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STANDARD SPECIFICATION for MATERIALS and WORKMANSHIP SECTION reciprocating screw

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STANDARD SPECIFICATION for MATERIALS and WORKMANSHIP SECTION reciprocating screw Powered By Docstoc
					        STANDARD SPECIFICATION for
        MATERIALS and WORKMANSHIP
                (SECTION 2)

                                            For the

              MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
              SERVICES INSTALLATIONS




  M & E Design
 Est a t es O f f ic e
G ib b et H il l R o a d                              T el : 0 2 4 7 6 5 2 2 3 4 0 5
 C o v ent r y C V 4 7 A L                             F a x : 0 2 4 7 6 5 2 4 4 4 4




 Revision:
 Description:                 1st Edition
 Date:                       03/05/2007
 Prepared By:                  A.J.C
 Checked By:
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


2.2.1.       General Plant............................................................................................1
  2.2.1.1.       Pumps and Cold Water Pressurisation Plant........................................1
  2.2.1.2.       Direct Electric Water Heaters ...............................................................4
  2.2.1.3.       Pneumatic Hot Water Expansion Vessel ..............................................6
  2.2.1.4.       Calorifiers.............................................................................................6
2.2.2.       Pressurisation For Hot Water Heating Systems ........................................7
  2.2.2.1.       General ................................................................................................7
  2.2.2.2.       Sealed Diaphragm Vessel Systems .....................................................8
  2.2.2.3.       Constant or Intermittent Running Pump Systems .................................9
2.2.3.       Heat Emitters ............................................................................................9
  2.2.3.1.       Radiators..............................................................................................9
  2.2.3.2.       Convectors.........................................................................................10
  2.2.3.3.       Underfloor Heating .............................................................................12
  2.2.3.4.       Electric Tubular Heaters.....................................................................12
2.2.4.       Air Conditioning And Ventilation Installations ..........................................12
  2.2.4.1.       Air Handling Units and Fans...............................................................12
  2.2.4.2.       Cooling Coils......................................................................................20
  2.2.4.3.       Air Heater Batteries............................................................................22
  2.2.4.4.       Air Filters............................................................................................24
2.2.5.       Terminal Units.........................................................................................30
  2.5.5.1.       Fan Coil Units.....................................................................................30
2.2.6.       Refrigeration Plant ..................................................................................32
  2.2.6.1.       Reciprocating Chillers ........................................................................32
  2.2.6.2.       Condensers........................................................................................37
2.2.7.       Refrigeration Plant Accessories ..............................................................40
2.2.8.       Pressurisation Equipment .......................................................................41
  2.2.8.1.       General ..............................................................................................41
  2.2.8.2.       Alarm Facilities...................................................................................42
  2.2.8.3.       Controls..............................................................................................42
  2.2.8.4.       Testing and Commissioning ...............................................................43
2.2.9.       Pipework, Valves, And Ancillaries ...........................................................43
2.2.10.       Insulation ...............................................................................................44
2.2.11.       Controls .................................................................................................45
2.2.12.       Rotary Screw Liquid Chillers ..................................................................46
2.2.13.       Acoustic And Vibration Isolation.............................................................55
  2.2.13.1.       General .............................................................................................55
  2.2.13.2.       Silencer Performance........................................................................57
  2.2.13.3.       Construction......................................................................................57
  2.2.13.4.       Reactive Silencers (For Heavy Industry) ...........................................59
2.2.14.       Anti-Vibration Mountings ........................................................................59
  2.2.14.1.       General .............................................................................................59
  2.2.14.2.       Caged Spring Mounts........................................................................60
  2.2.14.3.       Rubber Mattress................................................................................61
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

  2.2.14.4.       Resilient Hangers..............................................................................61
  2.2.14.5.       Rubber or Neoprene Mounts .............................................................61
  2.2.14.6.       Pipework Isolation .............................................................................62
  2.2.14.7.       Plant Bases.......................................................................................62
  2.2.14.8.       Flexible Connections .........................................................................63
2.2.15.       Motors, Belts, And Guards .....................................................................63
  2.2.15.1.       Motors...............................................................................................63
  2.2.15.2.       Variable Speed Drives for HVAC Induction Fan and Pump Motors....65
  2.2.15.3.       Protection of the Induction Motor.......................................................66
  2.2.15.4.       Motor and Starter Cabling .................................................................66
  2.2.15.5.       Starter Displays.................................................................................66
  2.2.15.6.       Electromagnetic Compatibility and Radio Frequency Interference.....70
  2.2.15.7.       Power Factor Correction ...................................................................70
  2.2.15.8.       Lubrication ........................................................................................71
  2.2.15.9.       Protection..........................................................................................71
  2.2.15.10.       Motor Control Equipment..................................................................72
  2.2.15.11.       Remote Push Buttons ......................................................................73
  2.2.15.12.      V-Belt Drives ....................................................................................73
  2.2.15.13.      Guards .............................................................................................73
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS




2.2.1.      General Plant

2.2.1.1.    Pumps and Cold Water Pressurisation Plant


            In the installation of the equipment the following publications shall be
            taken into consideration:


              i.    Guidance note PM5 Part C from the Health and Safety Executive.


              ii.   Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999.


            (a) General Requirements


                    For particular technical requirements of pumps and pressurisation
                    units refer to technical schedules and Particular Specification.


                    The Contractor shall verify with the Engineer before pump sets
                    and pressurisation units are ordered that the following items are
                    not required:


                       a) Hour run meters for each pump.


                       b) Ammeters for each pump or one for the pump set.


                       c) Interface unit on pump for addressing with the building
                            management system. If an addressable interface unit is
                            required, it is the Contractors responsibility to confirm with
                            the Engineer the extent of monitoring required, before
                            pumps and/or booster plant is assembled.


                       d) Anti-condensation heater.


                       e) Locking hand/off/auto switches.




AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 1
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            It is the Contractors responsibility to liaise directly with the pump
            manufacturer and building management system supplier to ensure that
            the interface units supplied on the pump sets are fully compatible with the
            chosen building management system and all pump conditions requiring
            monitoring have been fully addressed.


            Although estimated values of pump duty are given in the Schedules, this
            does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility for providing pumps
            capable of delivering the required quantity of water, and for being suitable
            for the temperatures and pressures involved.


            All LTHW, HTHW, chilled water, condenser water etc, circulating pumps
            shall have isolation valves on the discharge and inlet ports with strainers
            on the inlet and non-return valves on the discharge connections.


            Public health services (cold water, softened water, domestic hot water
            etc) shall not have strainers installed unless indicated.


            (b) General Construction


            Pumps shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 60335, BS 4082
            Parts 1 and 2 and BS 5257 as applicable.


            Pumps should be ‘type’ tested in accordance with the requirements of BS
            EN ISO 9906 and shall be selected to give the correct fluid flow rate. Test
            certificates and performance curves shall be provided.


            Pumps and their drives shall be segregated such that failure of pump
            seals shall not result in damage to drive motors.


            The pump casing shall be split to ensure easy maintenance including the
            removal of half casing and impellers, without disturbing any of the water
            pipe connections or valves.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 2
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Where pumps have glands they shall be so arranged that the removal of
            the packing can be carried out with the minimum disturbance. The design
            of the pump shall be such that no external source of water supply is
            required for gland sealing. Precautions shall be taken to prevent gland
            leakage water entering the bearing housings.


            Where bearings are of the ball or roller type the inner face shall be fitted
            directly onto the shaft and shall be located by a machined shoulder on the
            shaft. Where the pumps are operated intermittently, special care shall be
            taken to prevent brinelling of the faces while the pumps are not in
            operation. All bearings shall be oil tight. In the case of vertical spindle
            pumps the weight of the pump impeller and shaft shall not be taken by the
            motor bearings, but by a thrust bearing for which ample access shall be
            provided for examination and maintenance. Provision shall be made at
            each end of the bearing to prevent oil or grease being thrown off outside
            the bearing housing or creeping along the shaft.


            In the case of vertical spindle pumps pumping town or treated water, all
            bearings which are situated below water level shall be water lubricated.


            Pumps with bearings requiring cooling water shall be provided with all the
            necessary pipework, valves, strainers and header tanks for this purpose.


            All couplings and any intermediate shafting shall be efficiently guarded.


            Where pumps and motors are mounted on a common bedplate, the
            bedplate shall be of ample proportion and stiffness to withstand all loads
            likely to be experienced in service.


            Anti-vibration protection shall be provided in accordance with the relevant
            clauses of this Specification. The Contractor shall ensure that the
            complete unit is efficiently balanced to eliminate noise and vibration.
            Belts, where fitted, shall be correctly aligned and tensioned.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 3
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.1.2.    Direct Electric Water Heaters


            These shall be of one of the following types, with a water capacity and
            electrical loading as indicated.


            (a) Cistern Type – for wall or floor mounting compromising water chamber
            and ball valve, insulated with polyurethane foam or fibreglass, the whole
            enclosed within a corrosion-proofed steel casing finished in white stoved
            enamel.


            The heating unit shall be controlled by a stem type thermostat adjustable
            between 32°C - 82°C.


            The unit shall be provided with suitable connections for cold water inlet,
            overflow and hot water outlet.


            The break tank shall be fitted with a metallic 15mm ball valve to BS 1212:
            Part 2 and fitted with polythene float.


            Refer to Particular Specifications for detail.


            (b) Storage Type – cistern fed. The construction shall be generally as for
            the cistern type above, except that there shall be no integral break tank.


            The unit shall be provided with suitable connections for cold water inlet
            and hot water outlet and vent.


            Refer to Particular Specification for details.


            (c) Open Outline Wall Mounted Type


            The construction shall be generally as for cistern type above.


            The unit shall be provided with a suitable connection for cold water supply
            and a swivel spout for hot water delivery.


            Refer to Particular Specification for details.




AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 4
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (d) Instantaneous Type


            The cold water inlet shall be connected to a solenoid valve incorporating a
            water filter to give ON/OFF control of water to the unit. A restrictor valve
            shall be fitted to compensate for water pressure fluctuations.


            A control panel to the front of the casing shall incorporate a temperature
            selector device and a push-button control to activate the solenoid valve
            and heater element. A self resetting thermal cut out shall be incorporated
            in the unit, to protect against water supply failure and prevent excess
            temperature. A neon indicator shall be provided on the control panel to
            give indication of ‘power on’ to the unit.


            The whole shall be enclosed in a sheet steel with stoved enamel finish
            casing.


            A swivel spout shall be fitted for water delivery.


            Refer to Particular Specification for details.


            (e) Vented Point-of-Use Heater


            Point-of-use electric hot water heater shall be suitable for under or over
            sink/basin use. The heater shall be 7 or 10 litre capacity, special alloy
            sheathed immersion element for long life and resistant to hard water
            1kW/3kW rating, as indicated, anti-frost device, temperature lock control
            for user safety, over temperature safety device, plastic or copper water
            chamber and long life moulded plastic outer casing.


            The point of use heater shall only incorporate the heater manufacturer’s
            vented taps/mixer assembly to ensure that any steam build up is vented
            safely to atmosphere.


            Refer to Particular Specifications for details.




AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 5
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.1.3.    Pneumatic Hot Water Expansion Vessel


            Pneumatic hot water expansion vessels shall be to BS 6144 and shall be
            WRc approved and listed.


            Vessels shall contain an EPDM rubber bag (WRc approved material) with
            an access hatch in accordance with BS 470 and constructed from low
            carbon pressed steel to BS EN 10028-7.

2.2.1.4.    Calorifiers


            Calorifiers shall be manufactured in accordance with BS 853. They shall
            be provided with mild steel shell and tubeplates. Heating surface shall be
            manufactured from solid drawn copper and shall prevent vibration of the
            tube bundle. Tube bundles shall be withdrawable.


            End caps and headers shall be manufactured from cast iron and shall be
            provided with a flanged connection to the main shell. Pipe connections
            shall be flanged to BS EN 1092-1 for pipes 65mm diameter and above.
            They shall be screwed to BS 21 for smaller sizes.


            Calorifiers shall be provided as horizontal units, unless specifically
            described as vertical elsewhere in this specification.


            Calorifiers shall be provided with mild steel channel and angle support
            frames to the manufacturer’s standard detail. Frames shall be finished in
            grey primer.


            Each calorifier shall be provided with the following mountings. The
            mountings shall comply with the appropriate Sections of this Specification.


            (i) Primary flow and return connections with isolation valves and
               commissioning sets on water to water calorifiers.


            (ii) Controls as described elsewhere in this Specification.


            (iii) Secondary flow and return connections, with isolation valves.


            (iv) Drain connections.


AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 6
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS



            (v) Temperature gauge and pressure gauge on the shell in the calorifiers.


            (vi) Self sealing combined temperature and pressure test point on the
                  primary and secondary flow and return connections on hot water units.


            (vii) Safety valve and drain pipe mounted on the shell. The valve shall be
                  enclosed spring type complying with BS EN ISO 4126-1.

2.2.2.      Pressurisation For Hot Water Heating Systems

2.2.2.1.    General


            In the installation of the equipment the following publications shall be
            taken into consideration:


            (a) Guidance note PM5 Part C from the Health and Safety Executive.


            (b) Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999.


            (c) Department of the Environment Standard Specifications M&E No. 3
                  (1986).


            (i)      Pressurisation shall be effected by one of the following methods:-


                     o   Nitrogen gas pressurisation system
                     o   Sealed diaphragm vessel system
                     o   Constant running pump system


            (ii) Pressurising systems and their controls shall be arranged to fail-safe.


            (iii) Pressurising equipment shall be of packaged construction with
                   provision for single connection to boiler plant and to the boiler plant
                   control systems. Where practicable it shall be mounted on a common
                   base frame.


            (iv) Pressurising equipment controls shall be arranged with lockable
                  isolating valves and drain valves which safely enable control
                  functions to be tested whilst the boiler plant remains in service.


AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 7
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (v) Pressurising pumps shall be seized having due regard for the
                expected system operating conditions.


            (vi) Provision shall be made for quick filling the heating system in parallel
                 with the make-up water system provided for normal service.


            (vii) The pressurisation equipment shall be subject to the Client’s
                 insurance company’s inspection.


            (viii) All pipework connections shall conform to the relevant section of this
                 specification and the equipment shall be fitted with a drain valves to
                 enable the complete draining in isolation from the heating system.

2.2.2.2.    Sealed Diaphragm Vessel Systems


            a. These shall not be used to pressurise HTHW systems.


            b. The equipment shall be provided as purpose made sets comprising
               feedwater connections, holding tank(s), pump(s), expansion vessel(s)
               with internal flexible diaphragm(s), heating system connections and all
               necessary controls, safety devices and power connections.


            c. The expansion vessels shall be constructed in accordance with BS
               4814 and shall have replaceable diaphragm. Unless otherwise
               indicated vessels shall be Grade 1.


            d. The make up water system shall include a cumulative meter and shall
               be controlled to deliver water at rates consistent with recording
               accuracy.


            e. Each set shall have a pump or duplicate pumps as indicated. The duty
               pump shall be controlled by a pressure sensor set to ensure minimum
               static pressurisation of the heating system. Where duplicate pumps
               are required, duty, standby and changeover controls shall be provided
               (as for Gas Pressurisation Systems). Pumps shall be installed with
               strainers and isolating valves, and with non-return valves as
               appropriate.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 8
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.2.3.    Constant or Intermittent Running Pump Systems


               a) The equipment shall be provided as purpose made sets
                   compromising feedwater connections, holding tanks, duplicate
                   pumps, expansion vessel(s), connections to the heating systems
                   and all necessary controls, safety devices and power connections.


               b) A strainer, non-return valve and isolating valves shall be provided
                   for each pump.


            The connection to each heating system shall be through pipes and/or
            vessels having sufficient volume to contain the total quantity of water
            expanded from the heating system whilst any boiler is firing through its
            temperature control differential range.


            Pressure vessels shall meet the requirements as for Gas Pressurisation
            Systems.

2.2.3.      Heat Emitters

2.2.3.1.    Radiators


            Steel radiators shall be fabricated from not less than 1.25mm thick mild
            steel, welded at the seams and strengthened by spot welding between
            waterways. They shall be free from distortion. All radiators shall be tested
            at works to a hydraulic gauge pressure of 6.9 bar unless otherwise
            indicated. The radiator heating surface provided in any room shall be not
            less than the areas indicated. Radiators shall be supplied and be finished
            with one coat of primer before leaving works.


            Where radiators are required other than steel panel type, details will be
            provided in the Particular Specification.


            The positions and heights above floor of all radiators shall be confirmed
            with the Engineer. A minimum clearance of 100mm shall be provided
            between the floor and the underside of any pipe serving a radiator. The
            minimum clearance between the floor and the underside of the radiator
            shall be 150mm. Radiators shall be kept clear of walls when supporting
            brackets and stays are built-in, otherwise the clearance shall be in


AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 9
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            accordance with the manufacturer’s standard bracket details. Radiators
            shall be provided with union valves, with non-metallic wheel handles on
            flow connections and with lockshield on return connections, unless fitted
            with thermostatic radiator valves. An air cock or air vent plug shall be
            fitted to each radiator and be arranged so that the water-ways can be
            completely evacuated of air when operated.


            Supports for radiators against lightweight partitions shall be designed to
            transit the weight to the floor and shall be screwed to or built into the floor;
            top stays may be screwed to the partition to provide stability to the
            radiator.


            Where radiators are fed by a straight section of pipework which is beneath
            the radiators and is more than 10m long, the radiator brackets shall be of
            the suspended pattern or other approved type designed to permit free
            movement due to expansion and contraction of the pipework. (Pipe sets
            of under 225mm shall be deemed straight pipework). When supporting
            column radiators fixed to lightweight partitions each bracket shall be
            screwed on to a vertical strut of not less than 50x6mm thick mild steel flat
            arranged to transmit the weight to the floor; the bottom of the strut shall be
            fixed to the floor.


            Radiators shall be supported in accordance with manufacturer’s
            recommendations.


            The Contractor shall include for taking down radiators once for painting by
            the Main Contractor, and re-fixing when painting is completed.


            The contractor shall also include for existing radiators to be disconnected,
            taken down and thoroughly washed out, and re-fixed after being wire-
            brushed and painted by the Main Contractor where indicated.

2.2.3.2.    Convectors


            Convectors shall be of types, ratings and dimensions as indicated. The
            manufacturer’s declared ratings shall have been obtained from tests.




AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 10
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Unless otherwise indicated heater elements shall be enclosed in casings
            purpose made by the convector manufacturer. The casings shall have air
            inlet openings at the bottom and outlet grilles at the top, fitted with internal
            dampers operated by lever or knob on the outside of the casing. The
            casings shall be free from rough edges and shall be treated with a rust
            inhibitor and finished with primer.


            The elements shall be of copper or steel tubes fixed securely to the flow
            and return headers with non-ferrous fins not thinner than 1mm bonded to
            the tubes. Copper tubes shall meet the test requirements of BS EN 1057
            R250.


            The position and heights above floor of convectors shall be agreed with
            the Engineer. Where recessed or built-in convectors have been indicated
            the Contractor shall supply details of the openings and of any fixings or
            framing required.


            Wall-mounted convectors shall be secured by screws or bolts passing
            through holes in the back plate or frame of the unit, and a resilient gasket
            shall be inserted between the edges of the back panel and the finishes at
            the sides and top to prevent streaking of walls. A minimum clearance of
            100mm shall be provided between the floor and any pipe serving a wall
            mounted convector. Two supports shall be provided for each wall
            mounted convector not exceeding 1.25m long and three supports for each
            convector longer than 1.25m.


            Convectors shall be provided with air cocks accessible from the front or
            side without dismantling the casings. Convectors shall be provided with
            union valves, with non-metallic wheel handles on flow connections and
            with lockshields on return connections, unless thermostatic control valves
            are fitted.


            The casing of fan assisted convectors shall be lined with sound absorbent
            material to minimise the emission of noise. The motor controllers shall be
            integral with the convector casings. The motors shall be resiliently
            mounted. The sound power level of the fan when operating shall be within
            the limits of the noise rating criterion as indicated. Air filters shall be of a
            permanent and cleanable type and shall be easily removable.



AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 11
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Special requirements for local thermostatic booster clock control shall be
            as indicated.

2.2.3.3.    Underfloor Heating


            The Underfloor heating system shall comprise polybutylene pipe laid on
            custom made backing plates designed for the purpose, installed below the
            floor screed as part of the make-up of the floor. The floor shall have
            sufficient insulation in the make-up to comply with the thermal
            requirements in the current Building Regulations.


            The system shall include all accessories and a heating circuit manifold,
            suitable for connection of flow and return heating pipes. Accessories shall
            include system plate joining clips, edge insulation strip, damp proof
            membrane thermometers, drain cocks and air vents, room thermostat and
            control valve as necessary.

2.2.3.4.    Electric Tubular Heaters


            Electrical tubular heaters shall be as schedules elsewhere in this
            specification.

2.2.4.      Air Conditioning And Ventilation Installations

2.2.4.1.    Air Handling Units and Fans

              (a)   General Requirements


              This section of the specification is written with packaged, air-handling
              plant as standard, however, the individual component specifications will
              also apply to such air-conditioning and ventilation plant constructed from
              separate components, in association with builders work chambers, or
              similar.


              All individual components of packaged air handling units shall comply
              with the appropriate Sections of this Specification unless otherwise
              indicated.




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 12
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (b)   Construction


            Each assembly shall be of compact construction and shall consist of a
            rigid metal framework, with sheet metal insulated cladding at least
            1.2mm thick, strengthened as necessary to prevent distortion and
            drumming. The insulation shall be 25mm thick minimum, and comply
            with the relevant clauses in this section covering insulation. The
            cladding shall be easily removable using quick release fasteners to
            obtain access for inspection and maintenance. All items shall be
            assembled by means of bolts, nuts, anti-vibration lock washers and nuts
            or approved quick release fastenings.


            All panels shall be of double skin construction, and built-in lifting points
            with eye bolts shall be provided.

            (c)   Dampers, Filters and Fans


            Where air mixing sections are required the damper controls shall be
            suitable for connection to a single damper motor; a motor mounting
            bracket shall be provided. The arrangement of dampers shall ensure
            adequate mixing.


            A regulating damper shall be provided at the outlet of all air handling
            units to enable the air volume required to be correctly balanced. This
            damper shall be locked in position, once the correct air volume has
            been established.


            Unless otherwise indicated high capacity bag filters shall be installed
            having an efficiency of not less than 90% when tested in accordance
            with ASHRAE 52-76 dust arrestance test (or Eurovent 4/5).Bag filters
            shall be preceded by washable or throw away type panel filters as
            indicated.


            Both types of filters shall be supported on a galvanised steel framework,
            constructed to ensure that no noise, distortion or vibration occurs when
            the systems are operating.




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 13
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Edge seals shall be incorporated to ensure that all air entering the unit
            shall pass through the filters. The seal shall not be affected by the
            removal of the filters.
            Both types of filters shall have manometers fitted to indicate the
            pressure drop across the media. Filter Clean and Change Filter labels
            shall be provided on manometers across both filters.


            Fan shall be either forward or backward bladed centrifugal type, Vee
            belt driven to BS 3790. Unless otherwise indicated fan motors shall be
            mounted internally in the unit. Noise and vibration from the fans and
            motors shall be isolated from the building by means of the use of anti-
            vibration mountings, flexible connections and attenuators.

            (d)   Anti-Condensation Features


            Where units incorporate humidifying plant and/or cooling coils the
            internal surfaces of the units liable to be affected by any free water
            produced shall be protected with anti-corrosion paint or a similar finish.
            Such units shall have adequate drain trays to collect water; the drain
            trays shall be extended, or other means of collection shall be provided,
            to ensure the removal of any water deposited or condensed in adjacent
            sections. Trays collecting cooled water shall be insulated to prevent
            condensation on the outer surface of the tray.


            All drain trays shall incorporate a deep seal trap of adequate depth to
            prevent air escaping when the plant is in operation.

            (e)   Thermal Insulation


            Thermal insulation shall be securely fixed to all sections handling heated
            or cooled air; and in the latter case it shall include a vapour seal.
            Thermal insulation shall be at least 25mm thick and of a material having
            a thermal conductivity less than 0.04 W/m°C. Where thermal (or
            acoustic) insulation is fitted internally it shall be securely fixed and shall
            be either inherently proof against erosion or protected against erosion;
            in areas where there may be free moisture or condensation the
            insulation shall have surface protection to prevent waterlogging.




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 14
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (f)   Fans – General Requirements


            Fans shall be capable of giving the specified performance when tested
            in accordance with BS 848. Although estimated values of the resistance
            to airflow of items of equipment may be indicated this does not relieve
            the Contractor of the responsibility for providing fans capable of
            developing sufficient pressure to deliver the required air volume through
            the system.


            The Contractor shall make his calculations of the system resistance
            available to the Engineer for checking.


            The make and design of fans shall be approved by the Engineer and
            evidence supporting claimed noise levels and fan efficiencies shall be
            submitted for approval prior to placing the order. Where fans are
            supplied with noise attenuators full details of the attenuators shall be
            given.


            Belt driven fans shall be fitted with pulleys suitable for V-belts; pulleys of
            the taper lock type may be used for drives up to 30 kW output.
            Alternatively, and in any case above 30kW output, pulleys shall be
            secured to the fan and the motor shafts by keys fitted into machined
            keyways. Pulleys shall be keyed to the fan shaft in the overhung
            position. Keys shall be easily accessible so that they can be withdrawn
            or tightened and they shall be accurately fitted so that the key head
            does not protrude beyond the end of the shaft.


            Machined bolts, nuts and washers only shall be used for the assembly
            of fans; all bearing surface for the heads of bolts or washers shall be
            counterfaced. Holding down bolts for fans and motors shall be square in
            section under the head or be fitted with lugs to prevent them turning in
            the fan base plate when the nuts are tightened.


            Any fan which is too large or too heavy for safe manhandling shall be
            provided with eyebolts or other lifting facilities to enable mechanical
            lifting equipment to be used.


            Means of electrical isolation shall be provided at each fan.


AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 15
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (g)   Centrifugal Fans


            Unless otherwise indicated centrifugal fans larger than 7.5 kW output
            shall be of the backward bladed type having fan total efficiencies of not
            less than 78%. Below 7.5 kW fans may be either forward curve or
            backward curve type. Fan casings shall be constructed of mild steel
            plates with angle stiffeners and base angles to ensure freedom from
            drumming and shall be suitable for operation at the maximum static
            pressure of the system. Fan casings shall be constructed so that
            impellers can be easily withdrawn after installation. Outlets shall be
            flanged and inlets shall be flanged or spigoted as indicated except that
            for suction pressures greater than 1000 Pa where inlets shall be
            flanged.


            Impellers shall be of mild steel (or aluminium where indicated) of riveted
            or welded construction, with spiders or hubs of robust design, and shall
            be capable of running continuously at ten per cent in excess of normal
            speed. Impellers shall be keyed to a substantial mild steel shaft and the
            impellers with shaft shall be statically and dynamically balanced and
            tested for overspeed before leaving the maker’s works. Shaft bearings
            of belt driven single inlet fans shall be truly aligned and rigidly mounted.
            Double inlet, double width fans shall have a pedestal mounted bearing
            at each side of the fan. Fan bearing shall be ring oiled sleeve bearings,
            or ball or roller type. Where silence is important the bearing pedestal
            shall not be attached to the fan casing, and ring oiled sleeve bearings
            shall be applied.


            Unless otherwise indicated centrifugal fans shall be driven by electric
            motors through V-belt drives.

            (h)   Axial Flow Fans


            Axial flow fans shall be either the single stage type or the multi-stage
            contra-rotating type with each impeller mounted on an independent
            motor, and having an efficiency of not less than 60%. Casings shall be
            rigidly constructed of mild steel stiffened and braced to obviate
            drumming and vibration. Cast iron or fabricated steel feet shall be
            provided where necessary for bolting to the base of supports. Inlet and



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 16
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            outlet ducts shall terminate in flanged rings for easy removal. The length
            of the duct casing shall be greater than the length of the fan(s) and
            Motor(s) in order that the complete section may be removed without
            disturbing adjacent ductwork. Electrical connections to the motor(s) shall
            be through an external terminal box secured to the casings.


            The external terminal box shall be connected to the conduit system by
            means of a looped flexible connection.


            Impellers shall be of steel or aluminium; the blades shall be secured to
            the hub or the blades and the hub shall be formed in one piece. The hub
            shall be keyed to a substantial mild steel shaft and the whole statically
            and dynamically balanced. Blades shall be of aerofoil section. Shafts
            shall be carried in two bearings which may be ball, roller or sleeve type.
            Lubricators shall be extended to the outside of the casing.


            Where axial flow fans are driven by a motor external to the fan casing
            the requirements for pulleys and V-belt drives and guards as specified
            elsewhere shall be met. Unless otherwise indicated a guard is not
            required for any part of a drive which is inside the fan casing. An access
            door of adequate size shall be provided, in the fan casing or adjacent
            ductwork.


            Where axial flow fans of the bifurcated type are indicated the motors
            shall be out of the airstream. Motors may be placed between the two
            halves of the casings in the external air or may be placed within the fan
            casing provided that effective ventilation is given to the motor. Where
            hot gases or vapours are being handled the motor and the bearings
            shall be suitable for operation at the temperature they may experience.


            Fans which do not connect to a suction or discharge duct shall be
            supplied with a bellmouth inlet, or discharge as required.

            (i)   Propeller Fans


            Impellers shall be of steel or aluminium and shall be fastened to the hub
            or the impellers and hub shall be formed in one piece. The bearings
            may be ball, roller, or sleeve type. Propeller fans may be ring mounted



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 17
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            or diaphragm mounted or in a casing as indicated. Where they are
            mounted in a casing the casing shall be longer than the length of the fan
            and the motor. The casing shall be of steel, shall have flanged ends and
            shall incorporate an inspection door. A terminal box shall be mounted
            externally on the casing. The tip speed of fans shall not exceed 20m/s.


            Propeller fans shall not be installed to work against a resistance of more
            than 50Pa.

            (j)   Protectively Coated Fans and Special Enclosures


            Protectively coated fans shall meet the appropriate requirements of the
            preceding clauses relating to fans generally and to particular types of
            fans; the form of protection shall be as indicated. Where a protective
            coating is required for use with corrosive gases the coating shall cover
            all parts of the complete fan, motor and casing assembly which will be in
            contact with the corrosive gases. No fan shall be installed if the
            protective coating has been damaged in any way. Flame-proof
            enclosures shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 60079 for the
            appropriate gas group.
            BS 229:1957 (Specification: Flameproof Enclosures of Electrical
            Apparatus) remains current to maintain validity of existing certificates
            and to grant supplementary certificates.

            (h)    Mechanical Roof Extract Fans


            The fans used in roof extract units shall meet the appropriate
            requirements of the preceding clauses relating to fans generally and to
            particular types of fans. Cowls and bases shall be of weatherproof
            material e.g. steel galvanised after manufacture, aluminium, aluminium
            magnesium alloy or glass fibre, or as indicated. Enclosures shall be
            formed so as to ensure a weatherproof fit to the building structure.


            Adequate access to motor terminals and lubricating points shall be
            provided by means of hinged cowls or otherwise as appropriate.
            Backdraught dampers and/or fire release dampers shall be provided
            where indicated.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 18
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Apart from means of electrical isolation at each unit, additional isolation
            shall be provided as indicated.

            (l)   In-Line Centrifugal and Mixed Flow Fans


            In-line centrifugal and mixed flow fans may be incorporated subject to
            the approval of the Engineer provided that full details of ratings, noise
            level, dimensions and construction are given in the tender. Fans of
            these types above 7.5 kW output will not normally be accepted.

            (m)    Twin Fan Units


            Duplicate fan assemblies shall comply with the appropriate sections of
            this specification for the fans themselves and shall incorporate
            automatic or manual changeover facility as indicated.


            A non-return damper arrangement shall be fitted to prevent short
            circuiting.

            (n)   Window and Wall Fans


            Window and/or wall fans shall be incorporated where indicated. Such
            fans will be to the particular manufacturer’s standard construction. All
            wall mounted fans must be installed by the use of a sleeve built into a
            wall for both solid and cavity wall constructions. The sleeve shall be of
            such length as to span the total thickness of the wall.


            Such fans may be either square or circular to the agreement of the
            Engineer.


            Back-draught dampers shall be incorporated into both wall and window
            type fans.

            (o)   Ceiling Fans


            For purpose of de-stratification, ceiling fans shall be used where
            indicated.




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 19
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             The blades shall be made from high grade steel with an epoxy polyester
             powder coated finish and shall be factory matched and electronically
             balanced in sets of three.


             Downrods shall be of steel tube with epoxy polyester powder coating
             and be complete with suspension kit and loop.


             Motors shall be suitable for operating temperatures up to 40°C.


             All ceiling fans shall be capable of reverse operation.

2.2.4.2.    Cooling Coils

             (a)   General


             All air cooling casings shall be of sheet steel not less than 1.2mm thick
             with angle framing at each end drilled ready to receive the counter
             flanges on the connecting ductwork and shall be galvanised after
             manufacture. Cooler batteries shall be constructed either of copper
             tubes with copper gills or fins, tinned after manufacture, or of copper or
             aluminium tubes with aluminium gills or fins, as indicated, the secondary
             extended cooling surfaces shall be bonded to the primary cooling tubes.


             Headers for copper tube batteries shall be of copper, bronze or cast
             iron; for aluminium tube batteries they shall be of aluminium or steel.
             The bottom of a casing shall be made in the form of a watertight drip
             tray complete with drain connection. The drain shall be fitted with a
             water seal to prevent the ingress and discharge of air to and from the
             system; the drain pipe shall be run to the nearest sump or gully. A
             separate drain trough shall be provided for at least each 1.2m height of
             coil. Water shall not be carried over from a cooler into the airstream; an
             eliminator section shall be fitted where necessary to prevent carry-over.


             The resistance to air flow shall not exceed 125 N/m2 and the face
             velocity shall not exceed 2.5m/s. Before leaving the maker’s works
             coolers shall be tested to 1½ times the working pressure or to 700 kPa
             whichever is the greater.


             Eliminator plates shall be fitted if the face velocity exceeds 2.25 m/s.


AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 20
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS



            Cooling coils shall be supported so that their weight is not transmitted to
            ductwork and so that they can be removed without disturbing adjacent
            ductwork. Inspection doors shall be provided on both the upstream and
            downstream sides of the cooler. On any system where the static
            pressure at the cooler exceeds 750 Pa (75mm of water) airtight cover
            boxes shall be provided over the headers and bends; provisions shall be
            made for draining the cover boxes.


            Coils with fins which have been badly damaged during transport or
            erection or which have become fouled or coated with builders material
            will not be accepted.

            (b)   Chilled Water Coils


            Coils shall be arranged in a contra-flow pattern, with the flow of chilled
            water entering at the leaving air end and leaving at the entering air end.
            The flow and return connections and headers shall be so arranged to
            ensure an equal flow of water through all the tubes. Provision shall be
            made for expansion of the tubes, for effective venting of the cooler
            battery headers and tubes.


            Connections up to and including 65mm bore shall be screwed or
            flanged; connections 80mm diameter and above shall be flanged.
            Isolating valves shall be provided on inlet and outlet connections,
            arranged so as to facilitate removal of the cooling coils.


            Chilled water cooling coils shall be tested and rated in accordance with
            BS 5141: Part 1.

            (c)   Refrigerant Direct Expansion Air Cooling Coils


            Coils shall be provided with refrigerant distributors, and connections to
            the tubes shall be designed to ensure an equal flow of refrigerant to
            each tube. Return (or suction) connections shall be arranged so as to
            ensure complete drainage of any oil in the cooler. Coolers shall be
            dehydrated and sealed after manufacture.




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 21
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             The thermostatic expansion valve which shall incorporate an external
             equaliser line shall maintain the design degree of superheat at the
             evaporator outlet; the remote sensing bulb shall be securely fixed to the
             evaporator outlet piping in a position where the degree of superheat can
             be correctly sensed.


             All refrigerant spaces shall be tested at the maker’s works.

2.2.4.3.    Air Heater Batteries

             (a)    General


             Casings shall be of galvanised sheet steel not less than 1.2mm thick
             with angle framing at each end drilled ready to receive the counter
             flanges on the connecting ductwork. Heaters shall be supported so that
             their weight is not transmitted to ductwork and so that they can be
             removed without disturbing adjacent ductwork. Inspection doors shall be
             provided on both the upstream and downstream sides of the heater.


             The casing shall be airtight to meet the air pressure requirements of the
             system with appropriate arrangements to accommodate expansion
             where applicable.


             Air heating coils shall be tested and rated in accordance with BS 5141:
             Part 2.

             (b)    Hot Water and Steam Types


             The heater battery shall be one of the following types:-


                   a) Copper tubes with non-ferrous gills or fins, fitted into copper or
                       bronze headers.


                   b) Copper tubes with non-ferrous gills or fins, fitted into steel or cast
                       iron headers.


                   c) Mild steel tubes with mild steel gills or fins, fitted into steel
                       headers, the whole protected against corrosion.




AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 22
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


                  d) Aluminium tubes with aluminium gills or fins, fitted into aluminium
                     or steel headers.


            For types (a) and (b) above the copper tubes shall comply with the test
            requirements specified in the relevant standards and the secondary
            extended heating surface shall be of either aluminium or copper. The
            secondary heating surface shall in all cases be bonded to the primary
            heating tubes.


            Where anti-frost heaters are fitted in fresh air intakes they shall be low
            resistance plain unfinned tube heaters.


            The flow and return connections and headers shall be arranged to
            ensure an equal flow of water or steam through the tubes. Connections
            up to and including 65mm bore for pressure up to 350kPa shall be
            screwed or flanged; connections 80mm diameter and above for all sizes
            where the heating media pressures are above 350kPa shall be flanged.
            Provision shall be made for expansion of the tubes, for effective venting
            of the heater battery and the connections and for draining of the heater
            battery. Isolating valves shall be provided on inlet and outlet
            connections, arranged so as to facilitate removal of the heater battery.


            On any system where the static pressure at the heater exceeds 750 Pa
            (75mm of water) airtight cover boxes shall be provided over the headers
            and bends.
            The resistance to air flow of the heater shall not exceed 65Pa and the
            face velocity shall not exceed 4m/s.


            Before leaving the maker’s works the heater shall be tested to 1½ times
            the working pressure or to 700kPa whichever is the greater.

            (c)     Electric Type


            Electric air heaters shall consist of a number of heating elements of the
            enclosed non corrodible type mounted in a sheet steel casing. The
            elements shall be so installed that they can be removed for cleaning or
            renewal without dismantling ductwork. The surface temperature of the




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 23
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             elements shall not exceed 150°C. A high temperature limit device with
             hand reset button shall be incorporated.


             Each element shall be complete with a second set of terminals to
             operate a failure warning light.


             The control of electric air heaters, shall be interlocked with an air flow
             control of the vane or pressure type which shall isolate the heating
             elements from the electricity supply in the event of failure of air flow.


             The heater shall be arranged with elements of the same number, or a
             multiple of the number, of steps as the control required. All heaters and
             heater sections of more than 3kW loading shall be balanced over three
             phases and the complete heater bank shall be arranged for balanced
             operation on a 3-phase 4-wire system and be stepped by the controller
             in 3 kW stages, unless otherwise indicated.


             Below 3 kW the stepped loadings shall be in 1kW increments.
             The connections from each element shall be taken to a readily
             accessible terminal box arranged for conduit entry. Each heater section
             shall be separately fused and the neutral point of all 3-phase star-
             connections sections shall be brought out to a link in the terminal box.
             Near any hot areas the wiring insulation shall be of appropriate quality.


             The total resistance of the heater to air flow shall not exceed 25 Pa and
             the velocity through the free area shall not exceed 6m/s.


             The installation of electric heater batteries shall comply in all respects
             with the requirements of the local Fire Authority and wiring in
             accordance with the 16th Edition of the IEE Regulations.

2.2.4.4.    Air Filters

             (a)   General


             Filters shall operate to at least the efficiencies specified in this Section.
             They shall be complete with holding frames sufficiently robust to ensure
             that no distortion occurs in operation. All filters shall be installed with
             edge seals which shall prevent air bypassing the filters. The seals shall


AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 24
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            remain effective even though the cells are periodically removed and
            refitted. Filters shall be arranged so that there is easy access for
            cleaning and/or removal and refitting. A differential pressure gauge of
            the inclined manometer type shall be provided for each filter bank and
            the gauge shall be fixed in such a position outside the casing that it is
            accessible and easily read.


            Where indicated, variable ranges pressure switches shall be installed at
            each filter bank to provide remote indication when a filter requires
            servicing. One set of spare filter media shall be provided including a
            servicing rack where applicable. A differential pressure gauge of the dial
            or inclined manometer type shall be provided for each filter bank and
            shall be fixed in such a position outside the duct system that it is
            accessible and easily read. The gauge shall be marked to show
            maximum pressure differential indicating a filter change requirement. Air
            velocity through filters shall be such that the clean resistance (or
            operating resistance of automatic filters) as indicated is not exceeded
            and that filter fabric or oil is not carried over into the system.


            Filter assemblies shall be of a standard type and dimensions and shall
            be such that replacement filter medium is readily available from a
            number of manufactures.


            The Contractor shall provide to the contract one spare set of filter
            media, that he shall hand to the Engineer upon completion of the
            Contract.

            (b)   Fire Precautions


            Where a flameproof filter medium is specified the material shall comply
            with the following requirements when tested in accordance with the
            relevant standard.


            (i) Duration of flaming


            No test specimen shall continue to flame for more than 8 seconds after
            the igniting flame has been removed.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 25
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (ii) Extent of after-glow


            After-glow shall not spread beyond the area of material damaged by
            flaming.


            (iii) Length of material which chars or melts


            The average length of material which chars or melts on the six
            specimens shall not exceed 85mm and the maximum length of the
            charred or melted material in any one specimen shall not exceed
            115mm.


            Where washable type flameproof filters are offered or specified the filter
            medium shall comply with the requirements above both before and after
            the washing treatment prescribed in the appropriate standard.


            Where the filter medium is required to be flameproof and the filter is built
            into sheet metal ducting, the ducting shall be not less than 1.6mm thick
            for at least 1.8m upstream and 1.8m downstream of the filter; the
            immediate frames or cases of the filter elements shall be of material
            complying with BS 476: Part 1, clause 7, Class 1.


            For viscous types of filter the liquid shall have a flash point not less than
            180°C.

            (c)   Dry Replacement Media Type Filters


            The air velocity at the face of the filter shall not exceed 3.0m/s. Filters of
            this type shall have an efficiency of not less than 90% based on the
            tests specified in ASHRAE 52-76 Dust Spot efficiency of Eurovent 4/5.

            (d)   Open Cell Plastics Type Filters


            The filter medium shall be processed open cell foamed plastics and
            shall be washable. The element shall be supported on plastics coated
            steel wire formers with a metal frame. The face velocity shall not exceed
            2.25m/s. Filters of this type shall have an efficiency of not less than 90%
            based on the tests specified in BS EN 779.



AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 26
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (e)    Viscous Unit Type Filters


            The design and construction shall be such that it is impossible to see
            any light through the filter cell initially and after the filter has shaken
            down during use. The face velocity shall not exceed 2.25m/s. Filters of
            this type shall have an efficiency of not less than 90% based on the
            tests specified in BS EN 779.


            Sufficient oil shall be supplied for initial operation plus one complete
            recharge. Any equipment or tools required for cleaning or recharge shall
            be provided at a convenient location adjacent to the unit. Instructions for
            the cleaning of the filter shall be mounted in a permanent manner
            adjacent to the filter bank.



            (f)    Automatic Viscous Type Filters


            The filter shall comprise the complete equipment including motor, drive
            and viscous fluid tank. There shall be easy access to the tank containing
            the fluid. Tools and containers required for the removal of sludge shall
            be provided.


            The face velocity shall not exceed 2.5m/s and the operating resistance
            shall not exceed 125Pa. Filters of this type shall have an efficiency of
            not less than 90% based on the test specified in BS EN 779.


            The rate of the drive shall be set at the factory to give the required
            filtration at the operating resistance. The rate of drive shall be slow
            enough or the filter shall incorporate shielding devices, to ensure
            thorough draining from the freshly wetted surfaces, and no carry-over of
            oil.


            The unit shall be supplied complete with a replacement change of
            viscous fluid.

            (g)    Automatic Fabric Roll Type Filters




AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 27
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            The filter shall comprise the complete assembly of filter frame, motor
            and drive and filter medium. The filter shall operate automatically, with
            provision for manual starting and stopping of filter movement; unless
            otherwise indicated automatic filter movement shall be controlled by the
            resistance across the filter. Provision shall be made for visual warning
            that the end of the clean filter medium is approaching. The driving motor
            shall be automatically switched off when the end of the filter medium is
            reached.


            Unless otherwise indicated the resistance of the filter shall not exceed
            125Pa under normal operating conditions; the air velocity through the
            filter medium shall not exceed 2.5m/s. Filters of this type shall have an
            efficiency of 95% based on the tests specified in BS EN 779. Where the
            motor and/or gearbox is mounted in the air stream the electrical
            insulation and/or lubricants shall be suitable for the temperature range
            of the system.

            (h)   Electrostatic Type Filters


            The filter shall include a baffle or mesh to ensure even air flow, an
            ionizer section, a collecting section, frames to hold the main sections
            and capable of being built into a filter bank, and complete with automatic
            washing plant. Where indicated the washing plant shall include the
            pump to provide the pressure at the washing nozzles, the hot water
            storage cylinder and the necessary pipework, fittings and valves. Where
            the filter is built into sheet metal ducting the enclosing ducting shall be
            watertight and two watertight access doors with glazed portions for
            inspection purposes, two bulkhead light fittings and a drain connection
            shall be provided. Where the filter is built into a builder’s work enclosure
            the doors and light fittings shall be provided by the Contractor and
            handed to the Main Contractor for building-in. The electrical control
            panel shall include all necessary rectifier and transformer equipment,
            circuit-breakers, a milliameter, washing control panel and a light to
            indicate that power is on and a device to prevent the panel being
            opened when the power is on. An interlock shall be provided to prevent
            wash down while the filter is energised. Access to high voltage areas at
            filters shall be protected by safety interlocks including the discharge to
            earth of HT equipment. Adjacent to all access doors there shall be clear



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 28
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            indication of the danger of high voltage. On the larger models platforms
            and ladders shall be provided for access to the valves, spray nozzles
            and the travelling mechanism of the washing plant.


            Spare spray nozzles shall be provided to replace 10% of the total
            installed. Sufficient spare ionizer wires shall be provided to replace 50%
            of the total.


            The filter shall have an efficiency of not less than 90% based on the
            tests specified in BS EN 779.


            All wiring between the filter control panel and the filter cells shall be
            carried out by the filter manufacturer.

            (i)   Inertial Separation Filters


            Inertial separation filters shall be constructed from precision formed cells
            of pressed and continuously welded construction, the cells being
            incorporated into a main duct or transition housing. The cells shall be
            manufactured from Corten steel or other such steel that is resistant to
            corrosion and erosion.


            The cells shall be arranged so that 90%of the air entering will leave by
            the clean side, the remaining 10% of the air will pass through bleed slots
            located at the far end of the unit. The bleed air shall convey the dirt
            particles into a collection box from which these particles will be drawn
            away from the filter by an axial fan forming an integral part of the inertial
            separator.


            The duty of the fan will be such that the dirt particles will be conveyed
            from the filter and deposited as indicated.




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 29
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


2.2.5.      Terminal Units

2.5.5.1.    Fan Coil Units

              (a)     General


              Fans, filters, cooling coils, heating coils, motors and thermal and
              acoustic insulation shall comply with the appropriate Sections of this
              Specification, with the following exceptions or alternatives:


                 i.     Fans may be of the forward curved centrifugal type and may be
                        of aluminium, reinforced glass fibre or rigid plastic material.


                ii.     Air Filters may be of nylon fibre, glass fibre or cellular plastics
                        material and shall have a minimum efficiency of 60% when
                        tested in accordance with BS EN 779.


               iii.     Motors shall be quiet running and shall have sleeve bearings
                        either factory lubricated for life or with large oil reservoirs to
                        minimise servicing. Motor windings and electrical components
                        shall be impregnated or protected to avoid trouble from
                        condensation.

              (b)     Casings


              Casings shall be of sheet steel not thinner than 1.2mm and shall be
              protected against corrosion and finished inside and outside with stoved
              primer.


              All corners shall be rounded. Casings shall include space for pipework
              connections and valves, and there shall be ready access to the fan and
              motor, the filter, the damper, the drain pan, and pipework connections
              and valves.

              (c)     Components


              Fans shall be of the centrifugal type. Cooling and heating coils shall be
              at least two-row and shall include an air cock. All units shall include an
              easily removable and replaceable air filter capable of treating the total



AJC 05/07                                                 Section 2.2. / 30
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            air volume. Drain pans shall be either of sheet steel protected against
            corrosion or of plastic or reinforced glass fibre material and shall be
            arranged, and insulated where necessary, so as to ensure that no
            condensation is formed on the underside. Drain pans shall be large
            enough to collect all condensate from the coil, return bends and
            pipework connections and where indicated the valve pack; they shall be
            removable and shall have a slight fall to the drain connection.

            (d)   Arrangement of Units


            The arrangement of units, i.e. whether they be wall, floor or ceiling
            mounted, the position of inlet and outlet grilles if any, the need for sheet
            metal casing etc, shall be as indicated.


            Where units are concealed, the Contractor shall ensure that adequate
            access is provided for the removal of a complete unit.

            (e)   Controls, Dampers and Grilles


            Fan coil units shall have a control giving at least two running speeds
            and an ‘OFF’ position. They shall have connections for both fresh and
            recirculated air and if required shall include a damper which shall be
            adjustable to give up to 25% fresh air. Outlet grilles shall be adjustable
            to enable the direction of airflow to reset. On floor mounted units, supply
            grilles shall be on the top of the unit.

            (f)   Noise Levels


            Casings shall be lined with material to act as both thermal and acoustic
            insulation (in accordance with sections 2.8 of this Specification). Fan
            and motor assemblies shall be complete with anti-vibration mountings.


            Noise data shall be provided and shall be based on tests in accordance
            with the Standard Test Code, or similar tests; full details of the testing
            technique and procedure shall be given by the Contractor. The data
            given shall include an octave band analysis of the sound power level of
            the unit.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 31
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


2.2.6.      Refrigeration Plant

2.2.6.1.    Reciprocating Chillers

              (a)   General Requirements


              This section deals with mechanical refrigeration plant and ancillaries for
              vapour compression refrigeration plant using halogen hydrocarbon
              refrigerants.


              All items of plant whether supplied separately or as a factory assembled
              package unit shall comply with the following sub-section unless
              superseded by the Particular Specification. Evaporators and Water
              Cooled Condensers shall be constructed to comply with BS 5500.


              The rating of al air to liquid chilling packages having a nominal cooling
              capacity above 7kW shall be tested for rating and performance in
              accordance with BS EN 14511.


              The refrigerant plant shall include compressor(s), evaporator(s) and
              condenser(s) all as indicated to suit the application for the work, the
              items shall be correctly matched to ensure satisfactory operation. The
              heat rejected at the condenser under maximum design conditions shall
              include the design heat load absorbed at the evaporator, the heat
              equivalent of the work done by the compressor and any other heat gains
              of the system.


              A full charge of refrigerant and lubricating oil shall be supplied together
              with all items necessary for the satisfactory functioning of the system.


              Complete control and instrumentation equipment including safety
              devices shall be included.


              Where a BMS system is specified for the project all refrigerant plant and
              equipment shall be suitable via the various controls, to be compatible
              with and controlled by the BMS systems.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 32
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Packaged assemblies shall be resiliently mounted on a combined base
            plate and tubular framework requiring only the external water and
            electrical connections to be made on site.


            Complete data of plant operation and maintenance is to be made
            available to the Engineer together with a Schedule of Spare Parts and
            Repair Information at least four weeks before the issue of a practical
            completion certificate.

            (b)   Compressors


            Hermetic     sealed   motor     compressors    may      be   used   with   the
            manufacturer’s standard equipment where they are supplied, as an
            entire refrigeration system and shall be completed at the Factory.


            Semi-hermetic and open type compressors shall be suitable for the type
            of    refrigerant   specified   in   the   Particular    Specification,    and
            environmentally friendly.


            To comply with present day requirements, the refrigerant gas to be used
            in all compressors (unless circumstances dictate otherwise) shall be
            R134a.


            All compressors shall be driven by electric motors and may be of the
            reciprocating, centrifugal or screw type. Speed shall be such that the
            noise is kept to a reasonably low level consistent with the application
            and location of the machines. The complete compressor unit shall be
            mounted on an anti-vibration base reducing transmissibility from
            compressor to structure to below 10% of the untreated vibration rate.
            The Contractor shall supply all necessary foundation bolts.


            When one compressor is specified it shall be designed for the maximum
            cooling load; where two or more compressors are required the
            maximum cooling duty of the refrigeration unit shall be divided equally
            between the number of compressors.


            Lubrication shall be automatically arranged to suit either frequent
            starting of the compressor (under thermostatic control), or where



AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 33
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            compressors are required to run for prolonged periods without
            inspection. An oil separator shall be fitted to the compressor discharge
            line and shall be of the float and needle valve type and shall have an
            automatic return to the compressor crank case. Crank case oil heaters
            shall be provided and shall operate when the compressor is shut down.


            Semi-hermetic compressors shall include the following features:-


               i.   All parts of the electric motor shall be suitable for contact with
                    refrigerants and the associated lubricating oils, additional motor
                    protection shall be provided against failure or partial failure of the
                    gas cooling system. All valves on the refrigerant circuits shall be
                    located in a readily accessible position and shall be provided
                    with seal caps.


              ii.   A rotary mechanical seal shall prevent loss of refrigerant at the
                    driving shaft and the seal shall be effective for both long
                    operating periods and short rest periods without leakage.


            Open compressors shall include or be suitable for the following:-


               i.   Either direct drive of belt drive as indicated.


              ii.   Compressor shall be dynamically balanced to minimise noise
                    and vibration from internal rotating parts.


             iii.   Isolating valves shall be open into recessed guides to keep
                    operating sounds to a minimum.


             iv.    Constructed to have low pressure drops to maximise efficiency.


            All compressors of duty in excess of 35kW cooling capacity shall
            incorporate capacity control and shall start unloaded. Hot gas by-pass
            capacity control shall not be used unless specifically indicated.


            Where low pressure cut outs are specified they shall be used to control
            the operation of the compressor, in which case the low pressure cut-out
            shall be the self restoring type with adjustable working differential.



AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 34
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Liquid receivers shall be complete with inlet and outlet service valves,
            and a liquid sight glass be mounted vertically in the liquid line with
            integral filter.


            Means shall be provided for oil to return to the crank case from the
            suction gas header and for refrigerant gas (but not oil) to return to the
            suction manifold from the crank case. Crank case oil heaters shall be
            provided and shall operate when the compressor is shut down. An oil
            pressure relief valve or a bleed from the oil pump discharge back to the
            crank case shall be provided.


            Suction gas entry to the compressor shall be designed to reduce gas
            velocity so as to assist in releasing any entrained oil or dirt. Suction gas
            strainers shall be fitted. The following fittings shall be provided for all
            types of compressor:-


                a) Suction and discharge stop valves.


                b) Suction and discharge refrigerant gas pressure gauges with
                     means of isolation.


                c) Oil pressure gauge.


                d) Oil sight glass.


                e) High and low pressure adjustable safety controls.


                f) Semi-hermetic compressors shall include the following features:


                        i.     The oil pump shall operate equally well under either
                               direction of rotation.


                       ii.     Where the motor rotor is overhung a support bearing of
                               adequate width shall be provided.


                       iii.    Additional motor rotor protection shall be provided
                               against failure or partial failure of the gas cooling system.




AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 35
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Compressors shall not be connected to run in parallel (i.e. with common
            discharge and/or suction lines). Where, to increase availability, it is
            required that any compressor shall be capable working with any
            condenser or evaporator, cross connections shall be provided and all
            major plant items shall be valved for isolation.

            (c)   Evaporators


            Evaporators shall be designed in accordance with BS 5500 and the
            current standard practice, being suitable for direct expansion, chilled
            water or brine as required.


            Evaporators for water chilling installations unless otherwise indicated
            shall be of the shell and tube heat exchanger type. The evaporator shell,
            tube plates and end covers shall be of steel or cast iron; the tubes shall
            be of copper and may be of extended surface piping. The end covers
            shall be removable and the plant shall be arranged so that there is
            adequate space for cleaning and removal of the tubes. Isolating valves
            and flow and return connections shall be provided.


            Evaporators may be either the flooded type or the dry expansion type.


            The flow of refrigerant to dry expansion type evaporators shall be
            controlled by a thermostatic expansion valve(s); the flow of refrigerant to
            flooded type evaporators may be controlled by either a float device or a
            thermostatic expansion valve. In dry expansion type evaporators the
            velocity of refrigerant and the design of the refrigerant passages shall
            ensure that any oil present is carried over to the compressor. In flooded
            type evaporator to the compressor. Unless otherwise indicated the
            design evaporating temperature for direct expansion air coolers and for
            dry expansion shell and tube water chillers shall not be less than -1°C;
            for flooded evaporators it shall be not less than +1°C.


            A thermostatic expansion valve shall maintain the design degree of
            superheat at the evaporator outlet; the remote sensing bulb shall be
            securely fixed to the evaporator outlet piping in a position where the
            degree of superheat can be correctly sensed. Thermostatic expansion
            valves shall incorporate an external equaliser line.



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 36
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.6.2.    Condensers

             (a)   Air Cooled Condensers


             Condensers shall have copper tubes with aluminium fins or copper fins,
             where indicated; and for installations handling saline air they shall have
             copper tubes with copper fins. Condensers with fins which have been
             badly damaged during transport or erection or which have become
             choked or coated with builders’ materials will not be accepted. Minor
             irregularities in the fins shall be combed straight.


             Where air-cooled condensers are sited within a building and serve a
             compressor larger than 2.25kW the air outlet shall be ducted to the
             external air; condenser fan shall be capable of overcoming the extra
             resistance of this ducting. The condenser frame, supports and enclosure
             shall be of galvanised steel. For saline, sand laden or corrosive
             atmospheres extra protective finishes shall be included by the
             Contractor and agreed with the Engineer.


             Where    air-cooled    condensers     are    mounted     outside   buildings,
             weatherproof motors must be provided and the condenser enclosure
             shall be designed to protect the fan, motor, drive and finned coils from
             the weather, including solar radiation. Externally mounted condensers
             shall discharge air vertically upwards unless they are protected by an
             integral wind deflection shield or a purpose-made builders work baffle.


             Where an air-cooled condenser will have to operate under conditions of
             much lower air temperatures than the design maximum (e.g. UK winter
             as compared with UK summer) a means of maintaining condenser
             pressure shall be incorporated. This may be achieved by modulation of
             the outlet dampers and/or by-pass dampers by condenser flooding or by
             fan volume control. Where there are three or more condenser fans,
             control may be effected by sequencing of these fans. Where modulation
             of the outlet damper only is used the fan motor shall be of adequate size
             to deal with the minimum extra load and shall in any case be switched
             off by the dampers when they are closed. Fans shall comply with the
             relevant Section of the Specification.




AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 37
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Evaporate condensers shall have their refrigeration coils tested to the
            same pressures as air-cooled condensers.


            The condenser coils shall be copper or steel galvanised after
            manufacture; they shall not be finned. The fan arrangement may be
            either forced or induced draught and fans shall be of the centrifugal type
            complying with the relevant Section of the Specification. Fans
            manufactured from steel shall be galvanised after manufacture and
            where mounted externally the motors shall be weatherproof.


            Each evaporative condenser shall include:-


               a) water circulating pump


               b) strainer on pump suction


               c) tank with make-up connections, ball-valve, overflow and drain


               d) water distribution system


               e) water eliminator section


            The evaporative condenser tank, water distribution system, eliminator
            section, the casing and the framework shall be of steel galvanised after
            manufacture or of non-corrodible material; in addition all external
            surfaces shall be painted and the tank interior shall be painted with
            bitumastic or other corrosion-resistant paint. Measures shall be taken to
            prevent electro-chemical corrosion at junctions between dissimilar
            metals.


            Evaporative condenser coils shall be fitted so that they can be
            withdrawn. There shall be access to the fan bearings, the fan motor, the
            pump and motor, the strainer and ball valve.


            Where evaporative condensers have to operate under conditions of
            much lower external air temperatures than the design maximum a
            means of maintaining condensing pressure shall be incorporated. This
            may be achieved by modulation of air inlet and air outlet dampers or by



AJC 05/07                                           Section 2.2. / 38
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            intermittent or variable speed operation of the fan(s). Where modulation
            dampers are used fans shall be arranged to stop when the dampers are
            fully closed.


            Evaporative condensers shall include a drain line with a needle valve or
            other metering device for blowdown purposes. These shall be fitted on
            the pipeline from the pump delivery to the water distributor. The line
            shall be run to drain and provision shall be made so that initial setting of
            the metering valve can be carried out.

            (b)   Water Cooled Condensers


            Shell and tube condensers shall have their shells and refrigerant spaces
            tested to the pressures as for air cooled condensers. Tubes and water
            side spaces shall be tested to 700 kPa or 1½ times the working
            pressure, whichever is the greater. Condenser tubes shall be of copper
            and may be finned. Tube plates shall be of steel or bronze, shells shall
            be of steel and end covers shall be either cast iron or steel. For use with
            sea water and aggressive waters special non-ferrous alloys must be
            used for tubes and tube plates.


            Shell and tube condensers shall have removable end covers and there
            shall be adequate access to remove and clean the tubes. Pipework shall
            be arranged to allow a minimum of dismantling in order to achieve
            access to the tubes. Means of venting and draining the side water shall
            be provided. Inlet and outlet valves shall be provided on both water and
            refrigerant circuits.


            Shell and tube condensers shall perform the required duty under the
            given conditions or condenser water supply quantity and flow and return
            temperatures. For systems having a cooling capacity in excess of 70kW,
            and smaller where indicated, the temperature of the water leaving the
            condenser shall be maintained constant irrespective of the temperature
            of the entering cooling water. Such control shall be by means of a
            thermostat in the condenser water return pipework, acting upon a three-
            way valve or a device sensitive to condenser refrigerant pressure.




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 39
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


2.2.7.      Refrigeration Plant Accessories


              Every refrigerating system shall be protected by a pressure relief device.


              Each system with an air-cooled or evaporative condenser shall have a
              liquid receiver complete with two stop valves, a sight glass, charging
              connection and a purge valve. Relief valves shall be fitted on liquid
              receivers and water condensers for plant larger than 17.5 kW cooling
              capacity. Liquid receivers on plant smaller than 17.5 kW cooling
              capacity may, alternatively, have a fusible plug.


              Water-cooled condensers on systems larger than 17.5 kW cooling
              capacity shall have a liquid receiver capable of holding a complete
              charge. Either the water cooled condenser or the associated liquid
              receiver shall have a purge valve. A capped valved connection shall be
              provided for refrigerant charging.


              All major items of plant shall be dried at the factory and filled with a
              holding charge of refrigerant or inert gas; all openings shall be sealed.
              During erection care shall be taken to prevent the entry of moisture. A
              dehydrator shall be fitted in the refrigerant pipework.


              In addition to the suction gas and lubricating oil strainers fitted to the
              compressor, a liquid line strainer shall be fitted to protect the expansion
              valve or float valve; any pressure regulating device fitted in the suction
              line shall also be protected by a strainer. Where an evaporator pressure
              regulating device is fitted, an additional gauge indicating evaporator
              pressure shall be provided, complete with means of isolation.


              Each compressor of more than 10 kW cooling capacity shall have a
              discharge gas silencer.


              In dry expansion type systems the liquid leaving the condenser shall be
              sub-cooled and the refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator shall be
              super-heated. For compressors greater than 200kW cooling capacity
              this shall be achieved by means of a purpose made heat exchanger.




AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 40
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


2.2.8.      Pressurisation Equipment

2.2.8.1.    General


             An artificial head shall be maintained on the chilled water system by
             means of a pressurisation unit of the type as described under the
             heating section of the Specification. (Clause 2.2.2.)


             In the installation of the equipment the following publications shall be
             taken into consideration:-


                 a) Guidance note PM5 (Part C) from the Health and Safety
                      Executive, entitled “Automatically Controlled Steam & Hot Water
                      Boilers”.


                 b) Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999.


                 c) Department of the Environment, Standard Specification M&E
                      No.3.


             The reference to steam and hot water boilers in the above publications
             shall be deemed to refer to refrigeration plant and chilled water systems
             for this section.


             The type and/or use of nitrogen pressurisation equipment will be
             dependant upon the capacity of the chilled water system, and the
             construction     of   the   equipment   shall   be   in   accordance   with
             manufacturers standard details and the following British Standards:-




                       a) Spillage tank               BS 417 Part 2
                       b) Flanges                     BS EN 1092 - 2
                       c) Pressure vessels            BS EN 286
                       d) Bronze valves               BS 5154
                       e) Cl valves                   BS EN 1171 & BS EN 12334
                       f) Ball valves                 BS 1010, Part 2
                       g) Electrics                   Current IEE Regs
                       h) Remaining Items             BS as applicable



AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 41
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             An electrical isolator shall be installed adjacent to each unit.


             A low-pressure switch shall be fitted and set for connecting to interlock
             the chiller. A high-pressure switch shall also be fitted, which shall be
             connected in series with the low-pressure switch.


             The system valve on the unit shall be connected to the return header
             (chiller inlet).

2.2.8.2.    Alarm Facilities


             Additional warning devices shall be provided which shall operate on
             high-pressure and low water level conditions in the unit cylinder, in
             addition to operating as standard on low-pressure conditions.


             An additional low water level lock-out control so arranged that when
             extra low water level conditions arise, the warning system operates and
             must be reset manually. This low water level switch shall be installed in
             the spill tank, set to open the pump circuit at approximately 100mm
             above the suction pump. In the event of low water in the system,
             indication shall be shown at the chiller control panel.


             The chiller safety valve setting shall be set at 1.5 bar above the
             maximum working pressure of the pressurising unit.

2.2.8.3.    Controls


             Interlocking pressure switches shall be provided and connected to the
             appropriate terminals on the control panel, which will prevent the chiller
             from starting until the correct operating pressure has been reached.


             Duty and standby pressure pumps shall be provided, arranged for
             automatic change over.


             Solenoid pressure relief       valves, safety valves and any other
             components for a satisfactory and safe working unit shall also be
             provided.


             All controls shall be arranged to fail safe.


AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 42
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.8.4.    Testing and Commissioning


              The Contractor shall include for full tests to be carried out at the
              manufacturers factory and include for a further test at site prior to
              commissioning with notice given for the test to be witnessed by the
              Engineer.


              The Contractor shall include for commissioning of the pressurisation
              unit(s).

2.2.9.      Pipework, Valves, And Ancillaries


              All refrigerant pipework and all necessary fittings and ancillaries shall be
              supplied for the complete erection of the plant(s) at site.


              Pipework for refrigerant circuits shall be of refrigeration quality copper
              tube. Joints shall be flanged, brazed, welded or made with soldered
              capillary fittings. Pipelines shall be firmly secured and measures shall be
              taken to prevent vibration weakening joints and connections. In
              particular, the suction and delivery pipes from the compressor shall
              incorporate an adequate length of armoured flexible pipework, which
              shall be capable of withstanding the prescribed test pressures.


              After erection, the whole of the refrigeration pipework shall be
              pressurised and tested for leaks.


              Pipework shall be designed and run so that any oil in the compressor
              discharge refrigerant which passes through the oil separator (where
              fitted) is carried through the system and returned to the crankcase. At
              any point where a large quantity of oil may accumulate an oil separator
              and a means of returning the oil to the compressor crankcase shall be
              provided.


              All necessary suction, delivery, liquid, gauge and charging valves shall
              be provided so that all major portions of the system may be isolated for
              maintenance. In particular the refrigerant circuit shall be arranged so
              that any thermostatic expansion valve may be removed without the
              necessity of ‘pumping-down’ the system.



AJC 05/07                                               Section 2.2. / 43
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS



             Valves required for compressors, liquid receivers etc, shall be of either
             diaphragm or bellows type or be packed valves complete with a back
             seating and a seal cap suitable for use on refrigeration systems.


             The liquid refrigerant regulating valves shall be of the thermostatic
             expansion type preferably multi-outlet with pressure distribution and
             shall be provided with thermal elements of the ‘liquid charged’ type and
             a removable fine wire-mesh liquid strainer.


             Magnetic liquid valves shall be installed in the liquid line before the
             expansion valves. The magnetic valves shall be provided with manual
             lifting device or alternatively a valved by-pass.


             Compressors shall not be connected to run in parallel unless specified
             in the Particular Specification or as indicated on the drawings, in which
             case all major plant items that are cross-connected shall be valved for
             isolation.


             When the refrigeration plant includes buffer tanks to provide a storage of
             chilled water or brine, the temperature of the liquid is to be maintained
             and controlled by capillary tube immersion type thermostats. Thin walled
             stainless steel phial pockets are to be fixed securely in the tank to
             receive the phial and isolate it from the contents of the tank, at both the
             upper and lower part of the tank(s).

2.2.10.     Insulation


             Generally the requirements of the Section 2.8. - ‘Thermal Insulation’
             shall apply.


             Refrigerant discharge and liquid lines need not normally be insulated,
             but where exposure to solar radiation is likely they shall be shielded or
             insulated with a 12mm thickness of a material having a thermal
             conductivity of less than 0.04 W/m°C and weatherproofed with a
             material having a reflective or light coloured finish.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 44
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             The suction line from the evaporator to the compressor shall be
             insulated with a material having a thermal conductivity of less than 0.04
             W/m°C and at least 12mm thick for pipes of up to 76mm diameter and
             19mm thick for pipes of 108mm diameter and above. This insulation
             shall be protected by a vapour barrier which shall not be broken
             between joints of sectional material or at discontinuities at valves or
             brackets.


             Shell and tube evaporators shall be insulated with at least a 25mm
             thickness of materials having a thermal conductivity of less than
             0.04W/m°C. This material shall be protected by a vapour barrier and
             further protected by a painted sheet metal casing. The insulation and
             protection shall be so arranged that the end covers can be removed
             without damage to the insulation.

2.2.11.     Controls


             A solenoid valve shall be fitted in the liquid line to each evaporator,
             except high pressure float controlled flooded evaporators, to prevent the
             flow of liquid refrigerant to the evaporator when the compressor is not
             running.


             Each compressor of 35kW cooling capacity and above shall be provided
             with an oil pressure failure control.


             Where the stopping of a compressor of more than 35kW cooling
             capacity (or less where indicated) is not controlled by suction pressure
             i.e. it is controlled by air or water temperature criteria, and the
             evaporator is at a higher level than the compressor, a pump-down cycle
             shall be incorporated. The control signal shall initially close the liquid
             line solenoid valve and the compressor shall then pump down to a pre-
             determined suction pressure.


             For each shell and tube evaporator a flow switch shall be fitted in the
             chilled water pipeline. The flow switch shall prevent the compressor(s)
             starting unless the chilled water is flowing and shall stop the
             compressor(s) if the flow falls below a safe minimum. Additionally a
             chilled water low temperature limit thermostat shall be provided and



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 45
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             shall stop the compressor(s) if the leaving water temperature drops
             below a set value. The flow switch and the thermostat shall each be
             connected in a separate circuit independent of all other control circuits;
             they shall not be wired in series.

2.2.12.     Rotary Screw Liquid Chillers

             (a)   General


             This section deals with mechanical refrigeration plant and auxiliaries
             with compressors operating on the screw principle and using halogen
             hydrocarbon refrigerants.


             All items of plant whether supplied separately or as a factory assembled
             package unit shall comply with the following sub-sections unless
             superseded by the Particular Specification. Evaporators and water
             cooled condensers shall comply with BS 5500 and the whole machine
             shall perform and be certified in accordance with ARI Standard 550-90.


             The refrigeration plant shall include an open drive rotary screw type
             compressor, evaporator and condenser(s) all as indicated to suit the
             application for the work; the items shall be correctly matched to ensure
             satisfactory operation. The heat rejected at the condenser under the
             maximum design conditions shall include the design heat load absorbed
             at the evaporator, the heat equivalent of the work done by the rotary
             screw compressor and any other heat gain from the system.


             A full charge of refrigerant and lubricating oil shall be supplied together
             with all items necessary for the satisfactory functioning of the system.


             Complete control and instrumentation equipment including safety
             devices shall be included.


             Where a BMS system is specified for the project all refrigeration plant
             and equipment shall be suitable via the various controls to be
             compatible with and controlled by the BMS system.




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 46
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Packaged assemblies shall be resiliently mounted on a combined base
            plate and suitable framework, requiring only the external water and
            electrical connections to be made on site.


            Complete data of plant operation and maintenance is to be made
            available to the Engineer together with a schedule of spare parts and
            repair information at least four weeks before the issue of a practical
            completion certificate.


            The duty, chilled water temperatures and other pertinent data is given in
            the Particular Specification.


            To comply with the present day requirements the refrigerant gas
            preferred in all compressors will be R66 or equivalent.


            All exterior surfaces shall be protected with a high quality coat of durably
            alkyd modified vinyl enamel machinery paint.

            (b)   Compressor


            The compressor shall be an open-drive, rotary twin-screw type. The
            compressor housing shall be of cast iron, precision machined to provide
            minimal clearance for the rotors. The rotors shall be manufactured from
            forged steel and use asymmetrical profiles operating at a maximum
            speed of 2975 at rpm at 50 Hz. The compressor shall incorporate a
            complete anti-friction bearing designed to reduce power and increase
            reliability; four separate cylindrical roller bearings to handle radial loads
            and two 4-point angular contact ball bearings to handle axial loads. The
            compressor shall have an integral oil reservoir to assure a constant
            supply of oil to the bearings at all times. A spring actuated positive
            seating check valve shall be incorporated into the compressor housing
            to prevent rotor backspin during shutdown. The shaft seal shall be a
            spring loaded carbon ring with precision capped collar cooled by low
            pressure oil.


            Capacity control shall be achieved by the use of a slide valve to provide
            fully modulating control from 100% down to 10% of full load. The slide
            valve shall be actuated by oil pressure, controlled by external solenoid



AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 47
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            valves through the micro computer control centre. The unit shall be
            capable of operating with lower temperature cooling tower water during
            part-load operation in accordance with ARI Standard 550-90. If the unit
            cannot operate at the minimum load the manufacturer shall provide a
            hot-gas-bypass system to allow operation at 10% load, and advise the
            minimum load and power input of the unit at the point hot-gas-bypass is
            actuated.

            (c)   Lubrication System


            An adequate supply of oil shall be available to the compressor at all
            times. During start-up and run-down, this shall be achieved by oil
            reservoirs in the compressor, or by prelube and postlube oil pump
            operation. During operation, oil shall be delivered by positive system
            pressure differential or full time operation of an oil pump. An oil reservoir
            shall be located in the compressor to lubricate bearings in the case of a
            power failure.


            An immersion oil heater shall be provided, temperature actuated, to
            effectively remove refrigerant from the oil. An external, replaceable
            cartridge, oil filter shall be provided along with manual isolation stop
            valves for ease of servicing. An oil eductor shall be provided to
            automatically remove oil which may have migrated to the evaporator
            and return it to the compressor. The oil separator shall be of a horizontal
            design with no moving parts, and shall provide effective oil separation
            before the refrigerant enters the heat exchangers. A refrigerant cooled
            oil cooler shall be provided to allow operation of the chiller over the full
            range of operating conditions.

            (d)   Compressor Motor Drive


            The motor shall be 2-pole, continuous duty, squirrel cage induction type,
            and shall have an open drip-proof enclosure. Motor full-load amperes at
            design conditions shall not exceed motor nameplate (FLA). Motor shall
            be designed for use with the type starter specified. Motor shall be
            factory mounted and directly connected to the compressor to provide
            compressor/motor alignment. Coupling shall have an all metal




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 48
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            construction with no wearing parts to assure long life, and no lubrication
            requirements to provide low maintenance.


            For units utilising remote electro-mechanical starters, a large 14 gauge
            (minimum) steel terminal box with gasketted front access cover shall be
            provided for field connected wiring. There are six terminals (three for
            high voltage) brought through the motor casing into the terminal box.
            Jumpers shall be furnished for three lead types of starting.
            Overload/overcurrent transformers shall be furnished with all units.

            (e)   Evaporators


            Evaporators shall be of the shell-and-tube, flooded type designed for 20
            bar working pressure on the refrigerant side and be tested at 30 bar.
            Shell shall be fabricated from rolled carbon steel plate with fusion
            welded seams, have carbon steel tube sheets, drilled and rearmed to
            accommodate the tubes, and intermediate tube supports spaced no
            more than 1300mm apart. The refrigerant side shall be designed, tested
            and stamped in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
            Code, Section V111-Divsision1. Tubes shall be high-efficiency,
            internally enhanced type. Each tube shall be roller expanded into the
            tube sheets providing a leak-proof seal and be individually replaceable.
            Water velocity through the tubes shall not exceed 3.5 m/s. Liquid level
            sight glasses shall be located on the side of the shell to aid in
            determining proper refrigerant charge. The evaporator shall have a
            refrigerant relief device to meet the requirements of the ASHRAE 15
            Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration.


            Water boxes shall be removable to permit tube cleaning and
            replacement. Outlet water connections flanged to the appropriate BS
            flange table shall be provided. Water boxes shall be designed for 10 bar
            working pressure and be tested at 15 bar. Vent and drain connections
            with plugs shall be provided on each water box.


            During transit from factory to site a protective covering shall be
            furnished to the motor control centre and unit mounted controls. Water
            nozzles shall be capped with fitted plastic enclosures.




AJC 05/07                                           Section 2.2. / 49
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (f)   Condensers


            Condensers shall be of the shell and tube type, designed for 20 bar
            working pressure on the refrigerant side, and shall be tested at 30 bar.
            Shell shall be fabricated from rolled carbon steel plate with fusion
            welded seams, have carbon steel tube sheets, drilled and reamed to
            accommodate the tubes and intermediate tube supports spaced no
            more than 1300mm apart. A refrigerant sub-cooler shall be provided for
            improved cycle efficiency. The refrigerant side shall be designed, tested
            and stamped in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
            Code, Section V111-Division.


            Tubes shall be high-efficiency, internally replaceable type. Each tube
            shall be roller expanded into the tube sheets providing a leak proof seal,
            and be individually replaceable. Water velocity through the tubes shall
            not exceed 3.5m/s. The condenser shall have refrigerant relief devices
            to meet the requirements of the ASHRAE 15 Safety Code for
            Mechanical Refrigeration.


            Water boxes shall be removable to permit tube cleaning and
            replacement. Outlet water connections flanged to the appropriate BS
            flange table shall be provided. Water boxes shall be designed for 10 bar
            working pressure and be tested at 15 bar. Vent and drain connections
            with plugs shall be provided on each water box.

            (g)   Refrigerant System


            Refrigerant flow to the evaporator shall be metered by a single fixed
            orifice with no moving parts.


            The condenser shell shall be capable of storing the entire system
            refrigerant charge during servicing. Isolation from the rest of the system
            shall be by manually operated isolation valves located at the inlet and
            outlet of the condenser. Additional valves shall be provided to facilitate
            removal of refrigerant charge from the system.




AJC 05/07                                           Section 2.2. / 50
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (h)     Micro Computer Control Centre


            Where specified in the Particular Specification the rotary screw chiller(s)
            shall be provided with a micro computer control centre all as described
            below.


            The micro computer control centre shall be able to interface with a BMS
            system, where such a system specified.


            The interface shall be capable of the following:


               i.    Remote chiller Stop/Start


              ii.    Reset of chilled water temperature


             iii.    Reset of current limit


             iv.     Plant status


              v.     Chiller operating or failed


             vi.     Chiller is shut down on a safety requirement, needing reset


            vii.     Chiller is shut down on a re-cycling safety need.


            Each micro computer control centre shall be in a locked enclosure,
            factory-mounted, wired and tested. The control centre shall include a 40
            character alphanumeric display showing all system parameters in the
            English language with numeric data in metric units.


            Digital programming of essential set points through a colour coded,
            tactile-feel keypad shall include:


            - leaving chilled water temperature
            - percent current limit
            - pull down demand limiting
            - seven-day time clock for starting and stopping chiller
            - pumps and tower (complete with holiday schedule)


AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 51
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            - remote reset temperature range


            All safety and cycling shutdowns shall be enunciated through the
            alphanumeric display and consist of day, time, cause of shutdown, and
            type of restart required.
            Safety shutdowns shall include:-


            - high condenser pressure
            - low oil pressure at compressor
            - clogged oil filter
            - high oil temperature
            - high oil pressure
            - high compressor discharge temperature
            - low evaporator pressure
            - motor controller fault
            - sensor malfunction


            Cycling shutdowns shall include:-


            - low water temperature
            - cooler/condenser water flow interruption
            - power fault
            - internal time clock
            - anti-recycle


            System operating information shall include:


            - return/leaving chilled water temperatures
            - return/leaving condenser water temperature
            - evaporator/condenser refrigerant pressures
            - oil pressures at compressor and oil filter differential
            - percent motor current
            - evaporator/condenser saturation temperatures
            - compressor discharge temperature
            - oil temperature
            - percent slide valve position
            - operating hours
            - number of compressor starts



AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 52
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Security access shall be provided to prevent unauthorised change of set
            points, and to allow local or remote control of the chiller.

            (i)   Factory Installed Compressor Motor Starter


            The chiller manufacturer shall furnish a reduced voltage solid-state
            starter for the compressor motor. Starter shall be factory-mounted and
            wired on the chiller. The starter shall provide, through the use of silicon
            controlled rectifiers, a smooth acceleration of the motor without current
            transitions or transients. The starter enclosure shall be NEMA 1, with a
            hinged access door with lock and key. Electrical lugs for incoming power
            wiring shall be provided.


            Protective devices shall include:


            - phase rotation protection
            - single phase failure protection
            - momentary power interruption protection
            - high/low line voltage protection


            Starter shall include:


            - three leg sensing overloads
            - 120 volt control transformer for all unit controls
            - non-fused disconnect switch


            Three-phase voltage and current readings shall be co-ordinated with the
            unit control centre, with digital readout on the display.

            (j)   Remote Electro-Mechanical Compressor Motor Starter


            Where the Particular Specification calls for remote starting of the rotary
            screw compressor, the starter shall be furnished in accordance with the
            chiller manufacturer’s starter specification.




AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 53
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            (k)   Start-up and Operator Training


            The chiller manufacturer shall include the services of a factory-trained,
            field service representative to supervise the initial start-up and full
            concurrent operator instruction.

            (l)   Chilled Water Storage Tanks


            Chilled water storage vessels shall be constructed from single sheet
            mild steel plate to BS EN 14620.


            The storage tanks shall be circular and in a vertical format, and
            supported on mild steel legs.


            The inlet pipe shall be arranged to turn down and discharge through a
            stainless steel perforated plate, towards the bottom of the tank.


            The outlet pipe shall be arranged to turn down from the top of the tank,
            via a stainless steel perforated plate and leave the vessel from the
            vertical side.


            A drain shall be provided from the bottom of the tank, and a de-aeration
            connection shall be taken from the top of the tank.


            A 600mm diameter inspection cover shall be provided at the lower part
            of the storage vessel.


            Thermostat pocket shall be provided at the top and bottom of the
            storage vessel.


            The Contractor shall submit a shop drawing of the storage vessel for the
            Engineer’s approval.


            The storage tank shall be thermally insulated in accordance with the
            relevant part of this Specification.




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 54
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


2.2.13.     Acoustic And Vibration Isolation

2.2.13.1.   General


             The noise produced by the installation in the spaces served, in any
             adjacent buildings and in the open air surrounding plant rooms shall be
             kept as low as possible with due regard being made to the local
             environment. This shall be specially considered in the selection of fans
             (including those for condensers and cooling towers), motors, fan coil
             units and terminal units, grilles and diffusers and the internal finish and
             arrangement of distribution ducting.


             Account shall be taken of the effects of regenerated noise, duct
             breakout noise, noise emanating from prime movers and diffusers and
             any other items affecting the final sound level in the room.


             The sound level in the space served, due to the equipment, shall not
             exceed with the recommended design criteria given in the table below
             unless otherwise indicated.




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 55
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Recommended Design                Type of Environment


                   NR 20         Concert       halls,      broadcasting        and
                                 recording studios board rooms.


                                 Private      dwellings,      hospital      rooms,
                   NR 25         television studios, theatres, cinemas,
                                 large conference rooms.


                                 Libraries,     museums,          court     rooms,
                   NR 30         schoolrooms, hospital operating theatres
                                 and wards, hotel bedrooms, executive
                                 offices, boardrooms.


                                 Halls, corridors, lobbies, cloakrooms,
                   NR 35         restaurants, large staff offices, design
                                 offices, small stores, small conference
                                 lecture rooms.


                                 Departmental              stores,          shops,
                                 supermarkets,          cafeterias,       canteens,
                   NR 40         general offices, workshop offices, toilets
                                 washrooms,              reception           areas,
                                 laboratories, recreation rooms.


                   NR 45         Typing    pools,       offices   with    business
                                 machines, kitchens, computer rooms.


                   NR 50         Light engineering workshops.


                   NR 60         Foundries, heavy engineering works.




AJC 05/07                                  Section 2.2. / 56
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.13.2.   Silencer Performance


            All silencers shall provide a dynamic insertion loss at the operating
            temperature of not less than that indicated.


            The Contractor shall provide the insertion losses expected from the
            silencers proposed, under the operating conditions, and this data shall
            be derived from tests carried out in accordance with BS EN 150 7235.


            All silencers shall have a static pressure loss, under maximum operating
            conditions, of not greater than that indicated.


            The manufacturer’s quoted pressure losses shall be derived from test
            carried out in accordance with BS EN 150 7235. Where a silencer
            location is known the Contractor shall indicate the expected effect of
            turbulence due to adjacent elements on the quoted pressure losses.


            The Contractor shall provide with the insertion loss data, information
            relating to the silencer generated octave band sound power spectrum
            (125 – 8 kHz) at the operating conditions.

2.2.13.3.   Construction


            Dissipative Silencers (For the H&V Industry)


            The outer casings of all duct silencers shall be constructed strictly in
            accordance with the appropriate specification in the material specified
            for the ductwork. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to determine
            whether the high or low pressure code is required in the absence of an
            instruction from the Engineer. All silencers shall be fitted with drilled
            angle flanges, to the relevant Code. The method of installing acoustic
            elements into the casing shall not infringe this specification or cause
            unacceptable air leaks. Acoustic elements shall incorporate full
            aerodynamic leading and trailing edges (not square ends), and the inert,
            rot and vermin proof non-hygroscopic and non-combustible mineral wool
            or glass fibre acoustic medium shall be packed to a density of not less
            than 48 kg/m3 shall have a fibre-glass tissue facing, and be retained by
            a perforated steel sheet facing. Where required, for water or grease



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 57
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            laden duties, an impervious but acoustically transparent membrane may
            be fitted behind the perforated metal facing.


            Where acoustic elements form splitters within the silencer, the
            arrangement shall be with half-width splitter fixed to each side wall of
            the casing and preferably with the splitters vertical. The configuration
            should have a regular splitter/airway dimension across the full width of
            the silencer. However, it is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure
            that the parallel splitter elements in the silencer are correctly orientated
            for the adjacent duct geometry, particularly when silencers are located
            near bends, bifurcations, etc. Horizontal splitters should be suitably
            stiffened to prevent flexing and restriction of the airways, and will
            normally be limited to silencers having a module width of 900mm or
            less.


            In the case of circular silencers, all internal acoustic elements shall
            comprise mineral or glass-fibre as the acoustic medium, as specified
            above for rectangular silencers, retained by a perforated galvanised
            metal facing, or other approved infill protection membrane.


            When silencers are actually manufactured in modules, each unit shall
            be      shop assembled    and   this   specification, together with     the
            manufacturer’s own guarantee and performance ratings, shall apply to
            the unit as a whole.


            Silencer units shall be delivered to site with blocked ends to prevent the
            ingress of rubble, etc, during installation, and reduce the risk of damage.
            The direction of air flow through the silencer shall be clearly marked on
            the casing.


            Engine Absorptive Exhaust Silencer casings shall be manufactured from
            a suitable heavy gauge sheet steel, with all seams and joints
            continuously welded. All internal splitter elements shall be manufactured
            from suitable gauge steel, with adequate precautions taken to allow
            sufficient freedom of movement to overcome expansion and thermal
            shock.




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 58
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             These internal elements shall be packed with an inert, rot and vermin
             proof, non- hygroscopic and non-combustible mineral wool or glass fibre
             acoustic medium of 96 kg/m3 minimum density, protected by a layer of
             glass fibre cloth, behind the perforated steel facing. The same remarks
             relating to performance for duct silencers shall apply to engine silencers.

2.2.13.4.   Reactive Silencers (For Heavy Industry)


             The outer casings of all silencers shall be constructed from a suitable
             heavy gauge mild steel with all seams and joints continuously welded.
             Acoustic elements within the silencer shall be designed and constructed
             with due allowance made for differential expansion and thermal shock.


             All silencers shall also be fitted with suitable flanges and drain plugs and
             shall be manufactured and finished with due allowance made for the
             operating temperatures and environmental conditions.


             Silencers shall be delivered to site with blocked ends to prevent ingress
             of rubble, etc, during installation and reduce the risk of damage. The
             direction of air flow through the silencer shall be clearly marked on the
             casing.

2.2.14.     Anti-Vibration Mountings

2.2.14.1.   General


             All dynamic machinery shall be isolated from the building structure by
             vibration isolators and/or vibration isolation materials which shall be
             purpose designed and selected to suit the machinery.


             Where plant that is isolated has connecting pipework, that pipework
             shall be independently supported such that no load is transferred to the
             isolated equipment. A flexible connection shall be used between the
             pipework and the equipment.


             Where required, the mountings/hangars shall be provided with a
             positioning or restraining device, which will prevent the equipment
             position changing if its load changes, for example, during draining down
             of the equipment or other maintenance.



AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 59
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS



            The device shall consist of a stud passing through an oversize hole with
            a nut and locknut providing restraint. A fibre or neoprene washer should
            be fitted between nut and restraining member, leaving a clearance of at
            least 1mm.


            All mountings shall provide the static deflection under the equipment
            weight, shown in the schedules. Mounting selection should allow for any
            eccentric load distribution or torque reaction, so that the design
            deflection is achieved on all reaction, due to mountings under the
            equipment, under operating conditions.


            It is the Contractor’s responsibility to ensure that all mountings are
            suitable for the loads operating and the environmental conditions which
            will prevail. Particular attention should be paid to mountings which will
            be exposed to atmospheric conditions in order to prevent corrosion.


            All mountings shall be colour coded or otherwise marked, to indicate
            their local capacity, to facilitate identification during installation.

2.2.14.2.   Caged Spring Mounts


            Each mounting shall consist of cast telescopic top and bottom housing
            constraining one or more helical steel springs, of 50mm minimum
            diameter, as the principal isolation elements. The mountings shall
            incorporate a built-in levelling device, and resilient inserts as guides for
            the upper and lower housings.


            The housing should be designed to allow visual inspection after
            installation.


            The bottom plate shall be fitted with a 6mm thick neoprene pad bonded
            to it to reduce high frequency flanking. When in use with equipment
            having a fluid weight in excess of 25% of the total empty equipment
            weight a suitable hold-down or restraining device shall be incorporated.


            The springs shall be selected to have at least 50% overload capacity
            before becoming coil bound.



AJC 05/07                                                Section 2.2. / 60
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            All spring mounts shall be designed such that the lateral spring stiffness
            is equal to the vertical stiffness. The static deflection shall not be less
            than that indicated.


            The mountings shall also be selected for all items of plant with stiffness
            to cater for any eccentric weight distribution over the unit base. An equal
            static deflection shall be provided on all mounts, to avoid the possibility
            of flanking caused by the plant tilting and rendering one or more of the
            mounts ‘solid’.


            All nuts, bolts or other elements used for adjustment of a mounting shall
            incorporate locking mechanisms to prevent the isolator going out of
            adjustment as a result of vibration, accidental or unauthorised
            tampering.

2.2.14.3.   Rubber Mattress


            Where rubber mattresses are indicated they shall be of the studded
            rubber carpet type loaded to 24 kg/m using an insitu or precast concrete
            overslab.

2.2.14.4.   Resilient Hangers


            All resilient hangers shall be of the two element design, with helical
            spring and neoprene in-shear elements mounted in a steel cage pre-
            drilled and tapped at top and bottom to receive threaded hanger rods.
            The resilient hangers shall have a static deflection of not less than that
            indicated.

2.2.14.5.   Rubber or Neoprene Mounts


            The mountings shall consist of a steel top plate and base plate
            completely embedded in colour coded oil resistant neoprene/rubber for
            easy identification of rated load capacity. The mountings shall be
            moulded with non-skid ribbed construction on the top plate and base
            plate to eliminate the need for bolting. All mountings, however, shall be
            equipped with bolt holes in the base plate and taped holes in the top
            plate so that they may be bolted to the floor and equipment where
            required.



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 61
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS

2.2.14.6.   Pipework Isolation


            All active pipework shall be isolated on resilient mountings/hangers up
            to the structural penetration adjacent to the service shaft, for the first
            100 pipe diameters or the first 10m of the pipe run, whichever is the
            greatest. Thereafter oversized brackets having neoprene inserts shall
            be installed, generally for larger ‘live’ pipework, but also for smaller ‘live’
            pipework where friction losses exceed 280 Pa/m2 per metre run.

2.2.14.7.   Plant Bases


            Anti-vibration mountings of the following types shall be provided where
            appropriate.


                a) Anti-Vibration Rails


                    An A.V rail shall comprise a steel beam with height-saving
                    brackets at each end. The steel sections must be sufficiently
                    rigid to prevent undue strain in the equipment.


                b) Steel Plant Bases


                    Steel plant bases shall comprise an all-welded steel framework
                    of sufficient rigidity to provide adequate support for the
                    equipment. The frame depth shall be approximately 1/10 of the
                    longest dimension of the equipment with a minimum of 150mm.
                    This form of base may be used as a composite A.V rail system.


                c) Concrete Inertia Base for Steel Springs


                    These shall consist of an all-welded steel framework with height-
                    saving brackets and a frame depth of approximately 1/12 of the
                    longest dimension of the equipment with a minimum depth of
                    150mm. The bottom of the frame shall be blanked off and
                    concrete (2300 kg/m3) poured in over steel reinforcing rods
                    positioned 35mm above the bottom. The total weight of the base
                    shall be at least 1.5 times the equipment total weight.
                    Framework for split case pumps shall be extended in width to
                    allow for provision of supports for suction and discharge elbows.


AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 62
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


                d) Concrete Inertia Base for Neoprene Mounts/Pads


                     These should comprise a concrete inertia base of sufficient size
                     to permit support for all parts of the equipment base, such as
                     suction and discharge elbows on centrifugal pumps. The inertia
                     base should be cast onto a permanent bottom shuttering and
                     supported on neoprene mounts or pads, the whole resting on a
                     plinth as required. It should be noted that the construction of
                     concrete bases on cork, expanded polystyrene or mineral wool
                     slabs is not normally permitted. Where neoprene pads are used,
                     small areas of pad must be equally spaced to provide the correct
                     deflection. The number, dimensions and locations of such pads
                     should be advised to the Contractor by the supplier.

2.2.14.8.   Flexible Connections


             All items of plant containing rotating components, such as pumps and
             refrigeration equipment shall be connected by means of armoured type
             flexible connections, which shall be suitable for at least twice the
             working pressure of the system to which it is installed.


             Pipework shall be firmly anchored each side of flexible connections.


             Electric motors shall be connected by means of flexible electrical
             conduit.

2.2.15.     Motors, Belts, And Guards

2.2.15.1.   Motors


             Motors and associated control panels shall generally be supplied and
             installed by the Mechanical Engineering Services Contractor and the
             Electrical Engineering Services Contractor shall continue the circuit for
             each motor control to the respective motor terminals.


             All motors shall be totally enclosed fan-cooled type and, where
             necessary, flameproof. Motors installed in external locations shall be
             provided with anti-condensation heaters. Motor terminals shall be of the
             stud type, totally enclosed and accessible. Rubber insulation shall not



AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 63
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            be used for connections from the windings to the terminals. A 9mm
            diameter earthing stud shall be provided on the motor carcass. Holding
            down bolts shall not be used for earthing purposes.


            Each motor shall be fitted with a totally enclosed dust proof terminal box
            either suitable for screwed conduit entry or provided with a capable box
            as necessary. For motors above 1kW the terminal box shall be sealed
            from the internal air circuit of the motor. All joints shall be flanged with
            gaskets of neoprene or similar material. Motors shall operate at all loads
            without undue vibration and with the least practicable amount of noise.


            A.C motors shall be capable of operating continuously under rated
            output conditions at any frequency between 48 and 51 Hz together with
            ± 10% voltage variation.


            A.C motors up to and including 110kW shall generally be provided for
            operation from a low voltage, 3 phase 50 HZ supply and those above
            110kW from a medium voltage 3-phase 50Hz supply.


            A.C motors up to and including 7½ kW shall generally be suitable for
            direct on line starting at full voltage. When started in this manner the
            current shall not exceed 6 times full load current.


            Motors exceeding 7½ kW shall have starting currents limited to
            approximately 250% of the full load current at 100% full load torque
            utilising:-


            Squirrel-cage high-torque motors employing auto-transformer starters.


            Slip-ring motors employing rotor resistance starters and continuously
            rated brush gear without brush lifting devices.


            If, for any reason, the above methods of starting could cause undue
            ‘run-up’ time for a particular motor, then alternative methods of starting
            may be employed.


            Motors operating in an ambient temperature not exceeding 40°C shall
            be insulated with at least Class F insulation but where the ambient



AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 64
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            temperature is likely to exceed this figure, or where the motor
            temperature may be appreciably affected by conducted heat, Class H
            insulation shall be used unless otherwise approved. Motors for
            operation at medium voltage shall have Class F insulation.


            All motor shall be provided with gland plates, conduit thread or standard
            cable boxes and glands. Conduit shall not be connected direct to a
            motor. The conduit shall be terminated in a through type galvanised
            conduit box and continued to the appliance with flexible metallic tubing.
            Where M.I.M.S cable connects a motor or other vibrating appliance it
            shall be taken direct into the terminal box. A coil shall be formed in the
            cable to take up the relative movement between the machine and the
            solid base.


            A bare tinned copper earth conductor of approved cross section shall be
            provided to connect the frame of the motor to the earth termination in
            the controlling isolator or distribution board.

2.2.15.2.   Variable Speed Drives for HVAC Induction Fan and Pump Motors


            General


            Variable speed drives shall use micro processor control together with
            PWM technology for the speed control of HVAC fans and pumps.
            Selection of the induction motor and corresponding inverter shall be
            sized taking into account the full load current rating of the motor.
            Consideration shall also be taken of the motor efficiency and power
            factor which for all practical purposes should be as high as possible.


            Should derating be required the waveform effects are to be considered
            and, taking into account the motor re-rating curves which should detail
            the constant torque range, the constant kW range and the reduced kW
            range depending upon the temperature rise of the windings and class of
            insulation. Consideration will also be required to derate the output power
            available in order to prevent the motor from overheating due to the
            additional losses caused by the inverter supply. Derating will also have
            to be considered when assessing the load and operating speed range.
            The inverter drive package associated with variable speed fans shall be



AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 65
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            supplied by the Air Handling Unit manufacturer and those associate with
            variable speed pumps by the controls manufacturer.

2.2.15.3.   Protection of the Induction Motor


            Motors used in conjunction with variable speed drives shall have
            thermistors built into the windings to activate the control circuits and
            disconnect the supply for all or any of the typical motor faults:



                       a) Sustained overload
                       b) Excessive or incorrect duty cycle operation
                       c) Prolonged reduced or over voltage or incorrect frequency
                       d) Excessive ambient temperature in motor location
                       e) Restricted or impaired ventilation
                       f) Single phasing
                       g) Stalled or locked rotor



            The built-in thermistors should be carefully insulated from and
            embedded in the motor windings prior to impregnation with terminal
            leads brought out of the motor terminal box for connection to the control
            device. The thermistors shall be the semi-conducting resistance type
            with a positive temperature co-efficient and with a fixed reference
            temperature of 160ºC.

2.2.15.4.   Motor and Starter Cabling


            All inverter control wiring should be screened and the screen shall be
            earthed at the inverter connection rail. Power cable to the motor shall be
            enclosed in earthed screen cable with separate earth connections to the
            motor frame and variable speed controller. Cables connecting the
            thermistors to the control contactor should also be earthed screened.

2.2.15.5.   Starter Displays


            The variable speed drive starter shall have the facilities to be
            programmable. Value settings which are to be adjusted should follow a
            format similar to the details below:



AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 66
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


                       Parameter                        Range


             Minimum frequency             0 to max speed (Hz)
             Maximum frequency             Min to full speed (Hz)
             Acceleration time             0.2 to 600 secs
             Deceleration time             0.2 to 600 secs
             Timed current limit           Up to 150% FLC
             Thermal current limit         0 to 105% FLC
             Low       frequency     boost 0 to 25% of max output voltage
             voltage                       at 0Hz
             Slip compensation             0 to 25Hz
             DC braking level              0 to 7.1%
             Serial I/O address            0 to 99
             Previous trip condition       0 to 255
             Security code Volts/Hertz 25 to 480 Hz
             ratio




AJC 05/07                                       Section 2.2. / 67
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            The bit parameters which are to be adjusted when the drive has stopped
            and the security code has been set are as follows:


                         Code                          Parameters


                                          Speed or torque control mode
                                          Auto or manual start-up
                                          Dynamic or DC braking
                                          Auto or fixed boost
                                          Economy of fixed V/Hz ratio
                                          Open loop or encoder feedback
                                          Master or slave operation
                                          Ramp or coast to halt
                                          Indicates frequency or load on
                                          display
                                          Terminal or keypad control
                                          Serial I/O parity check
                                          0-20mA, 4-20mA, 20-4mA
                                          Define serial I/O baud rate (4800 or
                                          9600 bps)
                                          Set all parameters to default value
                                          Switching    frequency    and   base
                                          speed set-up




AJC 05/07                                           Section 2.2. / 68
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Faulty conditions which are to be displayed in the event of a fault will
            include:
                         Fault


                         Loss of current loop
                         Under voltage
                         External trip
                         Over voltage
                         Power supply failure
                         Time trip
                         Motor thermistor trip
                         Overcurrent
                         Ready to go
                         Hardware fault (internal)




            Operating criteria for the microprocessor controlled variable speed drive
            will be as follows:


                 Speed range                0-100/220/480 Hz
                 Operating temp             -10 to +50ºC (subject to derating at
                                            high switching frequency)


                 Max output current         150% x FLC for 30 secs
                 Altitude performance       1000 metres maximum, derate 1%
                                            per 100m between 1000m and
                                            4000m


                 Output waveform            Sinecoded PWM with selectable
                                            frequency switching


                 PWM switching              Selectable at 2.9, 5.9, 8.8 or 11.7
                                            kHz
                 Faults status relay        Volt free 3A @ 240v AC changeover
                 Current loop control       0-20mA, 4-20mA, 20-4mA
                 Protection                 Thermal trip




AJC 05/07                                            Section 2.2. / 69
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


                       Control Inputs               Control Outputs


                 Set speed (Hz)            Speed    –     0    to   10v   at   5mA
                                           representing 0 to max speed


                 Set torque                Torque    -0       to    10v   at   5mA
                                           representing 0 to 150% FLC


                 Run                       Aux Supply – 24v DC @ 50mA


                 Stop
                 Forward/reverse
                 Local/remote
                 Serial i/p
                 Drive trip
                 Drive reset
                 Encoder
                 Thermistor
                 (Motor Protection)



2.2.15.6.   Electromagnetic Compatibility and Radio Frequency Interference


            Equipment purchased for variable speed drives shall conform to the
            following international standards:


                   IEC 555 parts 1 and 3


                   IEC 801 parts 2-6

2.2.15.7.   Power Factor Correction


            Where central power factor correction control centres are not provided
            static capacitors shall be supplied and installed for connection of
            individual A.C motor drives. Capacitors shall be totally enclosed, paper
            insulated, oil impregnated dielectric type complying with BS EN 60831
            and having weatherproof enclosure.




AJC 05/07                                           Section 2.2. / 70
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            Each capacitor shall be rated to provide a reactive landing KVAr not
            exceeding 85% of the no load KVAr of the motor to which it is
            connected. Capacitor ratings shall be so chosen that the whole of the
            Plant motors, when operating normally, at designed load, shall have an
            overall power factor not less than 0.95 lagging. Capacitors shall be fitted
            to each motor having a rating of 4kW and above.


            Capacitors shall be mounted on, or adjacent to, motors in non-
            hazardous areas, and for hazardous areas the capacitors shall be
            grouped outside the area. Each capacitor shall be provided with taped
            conduit entry or with cable boxes and glands to suit the type of cable
            specified.

2.2.15.8.   Lubrication


            Provision shall be made for the efficient lubrication of all bearings,
            including ball and roller bearings. This should preferably be by the use
            of separate oil cups of the self sealing type of grease nipples for each
            point. Grease nipples wherever possible shall be of a uniform type.


            Where automatic lubricators are fitted provision for emergency hand
            lubrication shall also be provided.


            All lubrication filling points shall be located in easily accessible positions.
            Where practicable, extension piping shall be provided to bring
            lubrication points to a common access position. Lubrication shall be
            possible external to guards with machinery in motion.

2.2.15.9.   Protection


            The following protection shall be provided:-


                    Motors up to 1kW – fuses and thermal or magnetic overloads


                    Motors 1-30 kW – fuses, thermal overload and single-phasing
                    protection


                    Motors 30 kW and above – fuses and earth fault and thermal
                    overload, single-phasing protection.


AJC 05/07                                              Section 2.2. / 71
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS



                      Motors controlled via PWM variable speed starters shall be
                      provided with thermistors embedded in the windings.

2.2.15.10.   Motor Control Equipment


             All motor control gear and all ancillary apparatus shall have all windings,
             contracts and all current carrying and live parts and components
             insulated with Class ‘A’, ‘B’ or Class ‘C’ materials as required by the
             temperature in which the particular apparatus will operate.


             All motor control gear equipment supplied in the form of a panel or
             cubicle unit shall fully comply with the requirements of BS EN 60439-1
             for the fault capacity specified. Test certificates in accordance with BS
             EN 60439-1 shall be provided. The current rating of a contactor for
             direct start motor drives shall be not less than 120% of the FLC of the
             motor.


             All contacts in air shall be solid silver or silver faced and all contactors
             and control equipment shall be designed for not less than forty
             operations per hour.


             In the event of any control gear and ancillary apparatus being energised
             by a supply other than the supply for the motor circuit, the isolator shall
             incorporate auxiliary contacts such that when the motor is isolated the
             auxiliary supply to the control gear and/or motor is also isolated on all
             poles.


             All control equipment shall have a clear schematic diagram on durable
             material fixed permanently within each lid or cover.


             All starters shall be manufactured in accordance with BS EN 60947 – 4-
             1 and insulated with Class ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’ materials as required by the
             temperature in which the particular apparatus will operate.


             All starters shall have integral normal manual “start” and “stop/reset”
             push button of the diaphragm type. The “stop/reset” buttons shall have




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 72
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


             mushroom heads and shall be coloured red; the “start” buttons shall be
             coloured green and shall be shrouded to prevent inadvertent operation.


             Where starters are to be erected in damp situations, such as unheated
             pumping chambers or outside, they shall comply with the requirements
             specified and shall have an internal electrical heater arranged to
                                                                  C
             maintain the starter temperature at not less than 18° by means of
             thermostatic control.

2.2.15.11.   Remote Push Buttons


             Each contactor starter shall be provided with a separate metal-cased
             “stop” push-button remote control station mounted adjacent to the motor
             in an approved position. The stop push-button shall have a red
             mushroom head and must remain in the closed position after being
             operated and shall be provided with reset facilities.

2.2.15.12.   V-Belt Drives


             V-belt drives shall comply with BS 3790 and shall be capable of
             transmitting at least the rated wattage output of the motor with one belt
             removed; unless otherwise indicated not less than two belts per drive
             shall be used. Pulleys shall be exactly aligned. The Main Contractor
             shall ensure that the holdings down bolts grouted in by the Contractor
             are positioned to ensure correct alignment. Provision shall be made for
             positive adjustment of the tension in V-belt drives.

2.2.15.13.   Guards


             Guards shall be provision for all open unprotected intakes to centrifugal
             flow fans; for open unprotected intakes to exhausts from axial flow fans;
             for open, unprotected and easily accessible intakes to an exhaust from
             propeller fans; for V-belt drives; for drive couplings and elsewhere as
             indicated.


             For fans the guards shall be manufactured by the fan maker of
             galvanised steel wire mesh not greater than 25mm, attached to a rigid
             galvanised steel rod framework.




AJC 05/07                                             Section 2.2. / 73
SECTION 2.2. – PLANT ITEMS


            For V-belt drives the guards shall be of galvanised steel wire at least
            2.5mm diameter mesh not greater than 25mm spacing, attached to a
            rigid galvanised steel framework of rods not less than 10mm diameter.
            Guards shall be readily removable to permit belts to be changed.
            Adequate access panels shall be provided in the side of a guard to allow
            tachometer readings of the two shafts to be taken and belt tension to be
            tested. Allowance shall be made in the dimensions of the guard and the
            size and position of access panels for the adjustment of the motor on its
            slide rails.


            Where duplicate motors are provided and fixed for fans or compressors
            the spare motor shall be complete with slide rails and be fixed in
            position ready for operation. The guard provided shall be either a double
            guard or a single guard specially designed to protect both directions of
            drive. All fixings and mountings for both positions shall be supplied and
            fitted and changeover of the guard and drive shall be simple and quick.




AJC 05/07                                           Section 2.2. / 74
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.1    General ......................................................................................................1
2.3.2    Definitions of Systems and Pipework Materials ..........................................2
2.3.3    Pipe Erection..............................................................................................6
2.3.4    Pipework Clearances .................................................................................7
2.3.5    Pipework Fittings........................................................................................8
2.3.6    Black Steel Pipework Installations ............................................................11
2.3.7    Galvanised Steep Pipework Installation....................................................13
2.3.8    Copper Pipework Installations ..................................................................15
2.3.9    Stainless Steel Pipework Installations ......................................................17
2.3.10   Flux and Excess Solder............................................................................19
2.3.11   PVC Pressure Pipework ...........................................................................19
2.3.12   UPVC Pipework .......................................................................................20
2.3.13   MUPVC Pipework.....................................................................................21
2.3.14   MDPE Pipework (Below Ground) .............................................................22
2.3.15   Cast Iron Above Ground Sanitation Pipework (Mechanically Jointed).......23
2.3.16   Conventional Cast Iron Above Ground Sanitation Pipework .....................24
2.3.17   UPVC Rainwater Installation ....................................................................24
2.3.18   Aluminium Rainwater Installation..............................................................25
2.3.19   Cast Iron Rainwater Installation................................................................26
2.3.20   Flanged Joints..........................................................................................27
2.3.21   Welding of Metallic Pipe Joints .................................................................28
2.3.22   Welding of Plastic Pipe Joints...................................................................28
2.3.23   Tests for Welders Qualifications (General) ...............................................29
2.3.24   Tests for Welder Qualification Steel Pipes................................................30
2.3.25   Tests for Welder Qualification Copper Pipes ............................................32
2.3.26   Radiographic Examinations......................................................................32
2.3.27   Pipework Cleanliness ...............................................................................33
2.3.28   Pipework Supports ...................................................................................34
2.3.29   Pipework Expansion.................................................................................39
2.3.30   Anchor Points...........................................................................................40
2.3.31   Sleeves and Floorplates...........................................................................40
2.3.32   Air Venting and Draining...........................................................................41
2.3.33   Dirt Pockets..............................................................................................42
2.3.34   Test Points ...............................................................................................42
2.3.35   Flushing Connection.................................................................................43
2.3.36   Valves, Taps, Cocks, Strainers, Etc..........................................................43
  2.3.36.1      General.............................................................................................43
  2.3.36.2      Valve Requirements .........................................................................44
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
 2.3.36.3    Domestic Hot, Cold, and Fire Water Services Isolation Valves .........46
 2.3.36.4    Water Level Control Valves (Float Operated)....................................49
 2.3.36.5    Mixing Valves ...................................................................................51
 2.3.36.6    LTHW, Chilled Water, and Condenser Water Valves ........................52
 2.3.36.7    Radiator Valves ................................................................................53
 2.3.36.8    Thermostatic Radiator Valves...........................................................54
 2.3.36.9    Commissioning Stations ...................................................................54
 2.3.36.10   Check Valve/Non Return Valves.......................................................54
 2.3.36.11   Strainers ...........................................................................................55
 2.3.36.12   Drain Cocks......................................................................................56
 2.3.36.13   Automatic Air Vents ..........................................................................56
 2.3.36.14   Pressure Reducing Valves................................................................56
 2.3.36.15   Safety and Relief Valves...................................................................57
 2.3.36.16   Urinal Water Conservation Devices ..................................................58
 2.3.36.17   Valve Labelling .................................................................................59
 2.3.36.18   Thermometers, Pressure and Altitude Gauges .................................67
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


2.3.1   General


        This section of the Specification covers the general requirements of piped
        services installations, including pipework, fittings, valves etc.


        All pipework and fittings shall be installed, stored and transported in
        accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


        All pipework shall be installed to allow for thermal movement.


        All pipework shall be free from surface or general corrosion and without any
        scaling pitting, excess weathering or damage. Any pipework so affected
        shall be removed from site and replaced at no cost to the contract.


        Each length of pipework shall have at least one coloured identification band
        or identifying mark when delivered.


        All pipework shall be supplied in the standard manufactured straight lengths
        but not less than 6m long except where shorter specific or flanged lengths
        between fittings are actually required.


        Prolonged storage in sunlight may lead to degradation of thermoplastic pipe
        and fittings due to the combined effect of heat and ultra violet radiation.
        Therefore temporary covering shall be used wherever possible to prevent
        exposure. Pipes should not be subjected to excess of temperatures
        variation within the pipework stack or storage facilities.


        All pipework shall be stored on flat level ground free from sharp stones etc.
        and stacked to heights not exceeding manufacturer’s recommendations.


        Side bracing of pipe storage facilities stacks should be provided to prevent
        stack collapse.


        Smaller pipes may be ‘nested’ inside larger pipes.


        Any pipework installation containing fluids shall be installed so that the
        complete system can be drained down quickly, easily and without disruption



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 1
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
        to other services.


        Where it is required to shorten any pipe, it shall be cut off square and
        cleanly with an approved pipe cutting machine.


2.3.2   Definitions of Systems and Pipework Materials


        For the purpose of this Specification, the following definitions relating to
        differing types of hydraulic and vapour systems and associated materials,
        shall apply unless stated otherwise in Section 3 where Section 3 shall
        apply.


        a)   Low Temperature Hot Water (L.T.H.W.) Heating System


        A system open or closed to the atmosphere which operates at temperatures
                              C,
        up to a maximum of 95° and does not form part of a M.T.H.W. or
        H.T.H.W. heating injection system.
        L.T.H.W. shall be installed utilising black mild steel tube heavyweight to BS
        EN 10255 up to and including 150mm. For pipe sizes above 150mm to be
        to BS EN 10216-1 or BS EN 10217-1, wall thickness as called for under
        Section Three of this Specification.
        Where copper pipework is called for under Section 3 pipework to BS EN
        1057 R250 shall be used.


        b)   Medium Temperature Hot Water (H.T.H.W.) Heating System


        A system, open or closed to the atmosphere, which operates between a
        temperature range of 95°      C
                                C-120° and up to an operating pressure of 3.5
        bar gauge.
        M.T.H.W. shall be installed in black steel or copper tube as clause 2.3.2(a).


        c)   High Temperature Hot Water (H.T.H.W.) Heating System


        A system, closed to the atmosphere, which operates at temperatures above
        120°C.


        H.T.H.W. shall be installed utilising black mild steel tube heavyweight as
        clause 2.3.2.a).



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 2
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


        d)   Steam Services


        Steam heating and/or steam distribution system with a working pressure up
        to a maximum of a 10 bar.
        Steam systems shall be installed utilising black mild steel tube heavyweight
        as clause 2.3.2.a).


        e)   Condensate


        Systems open to the atmosphere collecting products of a steam system
        which operates at temperatures up to a maximum of 100°C.
        Condensate systems shall be installed utilising light gauge copper tube to
        BS EN 1057.
        If steel tube specified under Section Three of this Specification pipework
        shall be as paragraph 2.3.2.a).


        f)   Domestic Hot Water Service (D.H.W.S.) System


        A system open or closed to the atmosphere which produces potable hot
                                    C
        water up to a maximum of 65° for domestic use.
        Domestic hot water service systems shall be installed utilising light gauge
        copper tube to BS EN 1057 R250.


        g) Cold Water Service (C.W.S.) System


        Systems open or closed to the atmosphere which provides potable cold
        water for domestic use.
        Cold water service systems shall be installed as follows:
        (i) Internal Within Building:
        Light gauge copper to BS EN 1057 R250.
        (ii) Buried Pipework External to Building:
        Light gauge soft copper to BS EN 1057 R290.
                                            OR
        Blue polyethylene to BS EN 12201 (for pipes up to and including 63mm)
        For above 63mm WAA Information and Guidance 4-32-03 (ISSN 0267-
        0305) is applicable.
                                            OR



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 3
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
        P.V.C. to BS EN 1452 as called for under Section Three of this
        Specification and/or to comply with the requirements of the local Water
        Authority.


        h)   Chilled Water Service


        A system open or closed to the atmosphere typically operating below 15°C
                        C
        and as low as 5° for cooling processes.
        Chilled Water Services shall be installed in black steel tube as Clause
        2.3.2.a).


        i)   Condenser Water Service


        A system open or closed to the atmosphere for cooling water system,
        average operating temperature 40°C.
        Condenser Water Services shall be installed in black steel tube as Clause
        2.3.2 (a).


        j)   Condensate Drains


        A system open to the atmosphere draining cooling systems average
        operating temperature up to a maximum of 15°C.
        Condensate drains shall be installed in either rigid unplasticised P.V.C. to
        BS EN 1452 Class ‘D’ or copper tube BS EN 1057 R250 as called for under
        Section Three of this Specification.


        k)   Fire Mains


        A hose reel system open to atmosphere either fed directly from the mains or
        pumped via break tank to serve first aid fire fighting.
        Fire mains shall be installed in copper as Clause 2.3.2.(f) or in steel as
        Clause 2.3.2.(a) as called for under Section Three of this Specification.


        l)   Dry Riser


        Systems of dry pipework open to atmosphere which will remain dry for use
        by the Fire Authority in the event of an emergency.
        Dry riser shall be installed in black steel tube as Clause 2.3.2.(a).



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 4
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


        m)    Sprinklers


        A system open to atmosphere connected to a suitable water supply to
        provide automatic fire protection to designated areas.
        Sprinklers shall be installed in black steel tube as Clause 2.3.2.(a).


        n)    Compressed Air


        A system of pipework which conveys air from a compressor plant to
        pneumatic equipment.
        Compressed air shall be installed utilising steel tube BS EN 10255
        galvanised after manufacture.


        o)    Oil Fuel Lines


        A system of pipework carrying fuel oil from storage vessels open to
        atmosphere serving oil burning equipment.
        Oil fuel lines shall be installed in black steel tube as Clause 2.3.2.(a).


        p)    Gas Service


        A system of pipework for conveying either manufactured gas (1st family),
        natural gas (2nd family) or L.P.G. (3rd family) as indicated in Section Three.
        Gas pipework shall be installed as follows:
        i)    Internal Within Building:
        Black mild steel tube heavyweight to BS EN 10255.
        Where copper pipework is called for under Section Three of this
        Specification, then light gauge copper to BS EN 1057 R250 shall be used.
        ii)   Buried Pipework External to Building:
        Medium density polythene to BS 7281 or as called for under Section Three
        of this Specification and/or to comply with the requirements of the local Gas
        Authority.


        q)    System Cold Water Feeds, Vents, and Overflows


        The above shall be installed utilising light gauge copper to BS EN 1057
        R250 throughout.



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 5
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.3   Pipe Erection


        All pipes on straight runs shall be lined up with facilities for the pipes to be
        rotated for the process of welding joints, in order to minimise bottom
        welding.


        Pipes shall be run with a slight rise or fall as required. All pipes shall follow
        the lines of walls indicated on the drawings, unless the site conditions
        prevent this, in which case the runs may be varied to suit the site
        conditions, subject to the agreement of the Engineer.


        Uncovered pipes shall be located not less than 25mm or more than 40mm
        clear of walls. Insulated pipes shall be located so that the insulation is not
        less than 15mm or more than 25mm clear of walls.


        All pipes shall be fitted well clear of the floor when situated in rooms, to
        permit cleaning beneath the pipes. Where possible a 115mm clearance
        shall be left between the underside of the pipes and the finished level of the
        floor and in no case shall the pipe be less than 100mm clear of the floor.


        The Contractor shall ensure that the installation looks neat and tidy and that
        there is accurate spacing between pipes, valves and joints etc, all
        symmetrically lined up. Similarly all directional changes in groups of pipes
        shall be taken from common radius points. Adequate space must be left for
        the application of the insulation and for separate insulation of each pipe.


        Special care shall be taken before final assembly and closing up to ensure
        that all pipes are properly cleaned out and free from flux grit, scale and
        jointing material. Ends of pipes temporarily unconnected for any reason
        shall be closed with plastic caps. Plugs shall not be used for this purpose.


        All PVC, UPVC, MUPVC, and polypropylene pipework passing through fire
        walls/floors shall incorporate intumescent fire sleeves to BS 476: Part 20
        where required by the Building Regulations. Where approved by the
        Engineer, other methods of protected fire sleeves indicated within the
        Building Regulations may be installed.


        All pipework shall be installed so as to allow for any possible expansion or



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 6
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
        contraction of the pipework.


        Where thermoplastic pipes are to be installed in locations likely to be
        permanently exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight, the materials life
        may be extended by painting. This shall be in accordance with the
        manufacturer’s recommendations.


        PTFE thread sealant tape shall meet the performance requirements of BS
        5292: Type C in addition to which, it shall justify additional Type C tests on
        steel pipe threaded to BS 21 for taper/taper and taper/parallel joints in all
        sizes up to 50mm (2”) nominal bore. For sizes up to 25mm (1”) the
        Appendix L test pressure shall be at least 10 bar and for sizes above 25mm
        (1”) the Appendix L test pressure shall be less than 5 bar.


        In all cases on steel pipe up to 50mm (2”) nominal bore the wrapping
        technique shall be in accordance with BS 7786, i.e. a single wrap with 50%
        overlap.


        PTFE tape shall meet the above requirements and shall be wound on a
        spool marked with the statement “Satisfies BGC/1M/16”, the wrapping
        technique and the sizes of pipe on which it is known to be suitable. Other
        PTFE tapes shall not be used.


2.3.4   Pipework Clearances


        Pipes shall be so fixed as to give the following minimum clearances
        between the pipe or insulation (where specified) and adjacent surfaces as
        follows:


                     Wall – 25mm
                     Ceilings – 100mm
                     Finished Floor – 100mm
                     Adjacent Pipes, both insulated – 25mm
                     Adjacent Pipes, both uninsulated – 150mm
                     Adjacent Pipes, only one insulated – 75mm
                     Adjacent Pipes, to conduit or trunking insulated – 25mm
                     Adjacent Pipes, to conduit or trunking insulated – 100mm




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 7
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


         Under no circumstances shall pipes be spaced close together and enclosed
         in a common insulating covering.


         Notwithstanding the above minimum clearances, sufficient clearance shall
         be allowed to facilitate easy application of thermal insulating material of the
         thickness specified in the Insulation Sections of the Specification.


2.3.5    Pipework Fittings


   a) L.T.H.W. Heating, M.T.H.W. Heating, Chilled Water Condenser Water
        Systems, Fire Services, Oil Fuel Lines and Gas Services.


        Shall be erected utilising easy sweep black malleable iron fittings to B.S.143
        of the bonded type as manufactured by Messrs. Crane Ltd on pipework sizes
        up to and including 50mm. Disconnecting joints shall be made with ‘Navy’
        type brass seated unions, Crane fig No.289 or boxed flanges to B.S.T.’E’.


        For pipework 65mm and above, black heavyweight welding fittings to
        B.S.1965 shall be used.


        All pipework 65mm and over in plant rooms shall be welded.


        Where copper pipework is called for under Section Three of this Specification,
        fittings shall be in accordance with Clause 2.3.5. (c).


   b) H.T.H.W. Heating Systems


        Shall be erected throughout utilising black heavyweight welding fittings to
        B.S.1965, irrespective of pipe size and location.


   c) D.H.W.S. Systems


        On pipework up to and including 54mm, copper capillary fittings integral
        solder ring to B.S.864 shall be utilised as manufactured by Messrs. I.M.I.
        Yorkshire Fittings Limited.


        For pipework 67mm and above, either bronze welded gunmetal fittings or end



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.3. / 8
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
        braze capillary fittings shall be used as manufactured by Messrs. Donald
        Brown (Brownall) Limited, Messrs. Delta Fittings Limited, or I.M.I. Yorkshire
        Fittings Limited. All fittings to be suitable for potable water.


        Disconnecting flanges shall be provided to B.S.T.’E’. on 67mm pipework and
        above.


   d) C.W.S. Systems


        Where copper pipework is specified under Section Three of this Specification,
        then fittings shall be in accordance with Clause 2.3.5. (c) above.


   e) System Cold Water Feed, Vents and Overflows


        In accordance with Clause 2.3.5. (c)


   f) Steam Services


        Shall be erected throughout utilising black mild steel B.S.1965 “heavy”
        seamless for welded joints or heavyweight wrought iron BS EN 10241 for
        screwed joints.


   g) Condensate


        Shall be high duty capillary fittings as manufactured by Messrs. I.M.I.
        Yorkshire Fittings Limited.


   h) Condensate Drains


        Shall be either copper capillary type fittings as manufactured by Messrs. I.M.I.
        Yorkshire Fittings Limited or U.P.V.C. fittings in accordance with tube
        manufacturer’s recommendations.


   i)   Compressed Air


        Shall be as Clause 2.3.5.(a) but galvanised after manufacture.




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.3. / 9
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


   j)   Bends, Elbows, Tees


        Long radius elbows, twin elbows and sweep tees shall be used throughout,
        except on drain points and venting points where they shall be square.


        Reducing tees shall be used in preference to equal tees and reducers. Where
        reducers are used, they shall be eccentric on horizontal pipework, or
        concentric on vertical pipework, bushings or connectors will not be allowed.


        All fittings shall be of the same material and finish as the tube to which they
        are fitted.


   k) Unions


        Unions shall be used only where necessary to facilitate erection and
        maintenance of equipment, or as indicated on the contract drawings. Where
        used, they shall be of the ‘Navy’ type consisting of two screwed halves with
        ground spherical faced joints between two gunmetal seats up to and including
        50mm diameter.


   l)   Flanges


        Flanges for M.S. pipework shall conform to BS EN 1092-1, and be of forged
        steel, machined full face, and welded or screwed to the pipe. They shall
        conform to the appropriate B.S. Table for the pressure and temperature to
        which they will be subjected, but shall not be of lower standard than PN10.
        Welding flanges shall be of the boss slip-on-type.


        Flanged joints shall be made with well graphited klingerite full face joint rings
        and approved jointing compound.


        Taylors brass or nickel corrugated rings may, where applicable, be utilised,
        but again full faced.


        Black bolts and nuts with washers shall conform to B.S.4190 with no more
        than 15mm thread protruding through the nut. Bolts on chilled water systems
        shall be sheradized.



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 10
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


         Flanges to be employed on 65mm diameter tube and above.


         Bolts used to effect cold-draw on expansion fittings shall be removed after
         pulling up and replaced by bolts of the correct length.


   m) Dezincification      and Electrolytic Action of        Fittings Used on     Copper
         Installations


         Should the water serving the building be known to cause dezincification,
         materials used on services must be zinc free, and shall be of all gunmetal
         construction. Suitable insulating nipples shall be used at connections of
         dissimilar metals on water supply services to minimise electrolytic action.


   n) Offsets


         All bends and offsets are to be made utilising proper bending machines, and
         are to be used in preference to fittings at all times.


         The work shall be carried out in a neat and workmanlike manner in
         accordance with the opinion of the Engineer. Where this work is not
         considered to be of an acceptable standard by the Engineer, then the work
         shall be removed and reinstated at no additional cost to the Contract.


2.3.6      Black Steel Pipework Installations


   (a)     Pipework


   The whole of the black steel tube systems shall conform to BS EN 10255 and are
   to be of welded construction throughout the pipe bores of 50mm and above
   unless indicated otherwise. Below 50mm the use of screwed joints and fittings
   will be permitted, but only where the pipework is visible, or where access along
   its length has been specifically provided.


   All pipework shall have plain ends machined and bevelled for butt welding, pipes
   specially cut to length shall also be similarly finished. Piping must be cut with a
   saw or special tool. The use of bevelled wheel cutters will not be allowed. All
   pipes are to be reamoured or filed to ensure full diameter.



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.3. / 11
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


   (b)   Bends and Fittings


   On pipe sizes 15mm to 40mm inclusive, ‘hot’ pulled bends formed on site will be
   permitted provided their radius is not less than 2.5 times the internal diameter. On
   pipe sizes 50mm and above bends shall be shop made preferably at one end of a
   length of pipe and the radius of the bend being not less than 2.5 times the
   internal diameter of the pipe unless otherwise specifically approved. Bends of
   corrugated, polygonal butt or other pattern will not be permitted unless specially
   approved by the Engineer.


   Tee pieces shall be formed by the direct welding of the branch pipe to the main
   with a branch taken in an ‘easy sweep’ from the main.


   Great care must be taken to ensure that branch pipes are correctly ‘saddled’ to fit
   the main and the completed weld in no way obstructs the bore of the main or
   branch pipe. Reduction in pipe diameters shall be obtained by butt welding
   tapered pieces; the taper pieces are to be of a standard length and arranged
   eccentrically where necessary to avoid air pockets and facilitate drainage.


   It is permissible for the Contractor to use branch bends, bends and reducing
   sockets of the seamless type with bevelled ends.


   Where screwed fittings are used they shall be black heavyweight malleable iron
   to BS 143 and BS 1256 with taper thread to BS 21 and an approved joint either
   using fine standard hemp with jointing compound or alternatively PTFE tape shall
   be used. Excess jointing materials shall be removed after the joint has been
   made. Wrought steel pipe fittings shall be manufactured from mild steel by a
   seamless or welded process to BS EN 10241.


   Welded fittings shall be BS 1965: Part 1 for steel tube to BS EN 10255 and be
   manufactured by a forged seamless process from mild steel.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 12
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
   For tube to BS EN 10216 and BS EN 10217 fittings shall be as follows:-




         Nominal Size           Wall Thickness           Outside Diameter
               (mm)                     (mm)                    (mm)


               175                      2.6                     194
               200                      5.6                     219
               250                      6.3                     273
               300                      7.1                     324
               350                      10.0                    356




   (c)    Joints


   Except where flanged joints are required for connections to plant, valves and
   expansion bellows, the pipe joints shall be welded on site by an approved fusion
   welded process. The distance between pipe joints shall not be less than 5.5
   metres except where essential for delivery, erection and dismantling for
   maintenance of Plant.


   Flanged joints on pipes and on valves shall be of a type to suit the maximum
   working pressure (PN rating) and temperature of the pipework installation in
   which they are fitted. Flanges must also be suitable for use with the liquids for
   which they are applied.


   On all pipework up to 50mm size unions shall be used at all dismantling points.
   These shall be of the ground-in spherical seat type and jointed to the pipe-work in
   an approved manner. Above 50mm diameter flanged connections shall be used.


2.3.7     Galvanised Steep Pipework Installation
         (a)    Pipework and Fittings


                All galvanised steel pipework and fittings shall be heavyweight quality
                to BS EN 10255 unless otherwise indicated.


                Up to and including 65mm diameter all fittings shall be screwed to BS


AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 13
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
              21 and shall be of high grade galvanised malleable iron type.


              Pipes of 80mm diameter and above shall have flanged connections
              jointed as specified below.


              Pipework must be cut with a saw. The use of bevelled wheel cutters
              will not be allowed. All pipes are to be reamoured or filed to ensure full
              diameter.


              All galvanised and steel pipework and fittings shall be installed strictly
              in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


              Prefabricated steel pipework to the specified grade shall be
              manufactured in workshop conditions and welded in accordance with
              section 2.3.22. Prefabricated galvanised mild steel pipework for
              sanitary installation shall be in accordance with BS 3868.


              Prefabricated pipework that has been cut and modified on site shall be
              sent off-site for re-galvanising. On no account will site applied cold
              painting treatment to the galvanised coating be accepted, unless the
              area to be painted is extremely small, and with prior approval of the
              Engineer.


        (b)   Joints


              Unions must be of the conical bronze ground seat type. The use of
              long screwed connectors will not be permitted.


              For sanitation and rainwater pipework (non-pressurised) joints, the use
              of mechanical gasketted joints (bolted) may be used with approval of
              the Engineer.


              Screwed fittings shall be jointed utilising PTFE thread to BS 7786, see
              Clause 2.3.3. Fine stranded hemp with jointing compound may be used
              but not on domestic hold and cold water services installations. Excess
              jointing material shall be removed after the joint has been made.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 14
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.8   Copper Pipework Installations


        (a)   Pipework


              All above ground copper pipework on hot, cold, water and fire fighting
              services (where specified) is to be BS EN 1057 R250 unless otherwise
              indicated. Where copper pipework has been specified for underground
              services, it shall be to R290.


              All copper tube shall be manufactured from phosphorus deoxidised
              non-arsenical copper to BS EN 1976 and BS EN 1978 and shall be
              suitably “kite marked” by a licensed manufacturer.


              Copper pipework cast into concrete slabs shall be to BS EN 1057
              R250, but with a polypropylene coating, with inner void between outer
              copper pipework surface and inner plastic wall profiled to trap air.


              Where water or air temperatures or conditions are likely to weaken soft
                                                                     C
              soldered joints, i.e. at temperatures in excess of 100° or where
              excessive pressure may occur and on all pipework handling
              condensate produced from a pressurised steam service, irrespective of
              temperature or pressure, brazing, hard or silver soldering with heavy
              duty fittings shall be used throughout.


              Where pipework is likely to become wet i.e. shower areas, copper
              pipework and fittings shall be chromium plated.


              Copper pipework installed underground shall be wrapped in two layers
              of Denso tape (followed by a good covering of Denso paste).


              All copper pipework and fittings shall be installed strictly in accordance
              with manufacturer’s recommendations.


              See Section ‘Inspection, Commissioning & Testing’ for random
              inspection and testing of copper pipework water services for lead
              contamination from use of lead based solders.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 15
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
        (b)   Fittings


              Fittings for copper pipework up to and including 67mm shall be in
              accordance with BS 864: Part 2 and manufactured by a BSI British
              Standard kite mark licensee.


              On pipework 76mm and over the fittings are to be an equal standard to
              BS 864 in terms of tolerance and test pressure.


              Integral solder ring, compression and end feed fittings size ranges and
              associated methods of jointing are described in the section entitled
              “Soldered and Compression Joints”. (Clause 2.3.8. (c)).


              Pipework shall be installed with adequate unions or flanges to allow the
              disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures to be
              easily and satisfactorily carried out.


        (c)   Soldered and Compression Joints


              All capillary joints up to and including 67mm diameter shall be non-
              dezincifiable copper alloy factory made fittings with integral ‘Lead Free’
              soft soldier jointing rings.


              All heavy duty capillary joints up to 54mm diameter shall be non-
              dezincifiable inhibited aluminium, brass or gunmetal (alloy LGZ)
              manufactured fittings with integral lead-free copper/silver/phosphorus
              had solder (silver brazing alloy to BS EN 1044) jointing rings.


              All fittings are to be stamped with the manufacturer’s logo to denote a
              lead free component and shall be manufactured by BSI British
              Standard kite mark licensee.


              All end fittings up to and including 107mm diameter shall be non-
              dezincifiable copper, gunmetal alloy factory made fittings. For sizes up
              to and including 67mm lead free soft solder shall be utilised and for 76
              and 108mm diameter sizes lead free copper/silver/phosphorus hard
                                                                      C
              solder with maximum working temperature of water of 220° (silver
              brazing alloy to BS EN 1044) shall be utilised. Fittings are to be



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 16
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            manufactured by a BSI British Standard kite mark licensee.


            Important note: End feed fittings shall only be used when written
            consent is gained from the Engineer.


            Composition of lead free solder for integral soft solder fittings and end
            feed fittings up to and including 67mm shall be either 1% copper/99%
            tin or 3% silver/97% tin to conform with the draft amendment BS 864.
            Lead based solder to BS 219 will not be permitted under any
            circumstances. The Engineer reserves the right to have removed from
            site all lengths of pipework made with the use of lead based solder.


            All compression joints up to and including 54mm diameter shall be non-
            dezincifiable copper alloy to BS 864. Couplings shall be fitted strictly in
            accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations, particular attention
            being given to cleanliness, lack of distortion of the pipe and ensuring
            full insertion depth and over-tightening of the compression joint.


            The Contractor shall ensure that any pipework to be brazed is prepared
            correctly and in accordance with the Heating and Ventilating
            Contractors Association.


            Prior to any brazing or bronze welding being undertaken a composite
            test piece shall be submitted and approved by the Engineer.


            The Engineer reserves the right to inspect, cut-out at random, any
            suspect capillary joints for laboratory analysis to determine if lead
            solder has been used in jointing pipelines. Should it be proven that lead
            based solders have been used, then the Engineer may instruct the
            Contractor to totally remove all the pipework installation and reinstate
            with new pipework installation using lead-free solder for capillary joints.
            This work, if instructed, will be carried out at the Contractor’s expense.


2.3.9   Stainless Steel Pipework Installations


            (a)   Pipework


            All stainless steel pipework shall be thin walled tubing to BS EN 10312.



AJC 05/07                        Section 2.3. / 17
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            All supports or clips and associated screws, bolts, and washers etc. are
            to be stainless steel and shall be spaced as indicated.


            All stainless steel pipework and fittings shall be installed and stored in
            strict accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


            (b)   Fittings


            All compression and capillary fittings shall be manufactured from grade
            304 S15 stainless steel.


            Pipework shall be installed with adequate unions or flanges to allow the
            disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures to be
            easily and satisfactorily carried out.


            (c)   Adhesive Bonding, Soldered and Compression Joints


            All stainless steel capillary fittings and pipework up to and including
            42mm shall be adhesive bonded, utilising an anaerobic adhesive, as
            approved by the Water Research Centre, such as Loctite 638 or similar
            and approved.


            Adhesive bonding shall not be used on pipework carrying or
            discharging water at or in excess of 80°C.


            All stainless steel pipework and capillary fittings up to and including
            28mm o.d. shall be soft soldered incorporating lead free soft solder (for
            water and steam up to 100°C.)


            All stainless steel pipework and capillary fittings 35mm and over shall
            be silver soldered to BS EN 1044 incorporating lead free materials.


            The Engineer reserves the right to inspect, cut-out at random, any
            suspect capillary joints for laboratory analysis to determine if lead
            solder has been used in jointing pipelines. Should it be proven that lead
            based solders have been used, then the Engineer may instruct the
            Contractor to totally remove all the pipework installation and reinstate



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 18
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            with new one using lead-free solder for capillary joints. This work, if
            instructed, will be carried out at the Contractor’s expense.


            All stainless steel compression joints up to and including 54mm
            diameter shall be grade 316 stainless steel with 303 nuts. Stainless
            steel couplings shall be fitted strictly in accordance with the
            manufacturer’s recommendations, particular attention being given to
            cleanliness, lack of distortion of the pipe and ensuring full insertion
            depth. Over-tightening of the compression joint shall be avoided.


2.3.10   Flux and Excess Solder


             Flux shall be of an appropriate type for making copper capillary joints
             of an appropriate phosphoric acid type suitable for stainless steel
             capillary joints and by an approved manufacturer.


             Flux shall conform to the Water Company requirements and be WRc
             approved, be biodegradable and water soluble for flushing out. Flux
             shall not support micro-biological growth in water.


             Excess solder shall be removed after jointing. Self cleaning types of
             flux shall not be used. The Engineer reserves the right to have
             removed from site all lengths of pipework made with the use of salt-
             cleaning flux materials.


2.3.11   PVC Pressure Pipework


             (a) Pipework


             Metric size PVC pressure pipe up to and including 315mm diameter
             shall be to DIN 8061/2 or DIN 8063 as applicable and ISO 727.


             Imperial size PVC pressure pipe up to and including 12” diameter shall
             be to BS 3505 or BS 3506 as applicable and BS 4346.


             All PVC pipework and fittings shall be installed strictly in accordance
             with manufacturer’s recommendations.




AJC 05/07                        Section 2.3. / 19
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
             (b) Fittings


             Metric PVC fittings up to and including 315mm diameter shall be to
             DIN 8063.


             Imperial PVC fittings up to and including 12” diameter shall be to BS
             4346: Part 1 and be manufactured by a British Standard kite mark
             licensee.


             (c) Joints


             PVC pressure pipework and fittings shall be jointed by solvent cement
             in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations and BS 4346:
             Part 3. Excess cement shall be removed after jointing. PVC solvent
             cement shall not support micro-biological growth in water.


             Gaskets and seals shall be made from EPDM unless otherwise stated
             with the Particular Specification or the Contract Drawings.


             Pipework shall be installed with adequate unions or flanges to allow
             the disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures
             allowing the aforementioned to be easily and satisfactorily carried out.


             PVC pipework installations shall incorporate manufactured expansion
             units or expansion loops to allow for the relief of thermal movement in
             accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


2.3.12   UPVC Pipework


             (a)   Pipework and Fitting for Above Ground Installation
             UPVC pipework and fittings from 82mm diameter up to and including
             160mm diameter shall be to BS 4514 and manufactured by a British
             Standard kite mark licensee.


             All UPVC pipework and fittings shall be stored and installed strictly in
             accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


             (b) Joints



AJC 05/07                        Section 2.3. / 20
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
             UPVC pipework and fittings shall be jointed by solvent cement and/or
             seal ring joints in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


             Pipework shall be installed with adequate unions or flanges to allow
             the disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures to
             be easily and satisfactorily carried out.


             UPVC pipework installations shall incorporate seal ring joints or
             thermal movement limiters to allow for the relief and control of thermal
             movement.


             Seals shall be made from natural or synthetic rubber unless otherwise
             stated with the Particular Specification or the Contract Drawings.


             To accommodate expansion for both horizontal and vertical runs the
             pipes must be free to move through the pipe clip/holder bat and seal
             ring socket so that a gap exists between the end of the pipe and the
             socket register as recommended by the pipe manufacturer. For long
             horizontal suspended runs a thermal movement limiter shall be
             installed where indicated on the drawings.


             An expansion joint must be fitted between two securely fixed points
             not less than 1m apart or not more than 4m apart for soil pipes and
             2m apart for vent pipes.


             NB. Thermal movement limiters shall be securely fixed to soffit of
             ceiling etc. by use of mild steel/angle framework to act as anchors.


2.3.13   MUPVC Pipework


             (a)   Pipework and Fittings


             MUPVC pipework and fittings up to and including 50mm diameter
             shall be to BS 5255 and manufactured by a British Standard kite mark
             licensee.


             All MUPVC pipework and fittings shall be installed and stored strictly
             in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 21
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
             (b)   Joints


             MUPVC pipework and fittings shall be jointed by solvent cement and
             seal ring joints in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


             Pipework shall be installed with adequate unions or flanges to allow
             the disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures to
             be easily and satisfactorily carried out.


             MUPVC pipework installations shall incorporate seal ring joints to
             allow for the relief and control of thermal movement as recommended
             by the pipework manufacturer.


             Seal rings shall be made from natural or synthetic rubber unless
             otherwise indicated.


             To accommodate expansion for both horizontal and vertical runs, the
             pipes must be free to move through the pipe clip/holder bat and a seal
             ring socket so that a gap exists between the end of the pipe and the
             socket register as recommended by the pipe manufacturer.


             An expansion joint must be fitted between two securely fixed points
             not less than 1m apart as previously described.


2.3.14   MDPE Pipework (Below Ground)


             (a)   Pipework and Fittings


             Medium Density Polyethylene (MDPE) pipework and fittings for water
             use (Blue) up to and including 63mm diameter external shall be to BS
             6572, manufactured by a British Standard kite mark licensee and WRc
             – W1S.04.32.02 and for pipework 90mm (external) up to and including
             400mm diameter shall be to WRc - W1S.04.32.03 and WRc -
             W1S.04.32.04.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 22
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


             (b)   Joints


             MDPE pipes and fittings shall generally be jointed by means of
             electrofusion or flanged fittings. Compression fittings shall also be
             permitted for pipework up to 63mm diameter.


             Pipework shall be installed with adequate unions or flanges to allow
             the disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures to
             be easily and satisfactorily carried out.


2.3.15   Cast Iron Above Ground Sanitation Pipework (Mechanically Jointed)


             (a)   Pipework and Fittings


             Cast iron pipework and fittings up to and including 300mm diameter
             shall be to DIN 19522 and ISO 6594 as manufactured by a European
             foundry as indicated.


             Cast iron pipework and fittings shall be installed strictly in accordance
             with manufacturer’s recommendations.


             (b)   Joints


             Cast iron pipes and fittings shall be jointed by means of mechanical
             couplings to BS EN 877 incorporating synthetic rubber gaskets
             (EPDM or nitrile) in accordance with BS EN 681 and utilising stainless
             steel nuts and bolts or set screws.


             Couplings shall be fitted strictly in accordance with manufacturer’s
             recommendation, particular attention being given to cleanliness, lack
             of distortion of the pipe and ensuring full insertion depth. Bolts shall be
             tightened alternatively so that the gap between couplings is even on
             both sides (where applicable) and to the specified torque settings.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 23
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                  Pipework shall be installed with adequate demountable joints to allow
                  the disconnection of pipework for maintenance and test procedures to
                  be easily and satisfactorily carried out.
                  European/British Standard cast iron pipework systems shall not be
                  mixed within a completed installation.


2.3.16   Conventional Cast Iron Above Ground Sanitation Pipework


            (a)    Pipework and Fittings


            Conventional cast iron spigot and socket pipework and fittings up to and
            including 150mm diameter shall be to BS 416 as manufactured by a
            British Standard kite mark licensee as indicated.


            Cast iron pipework and fittings shall be installed strictly in accordance with
            manufacturer’s recommendations.


            (b)    Joints


            Cast iron pipes and fittings shall incorporate spigot and socket joints for a
            lead caulked joint.


2.3.17   UPVC Rainwater Installation


            a)    Pipework and Fittings


            UPVC external rainwater pipework and gutter fittings shall be to BS 4576
            and manufactured by a British Standard kite mark licensee as indicated.


            UPVC external rainwater pipework, gutters and fitting shall be strictly
            installed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


            b)    Joints


            UPVC external pipework, gutters and fittings shall be jointed by solvent
            cement and/or sealing sockets.




AJC 05/07                              Section 2.3. / 24
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            c)   Thermal Movement


                  i.    Gutters-supports, fixings and connectors to gutters shall allow
                        adequate thermal movement to take place and be in
                        accordance       with      the    pipework        manufacturer’s
                        recommendations.
                  ii.   Rainwater pipes: the type of jointing used for rainwater pipes
                        shall allow for thermal movement to take place, without
                        leakage distortion and displacement of fittings. The method of
                        expansion    shall be    in   accordance   with   the   pipework
                        manufacturer’s recommendations.


 2.3.18 Aluminium Rainwater Installation


            a)   Pipework and Fittings


            Aluminium heavy grade gutters and fittings shall be BS 2997.


            Aluminium heavy grade external down pipes and fittings shall be to BS
            2997, BS EN 573, BS EN 755, and BS EN 12020.
            Internal aluminium rolled and seam welded pipe and fittings shall be to BS
            1470: 1972: Grade T57S: H8 condition.


            b)   External Down Pipe Jointing


            Aluminium down pipes shall be jointed so as to achieve a watertight joint
            utilising low modules, Type A (non-acetoxic) silicone sealant over a
            caulking material such as polyethylene backing foam with an expansion
            gap so as to allow thermal movement.


            The aluminium rainwater installation shall be installed strictly in
            accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 25
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.19   Cast Iron Rainwater Installation


            a)   Pipework and Fittings


            Cast iron pipework and fittings up to and including 150mm diameter shall
            be to BS EN 877 as manufactured by a British Standard kite mark
            licensee as indicated.


            European Standard cast iron pipework and fittings up to and including
            150mm diameter shall be to DIN 19522 and ISO 6594 as manufactured
            by a European Foundry as indicated.


            Cast iron spigot and socket (circular and square) pipework and fittings up
            to and including 100mm diameter shall be to BS 460 as manufactured by
            a British Standard kite mark licensee with open or mastic sealed joints, as
            indicated.


            As indicated traditional circular and/or square cast iron rainwater
            pipework, gutters and fittings shall be to BS 460 and shall only be used for
            external applications.


            Cast iron pipework, gutters and fittings shall be installed strictly in
            accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.


            b)   Joints


            Cast iron pipework, with spigot ends and fittings shall be jointed by means
            of mechanical couplings and of a socket pattern to BS 460.


            Couplings shall be fitted strictly in accordance with manufacturer’s
            recommendations, particular attention being given to cleanliness, lack of
            distortion of the pipe and ensuring full insertion depth. Bolts/screws shall
            be tightened to the manufacturer’s specified torque settings.


            Conventional socketted cast iron pipework, gutters and fittings shall be
            jointed by means of socket and spigots to recommendations of BS 460.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 26
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            Cast iron gutter sockets and spigots shall be jointed with an approved
            putty or mastic compound which should be evenly spread along the joint.


2.3.20   Flanged Joints


               a. All black pipe flanges shall be screwed of the ‘slip-on’ welding type
                   and conform to BS 10. Flanges on galvanised pipe shall be
                   screwed, galvanised and all exposed threads shall be painted with
                   a zinc-rich paint immediately after the flange is screwed on. Where
                   pipework is to be galvanised after fabrication, welded flanges shall
                   be used. All flanges shall be machined right across the jointing
                   face and on the edges.


               b. Mild steel flanges shall be drilled with a slight taper in their bore
                   and be provided with a shaped boss to facilitate welding. Flanges
                   shall be welded neck and bore.


               c. Long neck welding flanges shall not be used and the practice of
                   burning out the threads of a screwing flange will not be permitted.


               d. All pipework flanges shall, when in position, forming a pair, be
                   flush with one another all round. Flanges shall, depending on the
                   flange material, be bolted together with bronze or bright mild steel
                   bolts and nuts complete with washers. Bolts shall project no more
                   than one and a half threads through the nuts. Where high tensile
                   or other special bolts or nuts are required for arduous application,
                   approved identification of such requirement will be required at
                   each such flange.


               e. Joints between flanges shall normally be made with brass
                   corrugated rings, mineral compound rings or other approved
                   jointing materials.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 27
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.21   Welding of Metallic Pipe Joints


            Electric welding is to be used, except for the pipes below 80mm which
            may be welded by the oxy-acetylene method and the standard of welding
            throughout is to be in accordance with current standard practice.


            The Contractor shall provide written proof of this experience and his ability
            to employ welders capable of working to the above standard of welding.
            The written proof should cover experience over a period of the last 5
            years, and the Contractor shall also state that he will have suitably
            experienced welders available to commence site work when required.


            Full details of the proposed method of welding, electric arc or oxy-
            acetylene, shall be submitted by the Contractor prior to commencement of
            the Contract.


2.3.22   Welding of Plastic Pipe Joints


            Electrofusion welded joints in medium/high density polyethylene pipework
            shall be made only between pipes having the same physical
            characteristics. Joints between pipes of different manufacturers shall only
            be made with specific approval of the Engineer.


            Hot air fusion welding of plastic materials shall only be used in workshop
            situations. Where hot air fusion welding is necessary on site, dictated by
            an unusual situation, the written approval of the Engineer shall be gained
            before works are carried out.


            Solvent welding of UPVC, MUPC, PVC or ABS plastic materials shall only
            be made between pipes having the same physical characteristics. Joints
            between pipes of different manufacturer’s shall only be made with specific
            approval of the Engineer. All solvent welded joints shall be made to the
            pipework manufacturer’s recommendations and/or to Water Industry
            Standard Specifications WIS No. 4-32-08, when applicable. Solvent
            welded joints shall, in addition to the above, conform to the following
            standards UPVC: BS 4346: Part 3 or BS 6209, MUPVC: BS 4346: Part 3
            or BS 6209, PVC: BS 4346, Part 3.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 28
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            Full details of the proposed method of electrofusion and/or hot air welding
            shall be submitted to the Engineer by the Contractor prior to
            commencement of the contract.


            The Contractor shall provide written proof of his plastic welding
            experience and his ability to employ electrofusion/hot air welders capable
            of working to the recognised plastic welding standards. This written proof
            should cover experience over a period of the last 5 years, and the
            Contractor shall also state that he will have suitable experienced welders
            available to commence site work when required. When welding is to be
            carried out on water industry pipework, the certified welder shall be
            trained   on   a Water       Industry   Training   Association   or   Pipework
            Manufacturer approved Water Industry training course.


2.3.23   Tests for Welders Qualifications (General)


            The purpose of the welder’s qualification tests is to determine the ability of
            welders to make sound and acceptable welds. Before any site welding on
            the Contract is performed, each welder shall carry out tests required in the
            presence of the Engineer or the Employer’s Insurance Inspector.


            Weld test specimens which have been suitably marked and approved
            shall be kept on site by the Engineer or by another responsible person so
            that they can be produced at any time, at the request of the Engineer.


            All accommodation, benches, tools, welding plant, acetylene, oxygen,
            electrofusion or electricity, test pieces, filler rods and electrodes, including
            facilities for cutting, grinding, polishing, bending and examining, which are
            necessary for welders qualification tests shall be provided by the
            Contractor.


            Under no circumstances shall a welder be employed on the Contract
            whether on or off site for welding operations other than those for which
            the welder is qualified.




AJC 05/07                              Section 2.3. / 29
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            Copies and records of all test reports shall be promptly given to and kept
            by the Engineer.


            The Engineer may, at his discretion, waive the specified welders’
            qualifications tests for those welders holding a current welding certificate,
            to an approved standard, of any of the following:


                   H.V.A.C.
                   B.O.C.
                   Lloyds
                   City and Guilds
                   A.O.T.C.
                   Water Industry Standards


            The waiver will be made provided they have been employed since the
            date the certificate was issued with reasonable continuity on welding the
            type of joint concerned. The Engineer shall have the right to refuse any
            welder whose work is, in the Engineer’s opinion, not to the required
            standard.


2.3.24   Tests for Welder Qualification Steel Pipes


            Each test shall be carried out in accordance with the test procedures laid
            down in BS 4872: Parts 1 and 3 and BS 2971. The test position shall be
            similar to the working conditions expected to be encountered and test
            pieces shall not be rotated to suit any individual welding procedure. Each
            test sample shall be subjected to the following examinations and tests:




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 30
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS




            Butt joints on pipes up to and       Visual examination and normal
            including 114mm o.d.                 tongue bend test


            Butt joints on pipes above           Visual examination and 2 normal
            114mm o.d.                           tongue bend tests and 2 reverse
                                                 bend tests.



            Branch welds                         As above dependant on size plus
                                                 macro-examination




            The Engineer may, at his discretion waive the macro-examination
            requirements.


            For a successful test the test weld shall conform in all respects to the
            requirements laid down in the above British Standard Specifications. Each
            welder who qualifies, shall be issued with a metal punch with an
            identifying number which shall be stamped adjacent to each weld made
            by that welder whether on or off site. Records of welders’ names and
            identifying numbers shall be promptly forwarded to the Engineer prior to
            welders commencing work.


            If any test sample does not reach the required standard, two further welds
            shall be made and tested as detailed above. Both the re-tests shall be
            successful for the welder to qualify for the work required in this
            specification.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 31
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.25   Tests for Welder Qualification Copper Pipes


            Each gas welded joint test shall be carried out in accordance with the test
            procedures laid down in BS 1724. The test position shall be similar to the
            working conditions expected to be encountered and test pieces shall not
            be rotated to suit any individual welding procedure. Each test sample shall
            be subjected to the following tests and examinations:


               a. Visual examination


               b. Flattening test


               c. Macro-examination


            The Engineer may at his discretion waive the macro-examination
            requirements.


            For a successful test, the test weld shall conform in all respects to the
            requirements laid down in the above British Standard Specification. Each
            welder who qualifies, shall be issued with a metal punch with an
            identifying number which shall be stamped adjacent to each weld made
            by that welder whether on or off site. Records of welders’ names and
            identifying numbers shall be promptly forwarded to the Engineer prior to
            welders commencing work.


2.3.26   Radiographic Examinations


            The Radiographic Examination Company shall provide a report on the
            radiographic tests which have been made, including in interpretative
            results section. The report and films shall be handed to the Engineer.


            The material of the Image Quality Indicator shall be radiographically
            similar to that of the filler metal under examination.


            The use of X-ray and Gamma Radiation sources shall be in strict
            compliance with the requirements of the Ionising Radiation (Sealed
            Sources) Regulations 1961.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 32
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            The required radiograph sensitivity shall not be more than 2, and the
            required image details shall be readily seen on each radiograph.


            Radiographs which do not comply with this requirement, whatever the
            cause, are unacceptable and the weld in question shall be re-examined at
            no cost to the Contract.


            All interested parties shall be advised well in advance where and when
            radiograph tests are to be conducted, in order that appropriate
            precautions may be taken.


2.3.27   Pipework Cleanliness


            (a)   Cleanliness of Pipes


            The Contractor shall at all times observe the installation and storage
            procedure as recommended by the pipework manufacturer.


            Pipework and similar materials shall be adequately supported and stored
            on properly made racks, approved by the Engineer, to prevent bending
            and distortion, and the ends shall be closed and threads protected by
            means of purpose-made end caps.


            The storage of pipework, or other materials, by laying them on earth will
            not be permitted.


            Care shall be exercised during the erection of pipework to ensure that
            foreign matter is not allowed to enter or remain in the pipes.


            When any portion of the installation is left open for any purpose
            whatsoever, the open end(s) shall be temporarily sealed with purpose-
            made plugs or blanking caps manufactured from metal or plastic material.
            Rags, paper, or similar substances shall not be used under any
            circumstances.


            A valve fitted at the end of a discontinued pipe shall not be considered
            satisfactory to prevent the ingress of foreign matter.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 33
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            Failure to comply with this instruction shall mean that the Engineer shall
            have the right to instruct the Contractor that pipework so left unprotected
            shall be dismantled for such lengths as the Engineer requests and the
            pipework blown through and/or cleaned at the Contractor’s expense.


            A black mild steel pipework installed throughout the Contract whether
            utilising screwed or welded joints, after erection shall be suitably wiped
            clean and one coat of red oxide primer paint shall be applied. This shall
            also apply to all mild steel brackets, drop rods, etc.


            (b)    Pipe Cutting


            Piping shall be cut clean and square with the axis of the pipe, except
            where a bevelled edge is required for welding, using a saw, pipe-cutting
            tool or machine.


            Before installation the ends of the pipes shall be correctly prepared by
            filing or grinding, and any internal burrs shall be removed by filing or
            reaming to a distinct countersink. The Engineer may call upon the
            Contractor to disconnect any pipes for inspection. Should inspection
            reveal any neglect of reaming, the Contractor will be required to remove,
            re-fix and re-test at his own expense as much of the pipework as may be
            deemed necessary by the Engineer.


2.3.28   Pipework Supports


            As a general guide supports shall conform to B.S.3974 Parts 1 and 2.


            (a) Pipework shall be adequately supported in such a manner as to permit
                  free movement due to expansion and contraction.


                  The spacing of supports shall not exceed the centres given in Tables
                  (A), (B) and (C) based upon the smallest pipe in a group.


            (b) All non rigid plastic pipework shall be continuously supported.


            (c) Pipework supports shall be arranged as near as possible to joints, and
                  each support must take its due proportion of the pipe weight.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 34
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            (d) Vertically raising pipes shall, in addition, be adequately supported at
               the base to withstand the total filled weight of the riser. Branches from
               risers shall not be used as a means of support for the riser.


            (e) Hangers for horizontal pipework at high level shall be supported from
               angle or channel irons supplied by the Contractor, and suitable for
               building in or otherwise securing to the structure.


            (f) On copper pipework all pipe clips, supports or brackets shall be of
               cast brass construction and fixing shall be of non-corroding
               construction. Exposed copper pipework brackets shall be of the
               hospital pattern (Yorkshire No.110).


            (g) Insulation material shall be inserted between chilled water and
               incoming mains water pipework and pipework supports to obviate
               condensation occurring on exposed supports. This material shall be
               installed to the same thickness as the pipework insulation to be
               applied.


            (h) Where called for the Contractor shall support pipework within plant
               rooms with anti-vibration hangers.



            (i) Brackets in trenches shall comprise suitable steel section spanning
               trench walls clear of trench floor, with a pipe laid inside the section to
               support the pipes. Pipes shall be held in place by U-bolt guides.


               Where U-bolts are used as guides, the shall be bent to a radius of
               1.5mm greater than the outside radius of the pipe, with the two ends
               threaded and secured to the supporting steel.


               The diameter of the road shall be 15mm for pipes of 150mm to 80mm
               bore, 10mm for pipes of 65mm to 40mm bore, and 5mm for pipes of
               32mm bore and below.


            (j) A bracket on the draw off line, on hot and cold water services, is to be
               provided on each side of every stopcock or valve, while they shall be



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 35
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
               elsewhere arranged at appropriate equal intervals.


            (k) All pressure cold water and fire protection mains are to be supported
               as previously specified but with the purpose-made lateral anchors on
               both sides of each change of direction, to oppose the tendency of the
               bends and sets to open under pressure.


            (l) Detail of all pipe brackets and anchor points along with the method of
               incorporation to the structure shall be produced by the Contractor to a
               scale not less than 1:20 for approval by the Engineer/Structural
               Engineer a minimum of 14 days prior to the incorporation into the
               works.


            (m) Provide all clips, brackets, foundation bolts, anchor plates, washers,
               plugs, etc for all equipment materials supplied as part of the sub-
               contract.


            (n) Approval shall be obtained for all fixings into concrete walls, floors,
               ceilings and roofs. Lightweight equipment and pipework may be fixed
               to the building structure by screws in plastic plugs. Wood or fibre plugs
               shall not be used. Fixings to brickwork, blockwork and pre-cast
               concrete components shall not be made in the bond. Fixings to wood
               fitments shall be by screws. All screws fixings shall be sheradised and
               greased before use.


               Heavyweight equipment and pipework shall be fixed with masonry
               fixings of the expanding type. Fixings to concrete shall not exceed
               30mm in depth and 6mm in diameter without written consent.


               Fixings shall be of the correct size and type for the fixing/load applied
               and these shall be agreed with the Engineer in writing prior to the
               commencement of the works.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 36
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            TABLE (A)    SUPPORTS STEEL PIPEWORK


SIZE OF              INTERVALS FOR               INTERVALS FOR VERTICAL
 TUBE             HORIZONTAL RUNS                RUNS – BARE OR LAGGED


 (mm)       BARE            LAGGED
            (m)            (m)                            (m)


   15         1.8                1.8                      2.4
   20          2.4               2.4                      3.0
   25          2.4               2.4                      3.0
   32          2.7               2.4                      3.0
   40          3.0               2.4                      3.7
   50          3.0               2.4                      3.7
   65          3.7               3.0                      4.6
   80          3.7               3.0                      4.6
  100          4.0               3.0                      4.6
  125          4.5               3.7                      5.5
  150          5.5               4.5                      5.5




AJC 05/07                    Section 2.3. / 37
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                  TABLE (B)   SUPPORTS FOR COPPER PIPEWORK


SIZE OF                  INTERVALS FOR                INTERVALS FOR VERTICAL
 TUBE                   HORIZONTAL RUNS               RUNS – BARE OR LAGGED


 (mm)             BARE          LAGGED
                  (m)           (m)                            (m)


   15                   1.2           1.2                      1.8
   22                   1.2           1.2                      1.8
   28                   1.8           1.5                      2.4
   35                   2.4           1.8                      3.0
   42                   2.4           1.8                      3.0
   54                   2.7           1.8                      3.0
   65                   3.0           2.4                      3.7
   76                   3.0           2.4                      3.7
  108                   3.0           2.4                      3.7
  133                   3.7           3.0                      3.7
  159                   4.5           3.7                      3.7




                  TABLE (C)   SUPPORT FOR PLASTICS PIPEWORK



    NOMINAL BORE                 INTERVALS FOR                INTERVALS FOR
        OF PIPE                 HORIZONTAL RUNS               VERTICAL RUNS
          (inches)                          (m)                      (m)


              ½                             0.75                     1.5
            ¾ to 1                          1.0                      1.8
             1¼                             1.0                      2.0
             1½                             1.2                      2.4
          2 to 2 ½                          1.4                      2.8
              3                             1.8                      3.5
        4 and over                          2.0                      4.0




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.3. / 38
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.29   Pipework Expansion


            (a) Provision shall be made for movement due to expansion, either by
               special expansion joints, or by changes in direction of the pipework as
               indicated. Supports at such expansion joints shall be arranged to
               ensure that all expansion is taken up by the loop or changes in
               direction of the pipework. Where pipes are required to be pre-stressed
               for the purpose of reducing expansion stress under working
               conditions, the extent of the cold pull will be 50% of the total
               movement of the pipe expansion joint from cold to normal working
               temperatures, unless specifically noted to the contrary.


               Where flanged joints have been utilised for cold draw, all nuts and
               bolts shall be renewed after pre-stressing has taken place.


               Not more than 10mm of expansion vertical movement will be
               permitted on branches from risers unless suitable loop or change in
               direction is incorporated in the branch.


            (b) Expansion joints must be adequately supported and the pipework
               provided with proper guides. All bellows shall be of stainless steel
               single wall multiple convolution construction, with suitable end
               connections shall be argon-arc welded. Gunmetal female screwed
               ends shall be silver soldered. Bellows on domestic hot water circuits
               shall be so constructed that only stainless steel will be in contact with
               the pipe contents. Bellows shall be installed with 50% of the total
               calculated    movement       being     taken   up   by   cold   draw.   The
               recommendations of the manufacturer must be rigidly adhered to.


               Details of the proposed methods must be submitted to the Engineer
               for approval, prior to installation.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 39
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.30   Anchor Points


            Suitable anchor points to B.S.3974 Parts 1 and 2 shall be installed where
            pipework expansion is occurring.


            Anchor points for pipework in trenches shall generally consist of mild steel
            channel iron framework, welded to the pipework, built into trench or
            adequately bolted and designed to withstand the calculated thrust.


            All pipework subject to movement shall be adequately guided. Guides
            shall have a maximum clearance around the pipe of 1.6mm. Special
            attention must be paid to the alignment of brackets, particularly near
            expansion bellows.


            Any cold pull-up expansion joints shall not be applied until the anchors are
            rigid and firm.


            The Contractor shall submit detailed calculations for approval by the
            Engineer/Structural Engineer.


2.3.31   Sleeves and Floorplates


            Chrome, steel or plastic floor plates, shall be fitted on each side of the
            sleeve which shall be of the same material as the pipe, and the ends shall
            finish flush with the surface.


            Chilled water pipework sleeve shall be of sufficient diameter to allow the
            insulation to be carried through, together with the vapour barrier.


            In kitchens and bathrooms the pipe sleeve shall project 100mm above
            floor level.


            The space between the pipe and the pipe sleeve shall be lightly caulked
            with glass cloth or other suitable material so that a one hour minimum of
            fire resistance is obtained in accordance with the latest Building
            Regulations. Pipes passing through sleeves in external walls of buildings,
            ducts, subways, etc., shall be caulked between pipe and sleeve with
            approved material e.g. lead wool, to form an effective and permanent


AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 40
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            vermin proof and weatherproof seal.


2.3.32   Air Venting and Draining


            All pipes shall be laid to fall so that they clear themselves of air naturally
            through vent pipes or through air bottles where deemed necessary. The
            Contractor shall allow adequate facilities to drain sections of work without
            disrupting the entire system.


            At venting points, air bottles shall be provided constructed of 50mm bore
            for pipes up to that size, the same bore as the pipes up to 80mm bore,
            and for pipes over that size they shall also be 80mm bore.


            The length of the air bottle to be 150mm – 300mm long, according to
            location and duty.


            10mm n.b. release pipework is to be provided and shall terminate with
            10mm needle valve.


            Where the air bottle is fixed out of reach, an extension bleed pipe shall be
            neatly run from the top of the air bottle to a convenient but unobtrusive
            position 1.2 metres from finished floor and terminated with a needle valve.
            Needle valves on all systems shall be suitably capped.


            On H.T.H.W. heating all air bottles shall be provided with a cooling leg
            with double valve arrangement.


            Automatic air vents shall be used only when specifically indicated. They
            shall have gunmetal or brass bodies, non-ferrous or stainless steel floats
            and guides, non-corrodible valves and seats. Each A.A.V. shall be
            controlled by a lockshield valve.


            Air venting devices and any air release pipes installed in exposed
            positions shall be insulated to prevent freezing.


            Drain points shall be fitted at all low points which cannot be emptied
            through other parts of the system.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 41
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.33   Dirt Pockets


            Dirt pockets shall be the same material as the pipe. The dirt pocket shall
            be 300mm long and provided with a capped end up to and including
            50mm bore pipe and blanked flange end on pipes 65mm and above.
            25mm drain cocks shall be fitted to the side of the pocket 200mm from the
            end.


            Dirt pockets shall be provided at the base of all vertical pipes serving
            more than three floors.


2.3.34   Test Points


            Self-sealing neoprene rubber test points shall be installed in the following
            positions:


            1 – on each return main immediately prior to their connection into the
            common return header.


            1 – on both suction and delivery connections of all pump sets, between
            isolating valve and pump body.


            1 – immediately on both inlet and outlet of items of equipment.


            1 – on each port of control valves immediately adjacent to the control
            valve.


            These connections are to be used for testing and balancing purposes.


            Test points of this nature shall not be used for systems operating above
            90°C.


            The Contractor is to supply suitable pressure gauges and thermometers
            for test purposes only and they will remain the property of the Contractor.


            Upon completion of the Contract a new complete boxed set of all gauges
            shall be handed over by the Contractor to the Client.




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.3. / 42
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.35     Flushing Connection


            On all distribution circuits to items of equipment such as fan coil units,
            induction units chillers, boilers etc. or any item of equipment with a
            restriction to flow via a coil, narrow passages etc. a continuous circuit
            shall be provided without allowing water to pass through the said
            equipment. A tight shut off isolating valve shall be provided in the
            connection between flow and return lines, opened only for flushing out
            purposes. Quick fill points with isolation valve shall be provided for
            flushing through.


            It shall be the Contractors responsibility to provide sufficient stool pieces
            for quick fill points, drain points and isolation valves to flush the system in
            sections as required, by the current edition of BSRIA publication
            Application Guide 8/91 ‘Pre-Commissioning Cleaning of Water Systems’.


2.3.36     Valves, Taps, Cocks, Strainers, Etc

2.3.36.1    General


                a) Valves shall be easily accessible and where installed in the
                   horizontal at high level shall have the valve spindle vertically
                   downwards, where headroom permits unless agreed otherwise by
                   the Engineer. Where loose jumper taps and cocks are specified,
                   these shall only be installed, either with the spindle in the
                   horizontal plane or vertically upwards.


                b) Where valves are indicated as lockable the locking device shall
                   remain attached to the valves at all times but the locking device,
                   when unlocked shall not impede the fast opening or closing of the
                   valve when required.


                c) All valves shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
                   recommendations.


                d) In all instances where strainers are installed, whether on pump
                   suction lines or small bore circuit connections, an isolating valve
                   shall be fitted to each side of the strainer to facilitate removal and



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 43
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                    cleaning of the strainer basket.


               e) All valves or cocks on potable water services, softened water, cold
                    water and hot water services shall be subject to Local Water
                    Company requirements and shall be tested and approved and be
                    listed in the WRc “Directory of Approved Water Fittings” available
                    from the Water Research Centre (Water Bylaws Advisory
                    Services, Slough, Berks).


               f) Valves and controlling devices shall be suitable for connections to
                    the pipework material specified.


               g) All valves for Fire Fighting purposes shall comply with Fire
                    Authority    requirements,   statutory   requirements   and   British
                    Standard Codes of Practice.


               h) 3-way cocks used to combine open vents shall give a clear
                    indication of the position of the ports. A loose operating key shall
                    be included with each cock. The drain ports shall be connected to
                    pipework and be discharged over a tundish.


               i)   Ball float valves for use with feed and expansion tanks shall be of
                    the long-arm type capable of shutting off when the tank is at half
                    capacity.


               j)   The Contractor shall ensure that gland packing materials for
                    valves, taps and cocks is suitable for the working temperature,
                    pressure and media involved, inclusive of water treatment
                    chemicals.


               k) All valves and installation methods shall comply with the current
                    edition of the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations 1999.

2.3.36.2    Valve Requirements


            In addition to valves and cocks shown on the drawings, the Contractor
            shall include for the installation of sufficient valves and strainers etc, as
            detailed below, to satisfy the Engineer that the following facilities will be



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 44
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            available.


               a) Regulation of low and medium temperature hot water by means of
                    a single commissioning set (orifice/double regulation valve) on the
                    return, having fine mesh strainers upstream of the orifice valve,
                    and with isolation valve installed in the flow.


               b) Isolation of low and medium temperature hot water by gate valves.


               c) Isolation of high and medium temperature hot water by parallel
                    slide valves and gate valves with bolted bonnets.


               d) Isolation of secondary hot water service circulation by gate valves.


                    Where regulation is required, orifice and double regulating valves
                    shall be used.


               e) Isolation and regulation of chilled and condenser cooling water by
                    gate, orifice and double regulating valves (single commissioning
                    station) on the return and with isolating valve on the flow.


               f) Isolation of cold water services by sluice valves, gate valves and
                    stopcocks.


                    Where regulation is required, orifice and double regulating valves
                    shall be used.


               g) Isolation of steam by parallel slide valves and mains pipework, by
                    bonnet type gun metal gate valves on sizes 50mm and below.


               h) Isolation of gas services by gas cocks, lubricated plug valves, ball
                    valves and alternatively butterfly valves.


               i)   Isolation of de-mineralised water by diaphragm valves.


               j)   Isolation of compressed air service by gate or diaphragm valves.


               k) Isolation of vacuum service by diaphragm valves.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 45
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                   l)   Valves up to and including 50mm bore shall have a compression
                        ends to BS 864 Part 2 for copper pipework, or screwed ends to BS
                        21 for iron pipework and for copper to iron adapters.


                        Valves 65mm and above shall be flanged to BS EN 1092 for steel,
                        cast iron or copper as appropriate, and suitable for pressure rating
                        PN 16 unless otherwise stated.


                        All stopcocks shall be to BS 1010, with screwed ends or
                        compression fittings as appropriate.

2.3.36.3     Domestic Hot, Cold, and Fire Water Services Isolation Valves


           (a)    Ball Pattern Isolation Valve (15-22mm)


                 Ball pattern isolation valves shall be of the screwdriver/lever operated
                 type (as indicated) with brass chrome plated body and compression
                 ends. Extended spindles shall be fitted if pipework is to be lagged.


           (b)    Stop Valves for Above Ground Mains Cold Water (up to 50mm)


                 Stop valves are to be straight pattern with copper alloy body
                 manufactured to BS 1010. Stop valves incorporating an integral drain
                 cock shall also be permitted.


           (c)    Stop Valve for Below Ground Mains Cold Water (up to 63mm – MDPE,
                  54mm – COPPER, 2” – BSP Female).


                 Underground stop valves are to be straight pattern with gunmetal body
                 (immune to dezincification) manufactured to BS 5433.


           (d)    Isolation Valves (up to 50mm)


                 Isolation valves for hot and cold water services shall be gate type to BS
                 5154 suitable for potable water device.


           (e)    Gate/Sluice Valve (80mm – 300mm) – Above and Below Ground



AJC 05/07                               Section 2.3. / 46
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


              The isolation gate valve shall be to BS 5163 incorporating stainless steel
              stem with two toroidal stem sealing rings carried in acetyl bush set within
              an SG iron housing. The stem nut shall be of copper alloy and the gate
              of the valve shall be a resilient seat pattern with nitrite rubber moulded
              onto an iron casting.


        (f)    DHWS Double Regulating Valves (up to 50mm)


              The valves for domestic hot water pipework shall be bronze/gunmetal
              type to BS 5154, oblique or Y pattern. Valves shall incorporate a globe
              pattern seating and calibrated opening scale for commissioning
              purposes, and complete with locking device.


        (g)    DHWS Three Way Valves (up to 50mm)


              Valves shall have bronze/cast iron body and shall be ‘L’ or ‘T’ ported
              with lubricated taper plug valves standard type with 734 sealant (to
                                  C
              withstand up to 100° operating temperature). Valves 65mm and above
              shall have flanged ends.


        (h)    Fire Hydrant – Sluice Valves (up to 80mm)


              Fire hydrant sluice valves shall be to BS 5163 incorporating a stainless
              steel stem with two toroidal stem sealing rings carried in an Acetyl bush
              set within the SG iron housing. The stem nut shall be of copper alloy and
              the gate of the valve shall be of a resilient seat pattern with nitrite
              compound rubber moulded onto an iron casting.


        (i)    Fire Hydrant – Screw-down Globe (up to 80mm)


              Fire hydrant screw-down globe valve shall incorporate a stainless steel
              non-rising stem with Acetyl bush set sealing device with two toroidal
              stem sealing rings and SG iron body with machined bronze mating
              surfaces.


              Fire hydrant outlets shall comply with BS 750 (Type 1) with 1½“ round
              thread gunmetal outlet unless otherwise indicated or as required by the



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.3. / 47
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
              Fire Officers/Local Authorities.


              Fire hydrant valve assemblies shall be externally coated with WRc
              approved fusion bonded epoxy powder spray 150 Micron thick
              (minimum). All Fire Hydrant valve assemblies shall have a 6.7 Bar
              working pressure and works body test pressure of 24 Bar.


        (j)     Fire Hydrant – Frost Valve


              The Fire Hydrant outlet shall be fitted with a frost valve (a frost plug will
              not be permitted).


        (k)     Non-Return and Backsiphonage Protection Valves


                     Non-return Valves (up to 50mm)


                      Non-return valves shall be the swing check valve pattern type
                      with bronze or gunmetal bodies and conforming to BS 5154 as
                      manufactured by a British Standard kite mark licensee, and for
                      installation in either horizontal or vertical pipework.


                     Non-return Valves (65mm or larger)


                      Non-return valves shall be the swing check valve pattern type
                      with the swinging clack operating around a stainless steel hinge
                      pin mounted in a nylon bush with an SG iron body and
                      conforming to BS EN 12334.


        (l)     Double Check Valves (up to 50mm)


              Double check valves shall be to BS 6282 and WRc approved with the
              body manufactured from dezincification resistant (DZR) alloy, with a ¼”
              BSP centre vet tapping.


        (m)     Rubber Diaphragm Non-Return Valve (15mm to 50mm)


              Rubber diaphragm non-return valves shall be the perforated cone (316
              stainless steel) type with integral rubber diaphragm (diaphragm to be



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 48
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                 EPDM unless otherwise stated) contained in a two piece bronze body to
                 BS EN 1982.


           (n)    Rubber Diaphragm Non-Return Valves (65mm to 200mm)


                 Rubber diaphragm non-return valves shall be the perforated cone (316
                 stainless steel) type with integral rubber diaphragm (diaphragm to be
                 EPDM unless otherwise stated) contained in a two piece bronze body to
                 BS EN 1561.


           (o) Combined check and anti-vacuum valves shall be to BS 6282: Part 4
                 and be WRc approved with the body manufactured from dezincification
                 resistant (DZR) alloy.


           (p) Terminal Anti-Vacuum Valves (up to 50mm)


                 Terminal anti-vacuum valves shall be to BS 6282: Part 2 and be WRc
                 approved with the body manufactured from dezincification resistant
                 (DZR) alloy.

2.3.36.4     Water Level Control Valves (Float Operated)


             General – Diaphragm Pattern Float Operated Valve (up to 50mm).


             Diaphragm pattern float operated valves shall conform to BS 1212: Part 2
             with brass/gunmetal body and nylon seat and be manufactured by a
             British Standard kite mark licensee.


             The valve shall have a screwed threaded inlet with locking back nut. The
             body shall be demountable, so as to gain access to replace the orifice
             seating.


             The body shall incorporate a removable end cap to enable the diaphragm
             to be replaced.


             The orifice seating shall be selected to operate the valves dependent
             upon the incoming water supply pressure. A correctly sized ball float shall
             be selected to operate the valve efficiently. Reference should be made to



AJC 05/07                                 Section 2.3. / 49
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            Table 1 of BS 1212: Part 2.


            The valves shall be capable of accepting a working pressure of 5 Bar with
            a water temperature range of 0 to 65°C.


            A correctly sized copper ball float shall be selected to operate the valves
            efficiently.


            (a)     Equilibrium Pattern Float Operated Valves (up to 100mm)


                  Equilibrium pattern float operated valves shall be WRc approved
                  model with brass body, double seat. Inlet sizes up to and including
                  50mm shall be screwed BSP and over 50mm shall be flanged PN 16.


                  The valve shall have a gunmetal or mild steel lever arm to operate the
                  sliding piston. The outlet shall be located within the fixed section of the
                  valve to the tank.


                  The valve shall be demountable and shall incorporate a flanged or
                  screwed connection for accessibility purposes.


                  A correctly sized copper ball float shall be selected to operate the
                  valves efficiently.


            (b)     ‘Aylesbury Pattern’ Float Operated Valve (up to 40mm)


                  Aylesbury    float     operated   valve     shall   incorporate   a   pressure
                  compensated           rotating    ceramic      dish     with      ports   and
                  chemically/biologically inert polyethylene closed cell PE foam float.


            (c)     Delayed Action Ball Float Operated Valves (up to 100mm)


                   (i)     Canister Controlled Delayed Action Ball Float Valve (up to
                           50mm)


                           Delayed action float valve shall incorporate a standard BS
                           1212 ball valve with separate delayed action canister
                           containing the ball float.



AJC 05/07                                 Section 2.3. / 50
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                     (ii)     ‘Aylesbury Pattern’ Variable Delayed Action Ball Float Valve
                              (up to 100mm)


                              Variable delayed action ball valve shall incorporate a
                              pressure compensated rotating ceramic disc with parts and a
                              chemically/biologically inert actuator operated by the transfer
                              of balance principle. This valve is to achieve a delayed action
                              filing process.

2.3.36.5     Mixing Valves


           (a)     Manually Blended Mixer Valve
                 Manually blended mixer valve shall be of gunmetal or non-dezincifiable
                 construction with chromium plated finish and adjustable temperature
                 water mix control knob with cold to hot indicator label.


                 The mixer valve shall be installed with an isolation valve, strainer and
                 non-return valve on the hot and cold water inlets and mounted as
                 indicated.


           (b)     Thermostatically Operated Mixing Valve
                 Thermostatically operated mixing valves shall be of gunmetal or brass
                 construction with chromium plated finish. Each mixing valve shall be
                 equipped with a suitable fixing device for wall fixing or shall be suitable
                 for concealed or recessed application as indicated.


                 The valves shall have a control thermostat capable of providing a
                 constant mixed water temperature with the available hot and cold water
                 pressures and shall have wax capsule or thermostatic spring or a fail-
                 safe device to close the hot water inlet in the eventuality of a cold supply
                 failure.


                 Each valve shall be provided with a temperature regulating control lever
                 permitting regulation of mixed water to an acceptable temperature as
                 indicated.


                 Where the valve is serving a range of shower fittings it shall be provided



AJC 05/07                                Section 2.3. / 51
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
              with a tamper-proof locking device on the temperature regulating knob,
              or as indicated.


              The hot and cold water supply pipes to mixing valves shall be provided
              with non-return valves, strainers and isolation valves. Where visible
              these shall be chrome plated.

2.3.36.6     LTHW, Chilled Water, and Condenser Water Valves


       (a) Valves and pipeline fittings up to and including 50mm shall have screwed
             connections.


             Valves and pipeline fittings 65mm and above shall be flanged to and
             suitable for the pressure rating indicated.


       (b) Valves from 15mm to 50mm nominal bore shall be gate valves to BS
             5154 and be bronze related to PN25, or if agreed with the Engineer rated
             to PN20.


             Valves from 65mm to 300mm nominal bore shall be cast iron wedge disc
             with bronze trim and with non-rising stem to BS EN 1171.


             Where agreed with the Engineer, cast iron butterfly valves with EPDM
             liner may be used. These valves shall be to BS EN 593 and may be either
             lever, trigger or gear box operated as indicated.


       (c) Valves form 15mm to 50mm shall be of the bronze ‘oblique pattern’
             double regulating type with rising stem to BS 5154 rated to PN20.


             Valves 65mm and above shall be of cast iron with copper alloy or
             stainless steel trim, of the ‘oblique pattern’ with outside screw and rising
             stem double regulating type to BS EN 13789.


       (d)     Non Return Valves


             Non return valves for LTHW, Chilled Water and Condenser Water for
             sizes 15mm to 50mm shall be bronze swing type to BS 5154 rated at
             PN25.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 52
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


             Non return valves from 65mm to 300mm nominal bore shall be to BS EN
             12334.


       (e)     Drain Cock


             Drain cocks shall be fitted to allow parts of the installation, and at all
             points where it is required, to drain down a particular part of the
             installation.


             Drain cocks shall be of the size indicated either 15mm, 20mm or 25mm
             be of bronze angle type to BS 2879 rated at PN10.


             The drain cocks shall either be lock shield or non-lock shield pattern as
             indicated.


             Where larger drain cocks are required for locations such as on boilers,
             they shall be bronze gland pattern complete with hose union drain cock
             and operating lever. Drain valves shall be screwed and rated to PN10.

2.3.36.7     Radiator Valves


             Radiator valves shall be fitted to radiators, convectors and towel rails.
             Radiator valves shall be straight or angle pattern as required by the
             location of the room emitter.


             Radiator valves shall be of chrome plate bronze construction to BS 2767
             with screwed or compression ends rated at PN10, for steel or copper
             pipework installations respectively.


             Inlet valves shall be complete with a white polycarbonate hand wheel and
             outlet valves shall have a white polycarbonate lock shield, with a
             concealed indicator plate incorporated.


             All radiator valves shall be complete with a union and tail for fitting to the
             respective radiator connection.


             A radiator valve shall not be fitted where thermostatic radiator valves are



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 53
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            indicated.

2.3.36.8    Thermostatic Radiator Valves


            Each radiator as indicated shall be fitted with a thermostatic radiator
            valve. These thermostatic radiator valves shall in general be direct acting,
            but where indicated remote sensors shall be used.


            Thermostatic radiator valves shall be of bronze or a metal construction to
            BS EN 2151 (1991) angle or straight pattern as required and with screwed
            inlet. Where used on copper or stainless steel pipework the screwed
            connection shall be furnished with a chrome plated compression fitting.


            All thermostatic radiator valves shall be chrome plated and complete with
            a union and tail for fitting to the respective radiator connection.

2.3.36.9    Commissioning Stations


            Where required for balancing purposes, double regulating valves shall be
            installed. Valves shall be positioned to give a minimum straight length of
            pipe upstream equivalent to 5 diameters and down stream equivalent to 3
            diameters or as recommended by the manufacturer.
            All regulating devices shall be selected for the particular application such
            that required flow rates are achieved with valve positions more than 25%
            open.


            Commissioning sets shall be installed for balancing the system which
            shall consist of a double regulating valve and metering station.


            The pressure test fittings shall enable safe quick coupling and uncoupling
            of the flexible connectors from the differential pressure indicators. On
            MTHW and HTHW installations the quick coupling test fittings shall be
            protected by manual isolating valves of appropriate quality irrespective of
            whether the test fittings has an integral safety feature.

2.3.36.10 Check Valve/Non Return Valves


            The Contractor shall install were indicated check valves or non-return
            valves which shall be screwed to BS 21 for pipeline services up to 50mm


AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 54
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            diameter and flanged for steel, cast iron or copper as appropriate, and
            suitable for the pressure rating indicated.


            For LTHW, MTHW and condensate systems, check or non-return valves
            shall be selected to conform to either BS EN 12334 for cast iron, or BS
            5154 for copper alloy construction.


            For HTHW systems check valves shall be selected to conform to BS EN
            13709 or BS EN ISO 15761, steel lift, BS 1868, steel swing BS 5154,
            gunmetal as appropriate.


            For steam system check valves shall be either to BS 1868 steel swing or
            BS 5154 gunmetal swing, depending upon line size.

2.3.36.11 Strainers


            Where continuous plant operation is required and to facilitate ease of
            maintenance, strainers shall be of the duplex type such that the dirty side
            strainer can be removed and cleaned leaving the duty strainer in
            operation. Changeover shall be affected by a cast metal lever operated
            mechanism.


            The contractor shall install strainers on the inlet connection to each pump,
            chiller, heat exchanger and cooling tower and where indicated.


            For sizes up to 50mm the strainer shall be bronze, screwed with a Y
            pattern body.


            For sizes 65mm and above the strainer shall be flanged cast iron duplex
            bucket type with in-built isolating valves to facilitate emptying except
            where indicated.


            Strainers screens shall be stainless having perforation no greater than
            0.8mm diameter but having a total area of not less than twice that of the
            pipe bore. Flow shall be internal to external through the cage.


            Strainers must be suitable for the appropriate LTHW, MTHW and HTHW
            service and flanged and pressure rated accordingly.



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 55
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
2.3.36.12 Drain Cocks


            Drain cocks shall be fitted at all low points of hot and cold water systems
            so as to follow the complete drain down of system. Type: screw-down
            cock type to BS 2879, Type 1 shall only be used on LTHW systems. On
            all other systems lubricated plug cock shall be used as previously
            specified in this section.

2.3.36.13 Automatic Air Vents


            Automated air vents shall be provided as indicated and wherever stated in
            this Specification. They shall have gunmetal or brass bodies and non-
            ferrous or stainless steel floats and guides and non-corrodible valves and
            seats. Lock shield valves shall be independent of the automatic air vent.


            Discharge from vent must be installed to clear insulation and all air vents
            and release pipes shall be installed in such a manner as to prevent
            freezing.

2.3.36.14 Pressure Reducing Valves


            Pressure reducing valves shall generally be used for reducing water,
            steam or compressed air pressure downstream of the valve to the
            required design pressure. Specialist pressure reducing valves shall be
            used to control and/or minimise any transfer or unreduced pressures to
            downstream equipment.


            Valves up to 50mm size shall have bronze or malleable iron bodies and
            may have taper screwed ends. Valves 65mm size and over shall have
            cast-iron bodies with ends flanged. Flanges for bronze and iron valves
            shall be BS 10, Table 10, when the valves are connected to flanges of
            imperial size.


            Otherwise all flanges shall comply with BS EN 1092 each according to the
            maximum working pressure. Valves shall be of the following types as
            indicated:


                a) Valves for reducing the pressure of apparatus not designed to



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 56
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                    withstand the maximum pressure of the high-pressure line shall be
                    of an approved spring-loaded relay operated type. The valve seats
                    and discs shall be renewable. Each valve shall be capable of
                    maintaining a reduced outlet gauge pressure within 3.5 kPa of the
                    set pressure and be installed with an excess pressure isolating
                    protection valve on the low pressure side.



                 b) Where apparatus on the low pressure side is capable of
                    withstanding the maximum pressure of the high pressure line, as
                    determined by the contractor, valves may be of the single-seated
                    spring-loaded diaphragm type. They shall be adjustable within the
                    specified low pressure range and shall be installed with a safety or
                    relief valve on the low pressure side.


                 c) Each pressure reducing valve shall be installed with an isolating
                    valve, strainer and pressure gauge, siphon and bronze cock, relief
                    valve and isolating valve on the down-stream side. Each pressure
                    reducing valve shall be provided with a by-pass with isolating
                    valves.

2.3.36.15 Safety and Relief Valves


            Safety and relief valves shall be suitable for the operating conditions of
            the systems and as required by the British Standard/Building Regulations
            for the boilers, calorifiers or pressure vessels to which they are
            connected, unless otherwise indicated. They shall be of the totally
            enclosed spring-loaded type with padlock. Safety valves and relief valves
            shall have a full-bore discharge connection piped to safe and visible
            positions to be agreed with the Engineer.


            a)   Pressure Relief Valves


            Pressure Relief Valves (for open vented hot water system, unvented hot
                                                                         C)
            water systems, steam or unvented hot water systems above 150° up to
            50mm diameter (20 DN minimum for steam and hot water boilers) shall be
            as follows.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 57
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
            Gunmetal construction operating on a maximum high lift principle, good
            seat tightness, low lift for slight over pressures, high lift for dangerous
            over pressure, diaphragm protection for spring and guide surfaces,
            pressure setting locking facility, inspection and cleaning without altering
            pressure setting.


            Valve to comply to BS EN ISO 4126 with discharge capacity certified by
            A.O.T.C. Valve to be tested and listed by WRc.


            Valve to accommodate 1.5 Bar to 12.5 Bar pressure range.


            b)   Temperature and Pressure Relief Valves


            Combined temperature and pressure relief valves for open and unvented
            hot water systems, shall operate independently on the elements of
            pressure and temperature to achieve two levels of protection. The valve
            shall be not greater than 50mm diameter (but not less than 20mm
            diameter).


            Gunmetal construction operating between 1 bar to 12.5 Bar and a
            temperature element fixed at a nominal setting of 95°C.


            The valve shall incorporate bubble-tight resilient seat seal, non-stick
            P.T.F.E. seating, high lift capacity, diaphragm protection for spring and
            guide surfaces, pressure setting locking facility. Inspection and cleaning
            shall be achieved without alteration to pressure setting.


            Valve to comply to BS EN ISO 4126 with discharge capacity certified by
            A.O.T.C. Valve to be tested and listed WRc.

2.3.36.16        Urinal Water Conservation Devices


                 a) Hydraulic actuated water savers shall incorporate a diaphragm
                    operated valve, hydraulic accumulator and an adjuster screw
                    which when pre-set determines the volume of water, on a timed
                    basis, discharged into the urinal automatic cistern. It is the
                    Contractor’s responsibility to ensure that the correct pressure rated
                    water saver is utilised for the respective installations.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 58
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


            b) Electronic water savers shall include a main control unit with all
               standard electrical connectors for the system and provision for
               multi-site operation, computer and alarm terminals, hot/cold water
               supply isolation valve and lighting /extractor fan control (adjustable
               between 10-30 minutes) solenoid valve (UKWFBS listed) and
               either a magnetic door switch or ultrasonic detector as indicated.


            c) Time clock operated water saver shall include either a 24 hour or
               24 hour/7 day electrically driven clock which may be adjustable by
               retaining pegs to achieve desired periods of operation. The clock
               shall be electrically interconnected to a solenoid valve (UKWFBS
               listed) to control water flow to the outlet connection. The clock and
               solenoid valve shall be enclosed within an enamelled pressed
               steel cabinet/box with 15mm water connection and power supply
               connection (240v). The whole unit shall be suitable to accept a
               maximum pressure of 10 Bar and a minimum pressure of 0.1 Bar.

2.3.36.17   Valve Labelling


            a) Plant room valves and every circuit control valve shall be provided
               with a brass or approved plastics label about 75x50x2mm thick,
               stamped or engraved with a reference number. A brief title
               indicating the valve duty shall be included on the label except
               where a valve chart is provided within the space in which the valve
               is housed.


               Wherever practicable the label shall be affixed to the adjacent
               structure in prominent position to identify the valve concerned.
               Elsewhere a purpose made light-weight steel bracket for carrying
               the label shall be welded to the pipework adjacent to the valve and
               arranged to be clear of any insulation.


            b) A circuit control diagram, or diagrams, schematically setting out
               the systems shall be fixed in a position approved by the Engineer.
               It shall indicate the position, function, size and reference number
               of all valves, be durable and non-fading, and be rigidly mounted
               with an unbreakable and washable finish.



AJC 05/07                      Section 2.3. / 59
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
CATEGORY               DESCRIPTION OF SERVICE


       A               Low and medium temperature hot water, heating,
                       chilled water services. Valves up to 50mm size.


    B                  Low and medium temperature hot water heating,
                       chilled water services. Valves 65mm and above.


    C                  High temperature hot water heating. Valves all sizes
                       (see individual specification for particular temperatures
                       (pressure ratings)).


    D                   Steam services – all sizes (see individual
                        specifications for particular pressure/temperature
                        ratings).


    E                   Condense services – valves up to 50mm size.


    F                   Condense services – valves 65mm and above.


   G                    Hot and cold water services – valves up to 50mm size.


   H                    Hot and cold water services – valves 65mm and
                        above (all cast iron valves shall be lined to meet
                        water board requirements).


   J                    Compressed air services – all sizes.


   K                     Fuel oil services – all sizes (see individual
                        specifications for particular mediums).


   L                    Gas services – all sizes.


   M                    Fire fighting – all sizes.




AJC 05/07                   Section 2.3. / 60
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                      CATEGORY ‘A’                       MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                       CRANE


            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/WH                          D151
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/L.S.                        D237
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/WHCP                       D890CP
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20 L/S CP                     D891CP
            G.M. Check Valve PN16                            D138
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer PN16                           D297
            G.M. Draw Off Cock Hose Union                    D344
            G.M. Emptying Cocks L/S                          D340
            G.M. Double Regulating Valve Screwed             D920
            G.M. Orifice Valve Screwed                       D910
            G.M. Orifice Measuring Device                    D900
            G.M. Radiator Valves W/H                         D880
            G.M. Radiator Valves L/S                         D881
            G.M. Radiator Thermostatic Valves                N/A




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 61
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                        CATEGORY ‘B’                     MANUFACTURER


                    DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                    CRANE



            G.M. Gate Valve Flanged PN16                    DM160

            C.I. Gate Valve Flanged PN6                      FM52

            C.I. Gate Valve Flanged PN10                     FM57

            G.M. Swing Check Valve Flanged PN16              FM492

            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16                   D298

            C.I. ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16                   FM276

            C.I. Double Regulating Valve Flanged PN16       DM920

            C.I. Orifice Valves Flanged PN16              DM900+FM63

            C.I. Orifice Measuring Device                   DM900




                        CATEGORY ‘C’                     MANUFACTURER


                    DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                    CRANE



            G.M. Gate Valve Flanged PN16                    DM160

            G.M. Check Valve Flanged PN16                   DM118

            S.S. Orifice Plate to Fit Between Flanges      DM900PN25

            G.M. Orifice Valve Flanged PN25                   N/A

            G.M. Double Regulating Valve Flanged PN25         N/A

            Cast Steel Orifice Valve Flanged PN25 65-         N/A
            300mm
            Cast Steel Double Regulating Valve Flanged        N/A
            PN25
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16                   D298

            Cast Steel ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16              N/A

            Parallel Side Cast Steel Hinged PN16              N/A




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 62
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                      CATEGORY ‘D’                       MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                       CRANE


            G.M. Globe Valve PN32                            D15
            G.M. Globe Valve Flanged PN16                    DM6
            C.I. Globe Valve Flanged PN16                   FM369
            C.I. Angle Globe Valve Flanged PN16              N/A
            G.M. Check Valve PN32                            D115
            G.M. Check Valve Flanged PN16                   DM118
            C.I. Lift Check Valve Flanged PN16               N/A
            G.M. Needle Valve                                D71




                      CATEGORY ‘E’                       MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                       CRANE


            G.M. Gate Valve PN20 W/H                         D151
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20 L/S                         D237
            G.M. Check Valve PN16                            D238
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer PN16                           D297




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 63
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                        CATEGORY ‘F’                     MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                         CRANE


            C.I. Gate Valve Flanged PN6                        FM52
            C.I. Gate Valve Flanged PN10                       FM57
            C.I. Gate Valve Flanged PN16                       FM63
            C.I. Swing Check Valve Flanged PN16               FM492
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16                     D298
            C.I. ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16                    FM276




                        CATEGORY ‘G’                     MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                         CRANE


            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/WH                            D151
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20 L/S                           D237
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/WH CP                          N/A
            Stopcocks                                    Yorkshire Fig 508N
            Servicing Valve 15mm – 20mm                    Yorkshire 480
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20 L/S CP                         N/A
            G.M. Gate Valve Flanged PN16                      DM160
            G.M. Check Valve PN16                              D138
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer PN16                             D297
            G.M. Draw Off Cock Hose Union                      D344
            G.M. Emptying Cock L/S                             D340
            G.M. Double Regulating Valve Screwed               D920
            G.M. Orifice Valve Screwed                         D910
            G.M. Orifice Measuring Device                      D900




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.3. / 64
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
                       CATEGORY ‘H’                    MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                     CRANE


            G.M. Gate Valve Hinged PN16                    DM160
            C.I. Gate Valve Hinged PN16                 FM124 PN16
            C.I. Swing Check Valve Flanged PN16         FM492 PN16
            S.S. Orifice Valve Plate To Fit Between          N/A
            Flanges PN25
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer Flanged PN16               D298 ‘F’ / 9




                       CATEGORY ‘J’                    MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                     CRANE


            G.M. Globe Valve Hinged PN32                   DM15
            G.M. Globe Valve Hinged PN16                    DM6
            G.M. Check Valve Flange PN16                     N/A
            C.I. Check Valve Flange PN16                     N/A




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 65
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                       CATEGORY ‘K’                    MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                     CRANE


            C.I. Lubricated Plug Valve PN16               VB170
            G.M. Check Valve PN32                          D115
            G.M. Check Valve PN16                           N/A
            G.M. ‘Y’ Strainer Hinged PN16                  D297
            G.M. Needle Valve                               D71
            C.I. ‘Y’ Strainer Hinged PN16                 FM276
            G.M. Draw Off Cock Hose Union                  D344
            G.M. Emptying Cocking L/S                     D340 / L




                       CATEGORY ‘L’                    MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                     CRANE


            C.I. Lubricated Plug Valve PN16                 N/A
            Screwed
            C.I. Lubricated Plug Valve PN16 Flanged         N/A




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 66
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS


                      CATEGORY ‘M’                          MANUFACTURER


                 DESCRIPTION OF VALVE                             CRANE


            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/WH                                D151
            G.M. Gate Valve PN20/LS                                D237
            Cast Iron Fullway Gate Valve PN16                      FM52
            G.M. Globe Valve                                        D15
            G.M. Non-return Valve PN32                             D132
            Cast Iron Non-return Valve                              N/A
            G.M. ‘Y’ Type Strainer PN25                            D138
            Cast Iron ‘Y’ Type Strainer PN15                      FM276
            G.M. Draw Off Cock                                     D344
            Tee Ported Cocks up to 25mm                             N/A
            Dry Riser Out Valves                           Charles Winn 21151a
            Dry Riser Air Valves                                   2751




2.3.36.18 Thermometers, Pressure and Altitude Gauges


      Thermometers shall be fitted in pipes and ducts in the position indicated on
      the drawings and as detailed in the Specification. Suitable pockets shall be
      provided and fixed in the case of pipelines.


      Where thermometers are installed in pipelines and the diameter of the pipe is
      too small for the length of the standard bulb, the pipe shall be increased to the
      requisite diameter for a minimum length of 150mm or a necessary to allow for
      the proper fitting and insertion of the thermometer well.


      Dial thermometers shall, unless stated otherwise, be mounted with the dial in
      the vertical position and shall be mercury in steel type.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.3. / 67
SECTION 2.3. – PIPEWORK AND FITTINGS
      Dial thermometers shall be calibrated in degrees Celsius with black pointer
      and clear black lettering and scale on a white background with not more than
        C                                  C
      5° per division, and not less than 2° division. Where the effective fixed
      working temperature is being measured, the thermometer shall be fitted with
      a tamper-proof loose red pointer which can be set on site to the working
      temperature.


      Obtuse angle thermometers shall be provided where necessary. The scales
      will be included for easy reading.


      Right angle or obtuse angle thermometers shall be provided when fitted to
      vertical pipes or vertical face of calorifiers, or ducts, etc.


      100mm dial thermometer, mercury in steel shall be provided with black/C.P.
      case and separate M.S. pocket.


      Bourdon type altitude or pressure gauges shall be fitted in pipelines in the
      positions indicated on the drawings and where called for in later sections of
      the Specification.


      The gauges shall be scaled in metres of water head or kPa.


      The gauges will be 100mm diameter flangeless with white dials and black
      lettering and fitted with an adjustable red pointer which shall be set on site at
      the head of the system.


      Pressure or altitude gauges shall be provided with suitable syphon
      connections with G.M. gauge cocks 10mm diameter.


      Thermometers, altitude,        and pressure gauges          shall be of   uniform
      pattern/appearance, and be as manufactured by Messrs Coley Limited or
      B.S.S.


      They shall however, all be of the same manufacture. The temperature or
      pressured gauge scales selected must ensure that the normal range of
      condition lies at the mid point of the full scale.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.3. / 68
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS

2.4.1    General ......................................................................................................1
2.4.2    Ductwork and Fittings.................................................................................1
2.4.3    Flexible Connections ..................................................................................2
2.4.4    Flexible Ductwork .......................................................................................3
2.4.5.   Air Intakes and Outlets................................................................................3
2.4.6    Brackets and Supports ...............................................................................5
2.4.7    Penetrations ...............................................................................................6
2.4.8    Access Doors/Panels .................................................................................6
2.4.9    Dampers ....................................................................................................8
2.4.10   Turning Vanes/Splitters/’Deflectrols’...........................................................8
2.4.11   Test Holes..................................................................................................8
2.4.12   Ductwork Protection ...................................................................................9
2.4.13   Grilles.........................................................................................................9
2.4.14   Diffusers...................................................................................................10
2.4.15   Air Valves.................................................................................................11
2.4.16   Fire Dampers ...........................................................................................11
2.4.17   Combination Fire/Smoke Dampers...........................................................13
2.4.18   Leakage Testing.......................................................................................13
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS



2.4.1   General


        This section shall apply to ductwork systems for normal ventilation and air
        conditioning installations; where specialist conveying systems or dust or
        fume extract systems are incorporated in the works, these shall comply with
        the details given in the Particular Specification.


        The contractor shall supply, deliver and erect ranges of ductwork as
        detailed on the tender drawings. All measurements required for the
        manufacture of ductwork shall be taken by the Contractor, or his appointed
        specialist ductwork contractor. Runs of ductwork may be modified, subject
        to the Engineer’s approval to suit site conditions or simplify duct erection.
        Prior to the manufacture of any ductwork the Contractor shall prepare fully
        detailed working drawings of the ductwork installation, based on site survey
        dimensions, and submit two copies to the Engineer.

2.4.2   Ductwork and Fittings


        All ductwork, including spigot boxes and air plenums, shall be manufactured
        from best quality CRCA patent flattened sheet steel continuously hot dip
        galvanised in accordance with BS EN 10327 and fabricated in accordance
        with HVCA specification DW/144, ductwork classification ‘low pressure –
        Class A’. All ductwork shall be designed and constructed to minimise noise,
        drumming, air turbulence, corrosion and the ingress and egress of water
        and air, and shall be installed and supported in accordance with HVCA
        specification/good practice guides DW/144 and DW/TM2. All circular
        ductwork shall be spirally wound.


        Bend fittings and rectangular section ductwork shall incorporate aerofoil
        section air turning vanes. The minimum throat radius of circular ductwork
        bend fittings shall be at least equal to the duct diameter unless precluded by
        space restrictions. Branch ducts shall enter main ducts by means of an
                                                                            C
        angle boot connection which shall have the throat at an angle of 45° and
           C
        30° respectively, and shall be either eccentric or concentric to suit the
        location.
        The ductwork exposed to external atmosphere or corrosive fumes shall be
        suitably painted or otherwise protected, internally and externally as


AJC 05/07                          Section 2.4. / 1
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


        indicated.


        Where ducts are lined internally for acoustic attenuation the internal area
        shall be maintained and the sheet metal size increased accordingly.


        All plastic ducting shall comply with Specification DW 151 as issued by the
        Heating and Ventilating Contractors Association, London.


        Sealants shall be used for all duct joints as required to meet the specified
        leakage limits. These shall be of the ‘mastic’ type and shall retain their
        flexibility and adhesive qualities irrespective of ambient conditions for the
        life of the installation. For rectangular ducts up to 300mm longest side, and
        circular ducts up to 300mm diameter, spigot and socket joints may be
        sealed using 75mm wide adhesive ‘duct’ tape having a moisture repellent
        and lasting adhesive qualities. Cross joints on other circular ducts and all
        flat oval ducts shall be sealed by means of heat shrinkable one piece
        polyolefin sleeves, lined with hot melt adhesive and fitted prior to the
        application of any duct insulation. Particular care shall be taken when
        heating the sleeve to avoid damage to adjacent materials.


        Where headroom clearances are given on the Drawings or elsewhere these
        shall be to the lowest point of the ductwork supporting structure.

2.4.3   Flexible Connections


        Flexible connections shall be provided at all connections to fans and air
        handling units, both supply and exhaust, as well as at all points when rigid
        ducting crosses movement joints in the building structure.


        The material used shall be lead impregnated canvas, or neoprene, and
        shall be suitable for all conditions of temperature (ducted and ambient),
        pressure and noise attenuation applicable at the point of use. Connections
        shall be arranged to give a clearance between rigid components of not less
        than 50mm (2”) and not more than 150mm (6”) and, particularly where
        ducting is under negative pressure, shall be tight enough to avoid undue
        ‘necking’ or bulging at minimum extension without being stretched tight at
        maximum extension. Ductwork and equipment shall be carefully supported



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.4. / 2
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


         on either side of the flexible to avoid offsets, and this shall particularly apply
         in the case of equipment on anti-vibration mountings.


         Circular flexible connections shall be secured by clipbands with adjustable
         screw or toggle fixings; rectangular connections shall be shaped to mate
         with the flanges of adjacent ducting or equipment and shall be held in place
         by metal backing plates bolted to these flanges with the bolts passing
         through the material.


         All flexible connections shall be as manufactured by Duro Dyne Ltd or equal
         and approved.

2.4.4    Flexible Ductwork


         Flexible ducting shall be provided for connections between sheet metal
         ducting and terminal units, diffusers, etc. and where indicated on the
         drawings.


         Flexible ducting shall be of the pre-insulated pvc covered type for supply
         ducting and uninsulated for return ducting. It shall have spirally wound
         reinforcement to maintain the annulus of the duct and shall be as
         manufactured by Flexible Ducting Ltd or equal and approved, except where
         specifically detailed on the drawings.


         Flexible ducts, shall be kept to a minimum but shall not exceed 500mm in
         length, unless agreed with the Engineer, and shall be supported in such a
         way that movement or kinking of this duct is avoided. Flexible ducting shall
         not be used to form major changes in direction; its purpose is to
         accommodate minor misalignment.
         Connections to rigid ducting or equipment shall be made by passing the
         flexible ducting over purpose made spigots, equal in size to the flexible and
         fixing by means of hose type metal clamps screw tightened around the
         circumference and finally sealed with 75mm wide duct tape.

2.4.5.   Air Intakes and Outlets


         Fresh air and exhaust air louvers shall have fixed blades angled to give
         adequate weather protection. Unless otherwise indicated louvres shall be


AJC 05/07                           Section 2.4. / 3
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


        constructed of aluminium with blades no less than 3mm thick braced as
        necessary to ensure complete rigidity, to provide a minimum of 70% of free
        area unless agreed otherwise by the Engineer.


        Where louvres are required to be supplied under this Contract they shall be
        handed to the Main Contractor for fixing.


        A galvanised steel wire screen of 6mm mesh complete with a frame of
        galvanised steel rod with securing lugs or of flat iron shall be provided and
        fixed by the Contractor on the inner side of the louvres.


        All louvres shall have screens to prevent the ingress of insects and birds.
        The louvre blades shall be so arranged as to minimise the ingress of
        rainwater.


        The Contractor shall provide the requisite builders work drawings to enable
        the Main Contractor to form the openings for the louvres, and subsequently
        build them in.


        Exhaust ducts carrying wet or grease laden air, e.g. laundry exhausts,
        kitchen canopy exhausts, etc. shall be constructed of aluminium sheet for
        the first 10 metres from the apparatus or canopy. This shall be to the same
        specification, thickness and constructional details given in the section for
        galvanised sheet metal ducting.


        Where such ductwork runs horizontally, it shall be laid to fall preferably in
        the direction of airflow and shall be fitted with a trapped condensate drain
        point at an appropriate location.


        Roof cowls shall be constructed of galvanised sheetmetal, suitably stiffened
        internally to avoid drumming, and shall be a free area such that the inlet or
        exhaust velocity shall not exceed 3.5m/s (700fpm). They shall be located on
        purpose made upstands or roof sheets constructed such that the inlet or
        discharge is at least 300mm above any flat roof surface to avoid bouncing
        rain.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.4. / 4
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


2.4.6   Brackets and Supports


        All necessary duct hangers, brackets and supports shall be provided at
        centres in accordance with the requirements of DW/144. All such items
        shall be designed to suit the particular location and surrounding structure
        and details shall be passed to the Engineer for approval prior to
        manufacture.


        Where supports are to be provided or built-in by the Main Contractor or
        others, then full details must be provided to the Main Contractor in time to
        allow him to proceed with the works without delay to the agreed
        programme.


        Supports for insulated ductwork shall be located flush with the outer surface
        of the insulation/vapour seal, with rigid spacers installed as necessary
        between the support and the duct surface. For uninsulated ductwork metal
        to metal contact between duct and support shall be avoided by the use of
        suitable non-flammable rubber, plastic or felt linings.


        All ducts are to be adequately supported throughout and all supports are to
        be insulated from the ductwork by suitable fireproof anti-vibration insulation.
        Full allowance shall be made for the building in and fixing of all duct
        supports.


        The ductwork is to be suitably fixed and flanged such as to prevent
        breathing and drumming. The design of the supports is to suit the
        surrounding structure.


        Ductwork will not be permitted to rest directly on portions of the buildings
        except concrete slabs or substantial brick walls and then only with the
        approval of the Engineer. Adequate thermal insulation shall be applied as
        indicated.


        All hangers shall be fitted with locknuts and spherical washers and shall be
        as close as possible to the edge of the duct or insulation without touching.
        Methods of fixing hangers to the structure shall be agreed with the Engineer
        and Main Contractor before fixing commences.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.4. / 5
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS




        Except where specifically agreed by the Engineer no ductwork stiffening
        angles or flanges shall be used as part of the support structure, and no
        ceilings, light fittings or any other equipment shall be supported from the
        ductwork or duct support under any circumstances.


        Ductwork adjacent to items such as dampers, flexible connections, grilles,
        etc. shall be additionally supported to avoid any transmission of ducting
        loads to such items.

2.4.7   Penetrations


        Penetrations through walls, floors and roofs shall be carefully detailed to
        accommodate the conflicting requirements of integrity of the structure,
        thermal movement, prevention of noise and vibration transmission to the
        structure, weathering and, where applicable, fire compartmentation.


        Where ducts penetrate external walls and floors a flange shall be fixed and
        sealed to the duct suitable for flashing by the Builder. Penetrations through
        the flat roofs shall be completely watertight by means of a builders upstand
        with a metal skirt sealed to the duct and extending over and below the level
        of flashing on the upstand. For penetrations through pitched roofs or
        northlights, a purpose made roof sheet shall be provided complete with
        flashing plate if necessary.

2.4.8   Access Doors/Panels


        To comply with DW/144 the Contractor shall include for access doors or
        panels as shown on the drawings and as required for the following
        purposes:


                 1) Personnel access for maintenance or replacement of plant
                     items, e.g. cooling coils, filters.
                 2) Routine maintenance, inspection, lubrication and adjustment of
                     items not requiring full man access, e.g. fire dampers, fan
                     bearings, thermostat bulbs, etc.
                 3) Access for cleaning purposes, e.g. kitchen extract ducts.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.4. / 6
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


        Access doors for personnel shall be not larger than 1.4m high by 0.4m wide
        and shall be hinged with wedge type of door locks, at least two per door.
        These shall be openable at all times from inside the duct or plant, whether
        or not they are lockable from outside. Each door shall be fitted into a
        suitable frame and shall have neoprene rubber seals to ensure an airtight
        assembly when closed, and both door and frame shall be adequately
        stiffened so suit the working pressures of the installation and avoid
        distortion when closed or open. All access doors shall open against the air
        pressure except where shown otherwise on the drawings.


        Access for maintenance, etc. shall be not larger than 600mm high by
        375mm wide and both the frame and the panel shall be stiffened to prevent
        any distortion at normal working pressures. They shall be fitted with
        neoprene rubber seals to avoid air leakage when closed, and shall be
        arranged such that the air pressure assists in holding the panel closed. All
        fastenings or clamps used to close the panel shall be such that can be
        undone and refixed by hand, i.e. no tools are required for access, e.g. cam
        latches.


        Panels provided for cleaning purposes shall be generally as the access
        panels noted above except that where installed in horizontal ducting they
        shall either be in the bottom of the duct or, when fitted in the side of the
        duct, then the bottom of the opening shall be level with the bottom of the
        duct to allow easy sweeping out. Cleaning access points shall be provided
        as necessary to allow all parts of the duct system to be properly cleaned,
        but in any case shall be at not less than 3m centres.


        Where access doors or panels are installed in insulated ductwork the
        supporting frame shall be extended beyond the face of the duct by a
        distance equal to the thickness of the insulation, and any vapour seal shall
        be dressed over the edge of the frame. In addition, the door or panel shall
        be double skinned and insulated or shall be dished to carry insulation of the
        same thickness as the adjacent ductwork, again with any vapour seal
        dressed over the panel edge.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.4. / 7
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


2.4.9    Dampers


         Volume control dampers shall be ‘Air/Shield Series Aerofoil’ type SPG
         comprising double skin stainless steel opposed blades within spigotted
         galvanised steel casings. Each damper shall be complete with ‘Option M’
         manual control comprising adjustment knob with locking facility and visual
         blade position indication.


         Backdraught shutters shall be galvanised steel spring return circular
         butterfly shutters as manufactured by Vent-Axia or approved equivalent.

2.4.10   Turning Vanes/Splitters/’Deflectrols’


         All square rectangular bends and mitred circular bends shall be fitted with
         aerodynamically designed multiple turning vanes as manufactured by
         Senior Colman Ltd., or equal and approved.


         All short radius bends (i.e. throat radius less than half duct height) over
         300mm high shall be fitted with splitters arranged such that the r/W ratio for
         each air passage shall be not less than 1.5, where r is the radius to the
         centre line of a particular section of the bend between splitters and W is the
         width of that section.


         Where diffuser spigots are taken directly from the main supply duct or
         where indicated on the drawings, ‘deflectrols’ shall be fitted in the duct to
         give uniform deflection of the air into the diffuse. These shall be as
         manufactured by Senior Colman Ltd., or equal and approved.

2.4.11   Test Holes


         Where shown on the drawings or where necessary for the correct regulation
         of the system, test holes shall be provided in ductwork and air handling
         plant. These shall generally be 12m diameter holes and shall be closed with
         purpose made rubber or PVC grommets.


         Test holes shall be provided to allow the following measurements:




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.4. / 8
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


                       1) All fan supply/exhaust volumes.


                       2) All supply/exhaust volumes in main or branch ducts.



                       3) Pressure drop across all plant items, e.g. cooling coil,
                          filters, dampers, etc.



         In rectangular ductwork, test holes shall generally be fitted in the side of the
         duct; circular ductwork shall have two test holes at right angles for flow
         measurement. Exceptions shall apply only where access with a suitable
         length pitot tube would be obstructed by the adjacent structure or other
         services.

2.4.12   Ductwork Protection


         Any part of galvanised ductwork where the galvanising is damaged during
         manufacture or erection shall be painted with two coats of aluminium, zinc
         rich or other corrosion-resisting paint, to the satisfaction of the Engineer.


         In kitchens and dining rooms the outermost surface of exposed ductwork or
         insulation shall be not less than 30mm away from walls and ceilings to
         permit access for cleaning.

2.4.13   Grilles


         Grilles shall be of steel, aluminium or plastic as indicated. Steel grilles shall
         be protected against rusting and supplied in fully finished condition. Grilles
         shall be not less than the size indicated. Where no size is given they shall
         be capable of dealing with the air flow and distribution as indicated. All
         grilles except those on exposed ducting shall incorporate an edge seal.


         The Drawings show provisional locations but in each instance outlets shall
         be installed in accordance with architectural final detail drawings and
         reflected ceiling plans, which the Contractor shall obtain from the Main
         Contractor.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.4. / 9
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


         Velocities, net airways, and distribution patterns shall give satisfactory air
         distribution, and be free of draughts, stratification or noise nuisance. The
         Contractor shall make final adjustments to air patterns when balancing.


         Damper assemblies and internal surfaces of outlets and take-off ductwork
         where visible through outlet faces, shall be painted matt black.


         All outlets shall be fitted truly square and in alignment. Perimeter trims shall
         seat hard against wall or ceiling finishes as applicable and shall properly
         mask the trimmed openings. Unless otherwise indicated, all fixings shall be
         concealed.


         Each supply air grille shall be complete with an opposed blade multi-leaf
         damper. Alternatively, in lieu of the opposed blade multi-leaf damper a
         rhomboidal air controller may be provided; this air controller shall control
         both the volume of air passing and the distribution of air across the grille
         face. Each supply air grille shall have two sets of separately adjustable
            ouvers, one set horizontal and one set vertical, all adjustable from the
         grille face. For up to ten grilles, one set of any tools required for adjusting
         the     ouvers and dampers or air controllers shall be provided; from eleven
         to twenty-four grilles, two sets; above twenty-five grilles and more, three
         sets.


         Return air grilles may have either a single set of   ouvers or bars (vertical or
         horizontal) or a lattice or egg crate front, or otherwise as indicated. Each
         return air grille shall be complete with an opposed blade multi-leaf damper
         or a rhomboidal air controller operable from the front.


         Adjustable tools shall be provided in the same pro-data as for the supply
         grilles.


         For kitchens and dining rooms both supply and return air grilles shall have
         quick-release sub-frames, for ease of dismantling for cleaning.

2.4.14   Diffusers


         Diffusers shall be of steel, aluminium or plastic (as indicated) and supplied



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.4. / 10
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


         in a fully finished conditions. Diffusers, except on exposed ductwork, shall
         incorporate an edge seal; diffusers mounted on ceilings shall have anti-
         smudge rings. Pan type diffusers may be provided except where cone type
         diffusers are indicated.


         Diffusers shall be provided with volume control dampers of the iris, flap or
         sleeve type which shall be adjustable from the front of the diffuser. Where
         the length of a vertical duct to a diffuser is less than twice the diameter neck
         an equalising deflector shall be fitted.


         For kitchens and dining rooms shall have a quick-release centre to facilitate
         easy cleaning.


         Linear diffusers shall include a control damper at the rear of the vanes
         giving volume control down to complete shut-off and be operated from the
         face of the diffuser. Linear diffusers for supply air shall have adjustable
         blades to give directional control of air flow. Where linear diffusers are
         mounted in a continuous line there shall be means of ensuring alignment
         between consecutive diffusers and of equalising pressure behind the vanes,
         over the whole length of the linear diffusers.

2.4.15   Air Valves


         Extract air valves shall be of the sizes indicated and be manufactured from
         pressed steel sheet throughout. The valve shall be supplied complete with a
         mounting ring of the bayonet fitting type, and finished in stove enamel to an
         approved colour.

2.4.16   Fire Dampers


         Fire dampers shall be provided in each duct passing through all structural
         fire compartment walls and each floor level slab and also where indicated.


              a) The dampers shall be rated at least equal to the surface in which
                  they are mounted and shall be installed strictly in accordance with
                  the manufacturer’s instructions. All fire dampers shall be provided
                  with an external indicator showing damper position and shall be
                  installed in a purpose made frame or flexible housing to enable the


AJC 05/07                           Section 2.4. / 11
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


                   damper to deform when hot.


             b) The fire dampers shall have stainless steel folding blades with
                   minimum 18 gauge fully welded corner construction casing,
                   arranged for vertical or horizontal operation. For duct heights of
                   250mm and over the blades shall be outside the air stream for
                   duct heights below 250mm blades partly in the air stream to
                   provide a duct free area of not less than 90%.


             c) Fire dampers shall be complete with installation frames for building
                   into the wall or floor.


             d) Access doors shall be provided in the ductwork adjacent to all fire
                   dampers to permit inspection and replacement of fusible links.


        Where fire dampers are located in concealed areas such as above false
        ceiling, the Contractor shall ensure through the Main Contractor that
        adequate access is provided through the false ceiling or other concealing
        surface.


             e) It should be noted that the Contractor is at liberty to put forward for
                   consideration     by      the   Engineer   proprietary   fire   dampers
                   manufactured by firms specialising in this type of work, any such
                   fire dampers must comply with the requirements generally referred
                   to above and the relevant British Standards.


             f) Before any fire damper is manufactured a detailed drawing, in
                   duplicate, shall be submitted to the Engineer for comment; this
                   drawing shall indicate a typical fire damper.


             g) Operation shall be by combination thermal actuators and fusible
                   link.


             h) Operating spindles shall be of stainless steel or other non-
                   corrodible metal rod.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.4. / 12
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


2.4.17   Combination Fire/Smoke Dampers


         Combination fire/smoke dampers shall be provided where indicated.


                       1) Each damper shall comply with clause (a), (c), (d), (e), (f)
                           and (h) of the Fire Damper section.


                       2) Each damper shall have stainless steel interlocking aerofoil
                           blades of double skin construction forming a fire resisting
                           shield   in   combination     with   absolute    maximum      of
                           impedance to the leakage of smoke and other products of
                           combustion.


                       3) Operation unless otherwise indicated shall be by the
                           external gearbox, pre-wired to give automatic AC opening
                           or 24 volt closing with mini control panel for remote
                           operation.


         Access to these dampers shall be provided as described in the Fire Damper
         section.

2.4.18   Leakage Testing


         When called for in the Particular Specification, or when the Engineer has
         reason to suspect that excessive leakage is occurring, the Subcontractor
         shall carry out leakage tests on all or part of the ductwork system as
         directed at no additional cost to contract.


         All such tests shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the Engineer,
         generally in accordance with HVAC publications DW/143 and DW/144,
         unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.


2.4.19   Labels/Identification


         All plant items shall be fitted with labels indicating their function, e.g. kitchen
         exhaust fan and the reference number as indicated on the ‘As Fitted’
         drawings. These shall be of 3mm thick blue laminated plastic plate with



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.4. / 13
SECTION 2.4. – DUCTWORK AND FITTINGS


        white engraved characters, 12mm high for uppercase and numerals, 8mm
        high for lowercase. The labels shall be fitted on or immediately adjacent to
        the relevant plant items and secured by at least two round headed screws.


        Where services are concealed behind false ceilings, or panelling, the
        location of all items requiring maintenance or adjustment, e.g. fire dampers,
        fan coil units, etc. shall be indicated by means of 6mm diameter coloured
        discs fixed on the appropriate access point or panel, red for fire related
        items such as fire dampers and blue for all other ventilation or air
        conditioning equipment.


        For installations with more than one plant or ductwork system, all ducting
        shall be provided with identification/direction of flow indicators in
        accordance with DW/144. In addition to all plant rooms, such identification
        shall be provided on ducting adjacent all access points, and in particular at
        each floor level in the case of vertical distribution ducts.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.4. / 14
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
2.5.1       General ......................................................................................................1
2.5.2       Protection to Existing Building Fabric and Furnishings ...............................1
2.5.3       Contracts....................................................................................................1
  2.5.3.1      Sub-Contract ..........................................................................................1
  2.5.3.2      Direct Contract .......................................................................................3
2.5.4       Cleaning and Painting ................................................................................5
  2.5.4.1      Internal Surfaces Area............................................................................6
  2.5.4.2      External Surfaces Area...........................................................................7
  2.5.4.3      At Site.....................................................................................................7




AJC 05/07                                        Section 2.5. / 9
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING

2.5.1     General


          The Mechanical Services Contractor shall include for all builders work to
          complete the works. An indication of the builders work is scheduled below: -


                       1) Protection to existing building fabric and furnishings.
                       2) Fixings
                       3) Forming of openings and chases within the structure
                       4) Making good openings
                       5) Painting
                       6) Suspended ceiling
                       7) Fire stopping

2.5.2     Protection to Existing Building Fabric and Furnishings


          On all floors allow to provide 2 metre wide, substantial protection to carpets
          in working area. This protection to be Swiftec PP90 and is to be firmly fixed
          in position with Swiftec Low-Tack adhesive tape. (Swiftec tel: 0161 945
          1500). This protective covering and the fixing tape are to be laid strictly in
          accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

2.5.3     Contracts

2.5.3.1   Sub-Contract


          The cutting of holes through walls, the chasing or boring of partitions etc,
          and the formation of foundations, ducts and pockets will be carried out by
          the Main Contractor, but the Sub-Contractor will be responsible for all
          marking and setting out of all builder’s work that he may require.


          Any builder’s work carried out incorrectly because of the Sub-Contractor’s
          setting out, will be reinstated by the Main Contractor at the Sub-Contractor’s
          expense.


          Drilling plug holes in floors, walls, ceilings and roofs for securing services
          and equipment requiring screw or bolt fixings shall form part of the Works.
          Approval shall be obtained for all fixings into concrete walls, floors, ceilings
          or roofs.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.5. / 1
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
        The Sub-Contractor shall provide all clips, brackets, foundation bolts,
        anchor plates, washers, plugs etc. for all equipment materials supplied
        under his Sub-Contract.


        Lightweight equipment and pipework may be fixed to the building structure
        by screws in plastic plugs. Wood or fibre plugs shall not be used. Fixings to
        brickwork, blockwork and pre-cast concrete components shall not be made
        in the bond. Fixings to wood fitments shall be by screws. All screw fixings
        shall be sheradised and greased before use.


        Heavyweight equipment and pipework shall be fixed with masonry fixings of
        the expanding type. Fixings to concrete shall not exceed 30mm in depth
        and 6mm in diameter without written consent.


        Fixings to steelwork shall be of the clamp type and no steelwork shall be
        cut, drilled or welded without the written consent of the Engineer.


        Fixings shall be of the correct size and type for the fixing load applied and
        these shall be agreed with the Engineer in writing prior to the
        commencement of works.


        Drilling of timber joists for the passage of pipes shall be carried out by the
        Sub-Contractor in positions agreed with the Engineer/Architect.


        If at any position it is found necessary to employ wood noggings or running
        boards to facilitate the fixing of pipes, etc, all such supports shall be
        provided and fixed by the Main Contractor unless otherwise stated. Painting
        of pipes, fittings, panels, etc will be carried out by the Main Contractor after
        completion of the work. The Sub-Contractor is responsible for ensuring that
        all pipe work and steel work etc is wire brushed and free from rust and
        immediately primed.


        The Main Contractor will supply all necessary excavation, pipe ducts,
        backfilling and reinstatement for underground pipe runs, but it will be the
        Sub-Contractor’s responsibility to lay the pipes.


        The Sub-Contractor shall supply all builder’s work drawings, for the proper
        execution of the work, and templates if necessary for the setting out of



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.5. / 2
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
          holes to be left in new structural work for holding down bolts and other
          supports. Include for supplying four copies of finally approved drawings.


          The Sub-Contractor will be liable to be charged for any unnecessary cutting
          away or making good, for which the Engineer/Architect may deem him to be
          responsible.


          The position of all holes to be cut in or through walls, floors, ceilings and
          elsewhere are to be approved by the Engineer/Architect before the work is
          put in hand.


          The Sub-Contractor shall restore the integrity of any smoke or fire barriers
          after installation in existing floors, walls and ceilings.


          Timely indication shall be given of any difficulties likely to be encountered in
          accommodating plant or equipment in the spaces available.

2.5.3.2   Direct Contract


          The cutting of all holes, and chases, making good, touching up with paint,
          etc. the lifting and replacement of all access covers to service ducts,
          excavation and back-filling of all trenches, removing and replacement of
          ceiling tiles shall be carried out by the Contractor and shall be included for
          in the Tender Price.


          Where shot fixing, drilling or cutting of structural steelwork is required to be
          included, then special application in writing must be made and approval
          received in writing before any structural steelwork is cut or drilled.


          Timely indication shall be given of any difficulties likely to be encountered in
          accommodating plant or equipment in the spaces available.


          The Contractor should consider in conjunction with the drawings, the actual
          work involved on the site, and shall allow for everything necessary for
          carrying out the work in the best possible manner whether specifically
          mentioned or not.


          In order to keep disturbance to a minimum, all chasing etc. shall be carried



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.5. / 3
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
        out by means of power operated cutters and drills, not percussion tools, and
        all fixings to the building fabric shall generally be made by use of a suitable
        drill and fixing plug.


        Should the Contractor require exact dimensions, he must take particulars
        upon site, and in any case he must verify the exact requirements before
        putting the works in hand. No claims resulting from the Contractor’s failure
        to do so will be allowed.


        Making good, building-in etc. shall be done in sound brickwork in sand lime
        mortar with plaster, as required, to match the existing in every respect, and
        all work shall be properly bonded and made good to adjoining work.


        Provide generally for protecting the existing structure and adjoining new
        work and alterations and take all precautions against damage from the new
        work and alterations and make good all such damage.


        When taking down brickwork, masonry, etc. the Contractor shall include
        also for the plastering rendering and tiling etc. occurring on these walls, and
        also for cutting back skirting, picture rails, dado rails, etc. whether
        specifically mentioned or not.


        When cutting openings, etc. the Contractor shall include for diverting
        service pipes, conduits, etc. as necessary, informing the Service Authorities
        concerned and taking all necessary precautions.


        Remove and cart away from time to time as it accumulates, all rubbish,
        debris, and old materials not described as for re-use or to be handed over.


        When taking up duct covers the Contractor shall include for temporary
        guard rails, and afterwards refix, including sealing, levelling up and re-
        bedding as necessary.


        All trenches shall be excavated to the widths and depths indicated, and the
        Contractor shall make his own allowance for any additional excavation
        required for the purpose of planking and strutting.


        The Contractor shall take all precautions to avoid damage to existing drains



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.5. / 4
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
        and other services during the excavations, and shall allow for making good
        at his own expense any damage so caused.


        The Contractor shall ensure the integrity of any smoke and fire barriers in
        walls, floors and ceilings after installation of mechanical services.


        Drilling plug holes in floors, walls, ceilings, and roofs for securing services
        and equipment requiring screw or bolt fixings shall form part of the works.
        Approval shall be obtained for all fixings into concrete walls, floors, ceilings
        or roofs.


        Lightweight equipment and pipework may be fixed to the building structure
        by screws in plastic plugs. Wood or fibre plugs are not to be used. Fixings
        to brickwork, blockwork, and pre-cast concrete components shall not be
        made in the bond. Fixings to wood fitments shall be by screws. All screw
        fixings shall be sheradised and greased before use.


        Heavyweight equipment and pipework shall be fixed with masonry fixings of
        the expanding type. Fixings to concrete shall not exceed 30mm in depth
        and 6mm in diameter without written consent.


        Fixings to steelwork shall be of the clamp type and no steelwork shall be
        cut, drilled or welded without the written consent.

2.5.4   Cleaning and Painting


        The Contractor shall thoroughly clean out the interior of each item or section
        of the Sub-Contract works and plant immediately after the execution of any
        work on that item or section to the satisfaction of the Engineer.


        The Contractor shall thoroughly clean down the Sub-Contract works in an
        approved manner prior to practical completion, and shall ensure that the
        Sub-Contract works including all plant are free from dust, dirt, moisture, and
        other foreign matter.


        The Contractor shall allow for cleaning and painting all surfaces as outlined
        below.
        Before painting or filling with oil or compound, all ungalvanised parts shall



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.5. / 5
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
          be thoroughly cleaned, free from rust, scale, burrs, grease, and moisture
          and all external rough surfaces shall be filled or filed flat.


          The following minimum painting requirements shall apply to all ferrous parts
          unless the Contractor can show, to the satisfaction of the Engineer that any
          alternative he proposes is in all respects equal or superior to the specified
          requirements.


          Generally all plant and equipment shall be delivered to site having received
          the finishing paint usually applied by manufacturer at Works.


          The manufacturer’s standard of painting shall not be less than that required
          by the clauses below.


          Pipework brackets, supports, gantries may be painted by the manufacturer
          offsite, or by the Contractor on-site to the standard required by the clause
          below.


          Thermal insulation shall be painted to the requirements set out in the
          relevant section of this Specification.

2.5.4.1   Internal Surfaces Area


                     APPARATUS                                    PAINTING


          Oil filled chambers and tanks.            Epoxy based enamel.
          Cubicles and apparatus boxes use          Three coats of paint, the fourth final
          in outdoors.                              coat being in enamel.

          Cubicles and apparatus boxes use          One coat of bituminous primer and
          indoors                                   two coats of bituminous finishing
                                                    coat


          Ungalvanised metal, e.g. water filled
          chambers and tanks




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.5. / 6
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
2.5.4.2   External Surfaces Area


                      APPARATUS                                     PAINTING


            All ungalvanised surfaces, (other          (a) On priming coat of corrosion
          than nuts, bolts, and washers which        inhibiting paint applied immediately
            may be removed for maintenance                        after cleaning.
            purposes) located both internally
                      and externally.

                                                     (b) Two coats of non-glossy, oil and
                                                     weather-resisting paint applied after
                                                      inspection and testing and before
                                                                     despatch.
                                                      (c) One finishing coat of glossy oil
                                                      and weather resisting, non-fading
                                                           paint applied after erection is
                                                            completed. For equipment
                                                      despatched completely assembled
                                                     the final coat may be applied, at the
                                                     works unless otherwise required by
                                                                   the Engineer.

2.5.4.3   At Site


                      APPARATUS                                     PAINTING


          Pipework, Brackets, Supports, and         All surfaces to be painted one coat
          Gantries.                                 of red oxide primer, followed by one
                                                    undercoat and by one final coat of
                                                    high gloss enamel.
          Exposed ungalvanised nuts, bolts,         One coat of oil and weather-
          and washers which may be                  resisting, non-fading paint applied
          removed for maintenance.                  after erection.


          Duct covers and ironworks within          Two coats of bitumastic paint.
          ducts.




AJC 05/07                               Section 2.5. / 7
SECTION 2.5. - BUILDERS WORK INCL CEANING AND PAINTING
        Successive coats of paint shall be easily distinguishable by shade or colour
        and shall be applied to a clean dry and properly prepared surface. Each
        coat shall be compatible with the previous coat.


        The colour and shade of all painted surfaces shall be to the approval of the
        Engineer.


        Protective coatings or paintwork which has been damaged during transport
        or erection shall be made good to the satisfaction of the Engineer before the
        application of any final coat.


        All ferrous materials including pipework, fittings, sundry iron and steel
        brackets shall be primed before despatch to the site. Protective coatings
        removed or damaged shall be thoroughly wire brushed and cleaned before
        re-priming.


        Pipework and fittings in ferrous and non-ferrous materials where buried
        underground or in trenches etc. must be covered in “Denso” tape prior to
        being insulated and covered in (except pre-insulated buried mains and
        Kuterlux piping).


        Pipework fittings and valves not insulated shall be painted to the correct
        colour code, of BS 1710.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.5. / 8
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS


2.6.1.       Starter/Control Panels and Cubicles – General ..........................................1
2.6.2.      Mechanical Construction.............................................................................2
2.6.3.      Starters .......................................................................................................7
2.6.4.      Contractor Starter Units ..............................................................................8
2.6.5.      Light Current Electrical Construction ...........................................................9
2.6.6.      Components .............................................................................................11
2.6.7.      Cabling and Terminations .........................................................................12
2.6.8.      Auxiliary Power Cables .............................................................................13
2.6.9.      Multipair Thermoplastic Insulated Cables..................................................14
2.6.10.     Special Control and Instrumentation Cables .............................................16
2.6.11.     P.V.C. Cables ...........................................................................................16
2.6.12. Conduit Installation ....................................................................................17
2.6.13.      Tunking ....................................................................................................21
2.6.14.      Control Switches and Interlocks ...............................................................21
2.6.15.      Time Switch Control .................................................................................23
2.6.16.      Instrumentation ........................................................................................23
2.6.17.      System Static Pressure Gauge.................................................................25
2.6.18.      Thermometers – Air Systems ...................................................................25
2.6.19.      Pressure Tappings ...................................................................................26
2.6.20.      Sling Psychrometer ..................................................................................26
2.6.21.      Pressure Gauges .....................................................................................26
2.6.22.      Building Management Systems ................................................................27
2.6.23.      Cabling.....................................................................................................29
2.6.24.      Sensors, Detectors and Motors ................................................................32
2.6.25.      Generic System Performance Descriptions ..............................................42
   2.6.25.1.        LTHW System ..................................................................................43
   2.6.25.2.        Chilled Water System Pumps ...........................................................45
   2.6.25.3.        Air Handling Units.............................................................................46
   2.6.25.4.        Stand Alone Cooling Units................................................................49
   2.6.25.5.        Pump Sets (Generally) .....................................................................49
   2.6.25.6.        Optimum Start Control ......................................................................49
   2.6.25.7.        Night Purge ......................................................................................50
   2.6.25.8.        Compensated Control.......................................................................50
   2.6.25.9.        LPHW Systems – General................................................................51
   2.6.25.10.       Chilled Water System .......................................................................53
   2.6.25.11.       Power Feeds to the Air Handling Unit Lighting..................................54
   2.6.25.12.       Fire Alarms .......................................................................................54
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
2.6.1.   Starter/Control Panels and Cubicles – General


         All electrical equipment and associated controls shall be contained within
         purpose made purpose. Each panel shall be in the form of a cubicle and
         shall be adequate in size for the equipment that it is to contain, with
         sufficient clearances for access to all terminals and maintenance, and not
         less than 600mm in width.


         The degree of protection afforded by the equipment enclosure may be
         reduced to IP41 in accordance with BS EN 60529 where the enclosure is
         fitted inside another panel e.g. a motor control centre (MCC) Otherwise
         enclosure with BS.EN 60529.


         Where bus bars, switch gear and fuse boards are to be included in the
         control panel/cubicle, the assembly shall comply with BS.5486 form 4
         construction unless otherwise specified in the particular specification.


         Panel anti condensation heaters shall be shrouded to prevent inadvertent
         contact and be controlled by means of an appropriate thermostat (range -
         15oC to +15oC.) Final connection to the heaters shall be by heat resisting
         flexible cable. ON/OFF switches and thermostats shall be fitted within the
         compartment and designed to operate whenever the appropriate contactor
         de-energises.


         Where control panels are specifically identified by the Engineer for use in
         locations exposed to the weather, they shall include the following
         requirement:


                        Push-buttons shall comply with IP65 rating.


                        Devices with operating spindles projecting through the panel
                        front shall be fitted with barriers or glands to prevent entry of
                        moisture into cubicle.


                        All other equipment shall be fitted behind approved transparent
                        observation windows or alternatively doors, suitably gasketed.


                        All external fixings shall be made of stainless steel.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 1
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
2.6.2.   Mechanical Construction


         The panels shall be complete with cable entries and interlocked isolators.


         Panels shall be rigid self supporting rectangular enclosures consisting of a
         framework of angle and sheet metal.


         Lift-off access panels shall be provided with handles and mounting spigots.


         One or more removable metal non-ferrous gland plates shall be provided at
         both the top and/or bottom of the enclosure to allow for cable or conduit
         entry. The gland plates shall be of 3mm minimum thickness and shall be
         secured by means of bolts screwed into captive nuts on the enclosure.
         Captive nuts shall be secured to the enclosure by swagging and riveting or
         by welding.


         All nuts used in the construction of the enclosure shall be of the captive
         type. Bolts on removable panels shall incorporate nylon washers to prevent
         damage to paintwork.


         Modular enclosures shall have each section mechanically and electrically
         segregated. However, it shall be possible to gain access to each section
         without first removing or opening other sections.


         Separate sections within the main panel shall be provided to segregate
         starter equipment from control equipment. Each section shall be complete
         with its own access door, which shall be kept in a locked position, and shall
         be separated by a vertical steel barrier.


         All indicating lamps, instruments and controls shall be of the same
         manufacture and style to provide uniformity of appearance and to facilitate
         maintenance. Externally visible equipment shall be flush mounted, with
         minimum projection, and fixed securely to the front panel or other members.
         Internal equipment shall be secured to purpose made rails or mounting
         bars. All fixings shall incorporate shakeproof washers or other vibration
         resistant fastenings.


         Indicator lamps shall be under-run and shall be supplied from a low voltage



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 2
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        output transformer complying with BS 3535 or shall incorporate individual
        step-down transformers having a low voltage output. Glasses of not less
        than 25mm diameter shall be fitted. Where glasses are not immediately
        adjacent to their associated switched they shall be clearly labelled.


        All controls panels shall be in the form of cubicles unless otherwise
        indicated, and be suitable for floor or wall mounting as indicated. All control
        panels shall be drip-proof, fully tropicalised with uniform dimensions and
        matching appearance and floor panels shall be mounted on a brick/concrete
        plinth.


        Equipment racks and panels shall be fabricated steel construction, 2.5mm
        minimum thickness, and unless otherwise specified (or located against a
        wall) both front and rear access shall be provided to all racks and
        equipment in panels. The lowest mounted rack shall be 0.3m above floor
        level. The highest mounted rack shall not be above 1.8m from the floor. The
        panel height shall not exceed 2m.


        Details of all manufactured panels shall be submitted to the Engineer for
        approval. It shall be possible to lay removable units, including portable
        equipment, on any of their faces without causing damage to any
        components. Where necessary mechanical guards shall be fitted.


        Hinged doors shall be provided and arranged to lie flat back and not restrict
        access to the apparatus contained within the panel. Hinged doors shall be
        of the lift-off type, secured with integral handles and shall be flush-fitting and
        sealed with a gasket of rubber approved by the Engineer to prevent the
        ingress of dust.


        If complete sealing of the panels is not practicable, ant ventilators and
        opening must be designed to prevent the entry of water, dust, vermin and
        insects, and provided with air filters.


        Lamps shall be fitted inside each panel and so arranged that all wiring is
        illuminated as evenly as possible without glare. The lamps shall be
        controlled by the respective door switch.


        Before painting, metal parts shall be thoroughly cleaned free from rust,



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 3
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        scale, burs, grease and moisture.


        The following minimum painting requirements shall apply to all surfaces and
        ferrous parts unless the Contractor can show, to the satisfaction of the
        Engineer, that any alternative he proposes is in all respects equal or
        superior to the specified requirements. External colours shall be to the
        approval of the Engineer.


               (a) One priming coat of            corrosion inhibiting paint applied
                     immediately after cleaning


               (b) Two coats of non-gloss, weather resistant paint


               (c) One finishing coat of gloss and weather resisting non-fading
                    paint to external surfaces


               (d) One finishing coat of matt white, weather resisting, non-fading
                    paint to all internal surfaces


        All exposed screws, bolts, or other fixings shall have rounded heads with
        protective chrome plating.


        A metal plinth shall be provided with provision for bolting down the panel.
        Removable lifting eyes shall be provided for convenience of handing the
        control panel.


        After erection at site is completed, all external surfaces shall be cleaned
        down and all defects to the painted surfaces shall be made good to the
        approval of the Engineer.


        An approved locking device for all panels shall be provided under this
        Contract. All locks shall be provided with two identical keys. It shall not be
        possible to open any lock with the key of any other lock provided under this
        contract. Locks shall be in suites provided with master-key facilities. Keys
        and locks shall be impressed with the manufacturer’s serial number. A key
        cabinet shall be provided for each set of keys.


        Where forced cooling is used, the panel equipment shall be so protected



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 4
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        that no damage occurs due to failure of the forced cooling. The Contractor
        shall submit to the Engineers, his proposals as to how this will be achieved.


        Internal wiring shall be colour-coded, and in general shall be bunched and
        run on trays or in purpose-made slotted plastic cable trunking. Positive
        fixing of cable ends shall be ensured by crimped cable tags or other
        approved terminations. Each cable end shall be permanently identified.


        Grouped terminal blocks of adequate capacity and fully numbered, with
        permanent labels, shall be provided for al wires leading to equipment
        outside the panel. Terminal numbers or markings shall correspond with
        those used on related apparatus and wiring diagrams. Provision shall be
        made for the earthing of all non current-carrying metal-work with means for
        effective earthing to the cubicle chassis. Socket crimp type terminals shall
        be provided for main power terminals incorporated within a panel.


        Fuses shall be grouped and mounted so as to be readily accessible without
        danger. Fuses, terminal blocks and all items of equipment shall be readily
        identified by means of clearly visible labels secured to them by retentive
        clips or screws where practical.


        For each electrical air heater battery, an indicator lamp and ammeter shall
        be provided.


        For each electric motor of 37.5 kW and above, an ammeter shall be
        provided.


        Ammeters shall not be less than 75mm diameter.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 5
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS


         Indicating lamp glasses on control and relay panels shall conform to the
         following standard and colour code in accordance with BS 4099: Part 1:-


               Lens Colour                                      Application



Red                                          Shall indicate that an abnormal condition
                                             exists and that urgent operator action is
                                             required i.e. Pump or Fan etc. not
                                             operating.
                                             (a) Plant outside normal operating limits
                                             (b) Plant, instrument or other equipment
                                             faulty or in alarm state
                                             (c) Motor starter: OFF
                                             (d)       Clutch     or     similar   device:
                                             DISENGAGED
                                             (d) Valve or similar device: CLOSED


White                                        Shall indicate a normal condition:
                                             (a) Plant operating correctly
                                             (b) Trip circuit healthy
                                             (c) Alarm circuit healthy


Green                                        Shall indicate plant operating condition:
                                             (a) Isolator, circuit-breaker, switch or
                                             contactor: CLOSED
                                             (b) Motor starter: ON
                                             (c) Clutch or similar device: ENGAGED
                                             (d) Valve or similar device: OPEN


Yellow                                       Shall indicate change or impending
                                             change of condition e.g. filter blocked
                                             (a) Filter blocked
                                             (b) Temperature different from normal
                                             (c) Abnormal circuit condition
                                             (d) Isolator, circuit-breaker, switch or
                                             contactor: OPEN


AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 6
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         All panels shall be equipped with a lamp test button mounted on the panel
         fascia. Where required this button shall be suitably IP rated.


         All items on the outside face of the panel shall be identified by means of
         white laminated plastic labels engraved with black ciphers and attached by
         screws. Attachment by adhesive only of any description will not be
         permitted.


2.6.3.   Starters


         Starters shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 60947-4-1.


         Starters shall normally be rated for “intermittent” duty, but where, due to the
         form of thermostatic or automatic control, the number of starts is likely to
         exceed 15 per hour, starters for “frequent” duty shall be provided. The type
         of starter which will be accepted depends on the capacity of the electrical
         supply and the mains; in certain cases special requirements may be
         indicated. Generally the following types will be accepted:




                (a) Motors up to 0.5kW output             ‘ON/OFF’ switch or direct-on-line


                (b) Over 0.5kW and up to 7.5kW            Direct-on-line


                (c) Over 7.5kW and up to 25kW             Star-delta, auto-transformer, or
                                                          rotor resistance


                (d) Over 25kW                             Auto-transformer      or     rotor
                                                          resistance


                (e) Motors requiring accurate speed control to be started by PWM
                      soft starters.




AJC 05/07                              Section 2.6. / 7
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         For starters incorporating reduced voltage starting, the change-over of
         voltage shall be automatic.


         Starters shall be provided with combined thermal overload devices on each
         phase and single phasing protection, with adjustable time-lag, and an
         under-voltage release. They shall be arranged, unless otherwise indicated,
         to provide automatic re-start on restoration of mains voltage. The automatic
         start shall, however be implemented through a sequence timed start, to
         prevent all equipment re-starting simultaneously. Operating coils shall be
         wound for not more than 240 volts. Where a contractor is arranged for
         remote operation, the coil circuit shall be protected by a fuse. Terminals
         shall be accessible and have adequate clearances between phases and
         earthed metalwork.


         Where a starter is not enclosed in a composite panel, a door inter-locked
         isolating switch shall be provided. Each electric motor and electric air heater
         battery which is controlled from the main control panel, and is not less than
         2.0m from the panel or is so situated that the panel cannot be seen from the
         motor or air heater, shall be provided with a local main circuit isolator. All
         isolators shall be capable of being locked in the off or open position.


         For large refrigeration plant or completely packaged water chilling units,
         supplied separately from the main starter and control panel, provision shall
         be made for any electrical interlocking which may be required between the
         compressor motor switchgear and the starters for the remainder of the
         plant.


         Unless otherwise indicated, where a fan is provided with duplicate motors,
         two starters shall be supplied; a single starter with a local changeover
         switch will not be accepted.


2.6.4.   Contractor Starter Units


         Contractor starters shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 60947-4-1.


         Low voltage motor circuits shall be controlled by a contactor starter and an
         individual set of HRC fuses. The contactor shall be the normal means of
         stopping and starting the motor.



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 8
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         Each contactor starter shall be fitted with an isolating switch to provide
         isolation for maintenance and disconnection in the event of welded contacts
         under stalled motor conditions.


         The contactors shall be capable of dealing with normal and fault conditions.


         The contractor starter units shall be of air-insulated, metalclad type and be
         designed to ensure safety of operating personnel.


         Interlocks shall be provided to ensure that the unit access door can only be
         opened when the associated contactor is open and the contactor cannot be
         closed in the service position until the access door is closed.


         Auxiliary contacts fro remote interlocking and indication shall be fitted in
         each individual contactor starter.


2.6.5.   Light Current Electrical Construction


         Component parts shall be so located, secured and disposed with respect to
         each other and structural members that they can be inspected, removed
         and replaced without damage to, or undue disturbance of, other parts or
         wiring.


         Components generating significant heat shall be adequately spaced from
         their mounting boards and from other components.


         All components shall be adequately supported and secured where
         necessary by clamps, clips or other means acceptable to the Engineer.
         Rivets or eyelets shall not be used for fixing items which may have to be
         repaired or replaced. Components shall not be mounted directly on wiring
         terminal blocks, unless adequately independently supported, and will not
         damage the terminal block.


         Unless otherwise agreed, all plug-in devices, units and sub-units shall be
         held in position by approved retainers.


         Pre-set controls requiring routine adjustment shall be accessible with the
         complete equipment and adjacent equipment in operation. A method of



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 9
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        ensuring that pre-set controls retain their adjustment shall b incorporated,
        and details submitted to the Engineer for approval.


        Soldered connections shall be made only to components specifically
        designed for that purpose. Flexible conductors and metallic braiding subject
        to flexing at their terminations shall not be soldered, but shall be fitted with
        crimped tags approved by the Engineer.


        Welded connections shall only be used subject to the approval of the
        Engineer.


        Taper pin connectors, push-on connectors etc. shall be to the approval of
        the Engineer. The preferred material for push-on connectors is phosphor
        bronze.


        Wires shall not be joined together except at a properly supported terminal
        post or tag. Grommets or bushes shall be fitted where wiring passes
        through metalwork.


        Internal wiring shall be loomed, harnessed and adequately supported by
        clamping troughing, or similar means. Direct point-to-point wiring shall not
        be used, except where approved by the Engineer. Where it is necessary to
        bunch cables, the wiring shall be limited to not more than 12 wires.


        Wiring shall be clamped into plugs and sockets in such a way that
        connections inside each connector cannot be subjected to injurious tensile
        stress.


        Sufficient slack wire shall be provided to enable a reconnection to be made
        at each end of each wire.


        Internal wiring shall be a minimum of 0.002mm2 cross-sectional area.


        Every effort shall be made to avoid installing control and signal wiring in
        close proximity to power wiring. Control and signal wiring shall be protected
        by properly grounded shielding where it is practical to do so.
        External wiring to and from panels shall be terminated on properly
        numbered multiway tag blocks. Long lengths of external type cable inside



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 10
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         panels or cubicles will not be permitted.


2.6.6.   Components


         Transformer and inductor windings shall be vacuum impregnated or
         encapsulated and terminate on a terminal board mounted on the unit. Each
         winding and termination shall be clearly and unambiguously identified.


         Complete details shall be provided of the suitability of relay contact
         materials for the application. Relay actuating coils shall preferably be either
         vacuum impregnated or encapsulated.


         Unsealed relays or groups of relays shall be provided with a protective
         cover to prevent dust ingress. The covers shall be detachable without the
         need to remove the relays.


         The Contractor shall submit details of al instruments for individual approval
         by the Engineer. Instrument scales shall be of the anti-parallax platform
         type, clearly divided and indelibly marked.


         All indicating instruments shall be of a modular type and be accurate within
         1% of full scale span.


         Push-button indicators with labelling and mounted on control panels shall
         be to the approval of the Engineer.


         The ratings of all indicating lamps shall be such that an average useful lamp
         life of 20,000 hours minimum is obtained. The design of lamp holders shall
         be such that replacement of the lamp is both quick and easy; access shall
         be from the front panel of the equipment or the cubicle or panel door.


         To reduce heating, and fouling of the panels, lamps which are continuously
         alight shall have the minimum consumption consistent with good visibility of
         indications in a brightly-lit room.


         Multi-pole connectors shall be designed such that incorrect mating cannot
         occur. A device approved by the Engineer shall be provided for locking
         each free plug or socket in the mated position.



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 11
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         The material of all components shall be resistant of flame propagation.


         All instruments shall be back connected on stud type terminals and
         identified by engraving or painting.


2.6.7.   Cabling and Terminations


         All cables shall be anti-termite fire retardant type and all cabling shall be
         arranged to minimise the risk of fire and any damage which might be
         caused in the event of fire.


         The Contractor shall be responsible for protecting cables in an approved
         manner against mechanical damage or damage by fire where exposed
         inside the building.


         Where cable troughs are not provided the Contractor shall provide ladder
         racking with appropriate supports to the approval of the Engineer.


         Where run on racking, cables shall be secured by heavy gauge copper or
         plastic coated clips at intervals of not more than 1500mm. Where run on flat
         surfaces, cables shall be secured by spacer bar saddles at intervals of not
         more than 1000mm. Every cable shall be securely supported at a point not
         more than 1000mm from its termination and on vertical runs passing
         through floors, immediately above the floor.


         The Contractor shall be responsible for connecting his equipment to existing
         equipment or equipment supplied under a separate Contract, where
         indicated.


         All multicore cables shall be physically separated from power supply wiring.


         Joints in P.V.C or X.L.P.E cables shall be terminated in brass compression
         type cable glands of the correct size which shall secure the cable inner
         sheath and ensure effective electrical continuity between the cable
         armouring wires and the metal enclosure on which the cable is terminated.
         A copper earth link shall be taken from the cable termination point to the
         associated sub-switchboard or main switchboard earth bar. X.L.P.E cables
         shall be terminated similarly to P.VC armoured cables. Where cables are



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 12
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         required to be terminated in terminal boxes or other equipment supplied
         under another contract, the Contractor shall be responsible for carrying out
         the terminations in accordance with the requirements specified above
         including the supply and jointing of tails where necessary and the testing to
         verify correct phasing of all cores.


         Where single core cables are used, all necessary precautions shall be
         taken to prevent hysteresis. Ferrous plates through which the cables pass
         shall be slotted and brass glands and sockets shall be used. Single core
         cables shall be very rigidly clamped to prevent distortion under short circuit
         conditions.


2.6.8.   Auxiliary Power Cables


         All PVC insulated power cables for use on three phase, low voltage
         systems shall be 600/1000 volt grade with stranded copper conductors.


         PVC insulated multicore auxiliary cables shall have not less than 7/0.67mm
         (2.5mm2) stranded copper conductors and shall be 600/1000 volt grade.
         They shall conform to approved National Standards and to all applicable
         requirements of this Specification dealing with construction of power cables
         unless otherwise specified.


         All PVC insulated multicore power and auxiliary cables shall be extruded
         PVC sheathed, galvanised steel round wire armoured and extruded PVC
         sheathed overall.


         The ends of each cable shall be terminated in brass, compression-type
         cable glands of the correct size, which shall secure the cable inner sheath
         and ensure effective electrical continuity between the cable armouring wires
         and the metal enclosures on which the cable is terminated. Cable glands
         fitted on outdoor equipment shall also incorporate suitable compression
         seals to secure the outer sheath and shall be so designed and fitted that
         water cannot enter the cable or the equipment through the cable
         termination. Where required, a barrier shall be incorporated to prevent
         ingress of moisture through the interstitial spaces in the cable. At all rising
         terminations, the cable inner sheath shall pass through the gland to
         terminate not less than 25mm above the gland.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 13
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         Straight through joints for PVC and other thermoplastic insulated and
         sheathed cables, shall comprise a cast iron box with cone type armour
         clamps, jointing connections and means for providing a barrier against the
         entry of water into the box through the interstitial spaces in the cables. The
         boxes shall be suitable for filling with a bituminous or epoxy resin
         compound. Alternatively, boxes of cast iron or other suitable material
         containing a separately sealed joint sleeve and an approved armour
         clamping device will be considered. Other designs of straight joint may be
         considered, but only if documentary proof can be provided of their suitability
         for withstanding mechanical and electrical type approval tests witnessed
         and accepted by a reputable Authority. No straight through joints shall be
         installed without the agreement of the Engineer.


         The Contractor shall submit design drawings of joint boxes and outer
         protection boxes he proposes to use which shall be suitable for operation
         when buried in the ground or installed in exposed positions or in conditions
         of high humidity, depending upon the location approved by the Engineer.


2.6.9.   Multipair Thermoplastic Insulated Cables


         The conductors of all thermoplastic insulated cables shall be copper and
         shall comply with an approved National Specification and to all applicable
         requirements of this Specification dealing with the construction of Power
         Cables. Where tinned conductors are specified their solder-ability
         performance shall be demonstrated in accordance with an approved
         Specification. The size of conductors shall be 1/0.9mm minimum. Insulation
         shall be PVC and the thickness approved by the Engineer.


         Cable cores shall be identified by colours with distinctive schemes to
         discriminate between PVC and polyethylene insulation. The colour schemes
         shall be approved by the Engineer and shall be the generally accepted
         schemes and rotation for the appropriate design of cable.


         Insulated cables shall be twisted together to form a pair. In the case of PVC
         insulated conductors the required number of pairs shall be laid-up to form a
         compact symmetrical cable with the two pair construction laid-up in quad
         formation.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 14
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        Binding tapes constructed from suitable materials shall be applied with an
        open spiral or overlap as required between layers, where necessary, and
        over the laid-up structure to provide a compact uniform formation. A rip-cord
        to facilitate removal of the inner sheath of PVC insulated cables may be
        included during the application of the overall binding tape.


        Cables shall be armoured with one layer of galvanised steel round wires.
        The number and diameter of the wires shall be as indicated.


        The design of joint-box and any other protection box shall comply with the
        requirements for auxiliary cables and accessories unless otherwise
        approved by the Engineer. Alternative designs will only be considered if
        documentary proof can be provided of their suitability for withstanding
        mechanical and electrical type approval tests witnessed and accepted by a
        reputable Authority.


        Multipair cables shall be screened when being used for data transmission.
        Earthing of the screen shall be to the approval of the Engineer.


        Multipair cable tails shall be so bound that each wire may be traced without
        difficulty to the associated cable.


        Approved type terminals of the insertion type incorporating pressure plates
        shall be provided for all incoming cables.


        All terminals blocks and terminations shall be to the approval of the
        Engineer. Unless otherwise agreed each terminal shall have a removable
        link to facilitate signal isolation and testing.


        Facilities shall be provided to maintain the continuity of isolated cable
        screens whenever required.


        Provision shall be made at the top of the control panel terminal boards for
        the termination of all spare cores in the incoming cables.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 15
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
          The ends of every type of wire and every cable tail shall be fitted with
          numbered ferrules of white, with the numbers clearly engraved in black.
          Moisture and oil resisting insulating material having a glossy finish shall be
          used. The ferrules shall be of the interlocking type and shall grip the
          insulation.


          Details of the proposed ferrule numbering system shall be submitted at the
          earliest possible date by the Contractor to the Engineer for approval.


          All cabling carrying analogue direct current signals shall comply with BS
          5863: Part 1.


2.6.10.   Special Control and Instrumentation Cables


          Any special control, instrumentation and measurement cables shall be to an
          approved National Standard and the design and characteristics of the
          insulation and screening shall be adequate to meet the operating
          requirements of the respective circuits.


          Cables shall be screened and/or armoured as required and sheathed
          overall with extruded PVC.


          Cables shall be run in one length between terminal points. Where it is
          necessary to split or joint circuits, a marshalling box or cubicle shall be
          provided.


          Adequate spacing shall be provided between power and instrumentation
          cables so that mutual interference is minimised.


          If any special cables are required, it shall be stated in the specification
          Schedules and complete details of the cables provided.


2.6.11.   P.V.C. Cables


          All sub-main circuit PVC insulated and sheathed cables shall be 600/1000
          volts grade. The cable core shall be readily identifiable by colours or
          numbers. Where numbers are used the intervals between adjacent
          numbers on the same core shall not exceed 75mm. Where cables are



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 16
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        armoured they shall be covered with a single layer of galvanised steel.
        Cable supports shall be in accordance with relevant manufacturer’s
        recommendations, but no more than at 400mm horizontal and 500mm
        vertical maximum spacing.


        Cables shall be terminated in corrosion resistant brass glands with core grip
        armour clamps. In outdoor situations the terminating glands shall be
        covered with plastic shrouds filed with plastic compound to give protection
        against moisture and corrosion.


        All cables drawn into conduit shall be PVC insulated 600/1000 volts grade
        with copper conductor.


        Generally conductors shall be stranded and none smaller than 1.5mm2 will
        be permitted.


        The cables shall be looped progressively from point to point and no joints
        will be permitted. Cables shall not be bunched or pass through the same
        conduits, draw boxes or section of trunking, if derived from separate
        distribution fuseboards or fuse switched. The cables for each section of the
        installation shall be confined to the conduit and draw box system for that
        particular section. Cables for separate sections may, however, pass through
        the same adaptable box provided the circuits are separated physically by
        means of fixed barriers within the box and separate covers are provided for
        each section thus formed.


        The number of cables in any conduit shall not exceed those stated in the
        local or international Regulations. All cables shall be colour coded in
        accordance with local Regulations.


2.6.12. Conduit Installation


        Unless otherwise specified the whole of the various installations described
        shall be carried out in heavy gauge steel conduit. No conduit less than
        20mm diameter will be permitted.


        All steel conduit and accessories shall be heavily galvanised. Surface
        installed conduit shall be supported using distance pattern saddles fixed



AJC 05/07                        Section 2.6. / 17
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        with non-ferrous screws.


        A separate insulated earth conductor, coloured green, shall be run in PVC
        conduits and earth facilities shall be provided at all terminal points.


        Wherever the installation is specified as being flameproof, conduit runs
        entering these areas shall have a barrier box inserted in the run
        immediately before the conduit passes into the flameproof area. All conduit
        work inside the flameproof area shall be carried out with solid drawn
        galvanised conduit and all conduit fittings, sockets and accessories shall be
        galvanised and certified suitable for Group 1 hazards.


        The ends of all conduit shall be rearmoured to remove all burrs or sharp
        edges after the screw threads have been cut. All dirt, paint or oil on the
        screwed threads of the conduit, sockets and accessories must be removed
        prior to erection.


        The ends of the conduit shall butt solidly in all couplings. Where they
        terminate in fuse-switches, distribution boards, adaptable boxes, non-
        spouted switch boxes, they shall be connected thereto by means of smooth
        bore male brass bushes, compression washers and sockets. All exposed
        threads and all bends shall be painted with an aluminium spirit paint after
        erection.


        All conduit and accessories, after being installed, shall be examined and all
        parts where the surface has been chipped or scratched shall be painted.


        All conduits shall be kept 80mm clear of water, gas and other services.


        The method of installing PVC conduit and fittings shall conform strictly to
        the manufacturer’s recommendations. In general the Clauses dealing with
        steel conduit shall apply.


        PVC tube not exceeding 25mm in diameter shall be bent cold by means of
        the appropriate spring and the tube shall be saddled as quickly as possible
        after bending. When bending large sizes of tube, the tube must be heated in
        the approved manner until it is pliable. A normal 90º bend shall have a
        radius of not less five times the outside diameter of the tubes.



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 18
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS


        Joints between conduit and conduit fittings shall be watertight and shall be
        made by means of a solvent adhesive as recommended by the
        manufacturer. Care should be taken to ensure that the tube is clean and
        free from damp and grease and in particular dust and cutting oil.


        The Contractor shall provide PVC tube ends and flexible covers to prevent
        ingress of concrete grout into the tubing and boxes.


        All bends are to be made on site to suit conditions and not more than two
        right angle bends will be permitted without the interposition of a draw box.
        No tees, elbows, sleeves, either of inspection or solid type will be permitted.
        Generally long straight conduit runs from point to point shall have draw
        boxes installed at maximum intervals of 10 metres. Deep boxes or
        extension rings on standard circular conduit boxes shall be used where
        necessary in order to bring the front of each box flush with the surface of
        the ceiling or wall. Galvanised draw wires shall be provided where conduits
        are not to be wired on completion or are to be wired by others. All draw
        boxes and junction boxes shall be of ample size to permit the cables being
        drawn in and out. They shall be made of malleable iron with jointing
        surfaces machined to ensure a dust tight joint. All circular boxes shall be
        provided with long spouts internally threaded incorporating a shoulder for
        the proper butting of the conduit and a solid brass earth terminal tapped and
        screwed into the base.


        Where the surface conduit is specified, it shall be fixed by means of
        distance saddles and shall terminate, in deep pattern conduit boxes.
        Surface conduits shall not be bent or set to enter accessories, and where
        they turn through the walls back outlet boxes shall be provided. Conduits
        shall be fixed at 1200mm centres on vertical runs and 900mm apart on
        horizontal   runs.   Conduits   in   ceiling   cavities   shall   be   supported
        independently of suspended ceiling.


        Where conduits cross expansion joints, the Contractor shall allow for the
        installation of expansion couplings at the position of the expansion joint and
        at right angles to it. The Contractor shall provide an earth wire between
        each terminal fitted in the nearest conduit boxes each side of the coupler.
        All flexible metallic tubing shall be galvanised watertight pattern fitted with



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 19
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        sweated brass adapters.


        Where conduits are laid in slab floors etc. the Contractor shall arrange for a
        competent person to be in attendance whilst the pouring or screeding
        operation is being carried out, in order to avoid damage being caused to the
        conduits and also to ensure that the conduit work is carried out in sound
        conditions, properly and efficiently installed.


        Particular care shall be taken when setting out conduit runs to outlet points
        which are to be fitted to furniture, kitchen fittings etc. The Contractor shall
        ascertain exact details of furniture and fittings constructions in order that all
        conduit work shall wherever possible be concealed.


        Conduits installed in chases of walls and floors shall be firmly secured by
        wrought iron pipe hooks or crampets and these fixings shall in themselves
        be sufficient to hold the conduits in place. Conduits installed in chases shall
        be painted with one coat of bitumastic paint before erection and a further
        coat shall be applied to all accessible surfaces including the hooks and
        crampets after erection.


        Care shall be taken to prevent water, dirt or rubbish entering the conduit
        system during erection. Screwed metal caps or plugs shall be fixed to the
        structure of the building independently of the conduit.


        Where a conduit is exposed to different temperatures (either by surrounding
        air conditions or by virtue o the surrounding medium with which it is in
        contact) at any particular time, the section of the conduit at the higher
        temperature shall be isolated from the section at the lower temperature by
        means of a conduit box filled with an approved permanently plastic
        compound. Such a condition would arise if a conduit running in a warmed
        building is run to external locations.


        Where conduits are to be buried in screed, the installation shall be
        inspected by the Engineer before screeding and screeding shall be
        supervised by the Contractor to ensure no damage is caused to the conduit
        installation.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 20
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
2.6.13.   Tunking


          Where trunking is utilised shall be constructed of 1.65mm minimum
          thickness zinc coated mild steel and shall have a removable cover
          throughout its length with centre screw latch fixings. Trunking shall be rigidly
          fixed and supplied complete with purpose manufactured fittings, connectors,
          dividers, flanges, cable retaining clips, racks and copper earth continuity
          links.


          All cables installed in trunking shall be laced and identified in an approved
          manner. Clips shall be at 600mm centres. Vertical cable trunking shall be
          fitted with cable pin racks arranged to avoid any strain on the cables.


          All trunking shall be rust proofed, primed and painted, and fixed at intervals
          not greater than 1000mm.


2.6.14.   Control Switches and Interlocks


          For the control of electrical equipment which operates independently an
          ‘ON/OFF’ rotary snap switch shall be fitted on the front of the panel for each
          item of plant. Where plant operates independently e.g. an extract fan which
          should not run unless the supply fan is running, an ‘ON/OFF’ switch shall be
          fitted for the master item and a ‘HAND/OFF/AUTO’ switch shall be fitted for
          each item of dependent plant. The switch positions shall be clearly labelled
          to show which item of plant it controls.


          With a ‘HAND/OFF/AUTO’ switch in the ‘AUTO’ position the dependent item
          of plant shall start automatically when the master item is switched ‘ON’ and
          shall operate automatically under the dictates of any controlling device.


          The operation of the switch to the ‘HAND’ position shall override any
          controlling devices except those which are necessary for the safe operation
          of the plant. Similarly the operation of a master switch to ‘OFF’ with
          dependant plant at ‘AUTO’ shall cause all plant to stop, in sequence where
          necessary e.g. allowing a fan to run on to remove heat from electric heaters
          or a chilled water pump to run on until refrigeration pump-down is
          completed, to avoid freeze-up) and with due regard for all safety controls.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 21
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        For each electric air heater battery a ‘HAND/OFF/AUTO’ switch, an
        indicator lamp and an ammeter shall be provided. Associated with the
        ‘HAND’ setting of the switch there shall be a second rotary switch giving
        manual control of the heater steps independently of automatic thermostatic
        control.


        For each electric motor of 37.5kW and above an ammeter shall be provided
        on the panel.


        For cooling and air conditioning plants the master item shall be the main air
        supply fan shall, under automatic working conditions, cause all other plant
        to start in sequence and as required by the thermostatic controls. Similarly,
        for chilled water systems the master-item shall be the chilled water pumps
        and their operation shall, under automatic working, cause the refrigeration
        plant etc, to start.


        Where there are both air and water systems the main air supply fan shall be
        the master item for the air handling plant and the air temperature and
        humidity controls; the chilled water pump shall be the master item for the
        water handling plant, the refrigeration plant and the water temperature
        controls and water flow switch.


        Refrigeration plant shall start in sequence i.e. the chilled water pump, the
        condenser water pump (or evaporative condenser pump, or air cooled
        condenser fan) followed by the cooling tower fan (or evaporative condenser
        fan) where required and then the compressor. Where more than one
        compressor is installed they shall be arranged to start in time delayed
        sequence and as required by temperature control (or in some cases,
        refrigerant pressure control); a switch shall be provided to enable the
        leading machine to be selected manually (e.g. in sequence 1-2-3, 2-3-1 or
        3-1-2).


        For each compressor of more than 35kW capacity an hours-run meter shall
        be provided.


        For boiler installations where gas tight dampers are fitted in the individual
        flue ways the damper shall be electrically interlocked with the firing controls
        to open and close when the burner is cycling and in conjunction with the



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 22
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
          sequence. When the damper is in the closed position the burner controls
          shall be inoperative.


2.6.15.   Time Switch Control


          Each clock control to be provided where indicated shall be driven by a
          synchronous motor with a self winding spring reserve of not less than 30
          hours and shall include provision for one switching ‘ON’ and one switching
          ‘OFF’ per day. Means of omitting switching for at least two days per week
          and of advancing and retarding either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ switching or both shall
          be provided.


2.6.16.   Instrumentation


          Boiler Houses 50kW and over.


          In boiler houses of no less than 50kW boiler rating a 20mm size socket, with
          a brass plug, shall be provided in each furnace front for measurement of
          draught over the fire. A 40mm size socket, with brass plugs for flue gas
          sampling shall be provided at each boiler exit and in the main chimney if
          common to two or more boilers. Each socket shall be 50mm long, and
          either welded to, or cast on the boiler furnace or flue outlet.


          An additional 20mm size socket with a brass plug shall be provided near to
          each of the 40mm size sockets.


          Boiler Houses in excess of 1200 kW.


          In boiler houses where the total boiler rating exceeds 1200 kW the following
          instruments shall be provided in addition to the items indicated elsewhere:


               (i) A smoke density indicator with indicator light connected to the
               audible alarm.


               (ii) A CO2 indicator and a flue gas temperature indicator for each
               boiler, or single instruments with isolating plug cocks and switches as
               appropriate and common connections for alternative readings from
               each boiler flue outlet. Alternatively the two instruments may be



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 23
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
            combined.


            (iii) Draught gauges (two per boiler), one for the construction chamber
            and one for the boiler flue exit.


            (iv) An audible alarm, as indicated, fitted outside the boiler house and
            wired in parallel with the excess smoke density indicator.


            (v) Multi-point indicator(s) to indicate all of the following:



                (a) boiler water flow temperature;
                (b) boiler water return temperature;
                (c) flow header (when fitted) temperature;
                (d) system water flow temperature(s)
                (e) system water return temperature(s)
                (f)   outdoor temperature.




            (vi) A sharp-edged corrosion-resistant orifice fitting or venturi shall be
            installed in the common flow main. The orifice shall be arranged with
            15mm size valved pressure tappings and be sized to give a pressure
            drop between 75 and 100mb on full flow and the diameter shall be
            clearly stamped on a projecting metal tag; means for isolating the
            orifice fitting shall be provided.


            Venturis shall be arranged with 8mm size valved pressure tappings
            and be sized to give a pressure drop between 25 and 100mb at full
            flow; details of the design flow and related differential pressures shall
            be clearly stamped on a projecting metal tag.


            (vii) A thermometer pocket with a screwed cap shall be fitted beside
            each temperature sensing point connected to the multi-point
            indicator(s) so that a check thermometer may be inserted. The pocket
            shall be of steel except for copper installations where it shall be of
            stainless steel.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 24
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
               (viii) A meter to record the total make-up water supplied to the system.


               In a hot water heating boiler house where the total boiler rating is
               below 1200 kW dial type thermometers shall be fixed in each boiler
               flow and in the common return. A dial-type thermometer shall be fixed
               similarly in the common flow main after the thermostatic mixing valve
               when one is fitted. The dial-type thermometers shall be specified
               elsewhere.


          In steam boiler houses only, the following shall be provided in addition to
          the instruments specified above:


               (i) an integrating steam flow meter in the steam header;


               (ii) a dial thermometer on the water outlet from the boiler feed pumps.


2.6.17.   System Static Pressure Gauge


          A system static pressure gauge shall be provided for all air systems where
          the main fan power exceeds 3.75 kW; it shall consist of a small inclined
          manometer gauge similar to a filter gauge. One end of the gauge shall be
          connected to the system and the other end shall be left open to the plant
          room, but where fluctuations of the static pressure in the plant room may
          occur the gauge shall be connected across the main fan.


          The gauge shall be connected into the system at some point in the plant
          room ducting where the static pressure is steady and near its maximum.
          When commissioning is completed the value of the static pressure at this
          point shall be measured and shall be indelibly marked on the gauge as a
          system reference or engraved on a brass or rigid plastic name plate and
          securely fixed to the ductwork adjacent. The name plate shall be clear of
          any insulation that may be applied to the ductwork. Where a Building
          Management System is installed, the system reference shall also be
          displayed via the BMS.


2.6.18.   Thermometers – Air Systems


          On supply air systems, duct test points as specified in clause 6.9 shall be



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 25
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
          provided in the ductwork for the insertion of a thermometer in the fresh air
          connection, the recirculation air duct, before and after an air heater, before
          and after an air cooler and before and after a humidifying device as
          appropriate. At points where the moisture content of the air is important a
          second hole shall be provided for a wet bulb thermometer. Thermometers
          shall be mercury-in-glass type, at least 300mm long, accurate to ± 0.5ºC
          and scaled appropriately. Each thermometer shall be complete with a brass
          plug to fit the hole at the point where the thermometer will be used, and
          each wet bulb thermometer shall be provided with a fabric sleeve. One
          thermometer for each temperature point, (base on one air handling system)
          shall be packed in a protective casing and handed to the Engineer. Where a
          Building Management System is installed, measurement and display of
          these temperatures shall also be carried out by the BMS.


2.6.19.   Pressure Tappings


          For each air heater and cooler battery of duty in excess of 30kW and for
          each shell and tube evaporator, condenser and cooling tower of duty in
          excess of 70kW, valved pressure tappings suitable for connection of a
          pressure gauge shall be fitted to the flow and return connections. A pair of
          pressure gauges as specified elsewhere shall be handed to the Engineer.


2.6.20.   Sling Psychrometer


          A sling psychrometer complete with a spare wick, a small plastic bottle for
          distilled water and a substantial protective case shall be handed to the
          Engineer, for checks to be carried out during commissioning. After
          commissioning the sling psychrometer shall be handed to the Client.


2.6.21.   Pressure Gauges


          Pressure gauges shall be fitted as required by other sections of this
          specification and shall generally comply with BS 1780 Part 2 but shall have
          dials calibrated both in bar and ibs/in2 from zero to not less than 1 1/3 times
          and not more than twice the operating pressure. Where fitted on pressure
          vessels and boilers, the gauges shall be as required by BS 759 with dials
          not less than 150mm diameter and with cases of polished brass or
          chromium plated metal. Where fitted elsewhere, the dials of gauges shall



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 26
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
          not be less than 100mm diameter and the cases shall be of polished brass
          or chromium plated metal. Pressure gauges shall be fitted with lever handle
          cocks and siphon pipes.


          Gauges used specifically to indicate the altitude or head and pressure of
          water shall have dials not less than 100mm diameter, calibrated both in bar
          and metres head. In addition to the indicating black pointer, gauges shall be
          provided with an adjustable red pointer set to indicate the normal working
          pressure or head of the system. The cases shall be as for 100mm diameter
          pressure gauges and be fitted with lever handle cocks.


2.6.22.   Building Management Systems


          Outstations and Controllers


          (i) Location and Environment


          Equipment shall be suitable for space conditions as follows:-


          Temperature 0 to 50ºC


          Relative humidity 10 to 90% non-condensing


          Air Filtration – none


          The equipment shall operate satisfactorily in the electrical environment
          associated with plantroom areas. Equipment shall be protected against the
          effects of conducted and radiated electrical interference.


          (ii) Construction


          All components shall be mounted within a purpose made enclosure
          incorporating facilities for cooling where necessary.


          Separately accessible compartments shall provide for:


          Electric components and communications equipment (this compartment to
          be separately lockable).



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 27
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        Relays and field wiring terminations.


        Electronic components mounted on one or more printed circuit boards shall
        be arranged in a form suitable for easy replacements.


        (iii) Terminations


        Connections to field equipment shall be arranged to avoid excessive force
        being applied electronic assemblies. To achieve this a field wiring terminal
        panel or its equivalent shall be included to physically separate wiring
        between electronic components from the more substantial wiring used for
        connections to field equipment.


        Terminal shall be of the screw down clamp type fixed to a purpose made
        mounting.


        All terminals shall be provided with a plug or blade disconnection device for
        test purposes. This device shall only be used for tests requiring circuit
        isolation. A test point shall be provided at the terminal for checking each
        part of the circuit.


        Terminals carrying different voltages shall be segregated in groups in
        accordance with IEE Regulations.


        All cables and terminals shall be permanently marked to indicate the
        respective circuit reference.


        (iv) Electrical Segregation and Protection


        All incoming low voltage power cables shall be individually shrouded and
        labelled:


            “DANGER”
            LEAVE TERMINAL ISOLATE AT
            ……………………………….
            BEFORE SERVICING




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 28
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
          (v) Interface Port


          A means shall be provided for the connection of test equipment. A provision
          shall also be made or the connection of a local printer or bulk memory
          device. Where peripheral equipment is already connected an additional
          separate means of connection shall be provided for test equipment.


          This shall be integral with the outstation and protected to the same standard
          as the compartment for electronic components.


          (vi) Power Supply and Battery Back-Up


          Each outstation shall have an integral power supply with battery back-up.


          Low voltage actuators directly controlled by the BMS, shall be powered from
          a power supply located at the outstation. Separate transformers
          independent to those of the outstation may be provided to power actuators.


          Fluctuations in power supply shall not affect operation of the outstation.


2.6.23.   Cabling


          (i) General


          This clause refers to sensor and data transmission cables installed as part
          of the BMS.


          Cabling and conduits associated with sensors shall be installed in a manner
          that prevents the spurious transfer of moisture and temperature etc. from
          external sources to the sensing device.


          To reduce the possibility of dampness related problems, cables and
          conduits should not be laid horizontally at floor or pedestal level.


          (ii) Cable Types and Application


          Unless otherwise indicated the types of cable used shall comply with the
          minimum requirements of the table below:



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 29
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
                  Application                              Cable Types


            Data transmission between            Single or multiple twisted pair cable
            outstations, central facilities      each twisted pair individually screened
            and other facilities.                with braided or sheet metal screen or
                                                 co-axial cable.


            Sensor       wiring     between      Single or multiple twisted pair cable
            outstation     and      analogue     screened with braided or sheet metal
            input/output devices.                screen.


            Sensor       wiring     between      Single or multiple twisted pair cable
            outstation    and     digital   or   unscreened.
            pulsed input/output devices.



        The cables and installations shall comply, as applicable, with the following
        standards:-


        Standard Electrical Specification


        Co-axial cables shall comply with BS 5425


        NOTE: The type of cable installed shall in no way prejudice the satisfactory
        operation of the BMS.


        The cross-sectional area of the installed cables shall be adequate to ensure
        that sensor circuit resistance limits are not exceeded.


        Jointing and termination of the above cable types shall comply with the
        General Specification.


        (iii) Screening and Interference Protection


        Data transmission cables may be installed either in separate steel or UPVC
        conduit or trunking. Where indicated, steel wire armoured cables may be
        installed without conduit or trunking.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 30
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        Where steel conduit or trunking is not used then separation between data
        transmission cables or power cable shall not be less than the minimum
        value given in the table below. Separation shall be selected with respect to
        either current or voltage. In each instance the greater separation shall
        apply.


                    Power Cable                                     Minimum
                                                                    Separation
                    Max.                   Max.                     (Signal Line to
                    Voltage                Operating                Power Cable)
                                           Current
                    125V                   10A                      0.3m
                    250V                   50A                      0.45m
                    500V                   100A                     0.6m
                    5000V                  800A                     1.2m


        Parallel runs of data transmission cables and power cables shall be avoided
        wherever possible.


        (iv) Mechanical Protection


        Mechanical protection of all BMS cables shall be provided by the use of
        separate steel or UPVC conduits or trunking as specified earlier.


        (v) Identification


        All cables shall have identification sleeves at their terminations which
        combine the requirements of the IEE Wiring Regulations with specific circuit
        identification. Identification shall be consistent with the relevant wiring
        diagrams.


        “Cross-over” cables for communication between processors and terminal
        devices shall be marked with an ‘X’ at both ends.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 31
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
2.6.24.   Sensors, Detectors and Motors


          (i)    General


          Connections to sensors shall be by the use of screw down clamp type
          terminals or self locking spade connectors.


          Sensors shall be identified with an engraved disc displaying the following
          information:-


          a)         BMS reference number for sensor.


          b)         Type of sensor, i.e. TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, VELOCITY,
          PRESSURE etc.


          c)         Outstation reference.


          Sensors in occupied spaces other than plantrooms shall be marked
          internally with the same information.


          (ii)   Installation and Fixing


          A commissioning test point shall be located adjacent to or integral with each
          sensor to facilitate calibration. The test point shall be suitable for the use of
          test instruments such as a thermometer or pilot-static tube.


          Sensor fixings shall be purpose made and shall facilitate removal and
          replacement of the sensor element.


          All sensor fixings shall give adequate mechanical protection to the sensor.


          All sensors and transducers shall be properly stored, retaining the original
          packaging and not removing dust caps until immediately prior to installation.


          Elements sensing the temperature of a liquid shall be:-


          a)         Provided with a steel or stainless steel pocket to allow withdrawal
                     for servicing and inspection.



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.6. / 32
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS


        b)       Position so that the active part of the element is not less than 12
                 pipe diameters down stream from a point of mixing.


        Elements sensing the temperature of gaseous mixtures shall:-


        a)       Be positioned so that the element is not subjected to radiant
                 effects.


        b)       Be positioned to give a representative temperature.


        c)       Be installed on a supporting framework where they are the
                 capillary averaging type.


        d)       Dew points sensors to be positioned such that the air adjacent to
                 the element is known to be saturated.


        Elements sensing the temperature of a solid surface shall be positioned and
        fixed so as to give good thermal contact.


        Elements sensing temperature of a room. Generally the following principles
        shall apply.


        a)       Position generally where shown on plan, at a height of
                 approximately 1.7m above floor level and at least 0.5m away from
                 any part of the heating system where fitted.


        b)       Positions in the return air path.


        Elements sensing the temperature of the external air shall be positioned so
        as to be away from the influence of direct solar radiation.


        Elements sensing Humidity shall:-


        a)       Be in a representative position in which the humidity is being
                 measured.


        b)       Be positioned such that air velocity is within the recommended



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 33
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
                   range required by the sensing element.


        c)         Be arranged to ensure that the air reaching the element is free
                   from airborne contaminants.


        d)         Be arranged to give convenient access for servicing the element.


        Flow meters for water or steam installation should be installed in pipework
        having straight lengths of pipe in accordance with the meter manufacturer’s
        recommendations.


        Take off points for liquid differential pressure sensors shall be positioned
        not less than 20 pipe diameters after and more than 5 pipe diameter before
        any source of turbulence.


        Pressure sensors and switches shall be fitted with isolating valves or cocks.


        Photocells shall be fitted in such positions that they can correctly sense the
        appropriate light sources.


        (iii)   Thermostats


        Where thermostats are used they shall have no external facility for user
        adjustment.


        Liquid expansion type thermostats shall be used for measuring internal
        room air temperature (-10ºC to +30ºC). Their error shall be less than ±4% of
        scale span.


        Vapour expansion type thermostat shall be sued for low temperature air
        cooling applications (below ±10ºC). Their error shall be less than ±1.5% of
        scale span.


        Electronic thermostats shall only be used where a fast response (less than
        5 seconds) is required. Their error shall be less than 1% of scale span.


        All thermostats shall include a volt free contact from which a low voltage
        status signal can be derived.



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 34
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        (iv)   Temperature Sensors


        The type, error and range of temperature sensors for any particular
        applications shall comply with the appropriate requirements of the following
        table:-


               Conditions         Range (ºC)     Accuracy    Sensor Type
                                                 (ºC)


                                                             PT100 Class A to
                       Air         -10 to +30         0.25   BS 1904 or Graded
                                                                 Thermistor
                                                             replaceable without
                                                                re-calibration


                                                             PT 100 Class B to
                    Flue Gas      +30 to 850          5.0        BS 1904 or
                                                             Thermo-couple to
                                                                  BS 4937


                                                             PT 100 Class A to
                  Chilled Water    -10 to +30         0.25   BS 1904 or Graded
                                                                 thermistor
                                                             replaceable without
                                                                 calibration


                                                             PT 100 Class B to
                  Warm Water      -10 to +150         1.0    BS 1904 or Graded
                                                                 Thermistor
                                                             replaceable without
                                                                 calibration


        Temperature sensor shall not drift more than 0.1K per year.


        PT100 resistance temperature sensors shall have a hysteresis value of less
        than 0.05%




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 35
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        (v)     Humidity Sensors


        Humidity sensors shall:-


                1) Not need re-calibration within a period of at least 12 months.


                2) Have an error of less than ±5% of the set point.


                3) Have an operating range of 10 to 90% RH.


                4) Have a response time of less than 30 seconds.


                5) Have a hysteresis value of less than +3% of the measurement
                   range.


                6) Have a drift not exceeding 5% of the measurement range per year.


                7) Have a useful life span of not less than 3 years.


        (vi)    Enthalpy Sensors


        Enthalpy sensors consisting of temperatures and humidity sensors shall
        comply with the requirements of the above clauses for temperature and
        humidity sensors.


        (vii)   Exhaust Gas Analysers


        Exhaust gas analysers shall:-


                1) Measure either oxygen, carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide
                   concentrations as indicated.


                2) Have an error less than 2% of their measuring range.


                3) Have a cell or sensor life of at least 12 months.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 36
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        They shall comply with BS 1756, Parts 1 to 5 inclusive, BS 3156 and BS
        3048 (As appropriate).


        In addition infra-red absorption gas analysers shall comply with BS 4314.


        Have a response time less than or equal to 90% of sensed variable value in
        20 seconds.


        Have a long term drift of less than 10% per year.


        (viii)    Fuel Flow Meters and Velocity Sensors


        The type of flow meters to be used for particular application shall be as
        given below:-




                            Fuel Type                        Type of Meter



                 Gas at flow rates or up            Diaphragm/bellows positive
                        3
                 to 25 m /h                         displacement flow meter to
                                                    BS 4161, Part 5



                 Gas at flow rates of 25            Rotary positive displacement
                            3
                 to 600 m /h and fuel oils          flow meters to BS 4161,
                 to Class E, F, G & H               Part 6 for gas.
                                         3
                 (BS 2869) up to 25 m /h



                 Gas at flow rates of over          Turbine flow meters to
                 600 m3/h and fuel oils             BS 4161, Part 6 for gas.
                 to Class A2, C1, C2
                 & D (BS 2869)




AJC 05/07                               Section 2.6. / 37
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        All flow meters shall have a pulsed output frequency to suit the BMS
        interface that instantaneous consumption rates as well as total consumption
        can be calculated.


        The error of flow meters shall be equal to or less than ± 3% of the
        measured flow rate for all flows greater than 10% of the maximum flow rate
        of the meter.


        (ix)   Water and Steam Flow Meters


        Flow meter shall be of vortex shedding or electromagnetic type.


        Flow meters shall have an error of less than ± 1% of the measured flow rate
        for all flows greater than 5% of the maximum flow rate for the meter.


        Flow meters shall have a turn down of 15:1 or greater.


        The response time of the flow meter shall be less than 6 seconds.


        The repeatability of flow meter shall be +0.1 to +0.5% of flow rate.


        (x)    Air Flow Meters and Air Velocity Sensors


        Pitot tube air flow meters shall comply with BS 1042, Part 2.1 and have an
        error equal to or less than ± 5% of full scale deflection.


        Air velocity sensors shall:-


               1) Have an error equal to or less than ± 2% of the measured flow
                  rate.


               2) Have a repeatability error equal to or less than ± 0.1% of the
                  measured rate.


        Sensors shall be mounted in a straight length of ducting in accordance with
        the manufacturer’s recommendations.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 38
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        (xi)   Pressure Sensors and Switches


        Pressure sensors shall be of the diaphragm or capsule type.


        Sensing elements shall be either strain gauges or linear variable differential
        transformer type.


        Pressure sensors shall:-


               1) Have an error of less than ± 2% of the variable sensed value.


               2) Have a response time equal to or less than 200 milliseconds.


               3) Have a hysteresis value of less than 0.4% of measurement range.


               4) Have a repeatability error of less than 0.25% of the measured
                  variable.


        Pressure switched shall be of the diaphragm type incorporating internal
        protection against over pressure.


        All pressure shall include a volt free contact form which a low voltage static
        signal can be derived.


        Pressure switched shall have the same measurement area, response,
        hysteresis and repeatability as described for pressure sensors.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.6. / 39
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
         (xii)   Boiler Water Quality Analysers


         Boiler water analysers shall comply with the minimum requirements set out
         in the following table:-




    Items              Measurement       of Measurement          Measurement of
                       pH                    of Dissolved        Total Dissolved
                                             Oxygen              Solids (Tds) in
                                                                 Water


     Type of           pH Electrode          Electrochemical     Conductivity
     Sensor                                  Cells               measuring


     Relevant          BS 2586               -                   BS 1427
     Standards


     Accuracy          ± 1% of scale         ± 5% on 200 ± 2% of reading
                                             parts per million
                                             range


     Minimum           ± 0.01 pH             1% of full scale    0.1 micro-
     Sensitivity                                                 second/cm
                                                                 reading shall
                                                                 respond to 0.10
                                                                 mg/litre of oxygen


     Response          90% in 10 sec         90% in 60 sec       -
     Time


     Repeatability     ± 0.02 pH             2% of full scale    -


     Long Term         ±     0.25%       of 1 ppm in 30          -
     Drift             span/month            days


     Operating         0 to 15 pH            0.15 mg/litre       0.1000 micro
     Range                                                       second/cm




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 40
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        (xiii)    Air Quality Sensors


        By using sensing devices which respond to particular gases and/or gaseous
        mixtures an indication of room air quality shall be obtained.


        Carbon dioxide sensors shall:-


        (a)         Have an operating range equal to or greater than 0 to 5~%
                    concentration by volume.


        (b)         Have a minimum period between calibration of at least 3 months.


        (c)         Have a drift of less than 10% of the measured variable per year.


        (d)         Have a response time equal to or less than 90% of the sensed
                    variable value in 10 seconds.


        Other air quality sensors shall have an operating range, re-calibration time,
        drift and response time, similar to that for the carbon dioxide sensor
        described above.


        (xiv)     Light Sensors


        Light sensors shall use photo conductive or photovoltaic cells.


        Unless otherwise indicated the operating range of light sensors in the visible
        light band. Shall be as follows:-


                 1) Internal 0-1000 lux


                 2) External (Security Lighting) 0-100 lux


                 3) External (Daylight) 1000-30,000 lux




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 41
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
          The output of the light sensor and its amplifier where fitted, shall not deviate
          more than 5% from the visible light spectral response curve.


          The light sensor enclosure shall be constructed of a translucent material.
          Externally mounted sensors shall be water tight.


          Where a linearization amplifier is required at the sensor, it shall be
          incorporated in the same package and enclosed to the same standard as
          the sensor.


          (xv)    Occupancy Sensors


          Occupancy sensors shall be of the wall mounted type having the following
          features:-


                  1) A horizontal angle of coverage of 90º and a vertical angle of
                     coverage of 45º.


                  2) A sensing range equal to or greater than 8 metres.


                  3) A user definable “switch on” delay of up to 3 minutes, and “switch
                     off” delay of up to 10 minutes.


          (xvi)    Electricity Meters


          Electrical meters shall comply with the relevant parts of BS 5685, BS 5164
          and BS 89 (as appropriate).


          The electrical parameters to be metres shall be as described in the
          Particular Specification.


          The measurement error shall not exceed ±1.5%.


2.6.25.   Generic System Performance Descriptions


          This Section of the Specification gives details of the outline control
          requirements and specific technical parameters for typical mechanical
          building services arrangements.



AJC 05/07                               Section 2.6. / 42
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS


2.6.25.1.     LTHW System


            The LTHW System will generally comprise of the following items:-


                         Control Valves
                         HTHW Calorifier
                         Primary LTHW Pumps
                         Secondary LTHW Pumps CT
                         Secondary LTHW Pumps VT
                         Pressurisation Unit


            Primary Heating Pumps


            These pumps are to be started and stopped on a fixed time basis.
            These pumps will also be enabled should any of the Frost routines be
            initiated.
            Pumps will have a run on time assigned for heat dissipation.


            Alarms will be raised under the following conditions:-
                   a) Failure of lead pumps
                   b) Failure of lag pumps
                   c) Temperature (Flow temp greater than 90º C, Flow temp less than
                         10ºC)


            Main Heating Valves


            The Main Heating control valves will operate a ‘Two Position’ control
            schedule.


            End switches on each valve are to provide position ‘open’ ‘close’ to the
            BMS.


            Control and monitoring of these valves is to be provided by the existing/new
            Excel controller located in the plantroom.




AJC 05/07                                 Section 2.6. / 43
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        LTHW Secondary Heating Pumps (VT) Compensated System


        The compensated radiator heating system shall be enabled via an optimum
        start and stop programme using a time schedule as selected by the user.


        Outside air temperature and space temperature sensor(s) shall be used for
        reset facilities.


        The calculated flow set point temperature shall be used to modulate the
        three port control valve to maintain the correct flow temperature at the flow
        sensor.


        The following safety features shall be incorporated within the system:-


        (i) The VT control valve shall only operate and control if the water flow has
        been proven utilising the pressure differential switch.


        (ii) Frost and condensation protection if the space temperature falls below
        10ºC. The duty pump shall be not be started until the space temperature
        has risen by at least 2ºC above the set point.


        Alarms will be raised under the following conditions:-


              a) Failure of lead pump
              b) Failure of lag pump
              c) Temperature (Flow temp greater than 90ºC, Flow temp less than
                  10ºC)


        Underfloor Compensated Heating System


        The under floor heating system shall be enabled by an optimum start and
        stop arrangement utilising a time schedule programme. A calculated set
        point of flow temperature shall be dependant upon outside air temperature.


        The calculated flow set point temperature shall be used to modulate the
        three port control valve to achieve a maximum temperature of 45ºC. The
        following safety features shall be incorporated within the system:-




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.6. / 44
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
                  1) The VT control valve shall only operate and control if the water
                         flow has been proven utilising the pressure differential switch.


                  2) Frost and condensation protection if the space temperature falls
                         below 10ºC (user adjustable). The duty pump shall be started until
                         the space temperature has risen by at least 2ºC (user adjustable)
                         above the set point.


                  3) A safety direct acting high limit valve shall be provided, such as to
                         protect the under floor pipework etc, in the event of failure of the
                         control valve. This is to ensure that the flow temperature does not
                         exceed 45ºC. Should the high limit valve be activated this shall be
                         monitored by the BMS to generate an alarm. The function shall be
                         manual reset.


2.6.25.2.     Chilled Water System Pumps


            The Chilled Water system shall generally comprise the following items:


                         Chiller
                         CHW Pumps
                         Pressurisation Unit
                         Control Valves


            The CHW pumps are to be started and stopped on a fixed time basis.
            These pumps will also be enabled should any of the Frost routines be
            initiated.


            Chiller to be energised following successful CHW water flow being
            detected.


            Alarms will be raised under the following conditions:-


                  a) Failure of lead pump
                  b) Failure of lag pump
                  c) Temperature
                  d) Chiller Common fault




AJC 05/07                                 Section 2.6. / 45
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
2.6.25.3.    Air Handling Units


            The following describes the mode of operation of the above plant.


            The air handling plant serves one discreet zone in with respect to time
            scheduling requirements. Each time schedule will be agreed with the Client
            prior to commissioning.


            The air handling plant shall be a constant discharge temperature
            arrangement with sequential control of the Dampers, Pre-heat coil, reheat
            and CHW coils to satisfy the downstream constant temperature demand.


            An economiser cycle will control the dampers for Summer/Winter operation
            switching the dampers from modulation to minimum position, the intention
            being to reduce the load on the cooling coil.


            The economiser decision does not enable or disable the chiller, this will
            enable anytime CHW valves open.


            Outside Air (OA) is used for free cooling (to supplement the CHW system)
            anytime the OA enthalpy is below the economiser setpoint.


            OA enthalpy considers total heat and will take advantage of warm low
            enthalpy OA and will block out moist OA.


            During commissioning the minimum fresh air damper position shall be set
            up in conjunction with the Mechanical engineer.


            For normal off conditions both the supply and extract drives shall be
            stopped. All control valves will be at closed position. The inlet and outlet
            dampers shall be motorised closed. Normal frost protection via the primary
            heating medium shall still be available if required.


            Room Sensors located in all areas will provide an average temperature
            input to the AHU control sequence.


            The system components shall be as described within the BMS points.




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.6. / 46
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
            (i)   Inlet And Exhaust Air Damper Arrangements


        The dampers shall be closed during a shutdown period. The dampers shall
        open when the BMS signals a plant operation to commence. When each
        damper reaches the fully open position a damper end switch shall be made
        to signal to the BMS that the damper is open, thus allowing the fan to start.
        Should the damper end switch fail to operate the fan shall be held off and
        an alarm given. The dampers shall be closed whenever a fan fail signal is
        received,
        Or a Normal OFF is commanded by the BMS.


        (ii)      Low Pressure AHU Heating Coils


        The low-pressure hot water modulating valves to the heating coil shall be
        positioned in the closed mode condition when the plant is not operational.
        The frost, cooling, pre-heat and reheat coils shall all be sequentially
        controlled for energy efficiency.


        (iii)     Cooling Coils


        The operation of the cooling coil shall be sequenced in relation to the other
        components of the air handling unit. Maximum benefit shall be taken from
        utilising free cooling from the fresh air. To achieve the discharge
        temperature from the supply air handling unit the cooling coil shall modulate
        the 3 port valve to achieve the required output.


        No air handling unit within the new development requires relative humidity
        regulation control therefore, all air handling plants shall be sequentially
        operated to regulate temperature accordingly.


        The chilled water modulating valve shall be positioned to the closed position
        when the cooling plant shutdown signal is received. The chilled water
        cooling valve shall modulate to the fully open position during a shutdown
        period when a below ambient temperature is received. All for frost
        protection purposes. No action shall be taken when the air plant is
        operational and the BMS signals a low outside temperature exists.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 47
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        (iv)   Constant Volume Supply Fans


        The supply fan shall be disabled when the BMS signals a shutdown period.
        The supply fan shall operate at constant speed to provide air at the design
        volume. When the BMS signals for the air handling plant (or fan) to operate
        the supply fan when used in conjunction with a respective exhaust fan and
        heat recovery device shall not function the same are fully operating under
        the dictates of the BMS system. The operation of the supply fan shall be
        proven utilising a pressure differential switch. When the proven signal is not
        achieved, following a 30 second (adjustable) start up period, a fan failure
        warning signal shall be sent to the BMS and the fan operation signal shall
        be removed.


        The fan operation signal shall be disabled when a freeze thermostat
        incorporated in the system has tripped. A hand/off/auto selector switch shall
        be located on the MCC to serve the fan. The supply fan motor(s) shall be
        hard wired to the selector switch and to the extract fan failure (where
        appropriate) and to the damper proving end switches etc.


        (v)    Constant Volume Extract Fan


        The fan operational signal shall be disabled if a supply fan (where
        appropriate) fail signal is achieved by the BMS. The extract fan shall be
        disabled when the BMS signals a shutdown period.


        The fan shall operate at a constant speed to achieve the design air volume
        when the BMS signals for the plant to operate. The fan operation shall be
        proven utilising pressure differential switch. When the proven signal is not
        achieved, following a 30 second (adjustable) start up period, a fan failure
        warning signal shall be sent to the BMS and the fan operation signal shall
        be removed.


        Should the extract fan have an associated supply fan these shall be
        interlocked so that they operate in unison?


        The hand/off/auto selector switch shall be located on the motor control
        centre. The extract fan motor shall be hard wired to this selector switch,
        (and the supply fan where appropriate).



AJC 05/07                        Section 2.6. / 48
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
            (vi)   Filtration Media


            The BMS shall monitor the cleanliness of all filters associated with the air
            handling systems and that described for the containment suite. This shall be
            achieved     using   pressure   differential   switches.   The   controls   and
            commissioning specialist shall liaise with one another to ensure that all
            pressure differential switches are set up in accordance with a filter media
            manufacturers recommendations.


2.6.25.4.     Stand Alone Cooling Units


            The data hub room shall be served by independent direct expansion split
            cooling units to maintain reasonable comfort temperatures etc. The power
            feeds to serve these systems shall be derived from a local distribution
            board.


2.6.25.5.     Pump Sets (Generally)


            Run and standby pump sets shall be activated should there be a demand
            signal present from any downstream system. Upon activation of any pump
            set the flow shall be verified using a pressure differential switch prior to the
            enabling of any downstream secondary system. Failure to detect a flow
            shall result in an alarm being generated on the BMS and on the MCC lamp
            indication display. This sensor shall be continually monitored throughout the
            pump operation period.


            Where pump sets consist of run and standby units, these shall also be
            provided with auto changeover arrangements. Pump failure is monitored
            using a pressure differential switch (I per set). Weekly duty pump rotation
            shall be provided (BMS dictated) by software activation. During the start up
            of a pump set the signal from the pressure differential switch shall be
            ignored to prevent nuisance alarms.


2.6.25.6.     Optimum Start Control


            When a circuit is under an optimum start programme then the system shall
            calculate the plant initiation time to achieve the required occupancy start
            time. This plant initiation time shall be based upon trended external ambient



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.6. / 49
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
            temperature data prior to the day of operation and shall be continually
            adjusting itself to adapt to the changing seasonal conditions. Corrections to
            the pre-heat time shall be made should the set points not be achieved for
            the required occupancy time. The programme shall be self learning.


2.6.25.7.    Night Purge


            The night purge uses cool, night outside air to pre-cool the spaces before
            mechanical cooling is turned on.


            Outside temperature. Outside RH or dewpoint and space temperature are
            all analyzed.


            100% OA is admitted under the following conditions.


                     OA > Summer/Winter changeover point.
                     OA < Space temperature by a specified RH or determined
                     differential.
                     OA dewpoint < 16ºC.


            Space temperature above some minimum for night purge.


2.6.25.8.    Compensated Control


            Following the preheat cycle when all circuits are at their maximum design
            set points, the compensated circuits shall schedule the flow temperature
            inversely proportional to the ambient outside air temperature. In addition,
            the BMS shall monitor the air temperature (averaging) sensors within the
            spaces served by the VT system. This averaged signal shall be sued as a
            feed back signal to reset the compensated flow temperature.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 50
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
2.6.25.9.    LPHW Systems – General


            The VT system shall be allocated a time schedule to allow the user to vary
            the occupancy times.




                   Variable Description                     Value


                   Primary LPHW flow
                      temperature                         70ºC (max)


                  Primary LPHW return
                      temperature               40ºC – AHU heating coils


                                                 50ºC – Fan Coil Unit/VT
                                                            Circuits
              Variable temperature radiator
                 circuit flow temperature                70ºC to 20ºC


                 Underfloor heating flow
                      temperature                            45ºC


                Underfloor heating return
                      temperature                            40ºC


                   Concrete soffit slab
              temperature (night set back)          18ºC (adjustable)
                Frost protection activated               3ºC and below
                Lowest external ambient                   Minus 5ºC
                      temperature
               Variable temperature circuit
               set points for optimum start                  20ºC
                      programmes




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 51
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
        Each heating system shall have a ‘night set back’ facility so that a minimum
        air temperature shall be maintained to minimise deterioration of its finishes
        and optimise pre-heat periods. This function shall be user adjustable.


        Frost protection shall be provided by the following means:-


            Stage 1:    Outside air temperature:          Plus 3ºC


                         System action:                   Activate all pump circuits and
                                                          open all valves.


        LTHW


        All plant associated with the primary LTHW system shall derive their power
        from the motor control centres.


        Upon receipt of a demand signal from any plant outstations, the respective
        system shall function. Plant operation shall continue until or demand signals
        have been de-energised.


        LPHW – Safety and Maintenance features


              i.    Lead pump operation shall be rotated to ensure even wear.


             ii.    Pump operating hours shall be trend logged to assist the Clients
                    maintenance programme.


             iii.   Each item of plant shall have an event register, in that the alarms
                    associated for each piece of equipment shall be logged stating the
                    date and time of each alarm. This shall allow the user to record a
                    history of plant failure.


             iv.    Upon the receipt of a plant shut down signal, the sequence of
                    operation shall be the reverse of that described for start up.




             v.     Upon loss of power all controls contactors and relays shall return



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.6. / 52
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
                   to the off conditions. When power is reinstated all peripheral plant
                   shall be automatically reset ready to operate.


            vi.    Should the external ambient temperature fall below three degrees
                   centigrade all pumping circuits shall be activated sequentially as a
                   frost protection measure?


            vii.   All pumps shall be run for a fixed period each week (say 5
                   minutes) to ensure lubrication of bearings and prevent seizure of
                   moving parts.


        This function shall be extended to all valve and damper activators. Care
        should be taken that when this maintenance procedure is carried out that it
        is not detrimental to the controlled environmental conditions and the plant
        itself i.e. to be carried out outside normal operating periods.


2.6.25.10. Chilled Water System


        The operation and function of any chilled water pump set shall be identical
        as that described for the LTHW systems. The system set points shall be
        derived at commissioning.


        All plant associated with the chilled water system shall derive their
        power/control from the respective motor control centre.


        Chilled Water Systems – Safety and Maintenance Features


              i.   Lead pump operation shall be rotated to ensure even wear.


             ii.   Pump operating hours shall be trend logged to assist the Clients
                   maintenance programme.


            iii.   Each item of plant shall have an event register, in that the alarms
                   associated for each piece of equipment shall be logged stating the
                   date and time of each alarm. This shall allow the user to record a
                   history of plant failure.


            iv.    Upon loss of power all controls contactors and relays shall revert



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.6. / 53
SECTION 2.6. - PANELS, WIRING, AND CONTROLS
                 to the off condition. Once the pumps are stopped the control
                 valves within the system shall revert to the closed position.


            v.   All pumps shall be run for a fixed period each week (say 5
                 minutes) to ensure lubrication of bearings and prevent seizure of
                 moving parts. This function shall be extended to all valve and
                 damper activators. Care should be taken when this maintenance
                 procedure is carried out that it is not detrimental to the controlled
                 environmental conditions and the plant itself i.e. to be carried out
                 outside normal operating periods.


2.6.25.11. Power Feeds to the Air Handling Unit Lighting


        The bulkhead lighting within each air handling unit shall be powered from
        the motor control centre. The individual circuits shall be provided to serve
        the respective air handling units. Reference shall be made to the ventilation
        section of this specification to ascertain the interfacing necessary.


2.6.25.12. Fire Alarms


        When a fire alarm is received by the control panels (hard wired), all plant
        shall be stopped except:-


        There shall be a fire alarm override switch located on each main control
        panel which when in the ‘Test Position’ shall enable the buildings fire alarm
        system to be tested without stopping any item of plant. When in this test
        position an alarm is raised to both the respective panel (lamp) and to the
        remote site terminals until the switch is placed back into the ‘Normal’ mode
        of operation.


        If the fire alarm results in any of the duty plant failing and the standby plant
        starting on a ‘Return to Normal mode’ all items of plant shall receive a
        ‘Reset’ command to return the duty item of plant back to the lead item.


        A manual reset switch is also fitted on the panel to perform the above
        ‘Reset’ command in the event of plant failure.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.6. / 54
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK

2.7.1    General ......................................................................................................1
2.7.2    Programme ................................................................................................1
2.7.3    Information .................................................................................................1
2.7.4    Fuel for Testing ..........................................................................................2
2.7.5    Test Instruments.........................................................................................2
2.7.6    Commissioning Standards..........................................................................2
2.7.7    Testing .......................................................................................................3
2.7.8    Specialist Systems and Equipment ............................................................5
2.7.9    Failure under Test ......................................................................................6
2.7.10   Cleansing ...................................................................................................6
2.7.11   Purging.......................................................................................................9
2.7.12   Ductwork Cleaning .....................................................................................9
2.7.13   Water Treatment ........................................................................................9
2.7.14   Water Softening .......................................................................................11
2.7.15   Chlorination..............................................................................................11
2.7.16   Tabulation of Results................................................................................12
2.7.17   Setting to Work.........................................................................................12
2.7.18   Operational Tests.....................................................................................12
2.7.19   Instructions on Completion .......................................................................13
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
2.7.1   General


        This section outlines overall procedures for balancing, commissioning, and
        setting to work of various standard types of system and equipment, together
        with the preferred methods of recording the results of such operations for
        inclusion in the Operating and Maintenance instruction described in Section
        2.1.


        Notwithstanding the recommendations of the following clauses, it is
        recognised that all projects present separate individual difficulties and for
        this reason the Sub-Contractors’ proposals for balancing, commissioning
        and setting to work of the project works shall be discussed with and agreed
        by the Engineer prior to commencing such work. This shall apply
        particularly to procedures for specialist systems, services and equipment
        not specifically detailed in the following clauses.


2.7.2   Programme


        The    Sub-Contractor     shall   be    responsible   for   co-ordinating   his
        commissioning works with both the Main Contractor and other trades on
        site, including also his own Sub-Contractors and specialist suppliers, in
        order to ensure that his entire works are complete and proven to the
        satisfaction of the Engineer by the handover date given in the overall
        contract programme.


        In this respect, the Engineer shall be notified in advance of the
        commissioning programme to allow him adequate time to arrange all site
        visits necessary to inspect, witness and approve the works. Failure to give
        such notice to the Engineer may result in the tests, etc. having to be
        repeated at his convenience and all responsibility for additional costs,
        charges and delays to Contract shall rest with the Sub-Contractor.


2.7.3   Information


        Should the Sub-Contractor require any design information additional to that
        given in the Particular Specification and drawings, this shall be requested
        from the Engineer no less than four weeks prior to the programmed start
        date for the commissioning work.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.7. / 1
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK


        No delays to contract on the grounds of lack of design information will be
        allowed.


2.7.4   Fuel for Testing


        Except when detailed otherwise in the Particular Specification, any fuel,
        water and electricity reasonably required for testing and commissioning
        purposes shall be free of charge to the Sub-Contractor.


        If in the opinion of the Engineer, however, the Sub-Contractor consumes
        inordinate amounts of fuel, water or electricity during testing and
        commissioning, or is required to repeat tests and demonstrations due to
        faulty workmanship or negligence on his part, then the nett cost of such
        additional or wasted fuel, water or electricity shall be deducted from his
        Final Account in order to limit the liability of the Employer in this respect.


2.7.5   Test Instruments


        All instruments and equipment necessary for the proper testing, balancing,
        commissioning and witness testing of the works shall be provided free of
        charge by the Sub-Contractor.


        The particular type, size, rating and quantity of the instruments required
        shall be agreed with the Engineer prior to commencing this work, but shall
        in all cases be appropriate to the type of installation.


        Instruments shall be kept available on site until the various witness tests
        have been completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer.


2.7.6   Commissioning Standards


        Commissioning of all installations incorporated into the works under this
        section of the Specification shall be carried out by professionally fully
        experienced commissioning Engineers.


        Where specialist suppliers have been specified commissioning of their
        relevant installation may be carried out by their own Engineers.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.7. / 2
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK


        Commissioning shall generally take place in compliance with the following
        commissioning codes issued by the C.I.B.S.E. and BSRIA:


                                 Series A - Air Distribution Systems.
                                 Series B - Boiler Plant.
                                 Series C - Automatic Control Systems.
                                 Series R - Refrigerating Systems.
                                 Series W - Water Distribution Systems.


                                 AG 1/2001
                                 AG 2/89.3
                                 AG 3/89.3
                                 AG 20/95


        All necessary test points, test holes, commissioning devices, etc. shall be
        incorporated into the works during installation to enable full and successful
        commissioning to take place. Any possible future claim for the inclusion of
        test points, etc. for any reason whatsoever will not be entertained.


        ‘Plumbing’ systems will be checked to ensure that adequate flow rates are
        obtained at ranges of outlets with all outlets open, WC’s flush satisfactorily,
        etc.


        Motor control centres and control panels will be fully tested on site on
        completion of the installation whether or not these have been tested at
        works. This will ensure that all field supplied items such as flow switches,
        pressure switches, etc. are operating correctly and that the field wiring is
        corrected installed.


2.7.7   Testing


        On completion of each installation or service or sections of such
        installations or services, all necessary tests shall be carried out to the
        pressures listed below. No part of the works shall be insulated or rendered
        inaccessible prior to successful completion of testing to the satisfaction of
        the Engineer. This may entail testing in sub-sections of each of the
        installations installed and all associated costs to allow this to occur shall be



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.7. / 3
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
        deemed to be incorporated and form part of the Contract.


             (a) Plant and Equipment


                 Manufacturer’s certificates of tests for all items of plant and
                 equipment shall be provided by the Contractor.


             (b) Pipework


                    (i)     Heating, Chilled Water, and Condenser Water


                            7.0 bar or twice the working head whichever is the
                            greater hydraulically for 30 minutes for all screwed
                            pipework.


                            7.0 bar or twice the working head whichever is the
                            greater hydraulically for 1 hour for all welded pipework
                            with simultaneous hammer testing of joints.


                    (ii)    H.W.S and T.C.W.S.


                            3.5 bar or twice the working head whichever is the
                            greater hydraulically for 30 minutes.


                    (iii)   M.C.W.S.


                            All external mains shall be pressure tested to 14.0 bar
                            hydraulically for 30 minutes. This test shall be carried
                            out by the Contractor and witnessed by the Water
                            Department’s inspector prior to backfilling of any
                            trenches.


                            0.7 bar hydraulically for 30 minutes for internal mains.


                    (iv)    Gas


                            30millibar for 30 minutes or 11- times mains pressure,
                            whichever is the greater. This test shall be carried out



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.7. / 4
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
                              to B.S. CP331 and to the entire satisfaction of the
                              representative of the Local Gas Board who shall also
                              be called upon to witness all tests on gas mains.


                       (v)    Sanitary Pipework


                              Air test equal to 65mm water gauge. Prior to
                              commencing air tests all water seals on all sanitary
                              appliances and floor gullies must be fully charged with
                              water and all open ends of pipework, i.e. vents and
                              outfalls must be adequately plugged.


                              Water tests may be called for but will only apply to
                              horizontal runs of plumbing and drainage pipework
                              and/or the section of drainage pipework below the
                              lowest sanitary appliance.


                       (vi)   Ductwork


                              All ductwork shall be tested upon completion, either as
                              a whole, or in sections if required to enable progress to
                              be maintained. This clause shall apply to all ductwork,
                              both high and low velocity, and shall be in accordance
                              with DW/144.


                              All test holes in ductwork utilised for testing and
                              balancing shall be fitted with air tight, removable plugs.


2.7.8   Specialist Systems and Equipment


        Where appropriate or where instructed by the Engineer, the Sub-Contractor
        shall arrange for specialist systems and/or equipment to be commissioned
        by the particular manufacturer, manufacturer’s agent or contractor involved
        in the supply and installation of such items.


        This section would generally include items such as automatic controls, coal
        handling plant, incinerators, autoclaves, water treatment plant, cooling
        towers, etc.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.7. / 5
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK


         The foregoing list is not intended to be comprehensive or exclusive and,
         again, commissioning arrangements must be discussed and agreed with
         the Engineer prior to starting work.


         It shall be the Sub-Contractor’s responsibility to ensure that all specialised
         suppliers are aware of their obligations in respect of providing a
         commissioning service and of submitting their results for approval in an
         agreed form, and also to ensure that such specialists co-ordinate and
         complete their work in accordance with the overall contract programme.


2.7.9    Failure under Test


         Should any section of the works on test not conform to this section of the
         Specification the Contractor must carry out all remedial work as necessary
         at his own expense to ensure the installations ultimately do so conform.


         If the Contractor fails to do so within a period of time not exceeding seven
         days the Engineer shall call upon the Contractor to remove all sections of
         the works where test results cannot successfully be achieved and reinstate
         the whole of the section at no additional cost to the Contract. Alternatively,
         the Engineer reserves the right on behalf of the Client to instruct via the
         Main Contractor other parties to rectify the defective work. Should this occur
         then all direct and indirect costs associated in making good defective work
         shall be deducted from the Contractor’s interim valuations and subsequently
         be offset against his final account.


2.7.10   Cleansing


         After the pipework systems have been hydraulically pressure tested
         cleansing shall take place, being carried out in four main stages:


            (i) Pre-Flushing


               All riser drains, dirt pockets and coarse filters on pumps etc. shall be
               removed and cleaned.


               All sensitive equipment such as A.H.U.’s, Chiller Units, Condensers,



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.7. / 6
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
               Boilers, and Multi-Directional control valves shall be isolated or by-
               passed. Where appropriate sufficient temporary loops must be
               installed to ensure pipework distribution runs can be circulated and
               flushed during the cleaning programme. This is to prevent large
               particle size deposits causing restriction of flow or blockages.


               Valved stabbings shall be required immediately downstream from the
               main system pumps on the flow and return headers.


               Strainers should remain in situ to filter out released deposits and
               sediment.


               System must be fully filled and vented.


               This system pumps must be able to provide good flow rates and
               suitable drain available to dispose of effluent.


               After flushing has commenced, strainers are to be removed for
               cleaning periodically to ensure maximum flow rates.


               Continuous monitoring of the discharge water shall be carried out to
               test for suspended solids and dissolved iron.


               Pre-flushing shall be regarded as complete when the strainers are
               found to be remaining clean and satisfactory tests obtained for
               dissolved iron levels.


               Note: It may be necessary to isolate parts of the system in sequence
                     to ensure thorough flushing.


            (ii) Chemical Cleaning (Non-Acidic)


               This shall be carried out to remove light surface rust, grease, and oil. It
               will also assist in dislodging adhering welding slag.


               Chemical cleaning shall be carried out using external pump and tank
               as a dosing point. Testing shall be carried out during cleaning from
               various points in the system to ensure full mixing of the chemical



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.7. / 7
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
               solution and assess the effectiveness. Iron levels shall be monitored
               until cleaning is complete.
               Strainers shall also be removed and cleaned during this stage.


            (iii) High Velocity Flushing


               This shall be achieved by use of external pumps and tanks to ensure
               velocities of 3 metres/second are obtained in long horizontal runs.


               Pressure gauges shall be fitted on the external pump to ensure that
               over-pressurisation does not occur, and that flow and returns can be
               balanced.


               The external temporary high velocity pump and tank shall be set up
               with the delivery pipe connected to the system flow and return
               discharge to a suitable drain.


               Flow rates shall be checked throughout each system using an external
               meter.


               Continue as for initial flushing until all checks indicate a clean system
               with no residual cleaning chemicals and very low iron residuals.


               Sensitive equipment previously isolated can now be put back on-line
               and flushed separately before reconnecting and all temporary by-
               passes removed.


               All units must be flushed before being put on-line, as it cannot be
               assumed that they contain clean water.


            (iii) Chemical Treatment Addition


               (a) The corrosion inhibitor to be used shall be added in the external
                    pump and tank or by use of the dosing pot (if installed).


               (b) The recirculating system pumps shall be used to completely mix
                    the treatment throughout the system.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.7. / 8
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK


               (c) Tests shall be carried out to ensure that treatment levels are to
                   Treatment Supplier’s recommendations.


               (d) The system shall be vented to ensure complete filling and final
                   samples taken for record purposes and laboratory tests.


2.7.11   Purging


         All gas outlet supplies shall be nitrogen purged in accordance with the Gas
         Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations.


2.7.12   Ductwork Cleaning


         All ductwork shall be supplied, stored, and installed on site in accordance
         with DW/TM2 – Guide to Good Practice – Internal Cleanliness of New
         Ductwork installations.


         The level of cleanliness for all ductwork systems unless indicated otherwise
         in Section Three shall be to Intermediate Level.


         If this minimum standard is not met the Contractor shall be instructed to
         clean the whole of the ductwork installations at no cost to the Contract.


2.7.13   Water Treatment


            (a) General


               Fully automatic water treatment systems shall be provided for the
               addition and control of chemicals to the system provided.


               All equipment, water treatment chemicals, testing equipment and
               service shall be provided by a single company, to ensure system
               compatibility, with accreditation with B.S.I. for BS 5750, Quality
               Assurance.


               All necessary piping, fittings, valves and labour for installation and
               commissioning shall be provided together with one year’s supply of



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.7. / 9
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
               chemicals.


               Testing equipment shall be provided for determining treatment levels.


               A service programme and contract shall be provided for one year from
               initial start-up to ensure proper selection, application and control of the
               water management programme including training of operating
               personnel on necessary chemical handling, feeding and control
               techniques.


            (b) Heating and Chilled Water Systems


               Conductivity control shall be provided utilising controller, conductivity
               cell, dosing pump mounted on a chemical solution tank set complete
               with low level switch.


               For hot water heating systems, a sample cooler shall be supplied to
               meet Health and Safety Regulations.


               The chemicals shall comply with all local and National Water Authority
               Regulations and have the necessary Health and Safety information on
               the container label.


            (c) Cooling Water Systems


               Cooling     water   systems      shall     be   provided   with   a   water
               meter/conductivity controller dosing and bleed system utilising
               controller, contact head water meter, inhibitor pump, chemical solution
               tank, low level switch, conductivity cell, and bleed off line
               arrangement.


               Organic fouling shall be prevented utilising two chemically dissimilar
               biocides, controller, dosing pumps, and solution tanks with low level
               switches.


               The chemicals shall comply with all local and national Water Authority
               Regulations and have the necessary handling and safety information
               on the container label.



AJC 05/07                             Section 2.7. / 10
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK


2.7.14   Water Softening


         Water softening shall be achieved by means of a base exchange softener.


         The unit shall comprise softener tank, brine tank, contact lead with water
         meter and booster pump for re-generation.


2.7.15   Chlorination


         The hot and cold water services supply installations shall be chlorinated
         prior to setting to work.


         Storage tanks and pipework shall be flushed through to remove all deposits
         then re-filled and the make-up supply isolated.


         The tank water shall be chlorinated and left for at least one hour to give a
         measured free chlorine level of at least 50 p.p.m. in the water.


         Each draw-off fitting should be successively opened, working away from the
         tank, and should be closed when the discharging water begins to smell of
         chlorine.


         The tank must not be allowed to empty and must be re-filled and chlorinated
         as necessary. The system shall remain charged for a further one hour.


         Re-check the free chlorine level and if less than 30 p.p.m. the process must
         be repeated.


         The system should now remain charged for a further 16 hours and then
         thoroughly flushed out with clean water until the free chlorine level is no
         greater than that of the incoming mains supply.


         During the chlorination process, suitable DANGER hazard warning notices
         must be attached to all outlets.


         Calorifiers should be valved off.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.7. / 11
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK


2.7.16   Tabulation of Results


         Certificates of tests for all plant or materials tested at the maker’s works
         shall be furnished by the Contractor to the Engineer.


         Performance test data for all items of plant and equipment will also be
         required.


         All tests carried out on site shall be ultimately witnessed by the Engineer or
         his representative and these tests properly recorded. All commissioning
         figures will also be required to be recorded and tabulated. This shall include
         all control set points, valve and damper positions etc.


         The manner in which the test, commissioning and performance figures are
         recorded shall be agreed with the Engineer at least four weeks prior to the
         commencement of any tests or commissioning. Within a period of seven
         days immediately after the successful completion of any testing or
         commissioning      duplicate    copies     of   test   certificates   and   tabulated
         commissioning figures shall be forwarded to the Engineer. Upon finalisation
         of the Contract and immediately prior to handover all approved test,
         commissioning and performance sheets shall be incorporated into the
         owners maintenance and operating manuals called for under this
         Specification.


2.7.17   Setting to Work


         The Contractor shall include for setting to work after testing all items of plant
         and equipment installed under this Contract. The relevant manufacturer of
         all major items of equipment will be called upon to be present during the
         initial starting of any specialist item.


2.7.18   Operational Tests


         Following satisfactory commissioning of the works, the completed
         installation shall be operated under normal working conditions (as far as
         practical) for a period of five working days, during which time records shall
         be kept of the overall performance of the installation e.g. temperatures



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.7. / 12
SECTION 2.7. - TESTING, COMMISSIONING AND SETTING TO WORK
         achieved, any faults or failures noted and corrected, etc.


         Should any serious defects or failures occur during this period, they shall be
         corrected and the operational tests repeated until a complete five day
         period of operation is achieved without such problems, and the issue of a
         Certificate of Practical Completion will not be considered until such trouble-
         free operation has been demonstrated.


2.7.19   Instructions on Completion


         During the operational tests or at some other mutually convenient date prior
         to   Handover,     the   Sub-Contractor       shall   instruct   the   nominated
         representative(s) of the Employer in the correct and efficient use of the
         completed installation, systems, and equipment, all in accordance with the
         O and M instructions issued for the project and including, where applicable,
         advice and demonstrations on simple fault finding, maintenance and repair.


         Where specialist systems and equipment are installed as part of the works,
         the Sub-Contractor shall arrange for such instructions to be given by the
         specialist supplier or contractor at no additional cost to contract.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.7. / 13
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION

2.8.1.   General.......................................................................................................1
2.8.2    Hot Water and Steam Systems ..................................................................3
2.8.3    Chilled and Cold Water Systems ................................................................8
2.8.4    Warm Air Ductwork Insulation ..................................................................13
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


2.8.1.   General


         The whole of the thermal insulation works shall be carried out in strict
         accordance with BS 5970, 1981 and BS 5422, 1990 for Thermal Insulation
         or whichever British Standard is relevant at the time the works are being
         carried out.


         a)   Protection


         The Insulation Contractor shall be responsible for the protection of all
         completed work, existing work and surrounding structures and equipment
         during the completion of the Contract. Normally plastic sheeting is
         acceptable but where work is being carried out over specialist equipment,
         e.g. control panels, the Contractor is to allow for the provision of plywood
         sheeting.


         b)   Scaffolding


         The Insulation Contractor shall provide all necessary scaffolding, trestles,
         ladders, etc.


         c)   Storage


         All insulation materials are to be crated or boxed. No materials are to be
         brought on site in a “loose” condition. All materials are to be delivered dry
         and stored on site in a dry atmosphere and in accordance with the
         manufacturer’s recommendations.


         Materials must not be stored in a manner which will constitute a fire hazard.


         Materials must be in a suitable condition at time of use, otherwise they will
         be rejected and replaced at no additional cost to the Contract.


         d)   Application


         Insulation shall only be applied after required pressure tests have been
         completed and the required finishes applied, e.g. zinc oxide paint to steel
         pipework, etc.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.8. / 1
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



        All surfaces are to be cleaned prior to the application of the insulation.


        e)   Clearing Waste Materials


        Waste shall be cleared away from site on a daily basis.


        f)   Site Safety


        All tins of adhesive and paint shall be sealed at the end of the day’s work
        and returned to the central store. Where cellular plastic insulating materials
        are in use, the Insulation Contractor shall take the necessary precautions as
        detailed in H.S.E. Guidance Note GS3.


        The Insulation Contractor shall inform both the Services Contractor and the
        Main Contractor of any special precautions necessary with regards to
        certain materials and adhesives. Allowance is to be made for sealing or
        screening areas of the site as required.


        g)   Health Hazards


        The Insulation Contractor must comply with Clause 6.11 BS 5970 1981
        which concerns the detrimental effect on health of materials.


        h)   Fire and Explosion Hazards


        The Insulation Contractor must ensure that the insulation and finish shall
        comply with the necessary fire rating, degree of flame spread and level of
        fume production as required by the Fire Officer or Building Regulations
        Department and as detailed in BS 476.


        These criteria especially apply in escape staircases and corridors. The
        insulation must not allow fire breaks and stops to be breached.


        i)   Material Characteristics


        All materials used on the Contract for insulation purposes shall be resistant
        to vermin, insect and fungal growth, odourless and non-hygroscopic.



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.8. / 2
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



        The materials must be suitable for application to the surface being covered.


        j)   Correct Thickness and Finish


        The Insulation Contractor shall, as required by the Engineer, cut out
        sections from the finished covering, to ensure the correct thickness has
        been applied.


        Material of the incorrect thicknesses shall be removed and the correct
        material fitted at the Insulation Contractor’s expense.


2.8.2   Hot Water and Steam Systems


        a)   General


        This part of the thermal insulation section of the Specification applies to
        pipework and associated equipment carrying water or steam in the
                             C       C
        temperature range 15° to 250° and includes heating, steam and
        condensate, condenser water and domestic hot water services.


        For Temperatures above this level it will be necessary for the Insulation
        Contractor to calculate the required thicknesses in accordance with BS
        5422 1990.


        Copies of these calculations must be submitted to the Engineer for approval
        and acceptance.


        b)   Materials


        The Materials used for insulation of pipework shall be pre-formed rigid
        sections of glass fibre, bonded with a heat resistant binder all in accordance
        with BS 3958 Part 4 1982.


                                              OR


                                      C        C
        Pipework operating between 15° and 120° including domestic hot water,
        low temperature and medium temperature heating water and condensate



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 3
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        shall be insulated with Koolphen rigid phenolic foam manufactured to
        comply with BS 3927: 1986 Table 1 Type A.


                                       C        C
        Pipework operating between 121° and 250° shall be insulated with
        performed rigid glass fibre as above.


        c)   Finish


        The following finishes shall be applied to all insulation unless otherwise
        stated elsewhere in this Specification:


             (i)   Plantrooms


             Depending upon the project concerned one of the following finishes
             shall be applied:


                                                EITHER


             22 swg hammered or polished aluminium cladding of pre-formed
             sheets and fittings to be applied over the basic insulation. This
             insulation is to be firmly secured using metal bands prior to the
             application of the cladding. The cladding is to be neatly fixed by
             means of pop rivets at 150mm centres.


             Seam edges shall be cut straight with a 50mm overlap. Seams must
             be kept from open view and the number of sheets used in intricate
             areas kept to a minimum. Openings in the cladding for test points,
             gauges, etc. are to be pre-cut, concentric, and have clean edges. No
             patching will be allowed.


                                                  OR


             Isogenopak shall be applied employing similar criteria to the above.


                                                  OR


             Sections complete with a pre-finished facing which shall attain Class
             ‘O’ rating. The facing shall be aluminium foil laminate having a 50mm



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 4
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


             overlap for fixing the sections. All sections shall be close butted and
             longitudinal overlaps and butt joints sealed with Chilstix CP85
             adhesive or equal. Butt joints shall be secured with matching Class ‘O’
             self-adhesive tapes supplied by the insulation supplier. The whole
             shall be secured without distortion by 25mm wide polished metal
             bands fixed at 300mm centres. Bends, fittings, etc. are to be formed
             by using plain insulation, mitred to fit, covered with insulation canvas
             and sealed with Kooltherm Chilseal CP50, or equal, the fitting then
             being painted to match the remainder.


             (ii)    Occupied Spaces


             Where insulated pipework passes through areas which are occupied,
             and the insulation is exposed to view, the finish applied, unless
             otherwise stated in Section Three, shall be of the pre-finished type as
             described under the plantroom section.


             (iii)   Unoccupied Spaces


             This section concerns service ducts, ceiling spaces, roof voids, etc.


             Rigid pre-formed sections shall be utilised, prefinished with white
             cotton canvas. The canvas is to form a hinge along one side and
             50mm overlap on the other side and on one end. The overlap and butt
             joints shall be sealed with Kooltherm Chilseal CP50.


             Bends and fittings shall be mitred using the prefinished material and
             sealed in a similar manner.


             The whole being secured, without distortion, by 25mm bands fixed at
             300mm centres.


        d)   External Pipework


        Pipework whether exposed to the elements or running through external
        service trenches, passing into cooling tower chambers, or through areas
        having high humidity levels, shall be insulated with Koolphen or Glassfibre
        (see 2.4.2. (b)) preformed sections secured by metal bands and wrapped



AJC 05/07                        Section 2.8. / 5
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        with 0.8mm polyisobutylene sheeting to provide a weather and vapour seal.
        Joints are to be overlapped 50mm and sealed with Kooltherm Chilstix CP85
        adhesive or equal. At terminations of the insulation, at valve boxes etc. the
        sheeting is to be lapped and sealed thus maintaining the continuity of
        insulation and protective coating.


                                               OR


        By means of aluminium cladding as described for plant rooms Clause 2.4.2.
        c)(i) but with all longitudinal and circumferential joints tightly sealed against
        water penetration.


        e)   End Caps


        Terminations of insulation shall be fitted with metal end caps. The caps are
        to be constructed from polished aluminium, pre-formed and arranged to
        secure the insulation without causing distortion.


        f)   Insulation of Adacent and Parallel Pipes


        All pipework must be insulated separately. They are not to be “married”
        together with insulation material under any circumstances.


        g)   Valve Bodies, Flanges, and Unions


        All valve bodies, flanges, strainers, and unions are to be thermally
        insulated.


        In areas where the insulation is finished with aluminium cladding the valve
        and flange boxes shall be purpose made from the same material and lined
        with the required thickness of insulation. The enclosures are to be easily
        removable and fitted with metal clasps.


        In other areas the valves and flanges shall be insulated and finished by
        means of enclosures made from the same material as that insulating the
        pipework. The enclosures are to be both removable and replaceable and be
        secured by means of metal bands. (Refer to figures 15, 16, 17, 28, and 29
        BS 5970 1981.)



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.8. / 6
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



        h)   Flexible Connections


        Flexible connections shall be insulated using three layers of mineral fibre
        rope around the flexible coupling, the rope windings being secured by
        adhesive and then wrapped with glass silk cloth. The cloth is to be
        overlapped 50mm and sealed by the Kooltherm Chilseal PC50 or equal the
        final finish being applied in accordance with the remainder of the
        installation. Where metal cladding is used on pipework the glass cloth shall
        be painted to match the general finish. (Refer to figure 25, GS 5970 1981.)


        i)   Expansion Bellows


        Expansion bellows shall be thermally insulated using mineral fibre mat of
        the same thermal conductivity as that for the pipework.


        A pre-formed 0.5mm metal shield is to be constructed around the bellows to
        allow free movement. The mineral fibre mat shall pass over the shield and
        be fixed to the pipework insulation by means of securing bands.


        The whole should be finished in accordance with the general pipework
        finish. (Refer to figure 26, BS 5970 1982).


        j)   Miscellaneous Pipework


        In addition to the general distribution pipework the Insulation Contractor
        must allow for insulating all cold feed and open vent pipework which is likely
        to be filled with water; all their bottles and associated bleed pipes; and
        equipment drains up to two metres from the equipment carrying the heated
        water. In cooling tower installations where tower pumps are sited externally,
        the Insulation Contractor shall also allow for insulating the section of
        pipework between the base tank and pump inlet, the pump impellor casing,
        excluding the motor, and the discharge pipe, all this insulation being
        weather sealed. The finish being as described in section d).


        k)   Painting


        The Insulation Contractor shall allow for painting of uninsulated iron and



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 7
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        steel work, all valve handles, gas lines, open vents, air bottle bleed pipes
        and equipment drains, etc. in all plantrooms. The surfaces concerned are to
        be wire brushed, painted with one coat zinc oxide, one undercoat/primer
        and finished with a top coat in colour to be agreed with the Engineer.


        l)   Identification


        The Insulation Contractor shall supply and fix pipework identification in
        accordance with B.S. 1710. Non-ferrous colour bands shall be used to
        indicate the type of service, pipe size and direction of flow. The bands are to
        be installed at spacings of 6 metres or in accordance with the relevant
        standard. They are also to be fitted on either side of the equipment, pumps,
        three port valves and at the point of entry and exit from areas e.g.
        plantrooms, boiler rooms, etc.


        A sample of the band is to be submitted to the Engineer for his approval
        prior to the commencement of work.


        m)   Cleaning


        Prior to the Handover of the Installation the Insulation Contractor must clean
        the whole of the thermal insulation within his Contract. This cleaning shall
        include the removal of paint drips, dust, oil, etc. from floors, walls, and all
        other surfaces.


2.8.3   Chilled and Cold Water Systems


        a)   General


        This part of the thermal insulation section of the Specification must clean
                                                                          C
        the whole pipework etc. carrying water in the temperature range 3° to
           C
        15° and includes chilled water systems associated with air conditioning
        and process plant, mains cold water systems and pipework carrying chilled
        condensate.


        For temperatures below this level it will be necessary for the Insulation
        Contractor to calculate the relevant thicknesses in accordance with B.S.
        5422 1990.



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 8
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



        Copies of these calculations must be submitted to the Engineer for approval
        and acceptance.


        All pipework, etc. after cleaning is to be painted with one coat of Kooltherm
        KP14 or equal, anti-condensate paint prior to the application of any
        insulation.


        b)   Materials


        The materials used for insulation of pipework shall be pre-formed rigid
        sections of glass fibre, bonded in accordance with B.S. 3958 Part 4 1982,
        and pre-finished with a while lacquered aluminium foil laminate providing
        Class ‘O’ fire rating. The facing is to provide a hinge on one side of the
        section and a 50mm overlap on the other to ensure sealing. Once sealed
        the whole is to form a continuous vapour barrier and shall be finally secured
        without distortion or damage by 25mm wide polished metal bands at
        300mm centres. The horizontal overlap and butt joints are to be sealed with
        Foster Sealfas 30-36. Butt joints are to be wrapped with type T217FR
        (Class ‘O’) tape as manufactured by Messrs. Idenden Adhesives Limited or
        equal.


        Bends, fittings, etc. are to be formed by using plain insulation mitred to fit,
        covered with canvas, impregnated with Foster Sealfas 30-36 and allowed to
        set. All joints are to be wrapped using type T217FR (Class ‘O’) tape.


        100m wide tape shall be used for all circumferential joints, with 50mm wide
        tape being used on joints around bends and fittings.


                                              OR


        Preformed sections of Koolphen rigid phenolic foam manufactured to
        comply with BS 3927: 1986 Table 1 Type A pre-finished as above.


        Overlaps to be sealed with Kooltherm Chilstix CP85, butt joints to be foil
        tape wrapped.


        Bends, fittings to be performed using plain insulation mitred to fit, covered



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 9
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        with canvas impregnated with Kooltherm Chilseal CP50.


        At the termination of all insulation the vapour barrier must be maintained, by
        the use of canvas cut to shape, impregnated with Foster Sealfas 30-36 or
        Kooltherm Chilseal CP50 and being left to set. The joint around the cap
        shall be wrapped in (Class ‘O’) foil tape, and a metal end cap fitted.


        All joints, fittings, end caps, etc. shall be painted to match the pre-finished
        colour of the general insulation.


        The thickness of material to pipework is to be in accordance with the
        attached table.


        c)    Finish


        (NOTE: THE VAPOUR BARRIER MUST BE CONTINUOUS AND
        UNPUNCTURED IN ALL CASES, WITH GREAT CARE TAKEN WHEN
        APPLYING FINISHES.)


        (i)   Plantrooms


        Depending upon the project concerned one of the following finishes shall be
        applied. EITHER 22 swg hammered or polished aluminium sheeting


        OR


        Isogenopak


        OR


        Sections complete with a pre-finished facing. All as described in Section
        2.8.2. c) (i) of this Specification. However, in order to ensure the vapour
        seal is not punctured, metal bands at 300mm centres may be utilised as an
        alternative to pop rivets.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.8. / 10
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



        (ii)   General Distribution


        The pipework running through both occupied and unoccupied areas shall be
        finished as described in Sections 2.8.2. c) (ii) and (iii) of this Specification
        but it must be continuously vapour sealed.


        d)     External Pipework


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. d) of this Specification.


        e)     Wall Sleeves


        Where chilled water services are sleeved and pass through walls or
        sections of structure, the insulation and vapour seal must be installed
        continuously through the sleeve.


        f)     End Caps


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. e) of this Specification.


        g)     Insulation of Adjacent and Parallel Pipes


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. f) of this Specification.


        h)     Plump Bodies, Valves, Flanges and Unions


        All pump bodies, valves, flanges, strainers, and unions shall be thermally
        insulated and vapour sealed. After cleaning they are to be painted with one
        coat of Foster Sealfas 30-36 or Kooltherm KP14 protective coating paint
        prior to the application of any insulation.


        In areas where the insulation is finished with aluminium cladding, the
        insulation applied to the fitting is to be secured with metal bands and the
        joints sealed with type T217FR tape to give a vapour seal. The cladding is
        then to be fixed over this insulation without puncturing the vapour seal.




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.8. / 11
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        Where aluminium cladding is not applied, enclosures made from the same
        material as that insulating the pipework are to insulate the various types of
        fitting. The enclosures are to be both removable and replaceable and be
        secured by means of metal bands. The finish of all enclosures shall be as
        that for the remainder of the pipework installation. (Refer to figures 11, 28,
        and 29 of BS 5970 1981).


        i)   Flexible Connections


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. h) of this Specification.


        j)   Expansion Bellows


        All expansion bellows shall be thermally insulated generally as Section
        2.8.2. i) of this Specification except that the mineral fibre is to be
        impregnated with Foster Sealfas 30-36 or Kooltherm Chilseal CP50 in order
        to maintain a vapour seal.


        k)   Miscellaneous Pipework


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. j) of this Specification with the additional
        note that a vapour seal must also be provided.


        l)   Supports


        All pipework and equipment which is to be insulated in accordance with this
        section of the Specification shall be supported in such a manner that a
        complete thermal break between pipework/equipment and supports is
        provided and maintained at all times.


        The material used can be either wood, hard rubber, or Koolphen high
        density support inserts, however, it must not deteriorate nor be water
        absorbent.


        The vapour barrier formed by the insulation is to be taken over such
        supports in order to retain continuity (Refer to figure 9, BS 5970 1981).




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 12
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        m)   Gauge and Test Points


        Where openings have been formed in the insulation for removable gauges
        or test points, a purpose made plug is to be provided, attached to the
        adjacent insulation, which, on removal of the piece of equipment, can be
        inserted in the opening, thereby maintaining the vapour seal.


        n)   Electrical Bonding


        Where the I.E.E. Regulations require the pipework to be electrically bonded
        it will be necessary for sections of cable to pass through the insulation and,
        hence, through the vapour barrier. In these instances the cable will be
        plastic sheathed and the insulation and vapour barrier bonded to the
        sheathing with a suitable adhesive.


        o)   Painting


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. k) of this Specification.


        p)   Identification


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. 1) of this Specification.


        q)   Cleaning


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. m) of this Specification.


2.8.4   Warm Air Ductwork Insulation


        a)   General


        This section of the Specification concerns air movement systems, both
        supply and extraction, which are carrying air having a temperature generally
                        C
        in the range 15° to 30°C.


        Insulation shall be applied to all supply ductwork irrespective of location and
        extract ductwork being used for heat reclamation purposes, which passes
        through plantrooms, above false ceilings, down service shafts and through



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 13
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        non-conditional spaces. Where equipment is installed in distribution
        ductwork, e.g. heater batteries, noise attenuators, balancing dampers, etc.,
        these shall also be insulated in the same materials as the remainder of the
        ductwork.


        b)    Material


        All rectangular ductwork and associated equipment shall be insulated by
        means of slabs of rigid fibre glass insulation trimmed to size. The insulation
        is to be bonded to the sides and top of the ductwork by means of Foster
        Safetee Ductfas 81-99 adhesive. The insulation on the underside of ducts
        shall also be additionally secured by utilising purpose made pins fixed at
        300mm centres.


        All circular or oval ductwork and associated equipment shall be insulated
        using flexible fibre glass insulation slabs cut and trimmed to size. The
        insulation is to be bonded as for rectangular ducts.


        The thickness of material to be used shall be in accordance with the
        attached table.


        OR


        Slabs of Koolphen rigid phenolic foam trimmed to size bonded to the
        ductwork by means of Kooltherm KP31 general purpose contact adhesive.


        c)    Finishes


        The following finishes are to be supplied to all insulation:


        (i)   Plantrooms


        Depending on the project one of the following finishes shall be applied:


        EITHER


        22 swg hammered or polished aluminium cladding or pre-formed sheets
        and fittings to be applied over the basic insulation. This insulation is to be



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 14
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        firmly secured using metal bands prior to the application of the cladding.
        The cladding is to be neatly fixed by means of pop rivets at 150mm centres.


        Longitudinal joints shall be formed by creasing the sheets to form a sharp
        edge, fixings then being applied from the top or bottom of the ductwork.


        All the cladding shall be self supporting and made rigid by means of
        wooden battens which are to be installed to allow the panelling to be fixed
        and strengthened. All seam edges are to be cut straight and all duct edges
        parallel. Where openings occur for access doors, damper drives, test holes,
        etc. they are to be properly formed in the cladding and trimmed with
        purpose made edging pieces. No patching will be allowed.


        OR


        Fibre glass or Koolphen insulation shall be applied, pre-finished with white
        lacquered aluminium foil laminate providing a facing having Class ‘O’ fire
        rating. The sheets of insulation are to be trimmed to suit the shape. All joints
        are to be formed by means of a butt, jointed with adhesive and sealed with
        100mm wide tags matching self-adhesive Class ‘O’ tape supplied by the
        insulation supplier.


        The longitudinal edges of the duct shall be protected by means of a white
        plastic 75mm angle, fixed to the insulation by a suitable adhesive. Where
        openings occur for access doors, damper drives, test holes, etc. they are to
        be properly formed in the cladding and the edges sealed with 50mm wide
        tape as used for the joints. No patching will be allowed.


        (ii)    General Distribution


        Where ductwork and associated equipment are installed in both occupied
        and unoccupied areas fibre glass or Koolphen insulation shall be applied, all
        as described in the preceding paragraph above (Section 2.8.4. c) (i) of this
        Specification).


        (iii)   External Ductwork


        All ductwork which is exposed to the elements, runs through external



AJC 05/07                              Section 2.8. / 15
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        service shafts, passes through cooling tower chambers, or through areas
        having high humidity levels which are likely to cause the formation of
        condensation on the ductwork, shall be either insulated or treated.


        Where the ductwork is transferring warm air which is to be used for heating
        or reclamation purposes, the ductwork shall be insulated in accordance with
        item Section 2.8.4. b) of this Specification and then overwrapped with
        0.8mm thick polyisobutylene sheeting in order to form a weather and vapour
        seal.


        All joints in the sheeting shall be overlapped by 50mm and sealed with
        Foster Ductfas 81-22 or Kooltherm Chilstix CP50 adhesive.


        OR


        Aluminium clad as described under Clause 2.8.4. c) (i) but with all
        longitudinal and circumferential joints tightly sealed against water
        penetration.


        Where the ductwork is carrying air which is not useful heat, the Insulation
        Contractor is to allow for painting this with two coats of bituminous paint.
        This paint finish shall also be applied to all flanges, damper boxes, access
        doors, etc. When painted, all dampers and access doors should remain
        operable, and must not show any signs of non-operation due to the
        application of paint.


        d)      End Capping


        Where terminal insulation terminates at walls, items of plant, etc. the
        exposed end of the insulation shall be capped by means of a 75mm white
        plastic angle. The angle is to be joined to the insulation with a suitable
        adhesive.


        e)      Insulation of Adjacent and Parallel Ducts


        All ductwork runs must be insulated separately. They are not to be “married”
        together with insulation material, under any circumstances.




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.8. / 16
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        f)   Removable Equipment


        All ductwork may require to be removed from the ductwork for servicing, the
        insulation and cladding shall be installed in such manner that it can be
        detached and replaced without disturbing the remainder of the installation.


        g)   Identification


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. 1) of this Specification.


        Identification symbols shall be fixed on either side of items of plant, at the
        entry an exit of all plantrooms and at the recommended intervals throughout
        the ductwork distribution.


        h)   Cleaning


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. m) of this Specification.


2.8.5   Chilled Air Ductwork Installations


        a)   General


        This section of the Specification concerns air movement systems, both
        supply and extraction, which are carrying air having a temperature generally
                        C
        in the range -2° to 15°C.


        Insulation shall be applied to all supply ductwork and extraction ductwork
        being used for heat reclamation purposes which passes through
        plantrooms, above false ceilings; down service shafts and through non-
        conditioned spaces. It shall also be applied to fresh air intake ductwork
        between the point of entry and heater batteries. Where systems are
        installed which operate utilising “free cooling”, with temperatures dropping
        into the range mentioned above. The whole of the system shall be insulated
        in accordance with this section of the Specification.


        b)   Material


        All as described in Section 2.8.4. b) of this Specification. A vapour barrier



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.8. / 17
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        must however always be provided.


        Where the vapour seal is punctured by fixing pins the area is to be coated
        with Foster Ductfas 81-22 or Kooltherm Chilstix CP50 and then covered
        with (Class ‘O’) matching self-adhesive tape.


        As an alternative to pins, metal bands at 300mm centres applied over the
        insulation shall be acceptable.


        All joints shall be sealed with adhesive and then tape applied over the
        joints. The tape is to be 100mm wide and be of matching (Class ‘O’) self-
        adhesive type.


        At the termination of insulation a 50mm lap shall be formed by cutting the
        insulation but retaining the cover. This lap is to be sealed to the exposed
        edge of the insulation with Foster Ductfas 81-22 or Kooltherm Chilstix CP85
        adhesive and taped over with (Class ‘O’) tape. The joint must continue to
        form a vapour barrier.


        Where fittings occur in the ductwork installation, e.g. supply grille plenum
        boxes, volume control dampers, attenuators, zonal batteries, etc. these are
        to be insulated to the same standard as the remainder of the installation
        and sealed and jointed in a similar manner in order to maintain the vapour
        seal.


        The Insulation Contractor must ensure that Air Cooler Batteries under
        positive fan pressure have been tested by the Contractor for no air leakage
        prior to insulation.


        The thicknesses of material to be used shall be in accordance with the
        attached table.


        c)      Finishes


        The following finishes are to be applied to the insulation unless otherwise
        stated elsewhere in the Specification. In all cases a vapour seal must be
        maintained.




AJC 05/07                        Section 2.8. / 18
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        (i)     Plantrooms


        All as described in Section 2.8.4. c) (i) of this Specification except that the
        vapour sealing must be continuous and not penetrated.


        Where the pre-finished surface is used, the longitudinal edges of the
        insulation shall be protected by means of a white plastic 75mm angle, fixed
        to the insulation by a suitable adhesive.


        (ii)    General Distribution


        All as described in Section 2.8.4. c) (ii) of this Specification except that the
        vapour sealing must be continuous and not penetrated.


        (iii)   External Ductwork


        All as described in Section 2.8.4. c) (iii) of this Specification.


        d)      Wall Sleeves


        Where chilled air ductwork having a vapour seal passes through walls and
        sections of the structure a sleeve is to be introduced into the structure to
        allow the duct or fire damper and associated insulation to pass through
        without a break in the insulation or vapour barrier occurring.


        The insulation must provide the same period of protection as the fire
        damper to which it is applied.


        e)      End Capping


        Where thermal insulation terminates an end cap shall be formed which shall
        also be a vapour barrier.


        The cap is to be formed by cutting back the insulation to leave an overlap
        which is then to be sealed to the exposed edge of the insulation. The joint is
        then to be taped with matching (Class ‘O’) self-adhesive tape and plastic
        angle strip fixed around the termination by means of a suitable adhesive.




AJC 05/07                              Section 2.8. / 19
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        (f)     Insulation of Adjacent and Parallel Ducts


        All as described in Section 2.8.4. e) of this Specification.


        g)      Removable Equipment


        All as described in Section 2.8.4. e) of this Specification.


        h)      Flanges


        Where flanges occur in the ductwork, they are to be treated with the full
        thickness of insulation and the vapour seal maintained over them. Where
        access to equipment is necessary, a duct has to be capable of removal for
        movement of plant, (see above), the flanges should be accessible.


        i)      Supports


        Generally in a similar manner to that described in Section 2.8.3. o) of this
        Specification.


        j)      Access Doors


        Access Doors installed in ductwork carrying chilled air should generally be
        pre-insulated. However, where this is not possible a removable panel is to
        be formed in the insulation which is to cover the door, the joint between the
        panel and remainder of the insulation being sealed with 100mm wide tape
        to maintain a vapour seal. The removable panel is to be fitted with handles
        and an identification label applied.


        k)      Electrical Bonding


        All as described in Section 2.8.3. n) of this Specification.


        l)    Identification


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. 1) of this Specification.


        m)      Cleaning



AJC 05/07                            Section 2.8. / 20
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



        All as described in Section 2.8.2. m) of this Specification.


2.8.6   Hot Water Tanks and Vessels


        a)   General


        This section of the Specification applies to tanks and vessels which are to
        contain heating water, domestic hot water and condensate in the
                             C
        temperature range 15° to 250°C.


        For temperatures above this level it will be necessary for the Insulation
        Contractor to calculate the thicknesses in accordance with BS 5422 1977.


        Copies of these calculations must be submitted to the Engineer for approval
        and acceptance.


        For temperature below this level see Section 2.8.7. of this Specification
        relating to chilled and Cold Water Tanks and Vessels.


        b)   Materials


        The materials to be used for the insulation of all tanks and vessels shall be
        slabs of fibre glass. For rectangular vessels these are to be rigid slabs,
        whilst for circular or oval vessels they are to be semi-rigid. The sheets shall
        be bonded with a heat resistant binder, unless otherwise stated later.


        OR


                                                                   C
        Tanks and vessels operating in the temperature range of 15° to 120°C
        shall be insulated with Koolphen rigid phenolic foam. On rectangular
        vessels rigid slabs. On circular vessels slotted laminate (Flatwrap).


        The thickness of the insulation applied shall be in accordance with the
        attached table.


        For circular and oval tanks and vessels the slabs are to be trimmed as
        necessary to follow the contours of the vessel and sealed to the surface of



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 21
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        the vessel with a suitable adhesive. The insulation shall then be further
        secured by means of 25mm wide metal bands applied circumferentially at
        300mm centres. The application of the bands must not distort the insulation.


        For rectangular tanks and vessels the bands shall be applied horizontally
        with the insulation on the underside also secured by purpose made pins
        fixed at 300mm centres.


        All the edges of the tank or vessel shall be protected from damage by
        means of a 75mm plastic angle applied to the surface of the insulation by
        means of a suitable adhesive.


        c)   Finishes


        22 swg hammered or polished aluminium or Isogenopak cladding shall then
        be applied. The cladding shall be fitted in sheets with a minimum of joints
        and seams utilised. All dished or oval ends are to be pre-formed.


        Where necessary wooden blocks, battens or high density phenolic foam
        shall be provided within the insulation to enable the cladding to be self
        supporting and prevent distortion.


        All seam edges are to be cut straight and overlapped by 50mm, the seam
        being joined by either screws or rivets at 150mm centres. All seams
        wherever possible shall be kept from open view. Where openings occur in
        the cladding for test points, gauges, etc. they are to be pre-cut and have
        clean edges.


        When rectangular vessels are being clad all edges shall be formed by
        creasing the sheeting and then forming the joint on the top or bottom of the
        vessel.


        Where vessels are sited externally or are subject to low temperatures and
        excessive condensation of dampness, they shall be insulated with the basic
        fibre glass panels and bands, etc. However, this shall then be overwrapped
        in 0.8mm thick polyisobutylene sheeting in order to provide a weather and
        vapour proof seal. All joints are to be overlapped by 50mm and sealed with
        Foster Ductfas 81-22 adhesive.



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 22
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        OR


        Plain Koolphen slabs and weatherproofed with Kooltherm VICRYL CP10
        applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s technical data sheet.


        OR


        Aluminium clad as described under Clause 2.8.4. c)(i) but with vapour seal
        applied prior to fitting of cladding and all longitudinal and circumferential
        joints sealed against water penetration.


        d)   Manholes and Access Doors


        Where manholes and access doors occur in vessels the Insulation
        Contractor is to make all due allowances for forming a removable and
        insulated panel.


        Where the manhole or access door is flush with the surface of the vessel a
        panel is to be formed in the insulation. This panel is to consist of thermal
        insulation fixed to a section of cladding by a suitable adhesive and purpose
        made pins. The cladding shall be larger than the opening concerned to
        enable the panel to be secured into the main body of the insulation by
        means of self tapping screws. The shape of this panel is to be perfectly
        concentric and the edges filed smooth. (Refer to figure 30, BS 5970 1982).


        Where the manhole or access door is raised from the surface of the vessel,
        the insulation and cladding is to be formed in such a manner that it runs up
        the neck of the manhole. The lid of the manhole is to be insulated by means
        of pre-formed cap formed from the cladding and incorporating the
        necessary thickness of insulation for the manhole cover. The manhole cap
        is to fit over the cover and neck and be secured to the main body of the
        insulation by means of a minimum of four metal quick release catches.


        e)   Heater Coil Chests


        Where removable chests occur for heating coils in calorifiers and vessels,
        these are to be completely insulated.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 23
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        A metal enclosure, similar to a valve box, is to be constructed in two halves
        with metal fastenings. The box shall be lined with the appropriate thickness
        of insulation and of sufficient size and detail to enclose the whole of the
        chest whilst allowing provision for pipework connections. The enclosure
        shall be complete with a flanged face which is to be used to secure the
        enclosure to the main body by means of self tapping screws at 150mm
        centres.


        f)   Removable Sections of Equipment


        Where tanks and vessels contain other removable sections, the Insulation
        Contractor is to allow for making the relevant section of the insulation and
        cladding removable, in a similar manner to paragraphs d) or e) above
        whichever is more appropriate.


        g)   Supports


        All hot water storage vessels shall be insulated from supporting
        frameworks, cradles and brackets by means of wooden supports. The
        Contractor is to make all due allowances for providing these supports which
        are to be either hard rubber or hard wood and be shaped to the contours of
        the vessel. The supports shall be non-distorting and non-water absorbing
        and have two layers of a damp proofing material placed between the vessel
        and support.


        h)   Cleaning


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. m) of this Specification.


2.8.7   Chilled and Cold Water Tanks and Vessels


        a)   General


        This section of the Specification applies to tanks and vessels which are to
                                     C      C
        contain water in the range 3° to 15° and includes chilled water systems
        associated with air conditioning and process plant and cold water storage
        systems associated with domestic installations and heating systems.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 24
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        For temperatures below those stated it will be necessary for the Insulation
        Contractor to calculate the required thickness in accordance with BS 5422
        1990. Copies of these calculations must be submitted to the Engineer for
        approval and acceptance.


        For temperatures above this level see Section 2.8.6. of this Specification
        relating to Hot Water Tanks and Vessels.


        b)   Materials


        The materials used for the insulation of all tanks and vessels shall be slabs
        of fibre glass. For rectangular vessels these are to be rigid slabs, whilst for
        circular or oval vessels they are to be semi-rigid. The sheets shall be
        bonded with a heat resistant binder, unless otherwise stated later.


        OR


        Class ‘O’ faced Koolphen rigid phenolic foam. On rectangular tanks flat
        slabs shall be used. On circular tanks slotted laminate shall be used.


        The thickness of the insulation applied shall be in accordance with the
        attached table.


        For circular and oval tanks and vessels the slabs are to be trimmed as
        necessary to follow the contours of the vessel and sealed to the surface of
        the vessel by means of Foster Safetee Ductfas 81-99 or Kooltherm KP31
        adhesive. All slabs are to be butted together and sealed with adhesive, the
        insulation then being overwrapped with good quality canvas and the whole
        vapour sealed by applying two coats of Foster Sealfas 30-36 or Kooltherm
        Chilseal CP50.


        For rectangular tanks and vessels the slabs shall be prefinished with a
        white lacquered aluminium foil laminate coating providing Class ‘O’ fire
        rating. The insulation shall be bonded to the sides and top of the vessel by
        means of Foster Safetee Ductfas 81-99 or Kooltherm KP31 adhesive, with
        the insulation on the underside also secured by purpose made pins fixed at
        300mm centres.




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 25
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        At the edges of the tank or vessel shall be protected from damage by
        means of a 75mm plastic angle applied to the surface of the insulation by
        means of a suitable adhesive.


        Where the vapour seal is punctured by fixing pins the area shall be coated
        with Foster Ductfas 81-22 or Kooltherm Chilstix CP85 and then covered
        with matching (Class ‘O’) type.


        All joints shall be sealed with adhesive and then tape applied over the
        joints. The tape is to be 100mm wide and be of the (Class ‘O’) type.


        At the termination of insulation a 50mm lap shall be formed by cutting the
        insulation but retaining the cover. This lap is to be sealed to the exposed
        edge of the insulation with Foster Ductfas 81-22 or Kooltherm Chilstix CP85
        adhesive and taped over with (Class ‘O’) tape. The joint must continue to
        form a vapour barrier.


        c) Finishes


        The following finishes are to be applied to the insulation unless otherwise
        stated elsewhere in the Specification. In all cases a vapour seal must be
        maintained.


            i.   Plantrooms


        Depending on the project concerned, one of the following finishes is to be
        applied.


        EITHER


        All circular and oval vessels, as well as some rectangular vessels, shall be
        clad with 22 swg hammered or polished aluminium, or Isogenopak cladding
        applied over the vapour sealed finish.


        Generally otherwise as Section 2.8.6. c) of this Specification.



                     OR



AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 26
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION



             Where a prefinished rigid sheeting has been utilised this may be left without
             any further cladding being applied.


             All water storage tanks in tank rooms shall be insulated by means of a
             75mm plastic angle applied to the surface of the insulation by means of a
             suitable adhesive.


       ii.        External


             Where tanks or vessels are sited externally, or are subject to low
             temperatures and excessive condensation or dampness, the tank shall be
             insulated as previously described. However, this shall then be overwrapped
             in 0.8mm thick polyisobutylene sheeting in order to provide a weather and
             vapour proof seal. All joints are to be overlapped by 50mm and sealed with
             Foster Ductfas 81-22.


             OR


             Waterproofed with Kooltherm VICRYL CP10 applied in accordance with the
             manufacturer’s technical data.


             OR


             Aluminium clad as described under Clause 2.8.4. c)(i) but with vapour seal
             applied prior to fitting of cladding and all longitudinal and circumferential
             joints sealed against water penetration.


             d)   Manholes and Access Doors


             Generally as described in Section 2.8.6. a) of this Specification.


             However, a continuous compressible foam rubber strip shall be secured to
             the cladding round the manhole thus ensuring that, when the manhole is
             secured with quick release toggles, the flange is compressed on the foam
             strip and the vapour seal maintained.




AJC 05/07                              Section 2.8. / 27
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        e)   Flanged Tanks


        Where tanks are constructed from plates bolted together by means of
        external flanges, the insulation shall be applied in such a manner that the
        complete thickness of insulation covers the end of all flanges.


        f)   Removable Sections of Equipment


        All as described in Section 2.8.6. f) of this Specification.


        To maintain the vapour seal between sections, a continuous compressible
        foam rubber seal strip shall be provided throughout the length of the joint.
        The two sections of the joint shall then be secured by means of quick
        release toggles which, when applied, cause the rubber to compress and the
        vapour seal to be maintained.


        g)   Supports


        All as described in Section 2.8.6. g) of this Specification.


        h)   Cleaning


        All as described in Section 2.8.2. m) of this Specification.


2.8.8   Boiler Smoke Pipes


        a)   General


        This part of the Specification concerns all single skin mild steel and
        stainless steel, smoke and exhaust pipework which occurs in boiler rooms,
        plantrooms, service risers, etc. It does not apply to multiple skin systems
        unless specifically required elsewhere in this Specification.


        b)   Materials


        The materials to be used for all insulation of smoke pipes and exhaust pipes
        shall be rigid slabs of 50mm fibre glass, bonded with a heat resistant binder
        and suitable for use with the relevant temperature of the flue or exhaust



AJC 05/07                          Section 2.8. / 28
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        pipework concerned.


        The Insulation Contractor must at time of Tender ascertain the surface
        temperature of the flue or exhaust pipe if not stated in the documentation.
        No extra cost will be permitted for want of knowledge under any
        circumstances.


        Metal spacing pieces shall be provided around the pipe at 300mm centres
        to provide an air gap between flue and insulation of 25mm.


        The insulation shall be applied in pre-cut lengths having bevelled edges,
        wrapped with scrim cloth coated with Foster Safetee Ductfas 81-99 or
        Kooltherm Chilstix CP85 and secured by means of 25mm metal bands at
        300mm centres to coincide with the location of the spacer pieces. The
        bands must secure but must not cause any form of distortion.


        All bends shall be insulated by forming a “lobster back” arrangement of
        trimmed slabs. The insulation is to have a 25mm air gap between flue pipe
        and insulation and be secured by means of scrim cloth, cut to size,
        impregnated with Foster Safetee Ductfas 81-99 or Kooltherm Chilstix CP85,
        and allowed to set.


        c)   Finish


        In plantrooms the insulation shall be clad with 22 swg hammered or
        polished aluminium sheeting applied over the insulation, generally as
        described in Section 2.8.2. c)(i) of this Specification.


        In service risers the flue shall be wrapped with good quality white canvas,
        the seams and joints secured with Foster Sealfas 30-36 and then secured
        with 100mm wide polished metal bands at 300mm centres.


        Where the flue runs through areas exposed to external conditions, but
        where thermal insulation is required, e.g. loading bays, etc. the basic
        insulation shall be overwrapped with 0.8mm polyisobutylene sheeting. All
        joints and seams are to be overlapped by 50mm and sealed with Foster
        Ductfas 81-22 or aluminium clad as described in Clause 2.8.2. d).




AJC 05/07                          Section 2.8. / 29
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


        d)   Access Doors


        All access doors shall be insulated in a manner consistent with the
        remainder of the flue.


        Extended handles are to be provided on these panels to allow for the
        addition of the insulation.


        e)   Pipe Sleeves


        Where flues or exhaust pipes pass through fire compartments, a metal
        sleeve shall be built into the structure. The gap between the flue and sleeve
        is to be sealed with a semi-rigid fire resisting mastic.




AJC 05/07                             Section 2.8. / 30
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


Tables


            Table 1 – Circulating Water and Steam.



            Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Glass Fibre)



                                                Fluid Temperature
              Pipe Size
              Nominal            3°C           10°C          60°C   80°C
              diameter (mm)



                  15            38mm           25mm         25mm    25mm
                  20            38mm           25mm         25mm    25mm
                  25            38mm           25mm         25mm    25mm
                  32            38mm           25mm         25mm    25mm
                  40            38mm           25mm         38mm    38mm
                  50            38mm           25mm         38mm    38mm
                  65            50mm           38mm         38mm    38mm
                  80            50mm           38mm         38mm    38mm
                  100           50mm           38mm         38mm    38mm
                  150           50mm           38mm         50mm    50mm
                  200           63mm           38mm         50mm    50mm
                  250           63mm           38mm         50mm    63mm
                  300           63mm           38mm         50mm    63mm




AJC 05/07                        Section 2.8. / 31
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION




            Table 1 – Circulating Water and Steam (continued).



            Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Glass Fibre)



                                                 Fluid Temperature
              Pipe Size
              Nominal           116°C           150°C        200°C   250°C
              diameter (mm)



                  15            25mm            32mm         38mm    38mm
                  20            25mm            32mm         38mm    50mm
                  25            25mm            32mm         50mm    50mm
                  32            38mm            32mm         50mm    50mm
                  40            38mm            38mm         50mm    50mm
                  50            38mm            38mm         50mm    63mm
                  65            38mm            38mm         63mm    75mm
                  80            38mm            50mm         63mm    75mm
                  100           50mm            50mm         75mm    75mm
                  150           50mm            63mm         75mm    100mm
                  200           50mm            63mm        100mm    100mm
                  250           63mm            63mm        100mm    100mm
                  300           63mm            75mm        100mm    100mm




AJC 05/07                         Section 2.8. / 32
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION




            Table 2 – Circulating Water and Steam.



            Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Glass Fibre)



               Pipe Size         Internal Pipework     External Pipework


                  15                  38mm                   38mm
                  20                  38mm                   38mm
                  25                  38mm                   38mm
                  32                  38mm                   38mm
                  40                  38mm                   38mm
                  50                  25mm                   38mm
                  65                  25mm                   38mm
                  80                  25mm                   25mm
                 100                  25mm                   25mm
                 150                  25mm                   25mm
                 200                  25mm                   25mm
                 250                  25mm                   25mm
                 300                  25mm                   25mm




AJC 05/07                        Section 2.8. / 33
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION




  Table 3 – Storage Tanks and Vessels



  Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Glass Fibre)




     Water Temperature         3°C            10°C            60°C              80°C


    Insulation Thickness      63mm           50mm            50mm               63mm


     Water Temperature        116°C          150°C           200°C              250°C


    Insulation Thickness      63mm           75mm           100mm           100mm




    Table 4 – Ductwork



    Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Glass Fibre)



   Temperature difference   Rigid duct insulation    Flexible duct insulation
   between ducted air and
            ambient air


               10°C                40mm                      50mm


               25°C                50mm                      50mm


               50°C                65mm                      75mm




AJC 05/07                      Section 2.8. / 34
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION




Table 5 – Hot Pipes and Vessels



Thermal Insulation Thicknesses


       Pipe Size (mm)           Koolphen Phenolic Foam                  Glassfibre


N.B.             O.D.       DHW UP LTHW                 MTHW     HTHW OR STEAM
                            TO 80°C     UP        TO UP TO       150°C          200°C
                                        95°C            *120°C


       15           21         15            15             20     32            38
       20           27         15            20             20     32            38
       25           34         15            20             20     32            50
       32           42         20            20             20     32            50
       40           48         20            20             20     38            50
       50           60         20            20             20     38            50
       65           76         20            25             25     38            63
       80           89         20            25             25     50            63
   100              114        20            25             25     50            75
   125              140        20            25             25     63            75
   150              168        20            30             30     63            75
   200              219        25            30             30     63           100
   250              273        25            30             30     63           100
   300              324        25            35             35     75           100




 VESSELS AND FLAT              30            35             40   100            100
        SURFACES



   *        Thickness shown under MTHW may be used for HTHW provided that the
            temperature does not exceed 120°C.


   On pipework with screwed joints a minimum thickness of 20mm shall be used to
   allow for the larger diameter of the screwed fittings.



AJC 05/07                           Section 2.8. / 35
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION




Table 6 – Cold Pipes And Vessels



Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Koolphen)



     Pipe Size          Coldwater         Chilled                Refrigeration
                                           Water


  N.B.        O.D.       C
                       6° to 12°C        C
                                       2° to 5°C        0°C        -10°C         -20°C
  (mm)        (mm)


   15            21          15             20              20      30            35
   20            27          15             25              25      30            35
   25            34          15             25              25      30            40
   32            42          15             25              25      30            40
   40            48          15             25              25      30            40
   50            60          15             25              25      35            40
   65            76         20              30              30      35            40
   80            89         20              30              30      35            40
  100         114           20              30              30      40            50
  125         140           20              30              30      40            50
  150         168           20              35              35      40            60
  200         219           20              35              35      50            60
  250         273           20              35              35      50            60
  300         324           20              35              35      50            60


  VESSELS AND               25              40              40      50            70
 FLAT SURFACES



   On pipework with screwed joints a minimum thickness of 20mm shall be used to
   allow for the larger diameter of the screwed fittings.




AJC 05/07                           Section 2.8. / 36
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION




            Table 7 – Ductwork



            Thermal Insulation Thicknesses (Koolphen)



              Temperature difference between             Thickness    of   Koolphen
              ducted air and ambient air.                Insulation


                              10°C                                20mm
                              25°C                                25mm
                              50°C                                30mm




   Recommended Thickness of Koolphen To Protect Against Freezing On Cold
   Water Services


   Table 8


   (Based on BS 5422)


   The use of insulation alone will not give complete protection against the freezing
   of water in pipes under all ambient conditions. If the ambient temperature
   remains low enough for sufficient time and the movement of water is slow or the
   water is static, freezing will eventually take place. Small pipes and valves are
   particularly vulnerable.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.8. / 37
SECTION 2.8. – THERMAL INSULATION


    8 (a)    Recommended thickness of Koolphen which will give reasonable
             protection against freezing during normal occupation of buildings.


            Pipe Size                Indoor Pipes                Outdoor Pipes


             15mm                         20                            25
             20mm                         20                            25
             25mm                         20                            25
             32mm                         20                            25
             40mm                         20                            25
             50mm                         20                            25
             65mm                         20                            25
      80mm and above                      20                            25




    8 (b)     Recommended thickness of Koolphen required where ambient
                                    C
                 temperature is -10° for 12 hours and water is static.


            Pipe Size                Indoor Pipes                Outdoor Pipes


             15mm                        256*                          178*
             20mm                        186*                          87*
             25mm                        112*                          47*
             32mm                         60                            25
             40mm                         50                            20
             50mm                         30                            20
             65mm                         25                            20
      80mm and above                      25                            20



             *       Where some of the theoretical thicknesses shown in Table
             8(b) are impractical, then other means of protection, (e.g. heat
             tracing) should be used with a nominal 25mm of insulation over
             the pipe and heat tracer to conserve energy. NIFLAN rigid
             preformed      pipe   insulation   with     a   factory   applied   P.I.B.
             weatherproof covering shall be used for this purpose.




AJC 05/07                            Section 2.8. / 38

				
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