Proposed Spallation Neutron Source SNS resin injection

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Proposed Spallation Neutron Source SNS resin injection Powered By Docstoc
					Proposed Indian Spallation Neutron
Source

S. Kotaiah
Schematic Layout of SNS
Choice of Parameters
For given output power of booster (100 kW)
  Injection energy
  Booster energy
  Repetition frequency


                         Technical compatibility
                            & minimum cost
  …Choice of Parameters
Synchrotron Output             1 GeV (212m)                 2 GeV (300m)                   3 GeV (365m)
Energy
Current                           100 µA                       50 µA                         33.3 µA


Repetition Frequency     10 Hz      25        50    10 Hz       25         50 Hz   10 Hz      25 Hz       50 Hz
                                    Hz        Hz                Hz
Number of charges        6.25x     2.5x    1.25x    3.125      1.25x       0.625   2.08x      0.83x       0.42x
required in one cycle     1013     1013     1013    x1013       1013       x1013    1013       1013        1013

Suitability for
injection of 50 MeV       No        No        No     No         No         Yes      No         Yes        Yes
(Space charge limit =
1.11 x 1013)
Suitability for
injection of 100 MeV      No       Criti      Yes    No         Yes        Yes     Yes         Yes        Yes
(Space charge limit =              cal
2.4 x 1013)
Suitability for
injection of 200 MeV      No       Yes        Yes   Yes         Yes        Yes     Yes         Yes        Yes
 (Space charge limit =
5.53 x 1013)

Suitability for
injection of 200 MeV     Yes       Yes        Yes   Yes         Yes        Yes     Yes         Yes        Yes
(Space charge limit =
14.25 x 1013)
…Choice of Parameters (cont.)

 Linac       Cost        1 GeV ring (100 microamp)   2 GeV ring (50 microamp)   3 GeV ring (33.3 microamp)
Energy    (Rs. Crores)   10 Hz    25 Hz     50 Hz    10 Hz    25 Hz     50 Hz   10 Hz     25 Hz     50 Hz
             Linac        98       111       123      90       100       110     80        90        100
50 MeV    Synchrotron    196       254       298     281       366       432     349       456       538
             Total       294       365       421     371       466       542     429       546       638
             Linac       159       182       205     145       164       185     130       148       168
100 MeV   Synchrotron    196       251       292     282       361       423     350       449       527
             Total       355       433       497     427       525       608     480       597       695
             Linac       285       328       371     257       296       334     232       266       301
200 MeV   Synchrotron    191       244       284     274       352       412     339       436       512
             Total       476       572       655     531       648       746     571       702       813
             Linac       501       555       620     451       500       558     406       450       503
400 MeV   Synchrotron    184       232       271     264       333       390     327       414       486
             Total       685       787       891     715       833       948     733       864       989
Parameters…Linac cost

                        650
                                                                     E50MeV10Hz
                        600
                                                                     E50MeV25Hz
                        550
                                                                     E50MeV50Hz
                        500
                                                                     E100MeV10Hz
  Linac Cost (crores)




                        450                                          E100MeV25Hz
                        400                                          E100MeV50Hz
                        350                                          E200MeV10Hz
                        300                                          E200MeV25Hz
                        250                                          E200MeV50Hz
                        200                                          E400MeV10Hz
                        150                                          E400MeV25Hz
                        100
                                                                     E400MeV50Hz

                              1.0   1.5       2.0        2.5   3.0
                                    Synchrotron Energy (GeV)
Parameters…Synchrotron cost

                              560
                              540                                          E50MeV10Hz
                              520
                              500
                                                                           E50MeV25Hz
                              480                                          E50MeV50Hz
  Synchrotron Cost (crores)




                              460
                              440                                          E100MeV10Hz
                              420                                          E100MeV25Hz
                              400
                              380                                          E100MeV50Hz
                              360                                          E200MeV10Hz
                              340
                              320                                          E200MeV25Hz
                              300
                              280
                                                                           E200MeV50Hz
                              260                                          E400MeV10Hz
                              240
                              220                                          E400MeV25Hz
                              200                                          E400MeV50Hz
                              180
                                    1.0   1.5       2.0        2.5   3.0
                                          Synchrotron Energy (GeV)
Parameters…Total cost

                        1000
                        950
                                                                      E50MeV10Hz
                        900                                           E50MeV25Hz
                        850                                           E50MeV50Hz
                        800                                           E100MeV10Hz
  Total Cost (Crores)




                        750
                                                                      E100MeV25Hz
                        700
                                                                      E100MeV50Hz
                        650
                        600
                                                                      E200MeV10Hz
                        550                                           E200MeV25Hz
                        500                                           E200MeV50Hz
                        450                                           E400MeV10Hz
                        400                                           E400MeV25Hz
                        350
                                                                      E400MeV50Hz
                        300

                               1.0   1.5       2.0        2.5   3.0
                                     Synchrotron Energy (GeV)
Chosen Parameters

 Injection Energy = 100   MeV
 Booster Energy = 1       GeV
 Repetition Rate = 25     Hz

…Beam Power      = 100    kW
Brief Parameters
  Proton Synchrotron
 1    Injection energy            100                                 MeV
 2    Extraction energy           1.0                                 GeV
 3    Repetition rate             25                                  Hz
 4    Beam power                  100                                 kW
 5    Average current             100                                 mA
 6    Average beam power          100                                 kW
 7    Repetition rate             25                                  Hz
 8    Number of protons in ring   ~2.4 ´ 1013 (1.2´ 1013 p+/ bunch)
 9    Harmonic No.                2
 10   Circumference               212.4                               M
 11   Revolution Time @100 MeV    1.65                                ms
                       @1 GeV     0.81                                ms
 12   ¦RF                         1.21 – 2.47                         MHz
 13   D¦RF                        1.26                                MHz
Brief Parameters
      Injection Linac


 1.       Output energy     100   MeV
 2.       Particles         H–
 3.       Pulse current     20    mA
 4.       Pulse length      500   ms
 5.       Repetition rate   25    Hz
RF driven multicusp H- Ion Source
Parameters
 System parameters             Design parameters
 Beam energy                   65keV H- Pulsed
 Beam current (H-)             50mA
 Frequency                     13.56MHz
 RF power                      >30kW
 Magnetic field (at wall)      2500gauss
 Operating pressure             10mtorr
 Pulse width (PW)              500msec.
 Pulse repetition rate (PRF)   25Hz
 Emittance (RMS Normalized)    0.14 mm-mrad

Components
  Plasma chamber and vacuum system
  Magnetic field configuration
  RF generator / amplifier and impedance matching network
  Magnetic filter and RF antenna
  High voltage insulator dome and platform
  Beam extraction system
  Supervisory control system
...RF driven multicusp H- Ion Source
Chopping Scheme


         66% of Synch period                         34% of Synch period
 I                                                      (chopped off)
             (Injected)
                                                                  25 mA
                                                                  Design
                                                                  current


     500 mSec  605 micro pulses at Synch RF freq.                 t
RFQ…Design Parameters
                                      Design beam current
Parameters                                                    Units
                                 25 mA            50 mA
Frequency                        350              350         MHz
Energy                           4.5              4.5         MeV
Inter vane voltage               65               85          KV
                                   + –
Particle                         H /H             H–
Total length                     6.52             5.506       m
Modulation Parameter             1 – 1.915        1 – 1.89
Average radius                   3.30             3.55        mm
Synchronous phase                -90 – -30        -90 – -30   
Transmission efficiency          96.3             97          %
Input emitt. t,rms(n)           0.20             0.20        mm.rad
Output emitt. t,rms(n)          0.20             0.21        mm.rad
Output emitt. z,rms(n)          0.10             0.116       deg.MeV
Quality factor (Q0)              9000             9500
Structure power loss             428              600         kW
Average power loss (@1.25% DF)   5.35             7.5         kW
Beam power                       111.25           225.5       kW
Total RF power required          539.25           825.5       kW
Max. surface E field (Emax)      26               31.4        MV/m
Kilpatrick                       1.4              1.7
…RFQ
Segment    Module




Assembly
DTL…Geometric Details

 Tank Tank Rad   DT Rad     Rni (cm) Rno    Rc (cm)   Hf (cm)   Face
 No.  TR (cm)    RDT (cm)            (cm)                       angle
                                                                 ()
 1    26.0       7.0        0.25     0.0    0.25      5.5       0.0
 2    26.0       7.0        0.25     0.0    0.25      5.5       0.0
 3    25.0       7.0        0.50     0.5    0.50      0.3       10.0
 4    25.0       7.0        0.50     0.5    0.50      0.3       10.0
 5    24.0       6.0        0.50     0.5    0.5       0.3       15.0
 6    24.0       6.0        0.5      0.5    0.5       0.3       15.0
 7    24.0       6.0        0.5      0.5    0.5       0.3       15.0
 100 MeV DTL… Summary
 Parameters      Tank       Tank      Tank      Tank      Tank      Tank      Tank      Unit
                    I         II       III       IV         V        VI        VII
Input Energy      4.500     9.9878   19.5842   34.0791   50.5283   68.0122   84.8637   MeV
Output Energy    9.9878    19.5842   34.0791   50.5283   68.0122   84.8637   100.498   MeV
                                                                                4
  Resonant       350.0      350.0     350.0     350.0     350.0     350.0     350.0     MHz
 Frequency
Beam current       50         50       50        50        50        50        50       mA
 Average E0       1.8 –    1.976 –     2.2       2.2       2.2       2.2       2.2     MV/mm
                  1.976      2.2
Synchronous      -60 – -   -60 – -     -30       -30       -30       -30       -30       
    phase          30         30
  Number of        65         55       49        47        41        37        33
     cells
Tank Length      6.6377     8.0955    9.7465   11.6508   11.8992   12.0533   11.7084   meters
Bore diameter       2          2         2         2         2         2        2       cm
DT diameter        14      14 - 12   14 - 12   14 - 12   14 - 12   14 - 12   14 - 12    cm
Power loss in    0.4678    0.65290   0.93213    1.1188    1.1758    1.2127   1.1975     MW
    Tanks
  Av. power      5.8475    8.16125   11.652    13.985    14.698    15.159    14.969     kW
 loss in tanks
100 MeV DTL… Summary cont.
 Parameters        Tank     Tank     Tank      Tank      Tank     Tank      Tank       Unit
                     I       II       III       IV        V        VI        VII
  Beam Power       0.2744   0.4798   0.72475   0.82246   0.8742   0.84258   0.78174    MW
  Total Power      0.7422   1.1327    1.6569    1.9413    2.05     2.0553   1.9793     MW
 Stem diameter       2.5      2.5       2.5       2.5      2.5       2.5       2.5     cm
        Tank         52       52        50        50       48        48        48      cm
    Diameter
    Focussing      FODO     FODO     FODO      FODO      FODO     FODO      FODO
       lattice
   Quadrupole       70       52        40        40       40        40        40       T/m
     Strength
   Quadrupole       4.0      5.5       7.5       7.5      7.5       7.5       7.5       cm
       length
     Input Tr     0.217     0.27     0.28      0.28      0.28     0.28      0.28        mm
      (n,rms)                                                                           mrad
 Output Tr (n,     0.27     0.28     0.28      0.28      0.28     0.28      0.28        mm
        rms)                                                                            mrad
  Long (n, rms)   0.1239   0.145     0.170     0.205    0.217     0.214     0.197    deg.MeV
      Energy                                                                  450       keV
 Spread(100%)
 Phase Spread                                                                16.57      
      (100%)
    rms beam       1.620     1.45     1.41      1.31      1.30     1.27      1.27       mm
  radius at O/P
Engineering Design of DTL
 Structural stability of cylindrical cavity
 Thermal stability of DTL tank and drift
 tubes
 RF and Vacuum compatibility of the
 structure
 Cooling circuit design and layout
 Vacuum system design of Proton linear
 accelerator.
 Support and alignment system
…DTL
RF System for RFQ and DTL
  Designed in 1 MW modules, total 17 modules
  One module for RFQ and 16 for DTL
  (RFQ operating at 350 MHz needs 750 kW RF power, 615
  kW loss + 135 kW beam power)
  Designed for 100 MeV, 25mA beam of 500 µs
  duration with 25Hz repetition
  Components of a module:
     High power klystrons 1MW/2MW at 350 MHz
     Klystron pulse modulator
     Waveguide transmission system
     Driver amplifiers
     Low level electronics
     Safety interlocks, and supervisory control systems
RF System…Klystron Specifications


    Frequency of operation     350MHz+/-2.5MHz
    Output peak power          1MW or 2MW
    Output RF pulse duration   700 µs
    Gain                       43dB
    Maximum drive power        200W
    Efficiency                 60 %
    Output waveguide           WR 2300
    Focusing                   Electromagnet
RF Feed for 100 MeV Linac
Proton Synchrotron
 Layout and Lattice
Proton Synchrotron
Parameters
 Beam Energy                       : 1 GeV
 Average current                   : 100 m A
 Average beam power                : 100 kW
 Repetition rate                   : 25 Hz
 Number of proton in ring          : ~2.4 ´ 1013 Protons (1.2´ 1013 p+ / bunch)
 Harmonic No.                      :2
 Circumference                     : 212.4 m
 Periodicity                       :4
 Total no. of cells                : 24
 Nominal straight section length   : 3.875 m
 Dipole Length                     : 1.875 m
 Quadrupole Length                 : 0.55 m
 Quadrupole families               : 5 (focusing 3, defocusing 2)
 Sextupole Length                  : 0.20 m
 Sextupole families                :2
 Total No. of Dipoles              : 24
 Total No. of Quadrupoles          : 48
 Total No. of Sextupoles           : 16 (3.2 m) [chromaticity correction]
Proton Synchrotron
Parameters…cont.
Straight section per period    : 15.5 m (clear, dispersion free), 7.75 m (clear, dispersive)
Bmin, inj (dipole)             : 0.2069 T
Bmax (dipole)                  : 0.7893 T
Bending radius                 : 7.1619 m
gmax (quadrupole)              : 4.5 T/m
Revolution Time                : 1.65 ms (100 MeV); 0.81 ms (1 GeV)
¦RF                            : 1.206 MHz – 2.464 MHz (h = 2)
                                 2.411 MHz – 4.927 MHz (h = 4)
D¦RF                           : 1.258 MHz & 2.516 MHz (h =2 & 4)
Nominal Tune                   : 6.88, 5.88
Chromaticity                   : -8.848, -7.168
Maximum Sextupole strength     : 0.2 m-2 for zero chromaticity
 max (m)                      : 17.0, 16.9
max/ min(m)                  : 8.270, 6.875
 Dmax                          : 3.12 m
 Pressure inside the chamber   : 1´10-8 Torr
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System

 General Specifications

    Type       Required   Magnetic length   Strength at      Bore

               Quantity        (m)            1GeV        dimension(m)

    Dipole       24            1.875           0.8 T         0.260

  Quadrupole     42            0.55          4.5 T/m         0.270

  Sextupole      21             0.2          70 T/m2         0.270
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System
Dipole…parameters
No. of magnets                          24
Peak magnetic field                     0.8 T
Field at injection                      0.2 T
Operating frequency                     25 Hz
Pole gap                                0.26 m
Effective magnetic length               1.875 m
Good field region                       0.1 m (horizontal & vertical)
NI per pole                             86200
No. of turns per pole                   20
Field                                   0.8110 T                   Cross Section
NI per pole for 0.2 055 T field         21550
I ac (peak)                             1616.25 A
I dc                                    2693.75 A
I rms                                   2926.16 A
Resistance per magnet                   3 mW
Resistive loss                          25.69 kW
Inductance per magnet                   10.5 mH
Peak voltage                            2.68 kV
RMS current density                     1.88 A/mm 2
Field quality (DB/B)                    2 x 10 –4
Weight of the core                      17000 kg
Weight of one coil                      2000 kg
Four parallel conductors each of size   24 mm x 24 mm x 9 mmF
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System
Quadrupole…parameters
Peak Field Gradient                      4.5 T/m
Field Gradient at Injection              1 - 1.25 T/m
Good Field Radius                        0.10 m
Aperture Radius                          0.135 m
Effective Magnetic Length                0.55 m
Core Material                            M36 NGO
Weight of the magnet                     5 Tons
Core loss per Magnet                     4.5 kW    Cross Section
Weight of the coil                       1.2 Tons
No. of Turns per Pole                    18
I max                                    1960 A
Inductance                               11 mH
Change of Inductance during excitation   <1 %
Resistance per Magnet                    2mW
Resistive Power Loss/Magnet              3.5 kW
Average |B|2 in the Coil                 0.4 T
Eddy Current Losses in Coil              3 KW
Energy Stored                            21 kJ
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System
Sextupole…parameters
Peak Field Gradient           70 T/m2
Field Gradient at Injection   18 T/m2
Good Field Radius             0.10 m
Aperture Radius               0.135 m
Effective Magnetic Length     0.2 m
Core Material                 M36 NGO
Weight of the magnet          3 Tons
Core loss per Magnet          1.3 kW    Cross Section
Weight of the coil            1 Ton
No. of Turns per Pole         7
I max                         3600A
Inductance                    0.7 mH
Energy Stored                 4.54 kJ
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System
Injection system…pulsed magnets
                                 Injected Beam
                                      H-
                                                   Vertical Dipole Magnet


                                                       Septum Magnets

                                                                           Stripping Foil



                   B1       Closed      B2                       B3                                     B4
                            Orbit                                                                H-


                                                                                                  H+



                                                                                            H0
                                                                                            Collector
                   Kicker




                                          Kicker




                                                                  Kicker




                                                                                                        Kicker
              QF                     QD                     QF                         QD                        QF




    Kicker Magnet                                                           Kicker Angle (d)
         B1                                                                 d1 : ~ 10 mrad
         B2                                                                 d2 : ~ - 20 mrad
         B3                                                                 d3 : ~ 4 mrad
         B4                                                                 d4 : ~ 14 mrad
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System

 Parameters of Injection Magnets
 Parameters             Magnetic Field   Current   Inductance   Length
                        (Tesla)          (kA)      (mH)         (m)
 Vertical Dipole Magnet 0.2069           10        10           0.5
 Pulsed 500 ms
 Septum Magnet          1.1              10        1.0          1.0
 500 ms Half
 Septum Magnet          1.1              10        1.0          1.0
 500 ms Half
 Kicker 1 Bump          0.250            12        1.3          0.5
 Kicker 2 Bump          0.250            12        1.3          0.5
 Kicker 3 Bump          0.250            12        1.3          0.5
 Kicker 4 Bump          0.250            12        1.3          0.5
Proton Synchrotron – Magnet System
  Parameters of Extraction Kickers
   Parameters                               Value
   Kick Angle, mrad                         4-5
   Magnet Aperture (H + x width)            180 x 180 mm
   Magnet Length                            500 – 600
   Magnet Yoke                              Ferrite
   Pulse Wave form
         Rise & Fall Time                   300 ns
         Flat Top                           500 ns
   Peak Current                             ~ 10 KA
   Peak Voltage                             ~ 40 KV
   Inductance                               1.2 – 1.3 mH

  Parameters of Extraction Septums
   Parameters                Fast Pulsed Septums           Slow Pulsed Septums
   1) Field Strength         1.1 T                         1.2 T
   2) Magnet Length          1m                            0.8 m
   3) Magnet Aperture        70 X 180 mm                   100 X 180 mm
       (Width x Ht)
   4) Pulse Width            1 ms                          10 ms
      (Half Sine Wave)
   5) Repetition Rate        25 Hz                         25 Hz
   6) Current                10 KA                         5 KA
   7) Inductance             0.8 mH                        1.0 mH
 Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
   Magnet Specifications (Electrical)

Type of Magnet                  Dipoles   QD1,QF2,QD2   QF1, QF3   Sextupoles

Total Nos.                      24        16 + 8 + 8    8+8        21
Idc                             2700 A    1230 A        1230 A     2270 A
Iac                             1620 A    730 A         730 A      1330 A
Ipk                             4320 A    1960 A        1960 A     3600 A
Inductance                      10.5 mH   11 mH         21 mH      0.7 mH
Peak Stored Energy per magnet
                                98 kJ     21.1 kJ       40.4 kJ    4.5 kJ
DC Resistance                   3 mΩ      2 mΩ          2.8 mΩ     1. 5 mΩ
DC Power Loss                   21.9 kW   3.0 kW        4.2 kW     7.7 kW
AC Power Losses
   I2R Loss                     3.9 kW    0.5 kW        0.8 kW     1.3 kW
  Other Losses                  18.0 kW   7.5 kW        10.7 kW    2 kW
Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
 Magnet Current Waveform
Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
 Resonant Excitation Scheme
Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
 White Circuit
 Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
Resonant Circuit Components
Magnet Type       Dipoles    QD1        QD2        QF2        QF1       QF3
Chokes
Total No.         6          2          1          1          2         2
Inductance        42 mH      88 mH      88 mH      88 mH      84 mH     84 mH
Idc               2700 A     1230 A     1230 A     1230 A     1230 A    1230 A
Iac               1620 A     730 A      730 A      730 A      730 A     730 A
Ipk               4320 A     1960 A     1960 A     1960 A     1960 A    1960 A
Vac Peak          10,688 V   10,090 V   10,090 V   10,090 V   9,632 V   9,632 V
Peak     Stored   392 kJ     169 kJ     169 kJ     169 kJ     161 kJ    161 kJ
Energy
Capacitors
Total No.         6          2          1          1          2         2
Capacitance       1930 μF    921 μF     921 μF     921 μF     965 μF    965 μF
Iac Peak          3240 A     1460 A     1460 A     1460 A     1460 A    1460 A
Vac Peak          10,688 V   10,090 V   10,090 V   10,090 V   9,632 V   9,632 V
Eq.      Power    17.3       7.4        7.4        7.4        7.0       7.0
Rating @ 25       MVAR       MVAR       MVAR       MVAR       MVAR      MVAR
Hz
Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
 Estimated Power Losses
   Type of Magnet           Dipoles   QD1      QD2      QF2      QF1      QF3

 Magnet DC Power loss       21.9 kW 3.0 kW     3.0 kW   3.0 kW   4.2 kW   4.2 kW

 Magnet AC Power loss       21.9 kW 8.0 kW     8.0 kW   8.0 kW   11.5 kW 11.5 kW

 Choke DC Power loss        87.6 kW 24.0 kW 24.0 kW 24.0 kW 16.8 kW 16.8 kW

 Choke AC Power loss        36.0 kW 14.0 kW 14.0 kW 14.0 kW 14.0 kW 14.0 kW

 Capacitor AC Power loss    17.3 kW 7.4 kW     7.4 kW   7.4 kW   7.0 kW   7.0 kW

 Interconnecting    Cable   22.0 kW 12.0 kW 16.0 kW 16.0 kW 12.0 kW 12.0 kW
 DC Power loss per mesh
 Interconnecting    Cable   6.0 kW    3.0 kW   4.0 kW   4.0 kW   3.0 kW   3.0 kW
 AC Power loss per mesh
 Total DC Power loss per    198 kW    60 kW    64 kW    64 kW    46 kW    46 kW
 mesh
 Total AC Power loss per    147 kW    89 kW    90 kW    90 kW    70 kW    70 kW
 mesh
 Total System DC Power      1188kW 120 kW      64 kW    64 kW    92 kW    92 kW
 loss
 Total System AC Power      882 kW    178 kW   90 kW    90 kW    140 kW   140 kW
 loss
Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
 Field Regulation
Proton Synchrotron – Power Supplies
 Phase Regulation
Proton Synchrotron
    - Pulse Power Supplies
 Power Supplies for Injection Magnets
 Sr.    Load        Current Pulse                  Peak    Magnetic   Magnet
 No.                Description                    Current Field      Inductance
 1.  Vertical       Near-half-sinusoid of          10 kA   0.2069 T   10 μH
     Dipole         pulse width around
     Magnet         1msec.The fall regime is
                    seen by the particle beam.
 2.   Septum        Half –sinusoid of pulse        10 kA   1.1 T      1.0 μH
      Magnet 1      width 500 μsec.
 3.   Septum        Half- sinusoid of pulse        10 kA   1.1 T      1.0 μH
      Magnet 2      width 500 μsec
 4.   BumpMagnet1   Pulse rise time: 100 μsec      12 kA   0.25 T     1.3 μH
                    Flat top       : 500 μsec
                    Fall          : not critical
 5.   BumpMagnet2   Pulse rise time: 100 μsec      12 kA   0.25 T     1.3 μH
                    Flat top       : 500 μsec
                    Fall          : not critical
 6.   BumpMagnet3   Pulse rise time: 100 μsec      12 kA   0.25 T     1.3 μH
                    Flat top       : 500 μsec
                    Fall          : not critical
 7.   BumpMagnet4   Pulse rise time: 100 μsec      12 kA   0.25 T     1.3 μH
                    Flat top       : 500 μsec
                    Fall          : not critical
Proton Synchrotron
    - Pulse Power Supplies
 Power Supplies for Extraction Magnets
 Types      Load        Current Pulse          Peak    Other relevant    Magnet
                        Description            Current information       Inductance
 1.      Extraction     Rise time of the       ~10 kA Load               1.3 μH
         Kicker         pulsed                         voltage:~40kVpeak
         Magnets        current : 300 nsec
                        Flat top interval:
                        500 nsec
                        Fall time : 300 nsec
 2.      Extraction     Half-sine wave         5 kA    Bmax = 1.2 T      1.0 μH
         Septum         current pulse.
         Magnets        Pulse width:10msec
         (slow types)
 3.      Extraction     Half-sine wave         10 kA   Bmax = 1.1 T      0.8 μH
         Septum         current pulse.
         Magnets        Pulse width:1 msec
         (fast types)
Proton Synchrotron - Pulse Power Supplies
Schemes
Vertical dipole magnet p/s    Bumper magnet p/s




      Extraction kicker magnet p/s
Proton Synchrotron – RF System
Parameters:
Parameter                     Injection              Extraction

Energy                        100                        1000      MeV
Circumference                                212.4                 m
Bending Radius                               7.1619*               m
Revolution Frequency          0.605                      1.235     MHz
Harmonic Number (h)                          2
Particle speed                0.4282                     0.875     c
Revolution time               1.65                       0.81      msec
RF frequency swing            1.21                       2.47      MHz
Circulating Current                          5.6                   Ampere
Peak RF Voltage                              100                   kV
Nominal Beam Power                           100                   kW
Bmax.                                        46.25*                T/sec
Max. Energy gain/turn                        61*                   keV
Rep. Rate                                    25                    Hz
No. of Particles                             1.2x1013              p+/ bunch
No. of bunches                               2


* tentative figures which are likely to change by few per cents.
Proton Synchrotron – RF System
RF Cavity

Geometrical Parameters…
Length Of the Cavity             1.974          m
Cavity Diameter                  1.0            m
Length of the Accelerating gap   10             cm
Radius of the beam tube          10             cm
Thickness of Copper spacers      0.254          cm

Ferrite Parameters:

Type of Ferrite                  Philips 8C12
No. of ferrite Rings             51
OD of ferrite                    49.8           cm
ID of ferrite                    22             cm
Thickness                        2.54           cm
Range of permeability used       972-174
Proton Synchrotron – RF System
RF Cavity

Schematic…
Proton Synchrotron – RF System
RF Cavity

Operating Characteristics…
No. Of cavities               8
Frequency Range               1.21-2.47   MHz
Max. Voltage/cavity           12.5        kV
Quality Factor                4
Shunt Impedance               3.947       kW
Power loss in Ferrite         44          kW
Power loss in Copper          <10         W
Power loss in Ceramic         <5          W
Total Power Dissipated        44          kW
Relative permeability range   972-174
Proton Synchrotron – RF System
RF Power Source
Operating Parameters of RF Power Amplifier
  Sr. No.   Parameters           Symbol    Value   Unit
  1.        Plate bias Voltage   Ep        10      KV
  2.        Max. Plate Current   Ip,max    41.8    A
  3.        Grid Bias            Eg1       -35     V
  4.        Screen Bias          Eg2       1       KV
  5.        DC plate current     Ip,DC     16.59   A
  6.        DC Grid current      Ig1,DC    1.74    A
  7.        Screen Dis.          Pd,g2     706     W
  8.        Grid Dissipation     Pd,g1     177.6   W
  9.        Plate Dissipation    Pd,p      65.38   KW
  10.       Conduction angle     ΦP        220     
  11        Drive Power          Pin       1901    W
  12        Power gain           Gp        17.23   DB
  13.       Efficiency           η         60.6    %
  14        Peak grid Voltage    Eg1,m     126     V
  15        Input Impedance      Zin       6.82    W
  16.       O/p Impedance        ZL        402.6   W
  17        Plate harmonic I     Ip,har    5.45    A
  18        Ip_fundamental       Ip        22.35   A
  19        Ig1, Harmonic        Ig1,har   1.857   A
  20        Ig1, fundamental     Ig1,har   2.96    A
Proton Synchrotron – Vacuum System
            -8
   1 x 10        mbar
 Cross Section:




 Plan view –dipole chamber
Proton Synchrotron – Vacuum System
 Selection of Material…
                                                Freq = 1.23185 At 2.4637       Eddy
                            Freq = 602.85Khz                                   Current
  Material   Conductivity                       Mhz              Mhz
                                                                               Losses
                          dinj       Z inj    dext    Z extrat d
             (S/m)          (mm)       ohm      (mm)    ohm      (mm)          kW

  S.S          1.40E+06     9.71E-01   0.3197   6.79E-01   0.4570   4.80E-01   3.229E+00
  Titanium     1.80E+06     8.56E-01   0.2819   5.99E-01   0.4030   4.24E-01   4.152E+00
  Inconel
  625          8.00E+05     1.28E+00   0.4229   8.99E-01   0.6046   6.35E-01   1.845E+00
  Al           3.60E+07     1.91E-01   0.0630   1.34E-01   0.0901   9.47E-02   8.303E+01
  Cu           5.90E+07     1.50E-01   0.0492   1.05E-01   0.0704   7.40E-02   1.361E+02
  TiN          6.00E+06     4.69E-01   0.1544   3.28E-01   0.2208   2.32E-01   1.384E+01


     Metallic ?
     Epoxy resin or plastic ?
     Glass ?
     Ceramic ?
Proton Synchrotron – Vacuum System
 Simulated pressure distribution in half unit cell…


                                 -8
                        5.5x10

                                 -8
                        5.0x10

                                 -8
                        4.5x10
      Pressure (mbar)




                                 -8
                        4.0x10
                                              Average Pressure.
                                 -8
                        3.5x10

                                 -8
                        3.0x10

                                 -8
                        2.5x10

                                 -8
                        2.0x10
                                      0   3         6        9       12      15       18   21   24   27
                                                                  Distance (meters)
Proton Synchrotron – Vacuum System
 Summary of Components…
     S.No. Component                                               Number

     1.    Ceramic dipole chambers Chamber                         24
     2.    Straight section Ceramic chambers (1550 mm long)        16
     3.    Straight section Ceramic chambers (1050 mm long)        32
     4.    Straight sections ceramic chambers of smaller lengths   48
     5.    Septum magnet chamber                                   1
     6.    Triode Ion Pumps (500 l/s)                              160
     7.    TMP stations                                            10
     8.    R.F. Contact Valves                                     11
     9.    UHV gate valves                                         10
     10.   Right Angle valves                                      25
     11.   Venting Valves                                          20
     12.   UHV gate valves on TMP carts                            10
     13.   BA Gauges                                               30
     14.   Penning Ion gauges                                      25
     15.   Pirani gauges                                           25
     16.   Residual gas Analyzers                                  20
     17.   R.F Shielded bellows                                    56
     18.   Hydro formed bellows for pump connections               72
Proton Synchrotron – Beam Diagnostics

 Components...
  Beam current transformers
  Beam position monitors
  Tune measurement system
  Moving wire scanner
  Faraday cups
  Beam loss monitoring system
Proton Synchrotron – Target System
     Proton stopping length in the material used
     in the design.
     Neutron absorption has to be minimum so
     that more neutrons can penetrate through
     to the blanket
     Neutron distribution is axi-symmetric and
     as uniform as possible over the length of
     the core to simplify core management
     issues.
     Neutron spectrums to be appropriate to
     efficiently initiate a fission chain and drive a
     sub-critical assembly.
     To minimize beam power requirements the
     target needs to have high production
     efficiency.
     The yield >25 neutrons per proton are
     suitable.
Calculated values of total leakage neutrons Y, from various bare targets as
a function of proton energy. Sub 15 MeV neutron means that high energy
neutrons are not included. A cylindrical target, 10 cm in diameter and 32 cm
in length is assumed with a cylindrical proton beam profile of 4.7 cm in
diameter.
Proton Synchrotron – Target System
 Parameters…
   Pulse Repetition Rate:    25 Hz
   Average Proton Current:   100 mA
   Proton Kinetic Energy:    1.0 GeV
   Average Beam Power:       100 kW
   Target:                   Tungsten
   Moderator:                H2O, Liq. CH4, Liq. H2 or Solid CH4
   Spectrometers:            High Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD)
                             High Intensity Powder Diffractometer (HIPD)
                             Reflectometers
                             Small Angle Neutron Spectrometer (SANS)
                             Direct Geometry Inelastic Spectrometer (DGIS)
Proton Synchrotron – Building
Linac and RF Equipment Gallery
Proton Synchrotron – Building
Proton Synchrotron
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