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Practical Considerations for Profitable Production of Lactose and

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									“Practical Considerations for
  Profitable Production of
   Lactose and Permeate
          Powders”

                                       A. Kent Keller
               RELCO
               __________________________________________________________________
               __________________________________________________________________

               Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
                                                Lactose Data (USA)
                              800                                                                                                                                   $0.80
Production (Million Pounds)



                              700                                                                                                                                   $0.70
                                                                                                                                                                    $0.60




                                                                                                                                                                               Price ($/lb)
                              600
                                                                                                                                                                    $0.50
                              500                                                                                                                                   $0.40
                                                                                                                                                                    $0.30
                              400
                                                                                                                                                                    $0.20
                              300
                                                                                                                                                                    $0.10
                              200                                                                                                                                   $0.00
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                                                                                                               RELCO
                                                                                                               __________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                               __________________________________________________________________

                                                                                                               Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
Issues Affecting Profitability of
    Lactose Manufacturing

    Lactose Factory Location
    The Art of Lactose Crystallization
    Lactose Caking and Molding
    Disposal of “Mother Liquor”
      Issue #1

Lactose Factory Location
Best Sites for Lactose Factory

   1. At the Raw Material Source
   2. At the Raw Material Source
   3. At the Raw Material Source


       Raw Material = dilute whey or dilute permeate from cheese
                      or casein; or dilute milk permeate
“A company will never
   receive full value for
 its whey products until
 those products can be
   put in a warehouse”
                    Permeate from Finisher
                         (60% Total Solids)



Unit Operations           Crystallizers
                           Crystallizers

Used in a Typical
                            Decanter          Delac to storage
Lactose System               Decanter



                             Refiner           Water in
                              Refiner



                           Centrifuge
                            Centrifuge



                              Dryer
                               Dryer


                       Lactose Powder
Crystallizers
Refiner
Multi-stage, counter-
current washing of crystals
Low water usage
Fully automated
Primary Dryer
  Compact
  Efficient
  No burned product
  Product classification
  CIPable
Secondary Dryer
 Efficient final drying
 Efficient final cooling
 Dedusted product
 CIPable
 5 tph
Lactose
System
Whey Systems, Inc.
 Willmar, MN USA
Benefits of Locating a Compact
 Lactose Factory at the Source
1. Freight savings (the obvious)
2. Maintaining the whey/permeate fresh
   (extremely critical)
3. Energy Savings (cooling prior to transport plus
   reheating at destination)
4. Homogeneity of supply
5. Management accountability. (yield and quality
   problems cannot be blamed on supplier)
Benefits of Locating a Compact
 Lactose Factory at the Source
1. Freight savings (the obvious)
2. Maintaining the whey/permeate fresh
   (extremely critical)
3. Energy Savings (cooling prior to transport plus
   reheating at destination)
4. Homogeneous supply
5. Management accountability (yield and quality
   problems cannot be blamed on supplier)
          Issue #2

The Art of Lactose Crystallization
Whey Powder Manufacturing
 The goal is small crystals
 The whey proteins are denatured resulting in a
 viscous liquid phase between the small
 crystals
 Anything that produces small crystals is an
 advantage, including
   Spontaneous nucleation in the evaporator/finisher
   Flash vacuum cooling
   Rapid cooling in the crystallizers
 In the crystallizers, the small crystals are easy
 to suspend in the viscous liquid phase
  Lactose Manufacturing
The goal is large crystals
If present, the whey proteins must not be
denatured
Spontaneous nucleation in the
evaporator/finisher must be avoided
Flash coolers cannot be used
Crystallizer cooling is very carefully controlled
The large crystals have a tendency to settle to
the bottom of the crystallizers making
crystallizer design critical
                                                Lactose Solubility*
                           60
Concentration (% Solids)

                           50

                           40
                                    Unstable
                           30
                                                     Metastable
                                                                                        Solubility
                           20
                                                                       Stable
                           10

                            0
                                0               20                40            60                           80                           100
                                                                  Temperature (C)

                                                                                RELCO
                                                                                __________________________________________________________________
                                                                                __________________________________________________________________
                            * Composite from
                              Various Sources                                   Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
Spontaneous Nucleation in Finisher

  Standard operating procedures that are
  defined without due consideration to lactose
  solubility

  Periodic temperature (i.e., vacuum) and solids
  excursions

  Uneven liquid loading of the finisher tubes
     Effective Seeding

No seeding allowed during crystallizer filling

Solution must be saturated in lactose; otherwise,
added seed will dissolve and disappear

Number of seed particles must be known

No impurities that serve as seed particles
       Issue #3

Lactose Caking and Molding
Lactose Caking and Molding

  Free Moisture (primary)

  Packaging Temperature (secondary)
Lactose Free Moistures
    Specifications

   Range: 0.1 – 1.0%

   Typical:   0.3%

     Bulk:    0.1 – 0.2%
                Water of Hydration

Lactose Molecule + Water Molecule   Lactose Monohydrate Crystal
        342              18                   360

       95.00%           5.00%               100.00%
       Sources of Mold

<100 per gram: sanitation or environment

>100 per gram: growth in package
Corrective Sanitation Measures
 CIPing more frequently
 Eliminating air leaks into the system
 Using better air filters for drying, cooling and conveying
 systems
 Checking for moisture in final filters in dehumidifier. If
 present, the reheat system may require redesigning.
 Avoiding product contact with back side of air filters
 Making sure air for baghouse pulsing is dry
 Checking for moisture on inside of dome of powder
 silo. If present, powder is not dry enough
       Issue #4

Disposal of “Mother Liquor”
  Permeate Dryer Suppliers
C. E. Rogers
        (http://www.cerogers.com/dryers.html)
Dedert/Anhydro
        (http://www.dedert.com)
EDT
        (http://www.evapdryertech.com/whey.html)
Niro
        (http://www.niroinc.com/html/drying/spray_drying2.htm)
Relco
        (http://www.relco.net/keller.html#lactose)
                           Estimated USA Permeate Price*
               0.80                                            Permeate

               0.70

               0.60
Price ($/lb)




               0.50

               0.40

               0.30

               0.20

               0.10

               0.00
                      92   93   94    95    96    97    98      99    00   01       02         03         04         05         06         07


                                                                           RELCO
                                                                           __________________________________________________________________
                                                                           __________________________________________________________________

                 * Based on USA Whole Whey Prices less $0.05               Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
                            Permeate from Finisher
                                          60% TS Solution


Unit Operations
                                   Hi-Con
                                   Hi-Con
Used in the
                                          ~76% TS Solution
KELLER®          Permeate
Drying System                     Triple-C
                                   Triple-C

                                          ~80% TS Paste



                                   Dryer
                                   Dryer


Patent Pending              High Lactose Product
Hi-Con Evaporator
  Triple-C™

   A Continuous:
      Cooler
      Concentrator
      Crystallizer




                     RELCO
                     __________________________________________________________________
                     __________________________________________________________________

Patent Pending       Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
High Solids Permeate from Triple-C™



Crystals are too
  small to feel




                     RELCO
                     __________________________________________________________________
                     __________________________________________________________________

                     Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
Air-Lift Dryer

   Two Stage Drying
   Integrated Fluid Bed
   Fines Agglomeration
   Compact
   Low Inlet Temperature
   Low Outlet Temperature


Patent Pending
Integrated Fluid Bed

 Removes Moisture
 Agglomerates
 Product
 Removes Dust




                       RELCO
                       __________________________________________________________________
                       __________________________________________________________________

                       Dairy & Food Process Plant Technology
    Permeate Dryer Building


12mW x 18mL x 18mH
             Summary
Compact lactose and permeate manufacturing
systems have been developed which make it
possible to dry these products at the raw
material source

Learning the ART of commercial crystallization
will help maximize lactose yields

Issues with lactose caking and molding can be
solved by focusing on free moisture

								
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