Jazz_Chants_text by xiangpeng

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									MASARYK UNIVERSITY

    Faculty of Education




      Diploma Thesis




        Brno 2008
          MASARYK UNIVERSITY
                    Faculty of Education
        Department of English Language and Literature




     JAZZ CHANTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
                TEACHING


                       Diploma Thesis




                          Brno 2008




Supervisor:                                 Written by:
Mgr. Irena Headlandová Kalischová           Barbora Holbová


                               2
Poděkování:

       Chtěla bych na tomto místě poděkovat vedoucí své diplomové práce Mgr. Ireně

Headlandové Kalischové za velmi cenné a inspirativní rady a připomínky, které přispěly

ke konečné podobě této práce.

       Ráda bych také vyjádřila svůj dík všem učitelům na této fakultě za jejich snahu

předat nám co nejvíce ze svých vlastních zkušeností, jakož i svým kolegům ze základní

školy s nimiž učím, a v neposlední řadě i svým spolužačkám zejména za jejich

psychickou podporu.




Acknowledgments:


       I should like to express my thanks to the supervisor of my diploma work Mgr.

Irena Headlandová Kalischová for the very valuable and inspiring advice and

recommendations which contributed to the final version of this work.

       I would like to thank also the teachers of this faculty for their effort to give us

the best from their own knowledge, as well as my colleagues from the primary school

that I am teaching with and last but not least my classmates for their mainly psychical

support.



                                            3
Prohlášení:


       Prohlašuji, že jsem diplomovou práci zpracovala samostatně a použila jen

prameny uvedené v seznamu literatury.

      Souhlasím, aby práce byla uložena na Masarykově univerzitě v Brně

v knihovně Pedagogické fakulty a zpřístupněna ke studijním účelům.




Declaration:


      I declare that I worked on this diploma work on my own and used only the

resources mentioned in the bibliography.

       I agree with storing this work in the library of the Faculty of Education at the

Masaryk University Brno and making it accessible for further study purposes



                                                  ……………………………….

                                                          Barbora Holbová




                                           4
Table of contents:


Introduction ………………………………………………………………………....7

A) Theoretical part ………………………………………………………………...8

1. Content and language integrated learning ………………………………………..8

     1.1 What is CLIL ………………………………………………………………..8

     1.2 Why is CLIL important ……………………………………………………..8

     1.3 Advantages of CLIL ………………………………………………………...9

     1.4 CLIL concentrated to music in English course books ……………………..10

2. Music in English lessons …………………………………………………………..11

     2.1 Motivation…………………………………………………………………..11

     2.2 Why to use music in ELT ………………………………………………….11

     2.3 Psychological support for ELT through songs …………………………….12

     2.4 Different types of music according to learners‟ age and interests …………13

     2.5 Important learners‟ abilities for using songs in English lessons……………14

3. Jazz Chants…………………………………………………………………………15

     3.1 What are Jazz Chants?...................................................................................15

     3.2 Types of Jazz Chants……………………………………………………….15

     3.3 Methods how Jazz Chants can be used……………………………………..16

               3.3.1 Method by Carolyn Graham……………………………………...16

               3.3.2 Other possible methods…………………………………………...17

     3.4 Why to use Jazz Chants…………………………………………………….18

     3.5 Who to use Jazz Chants with……………………………………………….19

     3.6 Teachers and learners can make their own Jazz Chants……………………19

     3.7 Sharing beauty of singing…………………………………………………..20

                                                      5
B) Practical part …………………………………………………………………21

4. Very young students................................................................................................21

          4.1 My own experience with very young students……………………………22

          4.2 Jazz Chants for very young students………………………………………23

5. Young students…………………………………………………………………….36

          5.1 My own experience with young students………………………………….36

          5.2 Jazz Chants for young students……………………………………………37

          5.3 Holiday Jazz Chants ……………………………………………………….49

          5.4 Interesting and helpful web pages for Jazz Chants and other songs ………55

6. Feedback……………………………………………………………………………56

          6.1 Feedback from my students………………………………………………..56

          6.2 Feedback from observing teachers…………………………………………56

          6.3 My own feedback…………………………………………………………..57

7. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………58

   Résumé ……………………………………………………………………………..60

   Resumé ……………………………………………………………………………..61

   Bibliography and References, Internet sources…………………………………..62

   Appendices………………………………………………………………………….64




                                                            6
Introduction

       Since the days of my childhood I have always been interested in music, mainly

singing. I had earnestly wished to learn songs and to sing in language lessons and also

sing foreign songs in Music lessons but no attention was paid to such matters at that

time. This situation has not changed much since then and thus, I chose for my final

work the topic “Jazz Chants in English Language Teaching”.

       The aim of my project is to highlight the significance of using additional

materials such as Jazz Chants in ELT. I would like to show the importance of music and

rhythm factor in foreign language teaching and at the same time cohesion of the two

discussed subjects: English and Music.

       The first part of my diploma thesis is mainly theoretical. There I want to explain

some theoretical background of CLIL, using songs, specifically Jazz Chants, in English

language teaching and last but not least the most suitable methods how to motivate

students for Jazz Chants usage. Finally it will specify different age groups with regard

to variety of Jazz Chants and consequent activities.

       The second part is entirely practical. It is divided into three sections. The first

section is created by activities for kindergarten and lower primary pupils; the second

one consists of teaching material for upper primary students and the last part is

evaluation of the applied techniques, learners´ evaluation of some lesson plans,

valuation of some lessons observed by my colleagues and lastly my own feedback.

       The period in which I examined my thesis was about 3 to 4 months long but I

can build also on my previous experience since I have been teaching for about 7 years

now.

       On the whole, there is one main purpose to my final work and that is to stress the

importance of Music and Rhythm factor in foreign language teaching.


                                            7
A) Theoretical part
       This final work is designed to support the positive influence of teaching and

learning chants and applying it to teaching English as a foreign language.

       As Jeremy Harmer expresses (1994) “Motivation is some kind of internal drive

that encourages somebody to pursue a course of action” (p. 3), and in my opinion the

best or at least a very good way how to motivate students is the usage of English songs

which is actually an area of content and language integrated learning.




1.     Content and Language Integrated Learning



1.1    What is CLIL

       As Steve Dam states (2006), “Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

has become the umbrella term describing both learning another (content) subject such as

physics or geography through the medium of a foreign language and learning a foreign

language by studying a content-based subject. In ELT, forms of CLIL have previously

been known as 'Content-based instruction', 'English across the curriculum' and

'Bilingual education'.” These cross-curricular teaching methods could be in my opinion

easily applied also to learning English through Music and vice versa learning Music

through English which will be clear from the practical part of this work.




1.2    Why is CLIL important?

       Because the European Union is expanding, there is an increasing need for

language diversity and for communication skills. Even though English is one of the

main languages, other languages are unlikely to disappear. The need for communicative

                                            8
skills in more languages is becoming widely important. (Dam, 2006) For non-native

speakers is very important to be able to think in a target foreign language and therefore

studying their usual subjects (mathematics, biology or music) for example in English

language should help them to cross the imaginary boarder between speaking foreign

language and understanding it and knowledge of the language becomes the means of

learning content.



1.3       Advantages of CLIL

          Steve Dam explains in his article (2006) that CLIL helps to:



      •   Introduce the wider cultural context

      •   Prepare for internationalization

      •   Access International Certification and enhance the school profile

      •   Improve overall and specific language competence

      •   Prepare for future studies and / or working life

      •   Develop multilingual interests and attitudes

      •   Diversify methods & forms of classroom teaching and learning

      •   Increase learner motivation.



          Some of the points mentioned above can be proved in my lesson plans shown in

the practical part of this thesis, for example increasing the learner motivation or

introducing a wider cultural context. (see Section 4 and 5)




                                                 9
1.4      CLIL concentrated to music in English course books

         In the old course books there was paid very little attention to such additional

materials like songs. Only now and then learners could find some largely known songs

such as Jingle Bells or Oh, Christmas Tree.

         Nowadays the situation with the textbooks is better although in my opinion not

as good as it could be. There are songs usually connected to some special events or

holidays (Christmas, Easter, and Valentine‟s Day) included in the books but children

are often eager to sing and they cannot repeat the same song over and over all the time.

Therefore there is a considerable need for more singing material in the English course

books.




                                           10
2.     Music in English Lessons



2.1    Motivation

       According to Jeremy Harmer (1991) “If we perceive a goal (that is something

       we wish to achieve) and if that goal is sufficiently attractive, we will be strongly

       motivated to do whatever is necessary to reach that goal.” (p. 3)



       In order to learn anything, people, and mainly children, must be motivated to do

so. Motivation is the “driving engine” for most of the things we do in our lives,

including learning foreign languages.

       As Jeremy Harmer states (1991) there are many reasons why people study

foreign languages. Most of them probably because of the school curriculum, but

unfortunately here they have to do it whether they like it or not, some of them want to

study languages on account of their own improvement and advancement and few of

them also because they must live in a target language community and want to

communicate with their neighbors. Some other merits are for example learning a foreign

language for specific purposes, attraction to some culture and to people speaking that

language, doing it just for fun, or because of a planed trip to a certain country etc.

       Based on what is written above, in the following chapters I would like to explain

motivational factors of music in ELT.



2.2    Why to use music in ELT



        “Music that‟s what I‟m living for………..” (D.J. Bobo)



                                             11
       Firstly, listening to music is enjoyable experience. Most children like singing

and are able to sing quite tolerably. Students usually like singing so much that they put

pressure on their teacher to sing more and more, over and over. Furthermore, learning

songs is not difficult; as a matter of fact it is much easier to learn new vocabulary

through songs than by memorization and this can be said also for grammar structures,

routines and patterns of the second language.

       What is also very important is the language authenticity. Through songs students

meet authentic language for the first time and what is very important, it is language

which is thanks to its content highly suitable and close to them.

       Through listening to songs and singing all four language skills, reading, listening,

speaking and writing, can be easily taught and learned. (Medina, 2002)

       That mentioned above is mainly about why it is good for children. However,

using songs is not only good for them but also for their teachers and there are some

reasons why:

              Songs help set, switch or close a topic

              Songs are good fillers in case of mixed-ability classes

              They are a good method for repeating some grammar structures,

               vocabulary or also pronunciation

              They are easy to use, multi-functional and great FUN.



2.3    Psychological support for ELT through songs

       Learning English as a foreign language is supported by Krashen‟s hypotheses as

well. According to the first one, listening to songs along with the usage of pictures,

photos or gestures is conformable to orally-read stories supported by different visual

materials, which finally in both cases leads to language acquisition. In accordance with


                                            12
the second hypothesis, the “Affective Filter hypothesis”, the extent to which linguistic

input is received from the environment depends mostly upon the learner‟s inner feelings

and attitude. It means that if a learner is unmotivated or has little confidence, language

acquisition will be limited and therefore the teacher must provide an environment with

positive emotions. Music creates exactly this needed situation. Furthermore, it develops

a sense of community and all that together brings about language acquisition. (Medina,

2002)




2.4     Different types of music according to learners’ age and interests

        There are many different types of music and teachers have to choose carefully

the songs they want to use for their target group of children. What should be taken into

consideration is mainly age of students, their level of English and interests.

        As to the learners‟ age, the youngest children usually appreciate simple songs

with many repetitions which are full of concrete nouns and verbs being easy to imagine

and close to their range of vocabulary in their mother tongue. They like to see pictures

or some objects while singing the songs, mainly during the learning stage, and they

often love songs with possible movements (Head and Shoulders). The song lyrics for

kindergarten and lower primary learners should have simple pronunciation and children

should be able to acquire them quickly and naturally.

        Songs for older and more advanced students could be of course more difficult in

pronunciation and the type of vocabulary but here very close attention must be paid to

pupils‟ interests because if a chosen song is too childish or on the other hand too

difficult as to its vocabulary, grammar structures or to its content, learners can feel

ridiculous or confused and that would probably lead to motivation decrease and some

kind of a lock up in their further learning.


                                               13
2.5    Important learners’ abilities for using songs in English lessons

       One of the most important thing which teachers have to bear in mind while

considering the usage of songs during their lessons is what types of students, auditory,

visual or kinesthetic, they have in their classrooms and what intellectual abilities they

teem with.

       The most suitable types for listening to and singing songs are auditory learners

and tactile or kinesthetic learners. Auditory children learn best through listening and

talking (in our case can be singing) and kinesthetic children learn usually through

moving, touching and doing and they might find difficult to sit for a long time inactive.

That is why songs, especially with movements, are the best way for them how to learn

new things.

       By the intellectual abilities I mean types of multiple intelligences. There are

seven types of multiple intelligences and, according to Howard Gardner, they are

demonstrating students‟ intellectual abilities. Songs are very suitable for learners with

musical/rhythmical intelligence and bodily/kinesthetic intelligence. Musical/rhythmical

intelligence is an ability to produce and appreciate music, these students think in sounds

and rhythms. With respect to the bodily/kinesthetic intelligence, it is ability to control

body movements. These learners express themselves through movements and are

usually good in dancing. (“LdPride”, n.d.)




                                             14
3.     Jazz Chants


3.1    What are Jazz Chants?

       As Carolyn Graham wrote in the introduction of her book (2006) “A Jazz Chant

is a rhythmic expression of natural language which links the rhythms of spoken

American English to the rhythms of traditional American jazz. The rhythms, stress and

intonation pattern of the chant should be an exact replica of what the student would hear

from an educated native speaker in natural conversation.”

       Carolyn Graham discovered Jazz Chants only by accident while playing the

piano in one bar. Her friend came to her said several words in which she could feel

exactly the music beat she was playing. That way she found the connection between

traditional American jazz and spoken American English.

       The music for chants is often taken from some traditional English songs so the

children can concentrate on the words and rhythm more because they already know the

melody from the original songs, for instance melodies from Twinkle, Twinkle Little

Star or Are You Sleeping. (Graham, 2006)




3.2    Types of Jazz Chants

       There are many types of Jazz Chants depending on what the teacher wants to

practice. They can be divided into two main groups: topic Jazz Chants and

grammar/structure Jazz Chants. The topic Jazz Chants are always connected to some

specific theme such as holidays, family, nature, seasons, animals, food, transport, health,

occupations, hobbies, days of the week etc., whereas the role of grammar/structure Jazz

Chants is to teach or practise some English grammar or structure such as: different


                                           15
verbs, prepositions, tenses, questions, answers, imperatives, structures like there is/are,

to be going to, or for example pronouns.

       There is one more group and that is when the two mentioned types are combined

together but that could be done by teachers themselves too and it does not have to be a

specific Jazz Chant.




3.3    Methods how Jazz Chants can be used

       There are many methods how to use the chants for teaching English as a foreign

language and probably one of the best ones is suggested by Carolyn Graham in her

books with Jazz Chants.



3.3.1 Method by Carolyn Graham

       STEP 1: Preview

              Talking about the title of the chant, what the students think it is about,

               explain connection to cultural context. With young learners using about

               their mother tongue, with older ones simple English can be used.




       STEP 2: Listen

              Familiarizing students with the chant, singing it or playing on a CD

               player, stressing the rhythm of the chant by using different rhythmic

               instruments (drums, tambourines or just hands, pencils or feet)



       STEP 3: Choral chanting



                                            16
              Students open their books or teacher writes the text of the chant on the

               blackboard so they can read it and repeat it after the teacher or recording.

               If the students have some difficulty to pronounce individual words or

               phrases, teacher can isolate them from the rest of the text and practice it

               with learners only with some small chunk of the text.



       STEP 4: Group/ individual chanting

              First of all students try the chant as a whole class, then the teacher can

               divide them into several groups in order to practice different parts of it

               (for example questions and answers). Students can also pantomime or act

               the chants out while singing. Then children may get into pairs and sing

               and chants for the class in turns.



       After the students know the chants by heart an excellent method how to acquire

naturally the language is to personalize it. This could be done in many ways. For

instance substitutions (names, places, pronouns) and along with the substitution

changing grammar structures (the 1st person changed into the 3rd person). Another

possible method is role playing or moving the chant language into situational context.

       Finally, the teacher can create variety of exercises which would follow what the

students have learned. (Graham, 2001)



3.3.2 Other possible methods

       In the event that the teachers do not want to follow the method described above,

or want to change any part of it, they can either try to search for alternatives in

methodology books or on the internet or they can develop their own materials.


                                            17
       Among my favorite methods for teaching songs and jazz chants are for example:



   a) playing different games based on the chants

              A type of a choosing game or song could be for example: What’s your

               name? or What’s your surname? or What’s your nickname? where a

               group of children shouts and stresses the rhythm of the question What‟s

               your name/surname/nickname? and point at one person (student) who

               should answer in the same rhythm. There can be added more phrases

               such as What‟s your nickname?, Why is that? or What‟s your name?,

               Where are you from?...

              A type of an “accusation” game might be rhyming such as: You play

               tennis – I do not, She plays golf – Yes, she does…

   b) rewriting words or lines of a chant in the correct order

   c) filling in the blanks

   d) using gestures along with chanting



3.4 Why to use Jazz Chants

     Jazz Chants considerably improve studetns‟ listening and speaking skills. This is

probably the most important point. They practice stress and rhythm, are highly

motivating and encourage role playing and pair acitivities. They strenghten language

strucutures and the ability to speak every day spoken English.

     Chants are simple, provide the language children really use and are repetitive,

which, mainly in case of very young learners, is quite necessary. They are situable for

all ages, teachers must only choose the right accompanying activities. They help



                                           18
students to remember difficult words or phrases. And last but not least, children are

themsleves while singing, clapping or shouting. (Loutfi, n.d.)




3.5 Who to use Jazz Chants with

        Chants are suitable for all students no matter what age they are and what level of

English, learning strategies, intelligence, interests or learning problems they have.

However, in my opinion, chant activities are best for children with some kind of

disabilities whether they are learning, behavioural or health.

        In case of the learning disabilities (dyslexia, dysgraphia, disorthographia) it could

be a good way how to make them remember and understand for example vocabulary,

which is usually the biggest problem together with pronunciation and rhythm of the

English language and spelling. Regarding students with behavioural problems, here I

would consider it as a solution because with all that clapping, jumping, hitting things

and singing and often also creating objects they do not have time to be disturbing. And

if a teacher has in his or her class some integrated students (for example sightless or

physically or mentally handicapped) he or she can use chants to lead them in and to

incorporate them into the class.



3.6      Teachers and learners can make their own Jazz Chants

         Very motivating and interesting method is making teachers‟ or students‟ own

chants. Here the process would be as follows:

      a) try several “ready-made” chants and use several different methods while

         working with them

      b) take a text of some chant and try to adjust it according to your own imagination


                                              19
      c) try some methods on the adjusted chant and see if others like it

      d) think of an area (vocabulary, grammar, set expressions…) for which you would

         like to make your chant and then write something short and simple and

         rhythmical

      e) read it to others and see if they like it and if it is easy for them to follow you in

         vocabulary and rhythm

      f) if yes, you can start working with your new chant using any method and activity

         you like

      g) DO NOT FORGET TO RECORD YOUR WORK SOMEHOW (write it into

         your exercise book, record it on a tape…)

      h) for teachers: you can make a file with students‟ chants and use it for your

         portfolio




3.7      Sharing beauty of singing

         As de Nagy stays (“Issues and Contexts”, n.d.), “According to Krashen's input

hypothesis, humans acquire language in only one way - by understanding messages, or

receiving 'comprehensible input'. So teaching activities should be designed in such a

way as to supply the child with enjoyable and easy to understand input. As is clearly

seen in […] above, songs rhymes and games are wonderful materials in that respect.

They are comprehensible, enjoyable, authentic and full of language we need in real life.

They are part of our lives and they are around us. All we need do is share them with our

students with a little planning before we enter the class.”




                                              20
B) Practical part
       This part is entirely practical. I divided it into three sections. The first section is

created by lesson plans for kindergarten and lower primary pupils; the second one

consists of lesson plans for upper primary students and some samples of Jazz Chants

based on the area they are concerned with and the last part is a feedback on the applied

techniques, learners´ evaluation of some lesson plans from both the lower and the upper

primary grades, evaluation of some lessons observed by my colleagues and lastly my

own feedback.



4.      Very young students

       Very young learners are children who attend kindergarten or the first primary

grade, from 4 to 7 years, and who cannot write and read yet. They are in their

developmental age.

       These children need individual attention, they are still ego-centric, their attention

span is limited and some of them tend to have a quite significant silent period. Their

motor skills develop along with their language skills and that is why materials like

songs and Jazz Chants are highly suitable. The teaching approach should be interesting,

meaningful and most of all fun. The activities used ought to be imaginative, allow

participation, and should be communicative.

       Although it is not easy, it is important to expose children to foreign languages

and cultures soon so they can grow up into tolerant and sympathetic creatures. Also the

earlier teachers start, the more time they get for improvement and last but not least, the

acquired language can be later used for CLIL (for example at language secondary

schools). (“Very Young Learners”, n.d.)


                                             21
4.1    My own experience with very young students

       Almost six years ago my older daughter was born. She began to speak very early,

at the age of one, and by the age of three she was able to pronounce all sounds of the

Czech alphabet and spoke in full and quite long and logical sentences. When she was

two years old I started to think about teaching her English language, since her talent for

languages was obvious. But my attempt failed because of my inability to be systematic

and also because of my complete inexperience. So, I began to study when, how and why

to teach such young children.

       At the age of four she began to attend the kindergarten together with her two

year old sister and I offered the kindergarten teachers to teach their children English. I

opened my English course twice a week for about 20 to 30 minutes, which was highly

enough for such little children. This was established last year. The course is still running

now and I am very happy for that. The children love it.

       By the time my English course has been running I have learned many new

findings which I would never discover in the primary school. First of all the internal

motivation of these children is so high that the teacher does not have to do anything

extra to make them learn, which I find very helpful. They are very much obedient and

do everything the teacher tells them immediately and without any abashment, although

there are also some children with already visible learning or behavioral problems such

as dyslexia, hyperactivity or speech problems. One can create the craziest activities and

still they would not consider it stupid as it happens mainly in the upper primary grades.

       The best activities for them are, obviously, moving, clapping, dancing, creating

things, drawing, pretending and last but not least singing. Pursuant to my own

experience, most of my very young learners are kinesthetic. They will probably change


                                            22
throughout the following years of their childhood but now the best way how to teach

them something is through moving around. For their teaching I use many different aids

such as puppets, pictures, toys, real objects, songs which I never play on CDs but I

always sing them for my students (I have much better experience, also from my own

children, with visual contact while singing or speaking) and many others. Concerning

songs, we sing the typical ones such as Ten Little Indians, Good Morning, Head and

Shoulders, or Rainbow, but many times I create my own songs and chants, usually when

I need to teach or practise something I cannot find a suitable chant or song for. For the

songs I use either ready-made activities or again my own.

       Now I would like to show some of my lesson plans for this type of learners in

order to demonstrate how to use Jazz Chants and other songs with very young children.

All of them have been already tried and some of them also with older students.



4.2    Jazz Chants for very young learners


Jazz Chant 1:



Aim: cultural – to make children familiar with St. Valentine‟s Day

       language development – to teach family vocabulary

                                to teach correct pronunciation

                                to entertain students

                                in case of students who do not learn English yet also

                                introduction of the foreign language



Language level: complete beginners



                                           23
Time: might or might not last all 45 minutes or can be divided into several lessons, it

       depends on the students and type of activities T chooses



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, groupwork



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice, paper, colour pencils, scissors, pictures of mother,

                         father, brother, sister and if T chooses other relatives (better to

                         use pictures made by the teacher, children like them better – I

                         used A0 format and black marker to draw the people)



Procedure:

           1. In Czech language introduction of the holiday (suitable for little children,

              stressing the importance of love in families – cross-curricular teaching).

           2. The teacher sings the song for the first time, students only listen.

           3. The teacher puts the pictures of members of the family on the blackboard

              or somewhere, where it can be seen by students and sings it again,

              pointing at the members while mentioning them in the song.

           4. The teacher encourages students to pronounce the words MOTHER,

              FATHER, SISTER, BROTHER…, corrects possible pronunciation

              problems

           5. The teacher sings the song again and encourages students to pronounce

              the words mother… every time he/she points at them on the pictures (the

              teacher might or might not be silent)




                                            24
           6. Students try to pronounce the whole chant, then pronounce it while

              clapping or tapping with their pencils or with some musical instruments

              such as drums or cymbaly or triangle if they are able to do so.

           7. In case of any problems the teacher can divide students into groups or

              pairs and pronounce it individually with each group or he/she can take

              short parts of the chant and practise them first and then the whole thing.

           8. At the end children should be able to pronounce it in the right rhythm

              and also sing it as required with the teacher or along.

           9. Children sing the song and for each member of the family they make a

              small heart in the air with their fingers and with the last line I love you

              all they make a very big heart.

           10. Children are given homework to sing the song to their parents and

              relatives anytime they want.



Follow up: there can be many follow up activities such as:

           1. Making St. Valentine‟s wish card (children get pieces of paper and either

              draw some nice picture on it for their parents or siblings or they can cut

              out of the paper some shapes, for example hearts, and make cards too).

           2. Drawing the members of the family on big pieces of paper or into

              students‟ exercise books.



Resources:

                        Text of the song:

                        /: Dear mother I love you. (also mummy)

                        Dear father I love you. (also daddy)


                                            25
                        Dear sister I love you.

                        Dear brother I love you. :/

                        I love you all. (there can be added other relatives)

Piloted: I piloted this activity in the kindergarten in Dolní Dunajovice with four, five

         and six years old children, also with the second graders at the primary school

         in Dolní Dunajovice (non-students of English) and with children from the

         fourth grade (their second year of English studies)



Feedback: In the second and fourth grade I was observed by other teachers, my

             colleagues. In the second grade it was the home teacher of the children (not

             an English teacher) and in the fourth grade their English teacher. Their

             findings will be discussed in the following sections.



             This chant and all activities are my own and I am quite proud of it. I find

             them very entertaining and motivating and fairly educational and suitable

             for the supposed age and language levels as well.




Jazz Chant 2:



Aim: language development – to teach animal vocabulary

                                 to teach correct pronunciation

                                to entertain students



Language level: complete beginners




                                           26
Time: chant learning about 1 lesson, other activities depend on how long the children

       are interested in it



Patterns of interaction: individual work, groupwork



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice, paper, colour pencils, pictures of different animals

                         (here it is better to use ready made pictures either laminated or

                         made of pasteboard, children will have to manipulate with them)

                         or toy animals, something children can make a small house of

                         (boxes, big play cubes etc.)



Procedure:

           1. The teacher starts with pre-teaching the animal vocabulary, introduces

               children the basic animals such as cow, dog, cat, hen, rabbit, chicken,

               fish etc. He/she shows them the pictures or toys and says clearly their

               names in English, students follow, the teacher corrects pronunciation

               when necessary. If children want they can pretend being the animals the

               teacher calls out and show their understanding. (this is firstly about

               understanding the words and then pronouncing them)

           2. Children make a house out of the things they have. They also get pictures

               with different animal, each child one animal; there can be more pictures

               of one animal among children.

           3. The teacher tells children in a very simple way the following story,

               pointing all the time on things he/she talks about: this is a house, no one

               is living in the house, that is a group of animals looking for a place to


                                            27
              live, they see a house and move one after another to the house. No the

              teacher starts to sing the chant pointing on individual animals which

              children have in their hands while mentioning them. This way the

              students practise remembering and pronunciation of the words.

           4. Students put the pictures in a row and can start clapping the chant out

              according to the order they put the pictures in. They can clap in different

              ways, one clap per one word or one clap per each syllable or per each

              sequence (a cat is – 1st clap, in the – 2nd clap, house – 3rd clap…). I

              suggest trying all types of clapping because children can more easily

              accustom to different ways of word linking in English. (this could be the

              end of the first lesson)

           5. Students can also make pairs or groups and always one group or one

              person from the pair would ask Who is in the house? and others would

              answer The … is in the house.

           6. Then there is the game going along with singing the chant. The teacher

              leaves the house on one side of the classroom and the group of students

              on the other. Then he/she starts singing in any order he/she wishes and

              children must react and move to the house once their animal is

              pronounced. There can be also a group work activity when one group of

              the children are singers and the other animals. Or children can take turns

              individually in singing.



Follow up: there can be many follow up activities such as:

           1. Adding more names of animals and include them into the song.




                                          28
           2. Drawing the animals on big pieces of paper or into students‟ exercise

              books. (always singing the song together with drawing).

           3. A clapping game, where one group of students would clap one rhythm

              and the other group a different one.



Resources:

                        Text of the song:

                        A cat is in the house.

                        A dog is in the house.

                        A bear is in the house.

                        A fish is in the house.

                        A cow is in the house.

                        A rabbit is in the house.

                        A hen is in the house.

                        A chicken is in the house.

                        We are all in the house. (there can be added other animals)



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the kindergarten in Dolní Dunajovice with four, five

         and six years old children.



Feedback: This chant and all activities are like in the previous case my own and I

             think they are useful. Children loved it, mainly the game and clapping.

             There are also many possibilities which I tried with my more advanced

             students in the upper primary grades such as: transforming it into present

             simple (instead of the verb to be the verb lives – 3rd person singular rule),


                                            29
             continuing in singing and chanting with animals leaving the house (a cat

             leaves the house), past tense (a cat lived in the house, or left the house), etc.



Jazz Chant 3:



Aim: cultural – to teach children greetings good morning, hello and good bye

       language development – vocabulary of basic greetings

                                 to teach correct pronunciation

                                 to entertain students

                                 to teach students proper reactions to greetings



Language level: complete beginners



Time: chant learning about 1 lesson; follow up activities as long as teachers and

       students like



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, groupwork



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice or the chant on CD, puppets or some toys (dolls or

                         Teddy bears), might be costumes.



Procedure:

                  1. The teacher introduces two puppets (or toys): This is Alex and

                       this is Mary.

                  2. The teacher plays a short role play with the puppets:


                                            30
A: I am Alex, hello.

B: I am Mary, hello.

A: Good morning Mary.

B: Good morning Alex.

A: Good bye Mary.

B: Good bye Alex.

(T can play it several times and children can start repeating)

3. The teacher sings the song together with the role playing with the

   puppets (good morning, hello…) and each time the puppets say

   “Good morning” or “Hello”, they make the other puppet a bow.

4. Now the teacher repeats several times the words with students

   along with clapping or stamping feet, paying attention mainly to

   pronunciation and rhythm (clapping follows the rhythm of the

   language and the stresses), the teacher deals with possible

   problems individually or in smaller groups.

5. Now children start singing the song and clapping and stamping

   feet as the teacher chooses, they should already know the words

   and they must start using them automatically and the chant will

   help them to do so (either by saying or by singing and clapping).

6. Instead of using their feet and hands they can use different

   musical instruments such as triangles, drums, cymbals etc.

7. Then they can take turns in singing one student one greeting and

   this can go on again and again in a circle.




                         31
                    8. Then they can try to say GOOD MORNING very loudly and

                      HELLO very quietly (this will help them not to concentrate on the

                      aspect of language so much but more on the performance).



Follow up:      there can be many follow up activities such as:

                1. The teacher divides children into two groups (might be boys and

                     girls if the groups are quite equal) and then the boys say GOOD

                     MORNING and bow and the girls HELLO and drop a curtsy. In the

                     end the two groups say GOOD BYE together.

                2. Children can change the rhythm of the chant (this is often very

                     interesting because it is not so easy to free oneself from some

                     stereotype).

                3. Children start singing or chanting with clapping and stamping feet

                     from whispering and finish in complete yelling or vice versa.

Resources:

                        Text of the song (modification of the song Ernie)

                        /:Good morning, hello,

                        good morning, hello:/ 3x

                        Good bye, good bye, good bye.



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the kindergarten in Dolní Dunajovice with four, five

         and six year old children, complete beginners, in their second lesson of

         English.

Feedback: This chant is partly mine, I used the frame of the song Ernie and modified

             it a little but all activities are my own. Although the songs appears to be


                                           32
             very simple and maybe boring I have found that the more simple it is, the

             faster children manage to start using it unconsciously .




Jazz Chant 4:



Aim: cultural – to teach children to introduce themselves

       language development – I am Barbora, I am five (six, four)

                                  to teach correct pronunciation

                                  to entertain students



Language level: complete beginners



Time: chant learning about 1 lesson; follow up activities as long as teachers and

       students like



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice, puppets or some toys (dolls or Teddy bears)



Procedure:

                1. The teacher introduces two puppets (or toys): This is Alex and this

                       is Mary.

                2. The teacher says: Hello I am Alex, Hallo I am Mary (the puppets

                       speak to each other), I am Alex, I am Mary (the puppets speak to




                                            33
                children) – this can be repeated several times and T pays attention

                to the correct rhythm of the sentences (stresses).

             3. The teacher plays a short role play with the puppets: I am Alex,

                hello. I am Mary, hello. Good morning Mary, good morning Alex.

                Good bye Mary, good bye Alex. (T can play it several times and

                children can start repeating)

             4. Then the teacher goes with the puppets to each student and says: I

                am Alex (or Mary) and encourages him or her to say I am …

             5. Once children master this new vocabulary they can start chanting:

                Students shout I am Alex, I am Mary and the teacher corrects the

                rhythm of speech.

             6. Then students start clapping I am Alex, I am Mary for and aft till

                the rhythm is OK.

             7. Another step is that each child says and claps his own name (I am

                Majda, I am Verča, I am Terka…) and other children keep clapping

                without speaking, all children must pay attention to keeping still

                the same pace.

             8. Exactly the same process should be used for the sentence I am five

                (six, four) and after children master both sentences they can

                combine it together, using clapping or stamping feet or using some

                musical instrument to make the rhythm with.



Follow up:   there can be follow up activities such as:

             1. Making simple dialogues in pairs such as: 1st student - I am Majda,

                I am six, 2nd student – I am Honza, I am five etc.


                                        34
                2. Children can make dialogues again but they can change their

                    identities (very entertaining).



Resources: Only the two sentences from usual dialogues.



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the kindergarten in Dolní Dunajovice with four, five

         and six year old children, complete beginners.



Feedback: Children like it and love to change their names.




                                           35
5.     Young learners

       According to Sarah Phillips, young learners are children from the first year of

formal schooling (six or seven years old in the Czech Republic) to eleven or twelve

years of age. These children are already very good at interpreting meaning without

necessarily understanding the individual words, are able to use limited language

creatively, frequently learn indirectly rather than directly, enjoy finding and creating fun,

have a ready imagination and love to talk. There are many factors that influence the

maturity of these children, for example, their culture, their sex, or their environment. (de

Nagy, n.d. )



5.1    My own experience with young students

       I have been teaching for about 6 years now. From the very beginning I taught

children from the 3rd to the 9th grades and I must admit that I prefer the older ones, from

upper primary grades, and that mainly because my teaching methods are, in my opinion,

more suitable for older students.

       But on the other hand, it is also important to stress that young students, from

lower primary grades, are better in interaction, they are not shy and they can use their

knowledge very effectively, sometimes even better than the older children.

       Working with young students is a great challenge. Very young students are too

little to understand many things but the young students, being already influenced by

school education, become more attentive, quicker to understand and more hard-working.

The teacher can pose bigger demands on them because their attention span is longer and

they often even require complicated tasks and want to be the best in their solving.

       With young students the teacher has much bigger opportunities for choosing

Jazz Chants or songs because these children have already mastered some level of


                                            36
English and are also better in remembering it, primarily because they are able to read

and write and that means more methods for learning.




5.2    Jazz Chants for young learners


Jazz Chant 1:



Aim: cross-curricular – to teach children types of the weather in different   seasons

       language development – vocabulary of the weather and seasons

                                to teach correct pronunciation

                                to entertain students

                                to make students aware of the differences of the year



Language level: beginners



Time: chant learning about 1 lesson; follow up activities as long as teachers and

       students like



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, groupwork



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice or the chant on CD, a big sheet of paper with pictures

                        of winter, spring, summer and autumn (or some flash cards or

                        posters) and pictures of the sun, wind, snow, rain, a black

                        board for placing the pictures on and writing the chant.



                                           37
Procedure:

             1. The teacher first of all speaks about the weather (in Czech), how

                the weather looks during different seasons, what is typical for

                seasons and then she/he teaches with the help of pictures the

                needed vocabulary (in case students do not know it), puts the

                pictures on the black board and writes the chant on the board too.

             2. The teacher says the chant, very rhythmically, with the use of

                clapping (one clap for each stressed word), and she/he can do it

                twice for sure.

             3. The teacher encourages students to pronounce the chant along with

                the clapping: It is winter, it is snow, it is cold, we all know.

                             It is spring, it is rain, it is warm, so let‟s play,
                             It is summer, it is sun, it is hot, let‟s have fun,
                             It is autumn, it is wind, it is cold, so let‟s sing.

                The teacher should correct wrong pronunciation and also mistaken

                clapping and should pay attention to combining the strong and

                weak forms in pronunciation.

             4. Once the students can pronounce it correctly and do not make

                mistakes in clapping, they can start to clap different rhythms so that

                they become aware of different soundings.

             5. After that, the teacher divides the children into two groups (girls x

                boys, black-haired x fair-haired etc.) and they start saying the jazz

                chant divided into pieces such as lines, words, group of words,

                children do not forget clapping or stamping feet (one group can

                clap and the other one stamp feet).



                                       38
             6. Pictures play very important role in these activities; they should be

                present all the time to remind students of the new vocabulary.

             7. Children get homework to draw their favourite season and the

                teacher can display their drawings around the classroom so that

                during another chanting the drawings remind them of the

                vocabulary for the chant.



Follow up:   there can be follow up activities such as:

             1. Missing words: omitting some of the words in the chant (might be

                 only seasons or types of the weather or both) and children have to

                 fill them in either while the teacher sings it or just from their own

                 memories.

             2. Changing the order of the lines and children must put it into the

                 right order.

             3. Singing the chant with the melody of the Czech song Skákal pes.

             4. A competition: who is able to clap all stressed words or who can

                 pronounce chosen words well.

Resources:

                    Text of the chant

                    It is winter, it is snow, it is cold, we all know.

                    It is spring, it is rain, it is warm, so let’s play,
                    It is summer, it is sun, it is hot, let’s have fun,
                    It is autumn, it is wind, it is cold, so let’s sing.




                                         39
Piloted: I piloted this activity in the 4th grade of the primary school in Dolní Dunajovice,

         beginners, during their regular English class, there was their own English

         teacher observing my lesson.



Feedback: I created this chant myself and see it as a good tool for learning about the

             weather.



Jazz Chant 2:



Aim: cross-sectional topic – teaching communication

       language development – the phrase What’s your name?

                                 to teach correct pronunciation and spelling

                                 to entertain students while practising structures

                                 to make students aware of the differences between the

                                spoken and written form



Language level: beginners, lower intermediate students



Time: chant learning about 1 lesson



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice and the chant on CD, a big sheet of paper with

                         sentences What’s your name?, My name is., a map with English

                         alphabet, each child should have cards with all letters of the


                                            40
                    alphabet, a board for placing the pictures on and writing the

                    chant and other things, drums, hands, other different rhythm

                    musical instruments (triangle, sticks, cymbals, knackers,

                    tambourine).



Procedure:

             1. The teacher spells all letters in the alphabet (their pronunciation)

                with children.

             2. The teacher says the chant with the name Mary and then again with

                some different names.

             3. The teacher asks Ss to create some rhythm with the help of their

                hands (clapping or hitting tables) for the chant and T tries to say the

                chant into the rhythm of Ss.

             4. Students try to say the chant together with T, clapping the rhythm.

             5. The teacher gives Ss musical instruments and they play them very

                rhythmically along reciting the words. The teacher writes the chant

                on a board.

             6. Once Ss can recite the chant by heart, T starts the chant again

                asking one student What‟s your first name?, this student answers

                her/his name (Eva), T asks How do you spell it?, S spells her/his

                whole name and then one letter after another and other Ss repeat

                individual letters (E-E, V-V, A-A), T asks How do you pronounce

                it?, S pronounces her/his name, T asks again How do you spell it?,

                S spells again the whole name.




                                        41
             7. Then the one student takes turn in asking another student and again

                all class repeat the spelled letters.

             8. After all students take their turns, the whole class say the chant

                again (but they must agree upon one name used in the chant).



Follow up:   there can be many follow up activities such as:

             1. Using the same chant but asking for the last name instead of the

                first one, using the same process.

             2. Creating a great rhythmical support for the chant, taking use of all

                kinds of instruments.

             3. Playing a spelling game: T asks different individual students for

                their names and if they spell them correctly (it means if they say

                the chants correctly) they get a point (other students listen and

                repeat - correct just like in the chant) which is also some kind of

                self-feedback.

Resources:

                    Text of the chant


                    What's your first name?
                              Mary.
                    How do you spell it?
                              M-A-R-Y.
                              M
                    M
                              A
                    A
                              R
                    R
                              Y
                    Y
                    M-A-R-Y. M-A-R-Y.



                                        42
                        How do you pronounce it?
                                 Mary.
                        How do you spell it?
                                 M-A-R-Y.
                        How do you pronounce it?
                                 Mary.



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the 3rd and 4th grade of the primary school in Dolní

         Dunajovice, beginners to improvers, during their regular English class.



Feedback: I created this chant myself and I think that because spelling is quite a boring

             activity, and moreover often difficult for Czech students, this could be a

             good method how to get some practice.



Jazz Chant 3:



Aim: language development – to practice pronouns THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE

                                to teach correct pronunciation

                                to practice vocabulary of clothes

                                to practice the verb TO BE



Language level: lower intermediate



Time: from 10 mins to 1 lesson (45 mins)



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, group work




                                           43
Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice and the chant on CD, big sheets of paper with the

                      pronouns THESE, THIS, THOSE, THAT, flash cards with

                      clothes (Ss should have sets at least for several groups, for pairs

                      would be better), a board for placing the pictures on and writing

                      the chant and other things, drums, hands, other different rhythm

                      musical instruments (triangles, sticks, cymbals, knackers,

                      tambourine), key board.



Procedure:

               1. The teacher sings the chant and gives Ss the flash cards.

               2. The teacher repeats the already known pronouns this, these, that,

                  those (stressing the importance of the objects being close or far

                  from a speaker).

               3. The teacher says the chant again and then writes it on the board.

                  While T says the chant Ss go over the vocabulary and show the

                  different clothes on the flash cards (in pairs or in groups, depends

                  on how many flash cards there are in the class room).

               4. Ss try to say the chant together with T, clapping or stamping the

                  rhythm.

               5. The teacher gives Ss the musical instruments and they play them

                  very rhythmically along reciting the words.

               6. If there is a need T corrects pronunciation errors (there will be the

                  need for sure – mainly with the pronunciation of THIS …)




                                         44
             7. After Ss master the chant quite well they get into two groups and

                act the chant out, one group being the asking person and the other

                group the answering person.

             8. Then T plays the chant on CD and all students follow the rhythm of

                the recorded chant (because it might be slightly different from the

                rhythm they have created).

             9. After that they can sing the chant in pairs instead of groups, have

                some time for preparation and then sing it to their peers.



Follow up:   there can be many follow up activities such as:

             1. Using the same chant but changing the types of clothes and that

                way also the pronouns.

             2. Creating a great rhythmical support for the chant, taking use of all

                kinds of instruments.

             3. Preparing new flash cards with more types of clothes while singing

                the chant for practicing.

             4. T can also do drawing dictation based on the chant.

             5. Ss can play with colors and use their own clothes for creating new

                word of the chant.

             6. If T or any S can play the key board he/she can create a sufficient

                rhythm on it and Ss can sing the chant to this rhythm.



Resources:

                    Text of the chant


                    That‘s my shirt. This red shirt? No, that brown shirt.

                                        45
                        These are my shoes. Those brown shoes? No, these black shoes.

                        This is my jacket. That green jacket? No, this blue jacket.

                        That’s my T-shirt. This white T-shirt? No, that red T-shirt.

                        These are my jeans. Those black jeans? No, these blue jeans.

                        Those are my shorts. These green shorts? No, those white
                        shorts.



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the 5th grade of the primary school in Dolní

         Dunajovice, improvers, during their regular English class.



Feedback: I retrieved this chant from “onestopenglish” internet pages and I think it is

            a great activity, my students loved it.



Jazz Chant 4:



Aim: language development – to practice present simple

                                to teach correct pronunciation

                                to practice saying the time

                                to practice verbs of daily routine



Language level: improvers



Time: from 10 mins to 1 lesson (45 mins)



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, group work



                                           46
Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice and the chant on CD, big sheets of paper with pictures

                       of daily activities (sleeping, having breakfast…), a board for

                       placing the pictures on and writing the chant and other things,

                       drums, hands, other different rhythm musical instruments

                       (triangle, sticks, cymbals, knackers, tambourine) or a key board.



Procedure:

                1. Ss have from their previous lesson homework to make a collection

                   of activities they do during the day (get up, clean teeth etc.). They

                   can draw them or use photographs or cut out pictures.

                2. The teacher places their pictures all over the room.

                3. The teacher says the chant again and then writes it on the board.

                   While T says the chant Ss look around the classroom if there are

                   the activities from the chant.

                4. Ss try to say the chant together with T, clapping or stamping the

                   rhythm.

                5. The teacher plays the chant on the CD player. Ss try to follow.

                   Then T gives Ss the musical instruments and they play them very

                   rhythmically along reciting the words.

                6. Then T chooses one S to say the whole chant and the rest of Ss

                   repeat the times (as it is done in the original chant).

                7. If there is a need T corrects pronunciation or other different errors.

                8. After Ss master the chant quite well and there are not many Ss in

                   the group they can perform it one S by one.




                                           47
             9. At the end all students perform it together along with the

                instruments and clapping again.



Follow up:   there can be many follow up activities such as:

             10. Using the same chant but changing the types of activities and also

                times.

             11. Creating a rhythmical support for the chant with the help of a key

                board.

             12. Preparing new pictures with more types of activities while singing

                the chant for practicing.

             13. Ss can also act the chant out.

             14. Ss can play their ideas and create this chant not only on the daily

                routine activities but also on holiday, winter, summer or other

                activities.

Resources:

                    Text of the chant

                    Here’s my day, this is what I do.

                    I get up at 7 o’clock, 7 o’clock, 7 o’clock.

                    I take a shower at 7:30, 7:30, 7:30.

                    I have breakfast at 7:45. 7:45, 7:45.

                    I go to school at 8:15. 8:15, 8:15.

                    I start classes at 9 o’clock, 9 o’clock, 9 o’clock.

                    I have lunch at 1 o’clock, 1 o’clock, 1 o’clock

                    I go home at 5:15, 5:15, 5:15.

                    I have dinner at 7:30, 7:30, 7:30.


                                        48
                        I go to bed at 10:45, 10:45, 10:45.

                        And then I start all over again.



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the 6th grade of the primary school in Dolní

         Dunajovice, improvers, during their regular English class.



Feedback: I retrieved this chant from “onestopenglish” internet pages and I think it is

             something different from the typical writing or speaking about pupils‟

             daily routines.



5.3    Holiday Jazz Chants

       There are many different types of Jazz Chants as I have already mentioned in the

chapter 3.2. I think that slightly more important for language teaching are grammar

chants but my favorite remain topic chants, mainly different holiday ones. In the

previous lesson plans I have described chants focused especially on grammar and

therefore I would like to show two more topic or holiday chants where one of them is

for St. Patrick‟s Day and the other one is for Mother‟s Day. I have chosen these chants

because I think these two holidays are often forgotten by teachers of English.



Jazz Chant 1:



Aim: language development – to make students acquainted with the St. Patrick‟s Day



Language level: lower intermediate, intermediate




                                           49
Time: 1 lesson (45 mins)



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, group work



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice or the chant on CD, pictures of typical things for

                       Ireland such as Leprechaun, shamrocks, green and orange

                       colour, a board for placing the pictures on and writing the chant

                       and other things, drums, hands, other different rhythm musical

                       instruments (triangles, sticks, cymbals, knackers, tambourine).



Procedure:

                1. Teacher, either in Czech or in English, tells Ss about St. Patrick‟s

                   Day: Saint Patrick is one of the patron saints of Ireland, and this

                   day is generally celebrated on March 17, people wear green or

                   orange clothes, eat Irish food and/or green foods, drink Irish drink

                   such as Guinness or Baileys Irish Cream and attend parades.

                2. The teacher puts the symbols of Ireland on the board and explains

                   them to students (Leprechaun, shamrocks, green and orange colour).

                3. The teacher writes the chant on the black board or gives Ss copies

                   of it and then says the chant very rhythmically; he/she can add

                   clapping or use some instrument to stress the rhythm of the chant.

                4. Ss try to say the chant together with T, firstly without clapping or

                   stamping the rhythm and then adding some rhythm to it.

                5. The teacher gives Ss musical instruments and they all play them

                   very rhythmically along reciting the words.


                                         50
             6. If there is a need T corrects possible pronunciation errors.

             7. After Ss master the chant quite well they get into two groups or

                pairs and each group or pair says one verse or one line of the chant.

                There are many ways how to practice it.

             8. After that Ss are divided into two groups and one group recites the

                chant and the other mimes it, then they change roles.



Follow up:   there can be many follow up activities such as:

             9. Using the same chant but changing the things that are green.

             10. Creating a rhythmical support for the chant, taking use of all kinds

                of instruments, Ss can also record themselves and then use the

                recording for further activities.

             11. Ss can create a nice project (a poster for example) based on Ireland

                and St. Patrick‟s Day.

Resources:

                    Text of the chant

                    The trees are green. The grass is green.

                    My clothes are green. My nose is green.

                    Your chair is green. Your hair is green.

                    Everything’s green on March 17.

                    His hat is green. Her cat is green.

                    His plants are green. Her pants are green.

                    Our house is green. Their mouse is green.

                    Everything’s green on March 17.




                                         51
Piloted: I piloted this activity in the 7th grade of the primary school in Dolní

         Dunajovice, lower-intermediate, during their regular English class. Children

         loved it.



Feedback:      I found this chant in the book by Carolyn Graham, Holiday Jazz Chants

               and I think that to use a song or a chant in order to inform children about

               something new for them is better than having a simple lecture about it.




Jazz Chant 2:



Aim: language development – to make students acquainted with Mother‟s Day



Language level: lower intermediate, intermediate



Time: 1 lesson (45 mins)



Patterns of interaction: individual work, pairwork, group work



Materials/Equipment: T‟s voice or the chant on CD, a picture of the mother, a board

                        for placing the picture on and writing the chant and other things,

                        sheets of paper, hands and other different rhythm musical

                        instruments (triangles, sticks, cymbals, knackers, tambourine,

                        drums), prepared materials about Mother‟s Day (when it is,

                        why it is etc.), other additional materials about Mother‟s Day.




                                           52
Procedure:

             1. Teacher tells Ss about Mother‟s Day: Mother's Day is a day

                honouring mothers, celebrated on various days in many places

                around the world. Mothers often receive gifts on this day. In US it

                is celebrated on the second Sunday in May. It complements

                Father's Day, the celebration honouring fathers.

             2. The teacher puts the picture of the mother on the board and asks

                children to make a mind map based on the picture in groups of 3 or

                4 on sheets of paper for several minutes.

             3. The teacher writes the chant on the black board or gives Ss copies

                of it and then says the chant very rhythmically; he/she can add

                clapping or use some instrument to stress the rhythm of the chant.

             4. Ss try to say the chant together with T, firstly without clapping or

                stamping the rhythm and then adding some rhythm to it.

             5. The teacher gives Ss musical instruments and they all play them

                very rhythmically along reciting the words.

             6. If there is a need T corrects possible pronunciation errors and at the

                same time points out the grammar structure GOING TO, so the Ss

                are aware of its usage.

             7. After Ss master the chant quite well they try to say it in smaller

                groups so the teacher can spot possible problems. Then they make

                two groups and ask and answer in the groups according to the chant

                (they change roles).




                                          53
Follow up:     there can be follow up activities such as:

               1. Using the same chant but changing the things that different people

                   are going to do for their mothers.

               2. Ss can create a nice wish card for their mothers and they might use

                   their own verses/chants there.

               3. The teacher can use additional materials about the Mother‟s Day in

                   other countries and discuss it with Ss (see appendix 4) – then there

                   would be many other activities to work with.

Resources:

                        Text of the chant

                        What are you going to give your mother?

                        What are you going to buy for your mom?

                        Where are you going to go?

                        What are you going to say?

                        What are you going to do on Mother’s Day?

                        Papa’s going to give her flowers.

                        My brother’s going to give her a pet.

                        What are you going to do?

                        I don’t know. I haven’t decided yet.



Piloted: I piloted this activity in the 8th grade of the primary school in Dolní

        Dunajovice, intermediate, during their regular English class. It was fun

        because they really began to think what they would do for their mothers for the

        Mother‟s Day.




                                            54
Feedback:      I found this chant in the book by Carolyn Graham, Holiday Jazz Chants

               and I think that because this holiday is celebrated also in the Czech

               Republic it is a good topic for the development of the students‟ culture

               awareness.




5.4    Interesting and helpful web pages for Jazz Chants and other

       songs

http://www.onestopenglish.com/section.asp?sectionType=listsummary&catid=59396

http://www.krubenny.com/web_EDGI931/task3/index.html

http://www.isabelperez.com/songs.htm

http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Cakir-MusicalActivities.html




                                           55
6.     Feedback

       In this section I would like you comment on the above mentioned lesson plans

from three points of view: my students‟ point of view, observing teachers‟ evaluation

and my own opinion.



6.1    Feedback from my students

       After each lesson I had a discussion with the students about what they liked or

disliked and why. It was very interesting to hear their answers. Among the positive

arguments I would state for example: they liked it, it was something different from

usual lessons, they felt well during the prepared activities, they felt they had learnt more

and gained some practice, they felt motivated, they liked the rhythm because it was

easier to pronounce the words once they remembered them. But there were negative

arguments too, particularly from the weaker students or students with rhythm problems,

such as: it was stupid, activities for little children, they could not follow easily or it was

too difficult to learn the chants by heart, it was childish to play the instruments.

Fortunately, for my satisfaction, there were better judgments and those worse ones were

mostly from students who do not like doing anything at all during any lesson.



6.2    Feedback from observing teachers

       For the observing teachers I created a questionnaire. This questionnaire was in

Czech language for clearer understanding on the part of the observing teachers (see

Appendix 5). I invited three teachers, my colleagues, to watch my lessons of Jazz

Chants. After the lessons they filled in my questionnaire and gave it to me. I should

stress that all of them were the original teachers of the students so they could compare



                                             56
the students‟ behavior during their own lessons with their behavior during my sample

lessons.

      From the questionnaires I elicited that the teachers felt that students were relaxed,

even they did not know me, they were attentive and active, the Jazz Chants were of the

level students needed and generally said the lessons positively motivated students for

further learning. The observers also claimed that it was a good way how to include

different subjects into English which is important for the new Framework Educational

Programs now.



6.3    My own feedback

       In conclusion I would like to mention that in general most of the students

enjoyed the lessons aimed at learning the Jazz Chants. They paid attention, performed

thoroughly required activities and did not misbehave at all (which I find very important,

mainly with larger groups).

       Another interesting phenomenon was that the majority of older students did not

see it stupid or too childish and participated happily in all what we were doing. And

what I myself prize the most is probably the fact that the students asked me or their

teachers to bring another Jazz Chant and do such activities again.

       In my opinion based on the carried out lessons I would claim that Jazz Chants

are useful for everyone, better or weaker students, students with learning difficulties and

also for children with handicaps such as sightless children or people physically

handicapped (e.g. wheelchair users). Therefore, I am going to include chants into my

English lessons quite regularly.




                                            57
7.     Conclusion

       The aim of my work was to stress the importance of different additional

materials such as Jazz Chants and other chant related activities in English lessons

mainly with very young and young students.

       Listening and speaking are probably the most important skills a person needs to

be able to communicate and also the first ones to be acquired either in learning the

mother tongue or any foreign language. In order to reach a reasonable level of those

competences it is very important to use variety of methods and some of the most

suitable ones are chanting and singing. In my thesis I also stressed the significance of

the Krashen‟s hypothesis about singing and listening to songs for foreign language

acquiring and connection of Jazz Chants to CLIL, which is being highlighted these days

in the new school programs.

       Music, rhyming and chanting combine two necessary phenomena for learning a

language: the system of language and pleasure. This does not apply only to foreign

languages but also to the mother tongues. Children must enjoy learning and through

chants it is not only possible but even highly likely. Here I would stress the role of

motivation as well. Students, excepting only some individuals, are usually markedly

inveigled by such activities to work more and harder.

       My thesis includes both, some theoretical support based on the works of

specialists in language learning such as Harmer, Graham, Byrne or Murphey and an

entirely practical part with detailed lesson plans full of ideas how to use Jazz Chants for

specific groups of students and I even created three chants by myself being inspired by

Carolyn Graham‟s books.

       Music and rhymes are very entertaining and children love them, nevertheless, I

would not suggest using only singing and chanting to learn a foreign language.


                                            58
However, as an additional material it is a perfect method how to make children

motivated and involved in language lessons, especially the little children, slower

students or students with some learning difficulties. I strongly suppose that by using

such activities incorporated into usual lessons a teacher can reach significantly better

study and also behavioral results and it can be also seen on the DVD which is one of the

appendices to this work.




                                          59
Résumé

       For my thesis I wanted to choose something creative which would revive and

enrich language lessons. Thus, I have chosen the theme Jazz Chants in English

Language Teaching and that mainly because it is an area which the Czech teachers are

not quite familiarized with or attend to it only marginally.

       Firstly, I studied carefully different works of experts in teaching English through

music with a view to gather as many opinions and ideas as possible in order to display a

comprehensible explanation and subsequent illustration of my thesis.

       During my English lessons at primary school in Dolní Dunajovice I derive

benefit from songs and rhythms very often and I have come to the conclusion that the

statement about teaching a language through music could be true and simulative.

       My thesis should support the work of teachers and encourage them to pay bigger

attention to using Jazz Chants in their English lessons. Long since I learned that during

my language lessons students are willing to be engaged in many activities whenever

they feel to be respected and especially when they see that the teacher believes in their

ability to understand given work and to cope with it. They also accept additional work,

which his not a usual phenomenon at our schools. And all that is possible thanks to Jazz

Chants and songs.

       On the basis of my experience and findings I am convinced that a suitable

methodology concerning Jazz Chants in English lessons combined with personal

experience can lead to very good results.




                                            60
Resumé

       Cílem mé závěrečné práce bylo pojednat o něčem tvořivém, co by oživilo a

obohatilo hodiny anglického jazyka. Vybrala jsem si tedy téma Jazz Chants v hodinách

anglického jazyka, a to zejména z toho důvodu, že se jedná o oblast, se kterou nejsou

čeští učitelé zcela seznámeni a nebo se jí věnují jen okrajově.

       Nejdříve jsem si pečlivě prostudovala práce expertů metodologie výuky

anglického jazyka pomocí hudby s úmyslem shromáždit co nejvíce názorů a myšlenek,

abych mohla předvést srozumitelné vysvětlení a následné znázornění mé teze.

       Při mém působení na základní škole v Dolních Dunajovicích využívám písně a

rytmy velice často a došla jsem k závěru, že tvrzení ohledně vyučování jazyka pomocí

hudby by mohlo být podnětné a pravdivé.

       Má práce by měla podpořit práci učitelů a povzbudit je k tomu, aby se výuce

Jazz Chants v hodinách angličtiny věnovali s větším zaujetím. Již dávno jsem zjistila, že

žáci jsou ochotni se během jazykových hodin zapojit do mnoha činností, kdykoliv cítí,

že jsou respektováni, a zejména když poznají, že učitel věří, že jsou schopni porozumět

zadané práci a poradit si s ní. Taktéž dokonce vítají úkoly navíc, což obvykle není při

výuce častým jevem. A právě tohle vše je možné díky Jazz Chants a písním.

       Na základě mých dosavadních zkušeností a poznatků jsem přesvědčena o tom,

že vhodná metodologie týkající využití Jazz Chants v hodinách anglického jazyka

kombinovaná s osobními zkušenostmi a zájmy může vést k velmi dobrým výsledkům.




                                            61
Bibliography and References



Byrne, D. (1988). Focus on the Classroom. Oxford: Modern English Publications.

Doff, A. (1993). Teach English: A training course for teacher. Cambridge: CUP.

Graham, C. (2006). Creating Chants and Songs. Oxford: OUP.

Graham, C. (1999). Holiday Jazz Chants. Oxford: OUP.

Graham, C. (1979). Jazz Chants for Children. Oxford: OUP.

Graham, C. (2001). Jazz Chants Old and New. Oxford: OUP.

Harmer, J. (1994). The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman

       Group UK Limited.

Murphey, T. (1992). Music and Songs. Oxford: OUP.

O‟Grady, W. (2005). How Children Learn Language. Cambridge: CUP.

Phillips, S. (1993). Young Learners. Oxford: OUP.

Skoumal, P., & Votruba, J. (2000). Humpty Dumpty Mother Goose Songs and Rhymes

       and Other More Grown-up Songs and Christmas Carols. Praha: Angličtina

       Expres.

Ur, P. (2000). A Course in Language Teaching (Practice and Theory). Cambridge: CUP.

Wajnryb, R. (1992). Classroom Observation Tasks (A source book for language

       teachers and learners). Cambridge: CUP.

Wright, A., Betteridge, D., & Buckby, M. (1991). Games for Language Learning.

       Cambridge: CUP.




                                         62
Internet sources

Craven, M. (n.d.). onestopenglish. In Listening skills: jazz chants. Retrieved March 19,

       2008, http://www.onestopenglish.com /section.asp?sectionType =listsummary &

       catid=59396.

Dam, S. (January 31, 2006). teaching English. In CLIL: A lesson framework. Retrieved

       December       11,   2007,   from      http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/   think/

       methodology/clil.shtml.

de Nagy, P. (n.d.). Issues and Contexts in Teaching Young Learners. Retrieved

       December 5, 2007, from http://www.philselfsupport.com/young_lerners.htm.

Hurtová, D. (2001). Didaktika. In Very Young Learners           (KAN/AM3). Retrieved

       December 11, 2007, from http://sweb.cz/danahurtova/files/kanam3/vyl.rtf.

Learning    Styles    Explained.    (n.d.).    Retrieved   January   15,   2008,    from

       http://www.ldpride.net/learningstyles.MI.htm#is%20Multiple%20Intelligence.

Loutfi, M. (n.d.). English Language Institute. In Using Jazz Chants. Retrieved October

       25, 2007, from http://www.udel.edu/eli/2006P4L/lofti2.pdf.

Medina, S. L. (2002). ESL through Music. In Using Music to Enhance Second

       Language Acquisition: From Theory to Practice. Retrieved October 25, 2007,

       from http://www.forefrontpublishers.com/eslmusic/articles/06.htm.




                                              63
Appendices




    64
Appendix 1: Texts of the Jazz Chants for very young students



DEAR MOTHER I LOVE YOU

Dear mother I love you.

Dear father I love you.

Dear sister I love you.

Dear brother I love you.

I love you all.



A CAT IS IN THE HOUSE

A cat is in the house.

A dog is in the house.

A bear is in the house.

A fish is in the house.

A cow is in the house.

A rabbit is in the house.

A hen is in the house.

A chicken is in the house.

We are all in the house.



GOOD MORNING

/:Good morning, hello,

good morning, hello:/ 3x

Good bye, good bye, good bye.




                                 65
Appendix 2: Texts of the Jazz Chants for the young students



THE WEATHER CHANT

It is winter, it is snow, it is cold, we all know.

It is spring, it is rain, it is warm, so let‟s play,

It is summer, it is sun, it is hot, let‟s have fun,

It is autumn, it is wind, it is cold, so let‟s sing.



WHAT’S YOUR NAME?


What's your first name?
          Mary.
How do you spell it?
          M-A-R-Y.
          M
M
          A
A
          R
R
          Y
Y
M-A-R-Y. M-A-R-Y.

How do you pronounce it?
         Mary.
How do you spell it?
         M-A-R-Y.
How do you pronounce it?
         Mary.



THESE ARE MY BLUE JEANS

That„s my shirt. This red shirt? No, that brown shirt.

These are my shoes. Those brown shoes? No, these black shoes.

This is my jacket. That green jacket? No, this blue jacket.


                                                 66
That‟s my T-shirt. This white T-shirt? No, that red T-shirt.

These are my jeans. Those black jeans? No, these blue jeans.

Those are my shorts. These green shorts? No, those white shorts.



I GET UP AT 7:30

Here‟s my day, this is what I do.

I get up at 7 o‟clock, 7 o‟clock, 7 o‟clock.

I take a shower at 7:30, 7:30, 7:30.

I have breakfast at 7:45. 7:45, 7:45.

I go to school at 8:15. 8:15, 8:15.

I start classes at 9 o‟clock, 9 o‟clock, 9 o‟clock.

I have lunch at 1 o‟clock, 1 o‟clock, 1 o‟clock

I go home at 5:15, 5:15, 5:15.

I have dinner at 7:30, 7:30, 7:30.

I go to bed at 10:45, 10:45, 10:45.

And then I start all over again.




                                               67
Appendix 3: Texts of Holiday Jazz Chants



THINGS THAT ARE GREEN

The trees are green.

The grass is green.

My clothes are green.

My nose is green.



Your chair is green.

Your hair is green.

Everything‟s green on March 17.



His hat is green.

Her cat is green.

His plants are green.

Her pants are green.



Our house is green.

Their mouse is green.

Everything‟s green on March 17.



MOTHER’S DAY PLANS

What are you going to give your mother?

What are you going to buy for your mom?

Where are you going to go?


                                          68
What are you going to say?

What are you going to do on Mother‟s Day?



Papa‟s going to give her flowers.

My brother‟s going to give her a pet.

What are you going to do?

I don‟t know. I haven‟t decided yet.




                                        69
Appendix 4: Additional materials for Mother’s Day


Mother's Day in various parts of the world

            Day


Second Sunday in
                          Norway
February


Shevat 30 (falls anywhere
between January 30 and    Israel
March 1)


March 3                   Georgia


                          Afghanistan, Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
                          Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Laos, Macedonia,
March 8
                          Mongolia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia,
                          Ukraine.


Fourth Sunday in Lent
(Mothering Sunday -       Ireland, Nigeria, United Kingdom
March 2 in 2008)


                          Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Lebanon,
March 21
                          Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United
(first day of spring)
                          Arab Emirates, Yemen


March 25                  Slovenia


April 7                   Armenia


Baisakh Amavasya (Mata
                       Nepal
Tirtha Aunsi)


First Sunday in May       Hungary, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain


                                       70
May 8                  Albania (Parents' Day), South Korea(Parents' Day).


May 10                 El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico


                       Anguilla, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Bahamas,
                       Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bermuda,
                       Bonaire, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China,
                       Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech
                       Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland,
                       Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Honduras, Hong
Second Sunday in May
                       Kong, Iceland, India, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Latvia,
                       Malta, Malaysia, Myanmar, The Netherlands, New
                       Zealand, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico,
                       Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, St. Lucia, Suriname,
                       Switzerland, Taiwan, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey,
                       Ukraine, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zimbabwe


May 26                 Poland


May 27                 Bolivia


                       Algeria, Dominican Republic, France (except if it
                       coincides with Pentecost day, in which case Mother's
last Sunday in May
                       Day will be shifted to the first Sunday of June), Haiti,
                       Mauritius, Morocco, Sweden, Tunisia.


May 30                 Nicaragua


                       Mongolia (The Mothers and Children's Day. Mongolia
June 1                 is the only country that celebrates Mother's day twice a
                       year.)


2nd Sunday of June     Luxembourg


Last Sunday of June    Kenya


August 12              Thailand


                                     71
August 15
                             Belgium, Costa Rica
(Assumption Day)


Second Monday in
                             Malawi
October


October 14                   Belarus


Third Sunday in October      Argentina (Día de la Madre)


Last Sunday of November Russia (the Women’s Day)


December 8                   Panama


16 December, Iranian      Iran (This date is almost deprecated inside Iran and is
calendar: 25 Azar (Mother replaced by birthday of Fatimah daughter of Islam
And Child Foundation)     prophet.)


December 22                  Indonesia




Mother's Day in various languages

Afrikaans: Moedersdag

Berber : tameγra n tyemmat

Croatian : Majčin dan

Danish : Mors dag

Dutch : Moederdag

Estonian : Emadepäev

Farsi : Rouz-e Maadar

French : (La) Fête des mères ("Day of Mothers")


                                          72
Hebrew : ‫( האם יום‬Yom ha-em) or ‫( המשפחה יום‬Yom ha-mishpakha - "Family Day")

German : Muttertag

Hungarian : anyák napja

Irish:Lá na Máithreacha

Italian : (La) Festa della mamma

Japanese : 母の日 (Haha no Hi)

Polish : Dzień Matki

Portuguese (standard) : (O) Dia da Mãe

Russian : День Матери

Slovak : Deň matiek

Swahili : siku ya mama mzazi

Turkish : Anneler Günü

Vietnamese : Ngày của Mẹ (officially Ngay quoc te Nu - "International Women's Day")

Welsh : Sul y Mamau




                                         73
Appendix 5: Questionnaire for observing teachers



Prosím o vyplnění následujícího dotazníku. Předem děkuji za Váš čas.

1. Vytváří učitel příjemnou atmosféru?

(Does the teacher create pleasant atmosphere?)

2. Líbí se vybrané Jazz Chants žákům?

(Do the pupils like the chosen Jazz Chants?)

3. Reagují žáci pozitivně na zadané úkoly?

(Do the pupils react positively to the given assignments?)

4. Jsou použité Jazz Chants vhodné pro danou jazykovou úroveň studentů?

(Are the used Jazz Chants suitable for the given language level of the pupils?)

5. Naučí se žáci dané Jazz Chants snadno?

(Do the pupils learn the Jazz Chants easily?)

6. Je pro žáky složitý rytmus Jazz Chants?

(Is the rhythm of the Jazz Chants difficult for the pupils?)

7. Je podle Vás využívání Jazz Chants v hodinách anglického jazyka motivující?

(Is, in your opinion, using Jazz Chants in ELT motivating?)

8. Jsou podle Vás dané Jazz Chants vhodné pro osvojení nového učiva, nejen pro jeho

opakování?

(Are, in your opinion, the given Jazz Chants suitable also for teaching some new things,

and not only for its repetition?)

9. Jsou podle Vás Jazz Chants vhodným prostředkem pro výuku mezipředmětových

vztahů?

(Are, in your opinion, Jazz Chants a good means how to learn cross-sectional

relations?)


                                             74
Apendix 6: A Valentine wish card created by a very young student (5

years old girl) during the follow up activities and pictures used for

some of the Jazz Chants




                                    75
76
77
78
79
80
Appendix 7: Opinions of the students from the 7th grade




                                  81
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