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Aspects of the Integrated Water Resources Management of the Struma


  • pg 1
									    Aspects of the Integrated Water Resources Management of the
                          Struma River Basin
                             Irena Ilcheva, Igor Niagolov, Tanya Trenkova
                        Institute of Water Problems – BAS, Sofia, BULGARIA

Water resources scheme, simulation model and GIS for the transboundary river basin of Struma have
been developed as a part of the River Basin Management Plans (RBMP). The transboundary
character of the river basin requires integrated water resources management. All considerable water
resources and hydraulic relations between the water users and the environment are taken into
consideration for the graphical scheme. The programme SIMYL has been applied and the functioning
of the water resources system has been analyzed in different variants for water consumption and
water resources. The calculated disturbance of the run-off at different stations in the river basin was
given as an assessment of the anthropogenic pressure. Critical sections have been determined in
accordance with the Water Frame Directive (WFD).
The possible decisions of the basic problems of the river basin are analyzed in order to assist in the
decision making process of integrated water resources management in the West Aegean Basin
Directorate of Bulgaria.

Key Words: Integrated Water Resources Management, Water Resources Balances, River Basin
Management Plans, WFD, anthropogenic pressure.


The Water Framework Directive establishes a legal framework to protect and restore clean water in
sufficient quantity across Europe. It has been hailed as a front runner in integrated water management
in the world because it introduces a number of generally agreed principle and concepts into a binding
regulatory instrument.
The Directive’s overall objective is to bring about the effective co-ordination of water environment
policy and regulation across Europe in order to: prevent deterioration and enhance the status of
aquatic ecosystems, including those dependent on groundwater; promote sustainable water use;
reduce pollution; help reduce the effects of floods and droughts.
River basin districts are the main areas used for co-ordinating the management of the water
The requirements and objectives of the WFD are to achieve good ecological status by 2015 for all
waters, where this is to be achieved by the setting up of River Basin Management Planning (RBMP).
RBMP and associated authorities will help to ensure that the requirements of the WFD are achieved.
The Struma river is a trans-boundary river located on the boundary with Greece and requires
development of an integrated water management plan as well as to promote co-operation between the
border regions and to contribute to the establishing of co-operation networks among counterpart
organizations and entities on both sides of the border [1,8].
The Struma River flows from its origin in Vitosha Mountain through the Central Macedonia region in
the North-Eastern part of Greece and into the Aegean Sea. The River Basin contains substantial water
resources, surface and ground (fresh and thermomineral) of strategic importance for the economic
development of the region and the border regions. The River Basin comprises a range of ecologically
valuable and vulnerable ecosystems in national parks, habitat areas and tributaries.
The Struma rift valley is one of the most interesting areas on the Balkan Peninsula and rich in thermal
waters. The geothermal activity is manifested from nearly 100 natural and borehole thermal sources,
and many temperature and hydro-geochemical anomalies.
In Bulgaria the Struma river is located within the administrative area of the Western Aegean River
Basin Directorate located in Blagoevgrad.

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008

The current research is a part of the contract between the Ministry of Environment and Water (MOEW)
and the Institute of Water Problems (IWP) at the Bulgarian academy of Sciences [2,9].
Calculation scheme, simulation model, GIS and information system were developed which will be a
part of the Integrated River Basin Management Plans (IRBMP). The objective of the research is to
                                                        analyze of the water recourse system (WS) of
                                                        the entire watershed of Struma for different
                                                        scenarios of development of the WS and
                                                        different prognoses for water use. The
                                                        modeling is a base for development of
                                                        conceptual model and gives an idea of the
                                                        whole watershed. It gives an assessment of the
                                                        anthropogenic      pressure    and     economic
                                                        analyses, important tasks for the integrated
                                                        management according to the WFD.
                                                        The calculated disturbance of the discharge by
                                                        the simulation model in different points from the
                                                        watershed gives an assessment of the water
                                                        abstraction from surface and groundwater,
                                                        discharge regulation, water derivations, climate
                                                        changes etc. It could show how the change of
                                                        the economic factors reflects to a related
                                                        pressure on the environment.
                                                        The simulations and prognoses for the
                                                        development of the water use are part of the
                                                        scenarios of the economy analyses. The
                                                        degree of satisfaction of current and future
                                                        water consumption is evaluated.
                                                         Basic result of the analyses of the WS and
                                                        water resource balances is the identification of
                                                        the crucial problems in the Struma river basin
                                                        and their possible solving. The research serves
                                                        to the West Aegean Basin Directorate (WABD)
                                                        in cases of choice of development strategy and
    Fig. 1. GIS layer of point water abstractions       in the integrated management.


The development of the calculating scheme is a start point for the next stages of modeling. All water
users, water economy and hydraulic relationships between them, strategies and development projects
have to be considered. The WS of Struma includes great number of objects and water abstractions
(520 from groundwater, 160 from surface water and over 200 hydroobjects) – fig. 1.
The calculating scheme is based on the water recourse system. The following objects were taken into
account: 50 irrigation fields, 44 water supply groups, 33 industry points, and 188 points of water
abstraction, 37 reservoirs; 25 pumping stations; 3 cascades and 32 operating Small Hydroelectric
Power Stations (SHPS); 5 fish breeding ponds; 8 water derivations, points for ecological water
quantities etc. The scheme is integrated in GIS (fig.2). Detailed analyses of the WS are presented in
[2]. The developed calculating scheme based on the graphical scheme of the watershed includes 140
hydro nodes and 150 arcs. Hydro nodes include water reservoirs, water intakes, water users,
зауствания etc. and the arcs are elements of connections – river course, derivations, channels etc.
This is a next step in the simulation process – mathematical formalization.

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
                              Fig. 2. GIS layer of the craphical scheme

Water resource balance is a comparison between of the available water resources and the needs of
water consumers. Because of the considerable variations of the water resources (in different years)
and as well the variations in water use (especially in irrigation) the comparison in water resource
balances is necessary to be implemented for appropriately selected time intervals.
In the current research monthly interval is chosen. The complicated interrelations between water users
and water sources make the task more difficult.
Repeatedly calculations have to be implemented for general analysis for different scenarios of the
hydrological conditions and water use. Obviously the autoimmunization of the calculation process is
necessary and a choice of realistic scenarios
Computer programme based on the description of water resources scheme by network flow models
and optimization procedures for distribution of water between the water users and water consumers
taking into account the functional characteristics of the system “water source - water user“ is used.
General indexes for satisfaction of water users and complete data base are obtained as a result,
which could be used for more detailed analyses [4]. For example in cases of water deficits for certain
users – lack of water, exhausted capacity of water supply systems, availability of priorities for water
user in selected subregions. Generally there is a possibility to monitor the operational process of the
hydro technical facilities.

Water resource balances (WRB) are implemented according to Methodology prepared in the Institute
of Water Problems in 2004 [3]. Development of the Water Resource Balances for the entire river basin
is an important part from the integrated water management. The mathematical model gives an
evaluation of the degree of satisfaction with water for different water consumers in different water
resource and consumption scenarios.
The input part of the balance consists of the inflow to the water balance points. For water resource
system balances is accomplished an evaluation of water resources of the Struma river basin and the
undisturbed runoff time series are restored for 40 points [9]. The mean runoff to the Greek border is
assessed at 2511x106 m3 and usable groundwater at 1999,62 x 106 m3. In table 1 are shown the
values for water discharge in different periods.

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
   Table 1. Water resources of the Struma River in the Bulgarian part
                                      Period of
                                      calculation             Water volumes
                                       1936-1975              2669 x 106m3
                                       1936-1983              2733,7 х 106 м3
                                       1936-1985              2730 x 106m3
                                       1936-1995              2566 x 106m3
                                       1961-1998              2532 х106 м3
                                       1982-2000              1604 x106m3
                                       1961-2004              2511 x 106m3

The cumulative curve of differences is a criterion for choice of representative and reliable hydrological
time series for evaluation of the runoff. On the figure 3 is shown the time-sequence summary
curve   ∑ (k   i   − 1) = f (t ) for the runoff at the border which outlines the periods with higher or lower
water levels. It can be seen that except the period 1985–1994, as a dry period is considered also
2000-2004. Such characteristics have the summary curves in the other points, which show that
according to this indicator the period 1961-2004 remains reliable and suited for hydrological
assessment. The most important is that this period contains the driest period 1985-1994, considered
as an analogue of drying up in case of climatic changes.





     1960           1965    1970    1975     1980    1985     1990    1995      2000          2005

                       Fig. 3. Time series summary curve of differences   ∑ (k     i   − 1) = f (t )
                                    for the runoff of Struma River at the border

GIS of the usable groundwater resources of the river of Struma is developed. The map of the usable
groundwater resources of the Struma river is shown on the figure 4.


The output part of the water resource system balances (WRSB) consists of water consumption in the
river basin and water loss for evaporation and infiltration. The following kinds of water consumption
are considered: drinking and household water (WS), water from industry (Ind), irrigation system (Irrig),
HPP, ecological minimum (eko), water transfer to other river basins (preh). The necessary water
discharges are emphasized for the purposes of the WFD. A detailed register of water users is
compiled as a first step by the received permission data from the WABD. The prognoses for

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
development of water use taking into consideration the trends during the last years and analyses of
factors influencing on in the near future.
                                                          • Drinking and household water
                                                          Drinking and household water consumption
                                                          is calculated by grouping in 44 water
                                                          supply groups (WS). Basic data have been
                                                          obtained from permission documents for
                                                          water consumption and sanitary protective
                                                          zones (Fig. 5).The following variants for
                                                          water consumption have been calculated
                                                          up to the period 2015-2020.
                                                          I variant – current water consumption
                                                          based on data from the National Statistic
                                                          Institute (NSI)
                                                          II variant – water consumption according
                                                          to the standards per capita for 24 hours
                                                          (2005) of MRDPW and 60% water loss in
                                                          the water supply system.
                                                          III variant –water consumption according
                                                          to the present standards per capita for 24
                                                          hours and 25% water loss in the water
                                                          supply system. This variant gives the
                                                          possible minimum water consumption,
                                                          which will be unavoidable trend during the
                                                          next decades of climate change in dry
                                                          • Water consumption from industry
                                                          Water consumption from surface and
                                                          groundwater by industry is calculated for
                                                          34 industry groups (Ind) included in the
                                                          water use scheme. Data source is the
     Fig. 4. GIS of the usable groundwater resources of   register of permission documents and GIS
                    the Struma river basin                of WABD (fig.5). The prognoses for
                                                          development of the industry in West-
Aegean Basin up to 2015 taking into account the economic analyses for water use. The following
variants for water consumption from industry are considered in the WRSB:
I variant – data by the water permission documents;
II variant - the first variant increased with 30 %.

                              Fig. 5. Water supply and industry groups

• Water consumption for irrigation

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
Data for irrigation systems is received by the Hydro melioration Agency and calculations for water
consumption are carried out for all 50 irrigation systems in the river basin by the use of software
developed in IWP.
I-st variant – a check-up of correspondence of the water resource for irrigation with all the existing
irrigation areas as a future perspective.
II-nd variant – irrigation of 30% from the existed irrigation areas.
III-th variant - irrigation of 60% from the existed irrigation areas.
• Ecological minimum
Water use for ecosystems and wetlands in the research is calculated in accordance with currently
valid regulations of article 117(1) from the Bulgarian water legislation, so called minimum accessible
flow, which has high priority regarding WFD. The forecast for the eco-minimum is accomplished in the
model according to Regulation № РД - 1383/18.11.2003 of MOEW.

In order to be assessed the potential and complete operation of water resource system complex, the
probability of exeedence for satisfaction of the needs of water users and as a result of this the
disturbance in water discharge in the Struma river basin is calculated the water resource system
balance for different scenarios of the water resource, consumption and the water system scheme
(with and without water transfer, with and without construction of new reservoirs, with and without
operation of pumping stations etc.). The basic variants are:
I variant - drinking and household water consumption – current consumption according to the data
from NSI, industrial consumption – data from the permission documents, irrigation – all existing
irrigation areas, as the planned for construction. The following subvariants are calculated:
Subvariant I. 1. – hydrological forecast given by complete time series 1961-2004
Subvariant I. 2. – a decade of dry period taking into consideration the climate changes.
Above mentioned variants are without water transfer through derivation ”Djerman-Skakavica”.
Subvariant I. 3. , Subvariant I. 4. – above mentioned variants respectively with water transfer through
derivations ”Djerman-Skakavica”.
II basic variant – an assessment of the irrigation, variations with irrigation areas. An evaluation of the
probability of excceedence of the IS and necessity of supplementary pumping stations.
The rest water consumption is accepted as in the variant I.2. the following subvariants are considered:
subvariant II.1. and subvariant II.2. (60 % and 30 % of the existing areas).
III basic variant – vary only with drinking and household water supply and the probability of
exceedence is analyzed of drinking and household water consumers and the necessity for
construction of new water supply systems. Two subvariants are considered: subvariant III.1. and
subvariant III.2. (by water supply standards with 60 % and 25 % losses). Water supply standards as
variant II.1. and the industrial - as variant I.
IV basic variant – water consumption from industry increased at 130% from the permitted volumes
compared to the 1st variant.
The ecological water quantities for all scenarios are according to the temporary regulation of MOEW.

The accent of modeling and analysis is laid on the critical river sections, which are subjected to risk
and probably to the risk of failure in achieving the WFD objectives. The points with envisaged new
water recourse systems (construction or planning) are of special importance. The following evaluations
of the probability of exceedence are obtained as a result of the modeling: probability of exceedence for
years, months and volumes. The water supply reliability index, which gives the complex assessment of
the depth and deficit frequency, is also calculated.
According to subvariant I.1 drinking and household water supply deficiency is established for a part of
the water supply systems. Its values vary respectively: 90-99%. Deficiency is also established for 25
irrigation systems, for which the probability varies within the range of 70 - 99%. The main reason for
the deficit in all these cases is that water intake either takes place on running water or with low
compensating volumes.
There is significant deficiency of drinking and household water supply for the town of Kyustendil
(98,83% with respect to volume, 68,18% – to years, 96,21% – to months), Blagoevgrad and
settlements (96,24% with respect to volume, 59,09% – to years, 84,44% – to months). The analysis
shows that in an annual aspect a low volume deficiency is observed in certain months. The reason for
this is that the water supply is accomplished by numerous water intakes (Fig.6). The reserve water
sources for both water supply systems are wells in the Struma River terrace, the deficiency being
increased when they are out of operation.

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
                                                                                      . surface water
                                                                                      . groundwater
                                                                                      . irrigation systems
                                                                                      . industry
                                                                                      . drinking water supply
                                                                                      . fisheries
                                                                                      . pumping stations
                                                                                      . hydropower Plants
                                                                                      . town
                                                                                      . dam
                                                                                      . water intakes
                                                                                      . MS
                                                                                      . feeder

               Fig. 6. Graphical scheme of water resource system of Rilska river basin

The deficiencies in the irrigation systems(IS) of the Rilska River are a matter of interest (with a low
volume but displayed in 40% of the years) as well as in the IS of the Blagoevgradska Bistritsa (the
probability of exceedence with respect to volume is 82,18%, to years – 59%). The analysis proves
that it is obligatory to use water from the Struma River. In periods of deficit the small HPP have to
operate as pumping stations (PS) – Fig.6. The situation is similar in other parts of the river basin too.
The transfer of water from the Struma River basin via the Blagoevgradska Bistritsa CD is totally
ensured and via the Manastirska and Iliina CD – not entirely.
As a result of the modeling the deficiencies in the ecological water quantities are also obtained. The
degree of attaining the ecological objectives is established on this basis. Deficiencies in the ecological
water quantities are displayed for part of the points according to variant I.
The simulation of the impact of the 10-year dry period (subvariant I.2) reveals deepening of
deficiencies and emerging of new ones.
The analysis of the deficiencies has to be performed in the context of the wholesome scheme and
accumulated problems in a given section of the river basin. The interrelation between the WS scheme
(water supply) specific features and the problems in the Struma River basin are explained in details in
[2,9]. An example will be given with the Rilska River basin.
A basic element in the WS is the Rila power cascade, which transfers water by numerous collecting
derivations and by the “Kalin” Pumping Accumulating Hydropower Plant (PAHPP), the “Kamenitsa”,
“Pastra” and “Rila” HPPs. The cascade makes a complex use of the water, processing it for energy
and supply of the other consumers (drinking water supply, industry, irrigation, fish-breeding ponds) -
Fig.6. The cascade includes also the “Karagyol” dam (Dzherman River catchment) and the “Kalin”
dam (Rilska River catchment). The two dams work as joint vessels and water is transferred from one
catchment to the other in the course of their management (Fig.7).
Some SHPP (Small Hydropower Plants) in the region deviate considerable water quantities from the
Rilska River basin via the irrigation channels, thus changing the scheme of water use and the
ecological conditions.
The numerous collecting derivations (CD) for water transfer from the Struma River basin to the Maritsa
and Iskar River basins are typical for the region: “Manastirska – left” CD, “Manastirska – right” CD,
“Iliina – left” CD, “Iliina –right” CD.
According to WABD sections of the Rilska River are probably subjected to the risk not to achieve the
WFD objectives [6].

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
                               Fig. 7. Scheme of Kalin Dam and Karagiol

At the background of the complex WS scheme and accumulated problems in the region, the
calculated deficiencies in irrigation (probability of exceedence by volume – 58 %, by years - 20% , by
months – 65% ), ecological water quantities (probability of exceedence by volume – 93 %, by years -
10% , by months – 71% ) and water transfer (probability of exceedence by volume – 91 %, by years -
0% , by months – 65% ) indicate a conflict of interests. The conflict between water transfer and the
needs in the river basin is not the basic one, because the transfer is realized only in periods of high
water. The basic conflict exists between the drinking water consumption and the needs of river
ecosystems, between the SHPP and the needs of the environment, which requires integrated
The situation is similar in the other sections with considerable deficiencies: in Blagoevgrad (Fig.6),
Kyustendil, Petrich, etc. The rivers Blagoevgradska Bistrica, Banska Bistrica, Strumeshnica are
assessed as vulnerable zones and they are in conditions not to achieve the objectives of WFD [5,6].
                                                                       There is also a need for
                                                                       integrated water management in
                                                                       the rest parts of the river basin,
                                                                       for example reservoir Dolna
                                                                       Dikanya and the river Arkata
                                                                       (vulnerable zone) – fig.8.
                                                                       In order to overcome some
                                                                       deficiencies, it is necessary to
                                                                       regulate the runoff by the
                                                                       construction of the envisaged
                                                                       dams or to search alternatives by
                                                                       groundwater use. The developed
                                                                       network model of the Struma
                                                                       river basin includes nodes
                                                                       reflecting the effect of the future
                                                                       dams and WS schemes.
                                                                       Variants I.3. and I.4. are aimed
                                                                       at analyzing the impact of water
                                                                       transfer to the Iskar River
                                                                       catchment via the “Djerman –
                                                                       Skakavitsa”        CD.       Water
                   Fig. 8. Reservoir Dolna Dikanya                     deficiency is established in the
                                                                       Djerman River for the transfer of
the designed water quantity. The derivation does not affect the water balance in the river basin if water
is transferred mainly during the high water period.
In subvariants II.1. (variation of the irrigation areas – to 60% and 30%) a great part of the emerging
deficiencies in the irrigation are not displayed. The only exceptions are several water balance points.
The deficiencies in the Rilska River IS and the Blagoevgradska Bistritsa River IS are preserved, which
confirms the necessity of pumping stations (PS) operation.

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
Variant III for the Struma River basin (variants for drinking and household water supply according to
the norms) as a whole is with higher annual water volumes compared to variant I (according to data of
the National Statistical Institute – NSI). The conclusion has to be drawn that the increase of the
drinking and household water supply leads to higher deficiencies in variant I and to the origin of new
ones. The water supply of the Petrich municipality is an example in this respect. This leads to
increasing the deficiencies in irrigation too.
The industry consumption in variant IV is higher with 30%. The probability for the industrial consumers
remains 100%, which is due to the availability of significant regulating volumes in the points with
maximum water consumption (the “Studena”, “Dyakovo” and “Pchelina” dams).
The mathematical model provides assessment of the probability for all water consumers included in
the license registers. In addition, generalized assessment has been also made. The purpose is to
                                                           evaluate the correspondence between the                              р.

                                                           available resources and the needs in the
                                                                                                                                                                                         р. Ко

                                                           river basin and to analyze to what degree the
                                                                                                                    р. Св

                                                                      р. Я
                           р. Бъ


                                                           resources are exhausted by the issued
                                                      р. Тр




                                                           licenses and the necessities of restrictions in
    150                                                     127,5
      150ТРЕКЛЯНО                                                                                                                                              яз. Пчелина

                                                           their issuing when new consumers are
    100                                   66,08                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              яз. Студена

      100                                   66,08                        51,81



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   р. Ст

                                                                                                                                               р. О


           0                                   Ръждав ица
                                                                                                                    р. М

                                                 Ръждав ица

                                                                                                                                                                                          р. Ар



                                                           Global analysis is made for several typical                                                                                              БОБОВДОЛ

                                                           points in the Struma River basin (Fig.9 ) –
                                                                                р. Драговищи
                                                р. Бистрица                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  р. Тополница
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 яз. Дяково

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             р. Джубрен

                                                           Razhdavitsa, Boboshevo, Krupnik, Struma
                                                                                                                                                                                                      р. Ра


                                                                                                 р. Бан


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              р. Дже
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 САПАРЕВА БАНЯ

                                                           and the border. The following water


                                                                                                                                      р. Гр

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              р. О


                                                           consumption/inflow ratios are established for

                                                                                       р. Н

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                р. Бис
                     р. Би

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              р. Дж

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              р. Слатинска

                                                           maximum consumption in the respective
                                                     150                                                                           ца                          БОБОШЕВО                                                                      р. Кръчинска
                                                        150                                                                     шни
                                                  р. Еле                                                                р.
                                                                                                                             Еле                                                                                                                                          РИЛА                                                                                                      р. Ма
                                                     100 иц
                                                        шн                                                                                                                                   р. Ко                                                                                                                                                                                             рска
                                                                                                                                                   р. Речица

                                                            а                                                                                                                                        пр ив                                                                    р. Ри
                                                        100                                                                                                                                                    лен                                                                 лска

                                                           sections: 52 %, 12 %, 32 %, 14 %.
                                                           0                                                                                                                                                                             КОЧЕРИНОВО
                                                                 0                    Бобошево                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 р. Ил

                                                                The following generalization may be
                                                           formulated for the river basin as a whole:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        р. Бистрица
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        р. Бис
                                                                                                                                                                                                 р. Ли
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               БЛАГОЕВГРАД                                                                    три ца

                                                                                                                                                                        го                                                                                                                          р. Хърсовска

                                                           • for drinking-household water supply from

                                                                                                                                                                         р.                                                                                                                                                      ск
                                                                                                                                                                              Лещ                                                                                                                                             нов
                                                                                                                                                                                 ан                                                                                                                                     Осе
                                                                                                                                                                                   ск                                                                                                                              р.

                                                               surface water the issued licenses are for                                                                                                                СИМИТЛИ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    р. Стара


                                                               80,87 million m3/yr, from groundwater –
                                                                                                                                 300                                                                  259,83
                                                                                                                                   300                                                                                                                                                              р. Брежанска

                                                               29,54 million m3/yr, totally – 109,99
                                                                                                                                 150                                         82,28                                                            р. Сушицка                           р. Мечкулска
                                                                                                                                   150                                          82,28
                                                                                                                                 100                                                                                     31,65
                                                                                                                                   100                                                                                      31,65
                                                                                                                                  50                                                                                                                                                               а
                                                                                                                                     50                                                                                                                                                      явол

                                                               million m3/yr.
                                                                                                                                   0                                                                                                                                                    Д
                                                                                                                                      0                                              Крупник

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     нс ка
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             р. В

                                                           • for industrial purposes the issued licenses                                                                                                                                           р. Будилс


                                                               are for water intakes from surface water –




                                                               42,79 million m3/yr (without the reserve


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    р. Седелска



                                                               water intakes), from groundwater intakes


                                                                                                                                                                                700                                          Леб

                                                                                                                                                                              600                                                  ни

          ∆ ВП
                                                                                                                                                                                600                                                                                                                                                    САНДАНСКИ

                                                               – 3,895 million m3/yr, totally – 50,95








          ∆ приток


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 р. Ме

                                                                                                                                                                              200                                                                                                 р. Рибина

                                                               million m3/yr (with the reserve water
                                                                                                                                                                                200                                            96,57
                                                                                                                                                                                                    р. Гра

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            р. Калиманска


           ∆ВП /∆Приток                                                                                                                                                           0                                           Струма - граница


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Струма - граница

                                                               intakes), for fisheries – about 3,00 million
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       р. Петровска

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   р. Струмешница

                                                               m3/yr, totally for industry – 53,95 million

                                                           • for irrigation the issued licenses are for
          Fig.9. General evaluation and analysis               96,98 million m3/yr.
The issued licenses for water use are for 260,8 million m /yr, 227,4 million m3/yr of them being from
surface water and 33,44 million m3/yr – from groundwater.
The average runoff of the Struma River basin at the Greek border is 2510,68 million m3/yr and the
capacity of the groundwater resources is 199,62 million m3/yr.
The calculated maximum predicted water use is:
• for drinking-household purposes according to the III variant – 66,27 million m3/yr;
• for industry – predicted 130% of the permitted volume – about 70 million m3/yr;
• for irrigation – 119,70 million m3/yr (for 100% of the area).
Totally till 2020 maximum water use of about 260 millions m3/yr is envisaged. In the global resources
assessment, the transfer of water to other river basins (according to project data about 70х106 m3/yr)
as well as the inflow from neighboring river basins has to be taken under consideration.
As a general assessment it could be stated that there are reserves in the Struma River basin but
regardless of this deficiencies occur on many places during dry periods. The main reasons for this fact
are the numerous scattered water yielding zones with low flow rate (about 500 from groundwater, 160
– from surface water) and the water intake from flowing water. There are more than 33 dams and
compensating volumes in the river basin but their total volume is about 230 million m3, only 6 of them

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008
are more significant and are used as regulators. The existing regulation is insufficient for a river basin
with an average runoff of 2,5 billion m3.

The river basin of Struma is characterized with rich hydro resource potential which has not been used
rationally yet. The basic reasons for appearance of shortages are the lack of enough water storages
for regulation. As a result of the water system functioning of the river basin for different scenarios are
specified the critical sections and problems. The critical sections are consequence mainly from the
anthropogenic pressure resulting in derivations of waters between river basins, point and diffuse
pollution etc. The achievement of the objectives of the WFD in these sections will be attended by great
difficulties. In the most cases these sections are set from the Water Directorates as a water bodies at
risk or vulnerable areas. The specified shortages in water supply, irrigation and mostly for ecological
water quantities are preconditions for conflict of interests. The task for allocation of water resources in
the management of some reservoirs, cascades and small Hydro Power Plants (HPP) is very
Simulation modeling of the entire river basin of Struma contributes to define the relationship between
water system and the environment and to set a conceptual model. By the means of the provided hydro
nodes with assigned ecological water quantities is analyzed the degree of reaching of the ecological
objectives. The calculated disturbance in the discharge evaluates the anthropogenic pressure.
As a result of modeling some measures are proposed in order to manage with the problems of the
river basin.
The future water systems and reservoirs for construction are evaluated. The use of groundwater
resources is considered and the necessity of pumping stations in the scheme as well as the
opportunities for water derivations.
The importance of article 11 in building up the programmes of measures and taking into account
quantity issues have to be highlighted and to put stress on the fact that WFD implementation is an
opportunity to make demand-side measures be a priority.
Modeling results give the opportunity to the WABD for assessment of the unused water storages to be
reconsidered the permission regime and the conditions for water use. Economic tools could be used
based on this results for support in the decision making process.
Water resource systems have benefited both people and their economies. Yet in many regions, water
resource systems are not able to meet the demands, or even the basic needs, for clean fresh water,
nor can they support and maintain resilient biodiverse ecosystems.
How well we manage our natural resources today will determine just how well these resources will
serve our descendants and us. Hence, we care much about the management of these resources,
especially our water resources.

   1. Convention on the protection and Use of Transboundary watercourses and International
      Lakes, Helsinki, 1992
   2. Ilcheva, I., I. Niagolov, T. Trenkova, Water Resource System analysis of the Struma River
      Basin, Second International Conference and exhibition on water resources, technologies and
      services, BULAQUA 2007, Sofia, 2007
   3. Methodology for Water Resources System Investigation, Institute of Water Problems – BAS,
      Contract financed by Ministry of Environmental and Water of Bulgaria, 2004
   4. Niagolov, I., A Tool for Water Resource System, Conference, University of Architecture, Civil
      Engineering and Geodesy,UACEG, Sofia, 1999
   5. Ordinance of Ministry of Environmental and Water of Bulgaria, 2003
   6. Report of West Aegean Basin Directorate of Bulgaria, 2005
   7. Schemes for water resources use in the river basin districts of the Republic of Bulgaria,
      Institute of Water Problems – BAS, Contract financed by MOEW of Bulgaria, 2000
   8. Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)
   9. Water resources use and Warer resource balances in the Struma river basin, Institute of
      Water Problems – BAS, Contract financed by Ministry of Environmental and Water of Bulgaria,

BALWOIS 2008 – Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia – 27, 31 May 2008

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