VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 26 POSTED ON: 5/18/2011
Solar Eclipses Total Solar Eclipse of March 29, 2006 Presented by Fred Espenak, NASA’s GSFC Earth and Moon: New Moon Solar Eclipse Geometry 2 To Sun New Moon Moon Earth The Moon orbits Earth To Sun once every 29.5 days with respect to the Sun Earth and Moon: Solar Eclipse Geometry Solar Eclipse Geometry 3 To Sun Penumbra New Moon Moon Umbra Earth An eclipse of the Sun To Sun is only possible during the New Moon phase. Earth and Moon: Solar Eclipse Path Solar Eclipse Geometry 4 To Sun Penumbra New Moon Moon Umbra Earth Path of Totality During a total solar eclipse To Sun the Moon’s shadow sweep across Earth. Partial Phases of a Total Solar Eclipse Every total eclipse begins with a series of partial phases which may last an hour or more. However, the total phase or “totality” never lasts more than 7.5 minutes. This time series photo shows an entire total solar eclipse, from start to finish over a period of over two hours. Credit: Dennis Mammana “Diamond Ring” Effect Before Totality Begins Astronomy Picture of the Day - June 21, 2001 Credit: Fred Espenak In the last seconds before totality begins, the remaining bit of Sun resembles a dazzling jewel as the ring-like corona appears. Total Solar Eclipse Video Video of the June 21, 2001 eclipse in Africa shows the Diamond Ring Effect as the Sun vanishes behind the Moon and Totality begins. Glorious Solar Corona Astronomy Picture of the Day - Sept. 15, 1999 Credit: Fred Espenak The sun’s glorious corona is composed of hot, rarified plasma with a temperature of 1 to 2 million degrees Centigrade. It is only visible during a total eclipse when the Moon hides the Sun’s brilliant disk. Eerie Twilight During a Total Solar Eclipse Astronomy Picture of the Day - 2003 January 08 Credit: Olivier Staiger During “totality” the landscape is bathed in an eerie twilight. Bright stars and planets are visible. The solar corona is revealed during a total solar Solar Eclipses eclipse •The corona is about one millionth times fainter than the disk of the Sun. •Similar to observing stars next to the Sun, the light from the disk must be blocked (by the moon, or by special occulter in the telescope) before we can see the solar corona. Earth and Eclipse from Space Astronomy Picture of the Day - August 30, 1999 Credit: Mir 27 Crew; Copyright: CNES From space, the Moon’s umbra can be seen sweeping over Earth during a total solar eclipse. Only observers within the shadow’s path will see “totality” - outside the path a partial eclipse will be seen. Total Solar Eclipse from Antarctica Astronomy Picture of the Day - 2003 December 08 Credit: Fred Bruenjes It’s possible to see a total eclipse from anywhere on Earth. This image was shot in Antarctica in 2003. Partial Solar Eclipse Partial eclipses are visible over a much larger part of Earth than total eclipses. So they are seen by many more people. Partial Eclipse of Oct. 14, 2004 (Hawaii) Credit: Fred Espenak World Atlas of Solar Eclipse Paths Next Total Solar…..Head to China! Again! minimize http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEmono/TSE2009/TSE2009.html Solar Eclipses: 2001-2020 Now let’s see this clip again! Links for the 2006 Total Solar Eclipse NASA’s Sun-Earth Connection Website for 2006 Eclipse: – sunearthday.nasa.gov/2006/index.php NASA’s Sun-Earth Connection & Exploratorium Live Webcast of 2006 Eclipse: – sunearthday.nasa.gov/2006/events/webcasts.php NASA’s 2006 Total Solar Eclipse Website: – sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEmono/TSE2006/TSE2006.html NASA’s 2006 Eclipse Bulletin (Web Version): – umbra.nascom.nasa.gov/eclipse/20060329/rp.html NASA’s 2006 Eclipse Bulletin (PDF Version): – sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/SEpubs/TP212762.html NASA’s Eclipse Home Page: – sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/eclipse.html Lunar Eclipse Lunar eclipses happens when the Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth – Everybody on the night side of Earth can see the lunar eclipse. Lunar eclipses can be partial, penumbral, or total. Lunar eclipses can occur only at full moon. Next Total Lunar Eclipse AT least it’s not just Asia!! 12-21-2010 Eclipses: Summary The parties involved: Sun, Moon, and Earth Motion of the Moon around Earth: 1. 29 ½ day revolution of the Moon around the Earth 2. Tilt (~5º) of the lunar orbit (around the Earth) w.r.t. the Ecliptic plane (Earth’s orbital plane around the Sun) 3. The precession of the lunar orbit w.r.t. Earth-Sun direction Solar eclipse happens when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun. The size and distance of the Moon need to be just right for us to see total eclipse. – The changing distance between the Earth and the Moon explains the occurrences of the total and ring solar eclipses. – The changing distance between the Earth and the Sun, and the Earth and the Moon explains the difference in the duration of the solar eclipses. Lunar eclipse happens when Earth is between the Moon and the Sun. Fun Eclipse Facts • The moon’s shadow moves at 1700 km/hour (1,048 mi/hr) . • Maximum totality is ~7 ½ minutes. • Every place on Earth will see a total solar eclipse about every 400 years. • Solar Eclipses occur more frequently than lunar eclipses ( by 5:3). • There must be at least two solar eclipses every year. • There can be two solar eclipses in back to back months with a total lunar eclipse in between. • This triple eclipse can occur twice during an eclipse year (1935, 2160). • Seven eclipses is the maximum - 4 solar, 3 lunar (1982, 2485).