natural habitats and
ecosystems

c) Socio-economic-cultural impacts: such as agricultural land, human health, social, cultural
and religious values, implications of physical and biological impacts and other relevant socio-
cultural-economic impacts.

Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                                      9
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
This section also summarizes the recommended mitigation measures including basis for
selection and cost if possible.

ix.    Environmental Monitoring Plan- This section summarizes the recommended
monitoring parameters/indicators, activities, methods and responsibilities.

x.      Conclusion and Recommendations - This section should clearly indicate whether
IEE report is sufficient or further assessment is needed. Likewise, it should also be
recommended that what aspects should be covered if further environmental assessment is
needed.

xi.     Miscellaneous- Reference materials should be mentioned here if used during IEE
report preparation in standard format.

xii.    Annex
        ToR of IEE
        Summary of consultations and meetings
        Deed of inquiry (muchulka)
        Notices published and pasted
        Recommendations from the concerned VDCs or Municipality
        Photographs, Maps, Drawings, Checklists, Questionnaires
        List of persons and institutions consulted




Shreebhavar-Hat Road, Baitadi                                                            10
Initial Environmental Examination (IEE)
     Annex II
ABSTRACT OF COST
                                    ABSTRACT OF COST ESTIMATE
Item                                                                                      Amount
                        Description of works                     Unit       Quantity                      Remarks
 No.                                                                                       (NRs.)
  1      Site clearance                                           sqm        40373.45      322,987.61
         Earthwork in excavation in roadway, drain and
  2                                                               cum       257993.88    67,025,152.14
         foundation for gabion and dry wall structures
         Transportation of excavated/ filling material by
                                                                  cum        36634.49     4,579,311.83
  3      porter
         Construction of roadway in embankments and
  4      miscellaneous backfilling areas with approved            cum        58798.46     2,939,922.99
         material obtained either from
  5      Dry stone (uncoursed rubble) masonry                     cum        10930.42     7,678,620.94
  6      Stone masonry work with cement sand mortar (1:4)         cum          145.25       528,527.01
         5cm Thick granular material bedding for stone
                                                                              1715.67      823,520.45
  7      pitching work
  8      20 cm Thick stone pitching on prepared bedding                       6864.97     2,986,262.12
  9      Scour Check
 9.1     Material (stone) available at construction - spot        No.         3927.48      405,315.74
 10      Gabion Works
         Assembling of gabion baskets and placing them in
10.1     position including stretching, binding them together
         and tying down lids
10.1.1   Box size (1.51X1)                                         No.          8304        149,480.71
10.1.2   Box size (2×1×1)                                          No.          9532        171,568.41
10.1.3   Transportation of gabion boxes by porter                  kg         444440      1,791,091.22
 10.2    Stone Packing in gabion crates                           cum        31507.35    15,422,845.38
          Fabrication of gabion box including rolling, cutting
         and weaving having hexagonal mesh size - 100 mm.
10.3     x 120 mm.and heavy coated Mesh wire -10SWG,
         Selvage wire- 8SWG. It also includes binding wire
         for assembling.
10.3.1   Box size (1.5×1×1)                                        no.          8304     16,768,414.09
10.3.2   Box size (2×1×1)                                          no.          9532     23,637,838.10
 11      Laying of geotextile material                            sqm        17126.41       205,516.89
 12      Miscellaneous Works
          Manage water supply pipe line & Rehabilitation of
12.1                                                              cum           59.97         7,196.40
          irrigation canal (kulo)
                                                                                Total   145,443,574.02
Provision for Bio-Engineering Works L.S. (3% of total)                                     4,363,307.22
                       Summary of total cost estimate
Total from contractors package                                                           61,372,121.63
Total from BG package                                                                    69,778,307.70
Grand total                                                                             162,942,233.41
Gabion wire cost                                                                         49,091,757.81
Gabion wire supply from Dhangadi to Baitadi (Gothalapani)                                 1,022,212.55
Fabrication of gabion boxes                                                               3,694,680.10
Supply of gabion boxes from Baitadi (Gothlapani) to Baitadi (Shreebhavar)                   555,550.30
Cost of geotextile fabric                                                                 1,424,369.06
Supply of geotextile from Dhangadi to Baitadi (Shreebhavar)                                  37,421.20
Grand total                                                                             186,976,420.34
Total cost per kilometer                                                                   7,641,047.01
          Annex III
DRILP Environmental Checklist
A.           GENERAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE INFLUENCE AREA1

1.         Overview of settlements in the zone of influence (ZoI) area

    Settle     Name of Settlement and address           Household        Caste/ethnic    General
    ment                                                   and           distribution   Comment
    Code*                                               Population
      A


      B


      C


      D


      E


       F


      G


      H


       I


       J



           * Use the same codes as in strip map and topographical map.




1
    Will be collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) within ZoI
2.      Economic activities/main occupation
 Settlement                Number of HH and Percentage of Population engaged in
    Code     Agriculture Labour &          Business/   Cottage     GO/NGO             Others
             & Livestock       Porter     Commerce    Industry     Employees         (specify)
      A

           B

           C

           D

           E

           F

           G

           H

           I

           J



3.             Existing services and infrastructures
     SN            Service/Infrastructure                      Settlement Code
                          Category             A B     C   D     E     F G       H   I     J
      1         EDUCATION
     1.1        Campus (no.)
                Students (no.)
     1.2        High School (no.)
                Students (no.)
     1.3        Primary School (no.)
                Students (no.)
      2         HEALTH
     2.1        Hospital/health centre (no)
                Capacity (beds)
     2.2        Health Post (no.)
                Sub-Health Post (no.)
      3         COMMUNICATION
     3.1        Telephone/fax
     3.2        Mobile/CDMA
     3.3        Post Office
      4         ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
     4.1        from Micro-hydro
     4.2        from Mini-hydro
     4.3        from National Grid
     4.4        from Solar System
     4.5        from Diesel Generator
      5         BUSINESS &
                COMMERCE
     5.1        Hotels & Lodges (no.)
SN          Service/Infrastructure                                 Settlement Code
                       Category                  A   B    C    D     E     F G           H    I    J
 5.2   Restaurant & Tea Stall(no)
 5.3   Grocery Shops (no.)
 5.4   Other Shops (no.)
       (e.g. stationery, medicine,
       tailoring, etc.)
  6    DRINKING WATER
       SUPPLY SCHEMES
 6.1   Gravity-Flow Scheme
       (capacity)
 6.2   Tube-wells (no.)
 6.3   Spring/Dug-wells (no.)
  7    IRRIGATION SCHEMES
 7.1   Surface Irrigation (ha.)
 7.2   Groundwater (ha.)
  8    OTHER
       INFRASTRUCTURES
 8.1   Micro-hydro scheme (no. &
       capacity......kw)
 8.2   Water Mill (no.)
 8.3   Suspension Bridges (no.)
 8.4   Wooden Bridges (no.)
 8.5   Other Bridges (specify)
       …................................
  9    INDUSTRY
 9.1   Weaving Industry (no.)
 9.2   Rice & flour Mills (no.)
 9.3   Other Industries (specify)
       …................................
 10    FINANCIAL
       INSTITUTIONS
10.1   Bank (no.)
10.2   Cooperative
 11    COMMUNITY USE
11.1   Ghat (no.)
11.2   Hatia/Bazaar (no.)
11.3   Playground (no.)
11.4   Community Centre (no.)
11.5   Others (specify)
       ...................................

    4.       Land holding pattern
  Land holding                                   Settlement (HH No.)                         Remarks
       Pattern        A       B              C     D    E     F    G    H     I      J
Landless
less than 1
ropani)
 1 to 5 ropani
5 to 10 ropani
10 to 20 ropani
20-50 ropani
> 50 ropani
    5.       Food grain availability (HH no.)
   Availability                          Settlements (HH No.)                     Total
      Status
                     A      B       C    D     E     F    G     H   I      J
 Surplus
 Sufficient for
 whole year
 Sufficient for
 three to nine
 months
 Sufficient for
 three months
 Less than three
 months

6.     Major existing agriculture production (denote the most dominant by 1, second
dominant by 2 and so on).
   S.         Type of                                 Settlements
   No.      Agriculture
            Production
                              A     B     C      D     E     F    G     H       I     J
   1.0  CEREALS
   1.1  Rice
   1.2  Wheat
   1.3  Maize
   1.4  Millet
   1.5  Junelo
   1.6  Phaper
   1.7  Others (list)
   2.0  CASH CROPS
   2.1  Oil Seeds
   2.2  Beans/Dal
   2.3  Tobacco
   2.4  Potato
   2.5  Vegetables
   2.6  Fruits
   2.7  Tea/Coffee
   2.8  Amliso
   2.9  Sericulture
  2.10 Others (list)
   3.0  LIVESTOCK & FISHERIES
   3.1  Cattle (cows &
        buffaloes)
   3.2  Horses, Mules
   3.3  Yak
   3.4  Goat
   3.5  Sheep
   3.6  Rabbit
   3.7  Pig
   3.8  Fisheries
   3.9  Poultry
  3.10 Bee-keeping
  3.11 Others
7.     Migration for employment
       (a)    No. of HHs from where at least one person (may be HH head) is away
              from home for more than 6 months. Also mention the place.
                                 Settlement (No. of HH)
     A       B          C        D        E         F       G        H      I                            J



Name of settlement:
       (b)     Seasonal migration in search of work.
   Month       No. of Total HH            Destination                                          Purpose
  Baisakh
   Jestha
   Ashad
  Shrawan
   Bhadra
  Ashwin
   Kartik
   Marga
   Poush
   Magh
   Falgun
  Chaitra

8.         Dominant off-farm occupation in the settlement in descending order

           ............................................................................…………………………….


B.         DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL ACCORDING TO SETTLEMENT

B.1.      Areas which have significant potential for development, for instance, high
         agricultural production, tourism development, local mines, etc. (indicate these
         areas in map/sketch).
     S. N.          Name of Area                   Description of Development Potential
       1

       2

       3

       4

       5
B.2.   Scope of the proposed linkage in view of promoting socio-economic development
       (communication, agricultural production, education and health).
   S.      Sectors to get direct benefit                Describe how it will benefit
   No.
    1

       2

       3

       4

       5


C.     HISTORIC AND CULTURAL RESOURCES WITHIN THE SETTLEMENT
 Type of Resource Name/specification Affecting  Location from project
                                     activities
 Temples


 Monuments


 Others
 Annex IV
Public Notice
        Annex V
Deed of Enquiry (Muchulka)
       Annex-VI
Name of the Organizations
Name of the Organizations (notice pasted and deed of inquiry obtained)

SN.   Name of organization                      Address                    Remarks
 1    District Technical Office                 Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 2    Dashrath Chand Municipality Office        Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 3    District Development Committee Office     Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 4    District Administration Office            Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 5    Office of Financial Controller            Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 6    District Education Office                 Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 7    District Public Health Office             Baitadi, Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1
 8    Sikharpur VDC Office                      Sikharpur VDC
 9    Bhumiraj VDC Office                       Bhumiraj VDC
 10   Kailash Primary School                    Bhumiraj-9, Deulad
 11   Bhumiraj Primary School                   Bhumiraj-3, Dhole
 12   Bhumiraj Secondary School                 Bhumiraj VDC,
                                                Kafaldhunga
 13   Shree Galinath Lower Secondary School     Kotila VDC, Badgaun
 14   Kotila VDC Office                         Kotila VDC
 15   Kotila Sub Health Post                    Kotila VDC
 16   Malladehi VDC Office                      Malladehi VDC
 17   Shree Ratna Secondary School, Ratanpur    Malladehi VDC
 18   Malladehi Sub Health Post                 Malladehi VDC
 19   Shree Dilashaini Lower Secondary School   Malladehi VDC
 20   Hat VDC Office                            Hat VDC
 21   Dileshwori Higher Secondary School        Hat VDC
 22   Purchaudi Hat Health Post                 Hat VDC
 23   Shree Birendra Higher Secondary School    Dasharath Chand
                                                Municipality-1, Shahilek
Source: Field Survey, 2007
        Annex VII
List of persons consulted
                       List of persons consulted
 SN   Name                          Designation         Address
 1    Mr. Arjun Kumar Thapa         LDO                 DDC, Baitadi
 2    Mr. Khem Raj Bista            Planning Officer    DDC, Baitadi
 3    Mr. Ram Kumar Shrestha        District Engineer   DTO, Baitadi
 4    Mr. Amul Basnet               Engineer            DPO, Baitadi
 5    Mr. Rabindra Tandukar         Engineer            DISC, Baitadi
 6    Mr. Nabin Chandra Pandey      Programme Officer   DDC, Baitadi
 7    Ms. Neela Bam                 SMC                 DISC, Baitadi
 8    Mr. Rajendra Deshar           Sub-Engineer        DISC, Baitadi
 9    Mr. Akhiles Karna             Sub-Engineer        DISC, Baitadi
 10   Ms. Sunita Bhandari           SM                  DISC, Baitadi
 11   Ms. Bhagrathi Bohara          SM                  DISC, Baitadi
 12   Mr. Raghi Dhanuk              Member VWRCC        Bhumiraj VDC
 13   Mr. Bal Bahadur Bohara        Enumerator          Malladehi VDC
 14   Ms. Reena Kumari Dhanuk       Enumerator          Bhumiraj VDC
 15   Mr. Dambar Bahadur Dhanuk     Enumerator          Kotila VDC
 16   Mr. Narasinha Bohara          Teacher             Sikharpur-3,Dhole
 17   Mr. Lal Bahadur Bohara        Businessman         Sikharpur-3,Dhole
 18   Mr. Mahabir Bohara            Businessman         Sikharpur-3,Dhole
 19   Mr. Chakra Bahadur Khadayat   Farmer              Bhumiraj-8, Khadayat gaun
 20   Mr. Jawa Awasthi              Businessman         Bhumiraj-1, Kafaldhunga
 21   Mr. Shiva Lal Saund           Teacher             Bhumiraj Sec. School, Kafaldunga
 22   Mr. Dhana Bahadur Saund       Farmer              Bhumiraj-3, Naina
 23   Mr. Narendra Saund            Businessman         Bhumiraj-4, Kuyeligaun
 24   Mr. Bal Dev Saund             Student             Hat, Baitadi
 25   Mr. Karan Bahadur Saund       Businessman         Bhumiraj-5, Titkali
 26   Mr. Ammar Bahadur Bista       Businessman         Bhumiraj-7, Dhrudi
 27   Mr. Nara Bahadur Bista        Businessman         Bhumiraj-7, Dhrudi
 28   Mr. Dambar Bahadur Bista      Businessman         Rauleshowr Pali-5, Baitadi
 29   Mr. Birendra Dhanuk           Chairperson         Beureshowar Community
                                                        Organization, Bhumiraj-9
 30   Mr. Bishnu Datta Joshi        Teacher             Dileshwori Higher Secondary
                                                        School, Hat VDC
 31   Mr. Thagendra Singha Bohara   Businessman         Dadimbata-4, Hat VDC
 32   Mr. Krishna Bahadur Bohara    Principal           Dilashaini Lower Secondary
                                                        School, Malladehi VDC
 33   Mr. Ram Bahadur Dhanuk        Ex Ward President   Malladehi-9, Upargaun
 34   Mr. Min Bahadur Bam           Headmaster          Ratna Primary School, Ratnapur,
                                                        Malladehi, VDC
 35 Mr. Gopal Saud                  Ex Vice President   VDC, Malladehi-3, Danapur
 36 Mr. Gode Luhar                  Farmer              Kotila-8, Aerigaun
 37 Mr. Moti Ram Yer                Farmer              Kotila-7, Yerigaun
 38 Mr. Ujwol Singha Ratoki         Vice President      Kotila-6, Ratoka
 39 Mr. Padam Bahadur Bista         Farmer              Kotila-5, Kotila
 41 Mr. Shiva Dutta Joshi           Farmer              Kotila-3, Patgaun
 42 Mr. Uttam Air                   Farmer              Kotila-3, Manabasti
 43 Mr. Sere Luhar                  Farmer              Kotila-1, Bhawane
Source: Field Survey, 2007
       Annex VIII
Recommendation Letters from
         VDCs
                 ANNEX IX
IX a. Distribution of households by major occupation
IXb. Summary of public services & infrastructures
IXc. Land holding pattern of settlements within ZoI
IXd. Number of households belonging to different
food security category
IXa.   Distribution of households by major occupation
  Settlement                              Number of HH in
    Name         Agricultur   Labour &   Business/    Cottage   Employees    Others
                    e&         Porter    Commerce    Industry               (specify)
                 Livestock
 Dhole              110         104         2           -           4          -
 Rapana             136         118         5           -           6          7
 Khadayat Gaun       76         68          3           -          3           2
 Mankali             54          50         2           -          0           2
 Kafal Dhunga        50          43         1           -          3           -
 Mudeli              45         33          5           -          7           -
 Maina               45          41         1           -          2           1
 Kuyeli Gaun         80          70         4           -          6           -
 Tirkali             90          69         10          -           1          -
 Dharudi             85          70         11          -           4          -
 Bhawane             60          44         2           -          14          -
 Salleli Gaun        42          42         0           -          0           -
 Manhasti                                               -                      -
 Patgaun            124         111          0                     13
 Airadi             118          109         0          -           9           -
 Kotila              75           71         1          -           3           -
 Ratoka              50           10         15         -          25           -
 Aeri Gaun           31           31         0          -           0           -
 Aeri Gaun           2            2          0          -           0           -
 Awasthi Gaun        75          51          1          -          23           -
 Malladehi          150         138          5          -           7           -
 Babida              80           72         1          -           7           -
 Upar Gaun           50           38         3          -           9           -
 Kot, Khetali        65           45        10          -          10           -
 Nwaghar             94           76         3          -          15           -
 Garkha              38           30         2          -           6           -
 Serisalla           30           22          0         -           8           -
 Dandpur             84           75         4          -           5           -
 Lamani             107           90         5          -          12           -
 Dadimbot            40           30         2          -           8           -
 Dandakot            36           28         2          -           6           -
 Total              2122        1781        100         0          216         12
Source: Field survey, 2007
     IX b. Summary of public services and infrastructures according to settlement

               Name/
Public services and




                                                        Communication (no)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Community use (no)
                                                                                                                                                    Irrigation ( area ha)




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fin. Institution (no)
                                                                                                                                Water supply (no)
                                                                             Hydro power (no)




                                                                                                                                                                                                      organization (no)
                                                                                                             Shops/lodge (no)
                                     Health post (no)
Infrastructure




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Industry (no)
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Community
                       School (no)




                                                                                                                                                                                        Bridge (no)
Settlement




                                                                                                Solar (no)




                                                                                                                                                                            Mill (no)
Dhole                    1           -                      2                     -               5                 2                   -                    -                1           -                -                1                         1                    -
Rapana                   2           -                      1                     -               1                 5                   8                    5                2           -                4                1                         -                -
Khadayat Gaun            -           1                      -                     -               -                3                    5                   8                 3           1                1                -                         1                    -
Mankali                  -           -                      -                     -               1                2                   1                     -                1           -                -                1                         -                    -
Kafal Dhunga             1           -                      -                     -               -                1                    1                   4                 2           -                1                1                         2                    -
Mudeli                   1           -                      -                     -               1                5                    5                   4                 2           1                1                2                         1                    -
Maina                    -           -                      -                     -               -                1                   12                   6                 2           -                1                2                         -                    -
Kuyeli Gaun              1           -                      -                     -               2                 4                  11                    5                2           1                1                1                         -                    -
Tirkali                  1           -                      -                     -               -                10                   2                   1                 2           -                1                1                         1                    -
Dharudi                  1           -                      -                     -               -                11                   1                    -                2           -                1                2                         -                    -
Bhawane                  1           1                      1                     -               1                5                    7                   20                2           2                -                -                         -                    1
Salleli Gaun             1           -                      -                     -               -                2                    2                    -                -           -                -                -                         -                    -
Manhasti                 1           -                      -                     -               -                 7                  10                   10                1           -                -                -                         -                    -
Patgaun
Airadi                 2             -                   -                      -                -              6                  16                 50                    1            -                -                -                       -                       -
Kotila                  1            -                   -                      1                -              3                   1                 60                     1           1                -                -                       -                       -
Ratoka                  -            -                   -                      1                -              9                   -                200                     1          1                 -                -                      1                        1
Aeri Gaun               -            -                   -                      -                -              2                   2                 10                     5           -                -                -                       -                       -
Aeri Gaun               -            -                   -                      -                -              -                   1                 2                      -           -                -                -                       -                       -
Awasthi Gaun            1            -                   -                      -               1               6                  2                  10                     2           -                -                -                      1                        -
Malladehi               1            -                  1                       -                4              7                  14                2.5                     -           -               1                 -                       -                       -
Babida                  8            -                   -                      -                2              7                   3                 50                     -           -                8                -                       -                       -
Upar Gaun               9            1                   -                      -               1               9                  9                50                       -          1                9                 -                      1                        2
Kot, Khetali            -            -                   -                      1               6               6                  16                100                     -           -                -                -                       -                       -
Nwaghar                 7            -                  1                       1                -              4                 14                 150                     -          1                 -                -                       -                       -
Garkha                  -            -                   -                      -                -              -                   5                 75                     -           -                2                -                       -                       -
Serisalla               5            -                   -                      1               2               3                  2                 100                     -           -                -                -                       -                       -
Dandpur                 3            -                  2                       -                2              3                   8                2.5                     -           -               3                 -                       -                       -
Lamani                  4            -                   -                      1               2               7                 19                 250                     -          1                4                 -                       -                       -
Dadimbot                1            1                   1                      1                -              2                   8                150                     5           -                -                -                      1                        -
Dandakot                -            -                  1                       1                -              5                  5                 150                    3           1                 -                -                       -                       -
Total                  53            4                  10                      7               31             137                190               1475                    40          11               38               12                      10                       4
     Source: Field survey, 2007
IX c. Land holding pattern of settlements within ZoI
  Settlement                                   Number of HH
    Name         Landless     <one    1-5 ropani   5-10      10-20    20-50    >50
                             ropani               ropani    ropani   ropani   ropani
 Dhole               -          2          5        20        50       33        -
 Rapana              -         17         10        15        94                 -
 Khadayat Gaun       -          -          -        24        52        -        -
 Mankali             -         40          4        10         -        -        -
 Kafal Dhunga        -         15         25        10         -        -        -
 Mudeli              -          -          -         2        15       28        -
 Maina               -          -         10         8         7       20        -
 Kuyeli Gaun         -          -          5        15        23       37        -
 Tirkali             -         30         50        10         -        -        -
 Dharudi             -          3         50        32         -        -        -
 Bhawane             -          -         30        30         -        -        -
 Salleli Gaun        -          -         42         -         -        -        -
 Manhasti
 Patgaun             -         1         10        60         53       -        -
 Airadi              -          -         20        93         5       -        -
 Kotila              1         1          65        8                  -        -
 Ratoka              2         5          10        10       10       13        -
 Aeri Gaun           -          -         29         2        -        -        -
 Aeri Gaun           -          -          2         -        -        -        -
 Awasthi Gaun        2         12         61         -        -        -        -
 Malladehi           -        17         83        50         -        -        -
 Babida              -          -         4        16        60        -        -
 Upar Gaun           -         7          25       15         3        -        -
 Kot, Khetali        -         3         35        20         7        -        -
 Nwaghar             -        35         55         4         -        -        -
 Garkha              -         2          26        10        -        -        -
 Serisalla           -         8          22         -        -        -        -
 Dandpur             -          -         54        30        -        -        -
 Lamani              -          -         55       50         2        -        -
 Dadimbot            -         4         31         5         -        -        -
 Dandakot            -         3         29         4         -        -        -
 Total               5        205        847       553       381      131       0
Source: Field survey, 2007
IX d. Number of Households Belonging to Different Food Security Category
   Settlement      Surplus   Sufficient for   Sufficient for   Sufficient   Less than
     Name                     whole year       3-9 months      for three      three
                                                                months       months
 Dhole                  -         10               35              65            -
 Rapana                 -          -               50              50           36
 Khadayat Gaun          -          -               6               38           32
 Mankali                -          -                -              10           44
 Kafal Dhunga           -          -                -              15           35
 Mudeli                 -         12               20              5            8
 Maina                  -          -               15              20           10
 Kuyeli Gaun            -          2                8              48           22
 Tirkali                -          -               30              40           20
 Dharudi                -          -               8               20           57
 Bhawane                -          -               15              45            -
 Salleli Gaun           -          -                -              12           30
 Manhasti
 Patgaun                -           7               75            24           18
 Airadi                 -          25               40            35           18
 Kotila                 -           -               30            30           15
 Ratoka                 -          13               10            10           17
 Aeri Gaun              -           -                5            26            -
 Aeri Gaun              -           -                2                          -
 Awasthi Gaun           -           -               30            30           15
 Malladehi              -           5               45            100           -
 Babida                 -           -                -             40          36
 Upar Gaun              4           5               15             20          10
 Kot, Khetali           -          10               25            20           10
 Nwaghar                -           4               55             25          10
 Garkha                 -          8                20             8           2
 Serisalla              -           -                -             5           25
 Dandpur                -           4               50             30           -
 Lamani                 -           3               20             80          4
 Dadimbot               -           -                2             28          10
 Dandakot               -           -                3             25          8
 Total                  4         108              614            904         492
Source: Field survey, 2007
         ANNEX X
List of trees to be removed
                                       List of trees to be removed
                                                           Total
 SN.   Common name           Scientific name               number     Volume(cum       Cost (NRs)
   1   Aaru                  Prunus persica                      16       Fruit Tree         18000
   2   Alubokhara            Prunus communus                      4       Fruit Tree          5000
   3   Amla                  Emblica officinalis                  1           0.008             30
   4   Angeri                Lyonia ovalifolia                   46           2.751          18092
   5   Apple                 Malus domestica                      3       Fruit Tree          4500
   6   Baajh                 Quercus leucotricophora            756           5.248         157240
   7   Baish                 Salix spp.                          12           0.788           2290
   8   Bamboo                Dendrocalmus strictus              547                           3829
   9   Banana                Musa paradisiaca.                  396       Fruit Tree        118800
  10   Bhimal                Grewia oppositiafolia               14           1.115           2210
  11   Chilaune              Schima wallichii                    42           0.749           6214
  12   Chiuri                Aesandra butyracea                   2           0.438            888
  13   Dadim                 Punica granatum                     35       Fruit Tree         26250
  14   Dalchini              Cinnamomum tamale                    2           0.035           2094
  15   Dallo                 Cedrila serrata                     50           2.999           9128
  16   Dudhilo               Ficus nerifolia                     29           1.176           3930
  17   Falat                 Quercus lamellosa                   42           0.532           5486
  18   Jamun                 Syzigim cumini                       3           0.489            918
  19   Jayamir               Citrus spp                           1       Fruit Tree          1000
  20   Kagati                Citrus lemon                         5       Fruit Tree          5500
  21   Kaphal                Myrica esculenta                    62           4.496          13040
  22   Katus                 Castonopis indica                  125           0.555          15134
  23   Kaulo                 Machilvs odoratissima               25           1.484           6322
  24   Khadak                Celtis australis                    78          16.594          37024
  25   Khanyo                Ficus semicordata                    7           0.402            898
  26   Kharasu               Quercus semicarpifolia              65           1.098           5602
  27   Kimbu                 Morus alba                           7           1.637           3094
  28   Koiralo               Bahunia variegata                   16           0.161           1132
  29   Lahare pipal          Populas ciliata                      9             1.17          1864
  30   Laligunrash           Rhododendron arboreum               50           5.723          19196
  31   Mausam                Citrus sps                          27       Fruit Tree         20250
  32   Mel                   Pyrus pashia                       249           8.815          30384
  33   Nibuwa (Chukh)        Citrus medica                        9       Fruit Tree         15750
  34   Nim                   Azadirachta indica                   1           0.563            772
  35   Ningalo               Drepanostachyum spp.                50                             50
  36   Okhar                 Juglans regia                       61           2.491          77268
  37   Orange                Citrus chyracarpa                  104       Fruit Tree        260000
  38   Paiyaun               Prunus cerisoides                   85          11.195          19586
  39   Pangar                Aesculus indica                     44           1.193          23896
  40   Pear                  Pyrus communis                       3       Fruit Tree          3750
  41   Ritha                 Sapindus mukorossi                   4           0.269            468
  42   Salla                 Pinus roxburghii                   173          17.195          28902
  43   Simal                 Bombax ceiba                         3           1.281           1744
  44   Timalo                Ficus roxburghii                    24           1.562           3192
  45   Tooni                 Toona ciliata                       58           15.29          23486
  46   Utish                 Alnus nepalensis                   476          48.908          86854
  47   Others                                                   149           6.483          22192
                             Total                            3,970         164.993      1,113,249
Source: Field Survey, 2007
                Annex XI
Minimisation of slope cutting and preservation
             of vegetative cover
Minimisation of Slope Cutting and Preservation of Vegetative Cover
Construction of road on a natural mountain slope involves slope cutting that can be compared
to an injury on human body. The bigger the injury, the greater are the treatment costs and the
time necessary for healing. Therefore the Green Road Concept tries to inflict minimum injury
to the natural mountain slope that can be cured fast by self-healing process.

Vegetation cover acts as a "skin" to the slope body. Fast re-vegetation of exposed earth
surface acts as an ointment to the injury. Utmost attention to the conservation of natural
vegetation is paid in order to reduce future problems and this adopts preventive measures for
causing minimum damage to the existing vegetative cover, such as:
    • Bush clearing is done only within the formation width, not to the edge of the right-of-
        way.
    • Uncontrolled disposal of excavated material downhill the road is prohibited, but
        instead, mass balancing and controlled tipping of excess excavated material is
        practised. Toe walls are constructed to withhold excess materials.
    • Felling of trees (approval of which is required form District Forest Office) even in the
        middle of the road is done only in the last phase just before vehicles begin to ply.
    • Suitable planting materials are extracted during the construction works and used for
        bioengineering purposes.

Mass Balancing
Mass balancing is the most crucial – as well as the most fundamental -- principle in the Green
Road Concept, yet, technically, it is the most difficult one to achieve properly. Mass
balancing poses pragmatic problems in implementation if there is no sufficient technical
supervision and improper labour management. In addition, non-availability of appropriate
tools and materials, lack of funds and proper supervision, and improper technical know-how
further influence mass balancing negatively.




       Figure showing mass "cut and fill" balancing within a typical cross section

The conventional road construction practice of developing the road width by full cutting and
throwing the excavated material downhill, referred to as mass wasting, causes great damage
to the vegetation cover. The barren soil creates excessive soil erosion and gully formation. In
conventional construction practice for a hill slope of 3:4, where the cut volume is
approximately 9.6 cubic meter per meter of road length. This earth volume alone is more than
enough to cause unaffordable environmental damage through inundation of large parts of
mountain slope. In addition to the large cut volume, the cut height is also larger than the road
width, which causes excessive risks of slope failure.
The Green Road Concept on the other hand, attempts to balance the volume of cut and fill and
prevent mass wasting. This technique is referred to as mass balancing as illustrated in figure
the above figure. For controlling the wastage of fill volume, dry stone or gabion retaining
structures are built on the valley side. In this way construction of road can be made possible
without wasting even a single particle of soil. However, the fill material needs time for
monsoon assisted self-compaction. For making self-compaction more effective, vehicles are
not allowed to ply on the road at least one year after completion.

In the cut-and-fill method, the cut slope height becomes half as smaller as compared to cut
and throw approach, thereby making the cut slope much more stable and safe. In addition, the
Green Road is developed in phases, which helps manage the excavated material easily
without posing any environmental hazard.

Mass balancing is not just a two-dimensional issue, but extends to three dimensions. It is
therefore not always possible within the cross section alone to achieve mass balancing.
Sometimes the excess soil has also to be used somewhere along the longitudinal alignment.
Transportation of soil mass sometimes can be a major item for obtaining optimum mass
balancing, which is best done by using pneumatic wheelbarrows. Excess excavated material
can be properly disposed off at specified tipping sites and gullies. Necessary passing bays and
switchbacks can be developed by using such excess materials.

Re-use of Excavated Material as Construction Materials
All excavated material is considered as potential construction material and is thus re-used.
The idea is to produce minimum wastage and minimum damage to the environment.

Excavated stone blocks, for instance, are stockpiled at the time of collection and re-used for
constructing stone structures such as dry stone walls in the later phase. If these stones are
rolled down the hill at the time of excavation, existing natural resources are wasted. Later, at
the time of need, significant amount of financial resources is required to procure the same,
which was once wasted.
 Annex XII
Photographs
Starting point of Shreebhabar-Hat road at Dholyamod        Kot village along Shreebhabar-Hat road




Existing Shreebhabar-Hat road near Dholedhar              Rithapahiro (landslide zone) at south of Jugedhunga
                                                          below road alignment




Dilasaini Bhagawati temple at Malladehi, above the road   Khadikhet, end point of Shreebhabar-Hat road
alignment