Ancient Civilizations: The Greeks and Romans AKS 32--examine the political, philosophical and cultural interaction of Classical Mediterranean societies from 700 BCE to 400 CE (GPS) (SSWH_C2007-32) Pages 123-149 and 155-183 32a - explain how geographic features and cultural diffusion affected the development of the Greek and Roman civilizations 1. How did nearness to the sea help alleviate Greek resource shortages? (p. 123) 2. Why did most Greeks identify with their local community instead of Greece as a whole? 3. How might a moderate climate foster civic life? 4. What aspects of culture did the Mycenaean’s adopt from the Minoans? (p. 125) 5. Why do you think the myth of the twins has endured for so long? (p. 155) 6. How was Rome a multicultural society? 7. What were the differences and similarities between Rome’s patricians and plebeians? (p. 156) 32b - compare the origins and structure of the Greek polis, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire 1. What was a polis? (p. 127) 2. What were advantages and disadvantages of the city-state as a form of government? 3. Use the chart on page 128 to list and describe the four forms of Greek governments Monarchy Aristocracy Oligarchy Direct Democracy 32c - trace the transitions in Classical Greece from Hellenic Greece to the conquest by Alexander the Great 1. Who was King Philip II? What kingdom did he rule? (p. 142) 2. How was Philip II able to conquer Greece? 3. Philip II’s goal was to conquer Persia? Why did Alexander continue his campaign of conquest after his goal had been achieved? 4. How did trade contribute to cultural diversity in the Hellenistic city of Alexandria? 32d - trace the development of Rome from Republic to Empire 1. What three factors led to the fall of the Roman Republic? (p. 160) 2. How did Julius Caesar rise to Power? 3. What were some of Caesar’s reforms? 4. Why did Caesar’s rivals feel they had to kill him? 5. What does the term Pax Romana refer to? 32e - identify the ideas and impact of important individuals to include Socrates, Plato, Aristotle; the diffusion of Greek culture by Aristotle's pupil, Alexander the Great; and the impact of Julius and Augustus Caesar 1. Using the chart below, list two of the major contributions of the following individuals: (p. 138) Socrates Plato Aristotle Alexander the Julius and Augusta Great Caesar 32f - analyze the contributions of Hellenistic and Roman culture to include government, law, gender, mathematics, and science 1. What were some of the main achievements of the scientists of the Hellenistic period? (p. 147) 2. What did Stoicism and Epicureanism have in common? (p. 148) 3. Define the following terms: (p. 157) a. Consuls b. Senate c. Dictator d. Legions 4. What limits were there on the power of the Roman consuls? 5. What was the significance of the Twelve Tables? 32g - describe polytheism in the Greek and Roman world and the origins and diffusion of Christianity in the Roman world 1. Why were the epics of importance to the Greeks of the Dorian period? (p. 125) 2. Why did the Greeks develop myths? 3. How were Greek gods both similar and different form the Greeks themselves? 4. In Rome, how were both government and religion linked together? (p. 164) 5. Why did the followers of Jesus think he was the Messiah? 6. Why did the early Christians face persecution from the Romans? 7. Why were the citizens of the Roman Empire so drawn to Christianity? 8. Who was Constantine and why was his rule so important? (p. 171) 9. Why was the Edict of Milan so important? 10. Who became the first pope of the early Christian Church? 11. What was the importance of the Nicene Creed? 32h - analyze the changes and continuities from origins to the fall of the Greek and Roman Classical Civilizations 1. How was Athenian democracy different from modern American democracy? (p. 128) 2. What contributions did Solon and Cleisthenes make to the development of Athenian democracy? 3. How would you compare the ideals of Spartan and Athenian society? (p. 131) 4. Define the following: a. Democracy b. Helots c. Phalanx 5. How did Athens benefit from victory in the Persian Wars? 32i - analyze the factors that led to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire 1. Use the chart below to list five factors for each of the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire: (p. 174) Political Social Economic Military 2. How did Diocletian succeed in preserving the empire? 3. Why did so many Germanic tribes begin invading the Roman Empire?