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APPLES OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE

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					                              Native Apples
                                    of
                              Gloucestershire
                                        by
                                  Charles Martell


                    The NCCPG® Gloucestershire Apple Collection

The establishment of a reference collection of the malus varieties documented below was started
at Hunts Court, Dymock, Gloucestershire in 1989. It is ongoing.

The Gloucestershire Apple Collection reflects the locally evolved and engineered genetic
diversity suited to the conditions to be encountered by apples growing in Gloucestershire. This
study and documentary record was carried out in order to give credence to the 80 previously
unrecorded varieties now forming part of the Gloucestershire Apple Collection. A duplicate
collection of these varieties has been donated to the Gloucestershire County Council for the
establishment of a Mother Tree Orchard. This in turn exists for the specific purpose of providing
graftwood for propagation and the ultimate re-distribution of the varieties. Accordingly all
varieties are carefully provenanced as far as is possible in the text below. The eventual aim was
always to get these varieties back into use by farmers, growers and gardeners in Gloucestershire
– their rightful home.

Extant Gloucestershire apple varieties.
In searching for the varieties listed below my main concern was to save the indigenous apple
varieties of Gloucestershire. It has not always been easy to decide which apples are indigenous
to the county but my overriding concern has been to preserve cultivars.
To justify inclusion the varieties must fall into one of 5 categories:
1. Documented as originating in Gloucestershire eg ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’
2. Named after a place unique to Gloucestershire and may or may not have been found growing
in the county eg ‘Arlingham Schoolboys’ and ‘Puckrupp Pippin’
3. Discovered growing in Gloucestershire and undocumented elsewhere. eg ‘Phelps Favourite’
4. A ‘lost’ variety previously documented without provenance and re-discovered growing in
Gloucestershire eg ‘Blood Royal’ and ‘Duke of Bedford’
5. Has a name which indicates it is a Gloucestershire variety on the advice of Ray Williams
previously cider pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station. Those varieties include ‘styre’
and ‘french’ apples. However it excludes for example the ‘Eggleton Styre’ because that variety
was documented as having been raised outside the county of Gloucestershire.

Some statistics:
Total number of Gloucestershire varieties listed below: 185.
Total number found and now held in the NCCPG® Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock:
104
Total Gloucestershire varieties held in the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale: 18
Total not previously recorded: 80
In addition to the living varieties listed below there are 81 varieties included in the listings which
are now lost. 80 of the 185 varieties are believed to be undocumented elsewhere and therefore
may be ‘new to science’eg ‘Seven Apostles’. The listing provides a record should the variety
eventually come to light as has happened for example with ‘Kill-Boys’.

This is a field-based research and the main aim of that field work has been to save
Gloucestershire apple varieties from extinction. I have garnered as much information as I could
as well as graftwood of the varieties, before the older generation passed on – as many now have
since I started this work. With the loss of its owner a whole orchard of trees may become
anonymous. Because of this urgency some may feel there has been a shortage of archival
reference and doubtless those more accustomed to this branch of research will find this work
lacking in this aspect. My reasoning has been however that references will always be there – the
apples varieties and the priceless knowledge that goes with them may not.

The apple descriptions
The headings applicable to the description of each variety is as shown below. I have included as
much information as I could find under each heading. However with a field based research there
are obviously going to be gaps in the knowledge which will be reflected in the text.

‘synonym’ – Varieties are frequently known under different names from district to district or
merely from person to person. eg ‘Little Herbert’ synonym ‘Jacket and Petticoat’. There is
always the possibility that varieties which have been recently collected and documented may
turn out to be another recognised (or unrecognised) variety which occurs under a different name.
This has already happened with 2 varieties in the Collection, namely the ‘Spout Apple’ and the
‘Lemon Pippin of Gloucestershire’ which are now believed to be the same variety. The
Gloucesterhire Apple Collection affords an excellent opportunity for further comparative studies
of our native apples.

‘reference’ In quoting sources I have used the accepted method of reference. However when
quoting from personal sources I have defied convention by naming people as I would in
everyday life. I can’t bear to refer to dear friends as say: ‘Wellington, Robert’ when he was in
fact Robert Wellington.

Some references may be given as:
- ‘Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition 1903-1929.’
The information for these varieties was kindly passed to me by Ray Williams of Long Ashton
Research Station(LARS) who selected the entries sent in from Gloucestershire to LARS. LARS
was during this period (1903-1929) seeking out quality cider varieties, and cidermakers were
invited to send in samples sufficient for making up into single variety cider for competition. I
have received no results for the competition. Most of the samples were sent in during the early
part of the period indicated and most samples were in by 1910. Under ‘provenance’ for the same
varieties may be seen the source of the samples sent in. They may not always have been sent in
by the grower. H. (Bert) Knight of Deep (‘dip’) Filling at Huntley was a cider maker who bought
in most of his fruit. He sent in samples of many varieties for evaluation.

‘status:’ This indicates whether the variety is known to be in existence or not. I have also given
an arbitrary indication as to its numerical status. This is purely my personal impression of the
numerical status of the variety – but it does give an indication of whether the variety is
imperilled. Most of them are.

‘provenance’ - As mentioned above, every variety has been given as much provenance as I have
been able to discover.
‘date’: Any date of relevance to the variety is given here.

‘use’: This would normally fall into 4 arbitrary categories:
        1.Cider
        2.Culinary
        3.Dessert
        4. General purpose

It is a point of sadness for me that so many fruit authors in the recent past have tended to
document culinary and dessert apples but to ignore cider apples as sort of ‘non-apples’. Some
cider varieties turn out to be tolerably good culinary apples eg ‘Hagloe Crab’ or even dessert
apples eg ‘Tankard’.

Many apple varieties included in the text are ‘general purpose’. That is, you can eat them, cook
them and make cider with what is left. A good example of this is the beloved ‘Gloucestershire
Underleaf’.

‘fruit description’: A date is often given indicating when the description was carried out and the
source of the sample. Rather belatedly in my research I appreciated the importance of
documenting the date of describing the fruit as apples tend to yellow on keeping. Also the
flavour will change. Early apples will rot and long keeping apples will of course come to their
best with keeping.

‘size’: Given as width and height. I have tried to eliminate ‘king fruit’ ie abnormally large fruit
and also diseased fruit. However ‘scab’ (black spots) may be a varietal characteristic if it is
particularly prone to this infection. Fruit sourced from younger trees will tend to be larger than
from mature trees. Environmental conditions may affect the size of fruit.


‘shape’:




               Flat Round
                      Flat
              Round-conical                                                Round




              Long-conical                                                    Conical




                 Oblong                                                   Oblong-conical


I have followed the standardisation of previous authors in designating fruit to a particular
category by shape as follows:
        ‘ribs’: Up to five ribs may be present in some varieties to varying degrees.
        ‘five crowned’: Ribs may be extended to the apex to form a ‘crown’. This characteristic
        may be reflected in the name of ‘Royal Turk’.
        ‘symmetrical’: When viewed from the side the sides of the fruit are equally developed.
        ‘lop-sided’: When viewed from the side the sides of the fruit are unequally developed.
        ‘regular’: When viewed from above the fruit is nearly circular.
        ‘irregular’: When viewed from above the fruit is not circular.
        ‘waisted’: When viewed from the side the outline becomes slightly concave towards the
        apex, eg ‘Tippetts’.

‘skin’: Apples from older trees shielded from the sun may be without flush compared with fruit
from younger more open and vigorous trees. When I began this study I described fruit from
mature trees. When checking descriptions later of fruit taken from young trees, the latter were
sometimes found to be flushed where the original samples were not eg ‘Sugar Pippin’.
        ‘flush’:An area of colour either restricted or may cover entire fruit.
        ‘mottling’: When the flush is broken to reveal the sking colour beneath.
        ‘stripes’: Coloured stripes in varying shades of red and varying forms.
        ‘scarf skin’: A thin whitish transparent layer. eg ‘Jill Jefferies’.
        ‘hammering’: Uneven skin like beaten copper. An unusual characteristic found in eg
        ‘Ampney Red’.
       ‘hair line’: A thin line of russet running from apex to base. A conspicuous characteristic
       not present in all samples of a variety eg ‘Barnet’s Beauty’.
       ‘russet’: A familiar characteristic where the skin is rough and dry. It may be present in
       small patches, as spots, or even stars. It may cover the entire surface eg ‘Siddington
       Russet’.
       ‘reinette’: A term used to describe thinly russetted apples. The russet forms a netting over
       the surface eg ‘Rhead’s Reinette’.
       ‘netting’: As above but where the russet does not extend over the whole fruit eg
       ‘Bedminster Pippin’.
       ‘lenticels’: Pores in the skin to allow the passage of gases. Discernible as spots which are
       often russetted and may be large of a distinctive shape or may be small and indistinct.
       ‘areolar’: A halo of colour round the lenticels eg ‘Box Kernel’.
       ‘texture’: The varying textures can be difficult to discern. The range from smooth eg
       ‘Gypsy Red’, rough eg ‘Leathercoat’, dry eg ‘Brown French’ - and waxy. This latter is
       easier to discern and becomes more apparent after the fruit has been picked eg ‘Taynton
       Codlin’.
       ‘bloom’: A fine whitish deposit which can easily be rubbed off eg ‘Pride of the Orchard’.
       A characteristic more usually found in plums. Not to be confused with ‘scarf skin’ which
       doesn’t rub off.

‘stalk’: Dimensions given. A note may be made as to whether the stalk is visible when the fruit
is viewed from the side in which case it is ‘protruding’. If it is not visible when so viewed it is
‘concealed’.

‘cavity’: The depression where the stalk is attached to the fruit. An approximate and rather
arbitrary configuration is given. The presence of any russet is also noted. It may be ‘lipped’, a
swelling on one side of the cavity forcing the stalk to one side eg ‘Nine Square’.

‘eye’: At the apex of the fruit. The five sepals are the remnants of the flower bud case. Their
shape is distinctive and may be diagnostic for a variety. They are classified in five different
categories:
        1. ‘Erect convergent’: Sepals are standing upright with their margins and apices all
        touching.
        2. ‘Erect’: Sepals upright and free-standing.
        3. ‘Connivent’: Sepals standing upright and touching bit with their apices overlapping.
        4. ‘Flat convergent’: Sepals lying flat with their margins touching.
        5. ‘Divergent’: Eye wide open with sepals strongly reflexed.




1. Erect convergent                    2. Erect                         3. Connivent




4. Flat Convergent                    5. Divergent


Some of the above forms may also have ‘reflexed tips’
‘basin’: The depression surrounding the eye at the apex of the fruit. The culmination of the ribs
may be present.
‘tube’: A deep depression just beneath the eye. When the fruit is cut in vertical section it can be
cone shaped or funnel shaped. I have found this to be an unreliable diagnostic feature.

‘stamens’: When cut in vertical section the stamens may lie in one of 3 positions:
       ‘marginal’on the outer margin of the tube.
        ‘median’ halfway down the tube.
       ‘basal’ at the base of the tube.

‘core line’: There is a line in the flesh surrounding the core. It is attachment to the core may vary
thus:
        ‘basal’: The line meets at the base of the tube.eg ‘Ben Lans’.
        ‘basal clasping’: The line touches either side of the tube at the base but do not meet. eg
        ‘Bedminster Pippin’.
        ‘median’: The line meets the tube half way up. eg ‘Berkeley Pippin’.
        ‘marginal’: The line meets the tube nearest to the eye. eg ‘Councillor’.

‘cells’: If the seed cell is split vertically it will be found to be one of 5 shapes. I found this to be a
difficult feature to establish correctly.
         ‘round’: Roundish in shape and the widest part is central.
         ‘ovate’: The widest part of the cell is nearest the base of the apple.
         ‘obovate’: The widest part of the cell is nearest the eye.
         ‘elliptical’: Elliptical. Its widest part central.
         ‘lanceolate’: The cell tapers to a point at each end.
         ‘tufted’: In addition to the above, the cells may be lined with wolly ribboning.

‘core’:
       ‘sessile’: The position of the core in the fruit may lie close to the stalk.
       ‘median’: The core lies in the centre of the fruit.
       ‘distant’: The core lies farthest from the stalk.
       If the fruit is cut horizontally the cells will generally be found to have a star-shaped axis.
       This is:
       ‘axile’: If it is symmetrical.
       ‘abaxile’: If it is asymmetrical.
       In addition the cells may be;
       ‘open’ or ‘closed’.

‘seeds’:
May be one of three shapes. The skin colour may vary from light tan to almost black. This may
depend on the season.
       ‘acuminate’: Long and sharply pointed.
       ‘obtuse’: Short and blunt.
       ‘acute’: Halfway between the two above.

‘flesh’: Notes on this topic are somewhat curtailed for 3 reasons:
1. I am not expert in the classification of cider juicing qualities of fruit.
2. I find it difficult to describe taste in words
3. Since staring this work I have largely lost my sense of taste.
‘leaf’: The leaf is sometimes a useful diagnostic feature. The fourth leaf from a non-fruiting spur
was sampled in most cases and were categorised as follows:
        ‘round’ eg ‘Dymock Red’.
        ‘oval’ eg ‘Bunch Apple’
        ‘broadly oval’ eg ‘Box Kernel’
        ‘narrow oval’ eg ‘Lemon Roy’
        ‘acute’ eg ‘Brown French’
        ‘broadly acute’ eg ‘Berkeley Pippin’
        ‘narrow acute’ eg ‘Fon’s Spring’

The teeth along the margins may be:
       ‘serrate’ - saw-like teeth
       ‘bi-serrate’ – serrations are themselves serrated.
       ‘crenate’ - rounded convex teeth
       ‘dentate’ – vertical rather than angled teeth

The surface of the leaf may have varying characteristics which are duly described in the text.

‘drawn record’:
A vertically cut section of fruit is depicted along with an image of the leaf.

‘notes’:
Some of the notes border on the irrelevant. Because the vital statistics of apples on their own is a
pretty dry subject, it is hoped that the notes will enliven the text somewhat.

Key to the identification of apples.
Robert Hogg in the fifth edition of The Fruit Manual pioneered the classification of apple
varieties according to fruit shape, colour and other distinguishing features as an aid to
identification. This grouping convention was followed and extended by Bunyard (1920), by
Taylor (1936) and used and adapted by most subsequent authorities, in particularly by Bultitude
(1983) and Sanders (1988), whose books are now those most commonly used to identify fruit.
The same method of classification is the basis of the descriptions of the varieties appearing
within. Credit is acknowledged to Hogg and those others whose work has developed this aid.

Hogg comments: ‘Nature refuses to be bound, and will not submit to be confined, within the
narrow limits that man would assign to her’. Classification should be regarded as no more than
another aid to identification.

Acknowledgements and dedication:
Juliet Bailey, Gillian Bulmer, Jim Chapman, Chris Fairs, Eric Freeman, Dave Kaspar and Helen
Brent-Smith, Debra Lang, Roy Palmer, J.H.C.Sale, Ann and Stuart Smith and their son Peter
responsible for placing this item on the internet, John Teiser, Paul Tyers, members of the
Gloucestershire Orchard Group, Sheila Leitch and members of the Marcher Apple Network, Ray
and Jean Williams, Stephen Wright and all the people mentioned in the text who freely gave
their help and their fund of knowledge not to mention the priceless propagating material to save
the old varieties which they knew and loved so well. Many have become firm friends. They are
the ones who kept the old varieties going. This work is dedicated to them and their memory.
AMPNEY DICK - see ‘Ampney Red’



AMPNEY RED




Fig. 1: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Ampney Red’ fruit by C. Martell, 2001

synonym: ‘Ampney Dick’

reference: Jack Edwards and Harold Stephens, personal communications (1998).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Known to have been common in Ampney Crucis. There is one known remaining

mature tree at Birch House, Ampney Crucis from which graftwood was collected for

propagation.




Ampney Crucis, Glos

date: Recorded as common before 1939. Collected for propagation 2000.

fruit description: 27th September 2001 from an old tree.

size: 46-53mm wide, 46-53mm tall.

shape: Long-conical or conical. Ribbed. Faintly crowned. Nearly symmetrical. Irregular.

Waisted.
skin: Pale dull green. Deep and dull flush, almost total. Multiple stripes just discernible.

Lenticels numerous, pale indistinct. Hammering at lenticels. Russet absent except on base.

Faint bloom not discernible until rubbed off flush, making skin shine.

stalk: Usually a concealed knob, occasionally 5mm and protruding, rarely 10mm and slender.

cavity: Narrow and shallow or medium depth. Thin barely discernible grey green russet

spreading onto base. A little scaly russet in cavity.

eye: Sepals erect.

basin: Very narrow with sufficient space for calyx only. Medium depth.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal. Brown.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, open.

cells: Median.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Juicy, light texture, rather mild. Pleasant.

leaf: Broadly oval. Dentate.

use: Dessert.

drawn record:




                                                                      :
Fig. 2: original tracing of Malus var. ‘Ampney Red’ fruit and leaf by C. Martell, 2001
notes: An attractive apple. The one remaining old tree (1998) is reported to be a regular and

heavy cropper. Jack Edwards (1918-1998) regarded this as an old variety. He had lived all his

life in Ampney Crucis and his father and grandfather before him, both of whom were village

blacksmiths. Harold Stephens (born 1932) whose family has been in the village since the 1600s,

remembers this tree being quite common before the last war (1939). As a builder he owned to

having removed a few ‘Ampney Red’ trees in his time. It is a good keeping and eating variety.

The trees were large and bushy, the last remaining mature tree is not typical in shape as it has

been extensively ‘sided up’ by the previous owner called Bridgeman, who is also believed to

have planted it. Mr Bridgeman was very interested in apples and many trees in the orchard at

Birch House (previously Birch Farm) are fitted with numbered tags. Unusually for the

Cotswolds and although the ‘Ampney Red’ is not a cider variety, Ampney Crucis had quite a

domestic cider industry. There was a cider press situated on a farm in the middle of the village

and it was here that Mr Bridgeman and other farmers would take their apples to be pressed. Mr

Bridgeman was a noted local eccentric. He milked cows, had his own delivery round before and

during the 1939-1945 war and apparently used to tell his customers he had put arsenic in the

milk!



ANCELL - see Ansell



ANNUAL SOWINGS

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H.Knight, Deep Filling, Huntley

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider

description: A sharp variety.

notes: This name suggests that the variety was the result of an ongoing planting of apple pips in

order to produce new, possibly prize-winning varieties.
ANSELL




Fig. 3: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Ansell fruit’ by C. Martell, 1993

synonym: ‘Ancell’

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H.G., The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (Hereford, Woolhope

Naturalists Field Club, 1886); John Hawkins, personal communications (1993); Mervyn Bennett,

personal communications (1999).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Probably originated at Oldbury-upon-Severn. Collected for propagation from Great

Netherton, Dymock.




Oldbury-upon-Severn, Glos.

date: First known reference 1886. Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider

fruit description:- from an old tree.
size: 35-50 mm wide 30-44 mm tall.

shape: Round conical lop-sided fairly regular.

skin: Dark green or much paler. Flush 30% to complete. Flush approaching brown where no

russet. Most specimens heavily russetted which causes flush to be orange. Russett over 50% to

complete, dark and scaly, thinning to netting. Lenticels pale russet where discernible. Texture

rough and dry

stalk: Mostly very short and thick, or mere fleshy knob.

cavity: Medium width and medium depth. Not heavily russetted.

eye: Closed, connivent reflexed tips.

basin: Medium width, shallow to absent. Heavily russetted, spreading over rest of fruit.

tube: Cone shaped. Sepals downy green and fleshy.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Abaxile closed.

cells: Obovate, tapering at stem end.

seeds: Acute very dark with white tip.

flesh: Green underskin, round core and sepals. Dry. Bittersharp.

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate becoming bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.4: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Ansell’ fruit and leaf by C. Martell, 1993

notes: R. Hogg (1884) describes this as an Oldbury variety. It still grows there to-day (1998) but

is also known from Arlingham, Berkeley, Huntley, Tibberton and Dymock where some old trees

still grow (1993). Jasper Ely (1926-1996) reported that the variety described here is the ‘Yellow
Ansell’, and that there used to be a ‘White Ansell’ which had less colour and which grew in

Arlingham.



APPLERIDGE PIPPIN

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by A.T. Price, Berkeley

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider

description: A bittersweet variety

notes: Appleridge Farm is the neighbouring farm to Pedington Farm and I suspect ‘Pedington

Brandy’ (see below) was associated with A.T. Price on account of this and also because Mr Price

sent in another ‘Brandy’ apple - the ‘Middle Hill Brandy’ for the Long Ashton cider variety

competition.



ARLINGHAM CHURCHYARDS

reference: Pat Turner (born 1933) personal communication (1993).

status: Almost certainly extinct.

provenance: Arlingham churchyard




Arlingham, Glos

date: Stated to be a very old variety. Last known in about 1957.

use: Cider, also dessert.

description:- Similar to Golden Noble which is described as follows:

size: 70-76mm wide, 57-70mm tall.
shape: Oblong to oblong-conical. Five crowned.

skin: Golden yellow with occasional russet.

flesh: Coarse, firm, crisp, white. Acid - more so than Golden Noble.

notes: Three trees used to grow at Milton End Farm, Arlingham. They are now all gone. An

example of how a variety of apple may arise, in this case possibly as an accidental seedling in the

local churchyard. It didn’t spread far from its birthplace, therefore may not have been a very

good variety, and died out in its infancy. Milton End Farm had an ‘Arlingham Orchard’. Apart

from the ‘Arlingham Churchyards’ this orchard also contained ‘Arlingham Schoolboys’,‘Pretty

Beds’ apples and ‘Arlingham Squash’ perry pears.



ARLINGHAM SCHOOLBOYS




Fig.5: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Arlingham Schoolboys’ fruit by C. Martell, 2007

reference: David Bennett, Jasper Ely, Pat Turner, Robert Wellington, personal communications

(1993); Chris Cadogan, personal communication (1997)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Arlingham. Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.
Arlingham, Glos

date: Named before 1914. Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 55-63mm wide 57-61mm tall.

shape: Oblong conical. Ribs barely discernible. Slightly five-crowned. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Light green. 80% flush of deep crimson streaked with darker crimson which carries onto

otherwise unflushed areas. Surface uneven because the pale lenticels may be very densely

distributed in parts. Russet virtually absent but where it occurs it is very thin and barely

discernible. Scab present as small areolar (green) spots. Surface greasy and uneven with a dull

shine.

stalk: 12-19mm just protruding. Flattened slightly.

cavity: Deep and medium width. Lipped.

eye: Small closed erect convergent or divergent. Sepals acute and may be folded longitudinally.

basin: Shallow or very shallow and narrow. Beaded and puckered.

tube: Coneshaped.

stamens: Median to marginal. Stout and bristly.

core line: Median. Core lines pronounced in flesh of horizontally cut fruit.

core: Sessile to median. Axile closed.

cells: Obovate. Small.

seeds: Large plump and circular with acuminate tip.

flesh: Pleasant balance of acid, dryness, aroma and flavour. Firm and dense, juicy.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.
tree: Lop-sided and prone to canker. However it is a vigorous grower. It is distinguishable by

its many apple-sized lumps on its trunk and limbs. A similar characteristic may be found in the

‘Blenheim Orange’. These are neither blastophores nor adventitious roots which may be found

on the ‘Welsh Druid’ - see below.

drawn record:




Fig. 6: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Arlingham Schoolboys’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: Jasper Ely recounts that ‘Arlingham Schoolboys’ was named by William Phipps Merrett

before 1914. The latter lived in Arlingham and owned a lot of land there after 1921. The last

known old tree in Arlingham died in 1993. ‘Arlingham Schoolboys’ are known of at Awre. Trees

are still to be found round Minsterworth (2005).



ASCHMAED’S SAEMLING - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



ASCHMAED’S SEEDLING - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



ASHLEWORTH - see ‘Lake’s Kernel’



ASHMAED’S SAEMLING - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



ASHMEAD’S SAMLING - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



ASHMEAD’S SEEDLING - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’
ASHMEAD’S KERNEL




Fig. 7: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell

synonyms: ‘Aschmaed’s Saemling’, ‘Aschmaed’s Seedling’, ‘Ashmaed’s Saemling’,

‘Ashmead’s Samling’, ‘Ashmead’s Seedling’, ‘Doctor Ashmead’s Kernel’, ‘Samling von

Ashmead’, ‘Semis d’Ashmead’, ‘Seyanets Ashmida’.

reference: Hogg, R., The Fruit Manual (London, Journal of Horticulture Office, 1884). Barrie

Juniper, personal communication (2005).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock.

provenance: Possibly raised by Dr Ashmead in Gloucester possibly as a seedling of the

‘Nonpareil’.




Gloucester
Propagation material was received from the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale for the

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

date: Raised about 1700. Original tree still in existence in early 1800s.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:

size: 67-73 mm wide 57-65 mm tall.

shape: Round to round conical. Hint of ribs and five crown. Fairly symmetrical and regular.

skin: Green yellowing. Flush over part. Russet almost total except on flush, or may be thinner

netting. Lenticels small indistinct paler than russet. Texture dry.

stalk: 4-15 mm may extend just beyond cavity. Medium thickness 3mm.

cavity: Medium width, deep. Lined with thicker scaly russet.

eye: Medium. Half open. Sepals long, convergent acute tips which are reflexed.

basin: Medium to shallow. Medium width. Russetted in concentric circles.

tube: Cone shaped.

stamens: Median and marginal i.e. stamens are arranged lop-sided.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to sessile. Axile, closed.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acuminate to acute. Plump.

flesh: Crisp juicy, white with yellow tinge. Flavour sweet, a little acid and highly aromatic.

Season December-February. A connoisseur’s apple. Dr Barrie Juniper author of a number of

books on apples and an expert on the origins of the apple, once commented that he would ‘find

life difficult’ without ‘Ashmead’s Kernels’ – his favourite apple. An eloquent description of the

qualities of the ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’ was given on BBC Radio in 1944 by Morton Shand:

‘What an apple, what suavity of aroma. Its initial Madeira-like mellowness of flavour overlies a

deeper honeyed nuttiness, crisply sweet not sugar sweet, but the succulence of a well devilled

marrow bone. Surely no apple of greater distinction or more perfect balance can ever have been

raised anywhere on earth.’

tree: Large with dense twiggy growth when grown on a vigorous root stock.
leaf: Round. Tip acuminate. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.8: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: * Gloucestershire’s most famous apple variety. Considered to be one of the highest

quality late dessert apples. A good cropping variety but may be erratic in bearing possibly due to

cold springs. It is noted for its attractive blossom. May be picked at the beginning of October.

The fruit is prone to ‘bitter pit’, a result of calcium deficiency.

The seedling tree was grown in what is now Clarence Street in Gloucester by Dr Ashmead in

about 1700. There has been some question as to which Dr Ashmead was referred to in Hogg’s

Fruit Manual of 1884 in which he describes him as an ‘eminent physician’. A William Ashmead

of Gloucester died in 1724 aged 47, and was buried on land adjacent to Ashmead House. The

Unitarian chapel, which stood on the land next to Clarence House was demolished in May 1969

and it is believed that this is what is being referred to here. The Unitarian movement started in

1715. Interestingly the Price family from Tibberton Court (M.P. Price M.P. was a great fruit

grower) would worship at this chapel in the mid 1900s. In 1743 John Ashmead aged 57, a

mercer, was buried in this same place, a ‘dissenters’ burial ground’. This latter conveyed

Ashmead House to William Ashmead (1721-1782) in 1758. William Ashmead was an attorney

and was also Sheriff of Gloucester in 1747. At this time an attorney would have been titled

‘Doctor’, as a member of the college of doctors of civil law in London which was incorporated

by Royal Charter in 1768 before the establishment of the Divorce Court and Probate Court in

1857. Hogg may therefore have been informed that he was a ‘Dr’ Ashmead and with typical

Victorian grace referred to him as an ‘eminent physician’. The same William Ashmead was

credited by Lyson’s Gloucestershire Achievements in 1778 with raising the famous apple but
was referred to as a town clerk. In his will of 1782 he bequeathed Ashmead House with

buildings, garden and orchard to his wife Mary.

From the above it will be seen that Dr William Ashmead was not born until 1721 when the tree

was supposed to have been raised in about 1700. I can only assume that the tree was already a

seedling in the Ashmead’s garden and by the time it was getting known the property was in the

possession of Dr William Ashmead in 1758 and he got the credit for breeding it. The story does

not quite hang together and maybe more information on the Ashmeads will eventually come to

light.

The tree seems to have gained acceptance early on in West Gloucestershire at least, and was

known to have been propagated in about 1766 by Mr Wheeler a nurseryman from Gloucester.

He is believed to have had two nurseries, one at Kingsholm and another under what is now the

Walls ice cream factory at Barnwood. Wheeler distributed ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’ to the Brompton

Park Nursery in 1780. Not until the 1960s did the variety come to notice nationally when it

showed well in a number of blind tastings conducted by East Malling Research Station. It finally

gained acceptance when in 1981 it was awarded a First Class Certificate by the Royal

Horticultural Society – after nearly 300 years!

* Some of the sources of the above notes have been mislaid.
BALLAST APPLE




Fig.9: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Ballast Apple’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell 1994




Fig.9a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Ballast Apple’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

synonym: ‘Ballis Apple’.

reference: John and Richard Grey, Aubrey Allen, personal communications (1994).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected from Manor Farm,Shepperdine.
Shepperdine, S. Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1994.

use: Cider

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 49 mm wide 42 mm tall.

shape: Round conical. Ribs reduced to 5 raised ridges round the crown. Almost symmetrical,

but few fruits actually so. Approaching regular, but few fruits actually so.

skin: Flush heavy and almost total, except in cavity on some fruits. Overlain with inconspicuous

long darker stripes. Lenticels conspicuous, small, pale and numerous. Russet absent or a little

fine netting.

stalk: 5 mm medium thickness. Protrudes slightly or not at all.

cavity: Narrow and deep. Scaly russet present or absent.

eye: Sepals mostly flat convergent. Sepals are short and the eye is not properly closed.

Specimens with longer sepals have them slightly refexed at the tip

basin: Narrow and shallow.

tube: Funnel shaped or cone shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Median to basal clasping.

core: Distant. Axile, closed.

cells: Round.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Bittersweet

leaf: Broadly oval. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.10: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Ballast Apple’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Also known from Walmore Hill and Halmore where it was described as a poor variety.



BALLIS APPLE - see ‘Ballast Apple’
BARNET’S BEAUTY




Fig.11: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Barnet’s Beauty’ fruit by C.Martell




Fig.11a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Barnet’s Beauty’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

reference: Arthur Pullin, personal communication (1994).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.
provenance: Initially known from Charlie Barber (1868-1950), Bell Inn Farm, Berkeley from

where it was grafted to Woodford Green Farm, Berkeley. Collected from here for propagation in

the Gloucestershire Apple Collection.




Berkeley, S. Glos

date: Distributed from Bell Inn Farm in 1945. Collected for propagation 1994.

use: Dessert

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 60 mm wide 50 mm tall.

shape: Flat round tending towards round. Definite but not prominent ribs. 5 or 6 crowned, lop

sided. Mostly fairly regular or irregular.

skin: Red flush, pink where covered with scarf skin. May have only the merest hint of striping

occasionally. Scarf skin present may cover almost the entire fruit, breaking into large spots near

the apex. Hammering present. Russet generally absent except in cavity. Lenticels conspicuous,

russetted areolar on flush. Texture greasy. Rarely a hairline, partially russetted, or not russetted

as a cream line.

stalk: Protruding beyond base, thickened from halfway down to point of entry. May be knobbly.

About 15mm.

cavity: Deep and medium width. Russet scaly.

eye: Large, closed with long broad-based green sepals. Connivent, tips reflexed.

basin: Medium broad, deep or shallow.

tube: Funnel shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Distant.
cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: White and creamy. Unremarkably pleasant, sub-acid.

leaf: Oval to broadly acute. Crenate partially serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.12: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Barnet’s Beauty’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: The Bell Inn is mentioned in Chapter 50 of Charles Dickens’ Pickwick Papers. Dickens

stayed at the Bell Inn on his way to Tewkesbury as did his characters in ‘Pickwick Papers’.

Charlie Barber came to Bell Inn Farm in 1917 and changed its name to The Chestnuts. Mr

Barber’s great nephew Michael Jordan took over the farm in 1950 and changed the name to

Pickwick Farm. He still owns the original Bell Inn pub sign.

There is one old tree left at Woodford Green, Berkeley where the owner’s family had a cider

business dating from 1919 and which ceased production in 1957.



BASTARD UNDERLEAF

reference: Mervyn Bennett and Pat Turner, personal communications (1997).

status: Last known tree died in Bill Hawling’s Orchard at Frampton-on-Severn.

provenance: Known at Milton End Farm, Arlingham and Churngate Farm, Cowhill, Oldbury-on-

Severn. Possibly widespread and the name may refer to more than one variety.
Arlingham, Glos

date: Believed to have been an old variety. Last known tree died about 1973.

use: General purpose.

fruit description: A spotted apple like the ‘Green Underleaf’ but larger with more colour.

notes: It was considered inferior to the ‘Green Underleaf’. When Pat Turner supplied a box of

‘Bastard Underleaf’ in place of ‘Green Underleaf’ apples to an old man in the 1950s they were

sent back because the difference was noticed.



BEDMINSTER PIPPIN




Fig.13: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Bedminster Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006

reference: Smith, M.W.G., National Apple Register of the United Kingdom (London, Ministry of

Agriculture Fisheries and Food, 1971)
status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock

provenance: Probably originated in Gloucestershire. Propagation material was received from

National Fruit Collection, Brogdale for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

date: Received by the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale 1952. Received by Gloucestershire

Apple Collection, Dymock 2005.




Bedminster, S. Glos

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 28th October 2006 from an established tree at the National Fruit Collection,

Brogdale.

size: 59-67mm wide 50-54mm tall.

shape: Flat round to round. Broadly and indistinctly ribbed at eye and on body. Lop-sided.

Irregular.

skin: Yellow to gold, slightest flush. Netting. Lenticels distinct, maybe star-shaped. Texture

rough and dry.

stalk: 11-16mm. 2mm wide. Slightly pubescent.

cavity: Medium width and depth. Lipped.

eye: Open, reflexed tips.

basin: Medium width. Deep.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Abaxile, closed

cells: Elliptical. Distally lanceolate.

seeds: Acute. Pale brown.
flesh: Soft, coarse, woolly, whitish. Flavour sub-acid to acid. Suffering from ‘water core’.

leaf: Broadly acute or broadly oval. Serrations small indistinct, crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.14: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Bedminster Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2006

notes: A tip bearer. Fruit mid-season.



BEECHES GREEN

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station from Dymock.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.



BELCHERS PEARMAIN

reference: Included in a list of apples provided by J. Trigg who lived in the orchards at

Broadway, Minsterworth. He died in 1985.

status: Only known record.

note: Belcher is a surname local to the district
BEN LANS




Fig.15: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Ben Lans’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1994).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Broadway, Minsterworth.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1994.

use: General purpose

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 55 mm wide 46 mm tall.

shape: Round to round conical. Hint of 5 crowning in large specimens, slight puckering of the

eye. Asymmetrical. Generally fairly regular.
skin: Flush total with darker almost mahogany long stripes. Some fruits have a scattering of

russet around the apex. Lenticels small and pale. Texture greasy.

stalk: Typically short and stout, concealed within cavity.

cavity: Deep and narrow. Some with fleshy lip.

eye: Mostly flat convergent with broad based green sepals.

basin: Broad and shallow. Slight puckering.

tube: Funnel shaped. Broad and shallow.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal. A little colour right round core line in some specimens.

core: Median. Axile, closed.

cells: Obovate or round.

seeds: Obtuse, well developed.

flesh: White, pleasant acid tang. Hint of astringency.

leaf: Broadly oval. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.16: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Ben Lans’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
BERKELEY PIPPIN




Fig.17: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Berkeley Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell




Fig.17a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Berkeley Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

synonym: ‘Dafferton’
reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929. Ray Williams, personal communication (1993), Aubrey Allen personal

communication (1996). Mervyn Bennett, personal communication (1997)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Presumably indigenous to Berkeley. Collected for propagation from Pool Farm,

Halmore, Nr Berkeley.




Berkeley, S. Glos

date: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station 1903-1929, probably during the early part of

this period. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Dessert and cider

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 50-65 mm wide 42-51 mm tall.

shape: Flat round or flat. Slight ribbing present. Crowned. Lop-sided, irregular. Flush 30%,

streaking down to absent. Typically just a few faint thin short streaks.

skin: Pale green. Russet spreading from cavity. Lenticels small and inconspicuous – elongated

round basin. Skin becomes greasy with keeping.

stalk: Very variable. Fleshy knob, concealed, or 20 mm very slender and green.

cavity: Variable. Narrow and deep or practically absent. Russetted.

eye: Closed, erect or connivent. Sepals pubescent.

basin: Narrow and medium depth. Ribbed. Russet very little or absent.

tube: Funnel shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Axile. Open.
cells: Round lanceolate.

seeds: Obtuse, almost round or quite acute. Variable.

flesh: Sweet. Low acid. Crisp.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate.

tree: Extreme weeping habit results in broken branches in old trees.

drawn record:




Fig.18: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Berkeley Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Known in the 1960s to Long Ashton Research Station as a quality sweet apple for the

market. Still grows in Oldbury-upon-Severn 2003.
BILL NORMAN




Fig.19: photograph of Malus var. ‘Bill Norman’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000

reference: Mervyn Bennett, John and Richard Grey, Rodney Summers, personal

communications (1997).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Churngate Farm, Kington, near Oldbury-on-Severn.




Oldbury-on-Severn, S. Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- 17th November 2000 from Churngate Farm, Kington.

size: 40-53 mm wide, 40-45 mm tall.

shape: Round-conical. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Green yellowing. Diffuse flush, stippled and broken stripes. Very thin shiny khaki russet

at stem and eye. Lenticels pale inconspicuous. Texture greasy.
stalk: 5-15 mm, slender, may be green. Protruding.

cavity: Narrow and shallow. Very thin russet overlain with a little scaly russet.

eye: Tightly closed, connivent, very slightly reflexed. Sepals green at base.

base: Narrow and shallow. Beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile open.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Bittersweet.

leaf: Acute. Crenate.

tree: Small and very narrow. A fair (very heavy – Richard Grey) cropper.

drawn record:




Fig.20: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Bill Norman’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000
notes: Known also from Shepperdine and Cambridge where it had a good reputation. This is not

the same variety as ‘Belle Norman’. The suffix ‘Norman’ would suggest this is a Herefordshire

variety, but I assume ‘Bill Norman’ was someone’s name and therefore it is included here as a

Gloucestershire variety.
BLACK FRENCH

reference: Royal Horticultural Society - Apple and Pear Conference 1934.

status: Only known record.

provenance: Sent in to the above conference from Worcestershire.

date: Fruit sent in 1934.

use: Cider.

fruit description:-

size: Small.

shape: Conical.

skin: Brown.

notes: A late variety of bittersweet. This variety is included in this work on the evidence of its

name. ‘French’ suffixed varieties are deemed to be Gloucestershire varieties. ‘French’ is the

Gloucestershire term used to denote a bittersweet cider variety. The corresponding terms used in

Herefordshire and Somerset are ‘norman’ and ‘jersey’ respectively.



BLACK TANKER - see Shepperdine Silt
BLOOD ROYAL




Fig.21: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Blood Royal’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucesterhire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:-

size: 50-62 mm wide 35-47 mm tall.

shape: Flat. Merest hint of ribs. Very slightly lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Flush deep crimson, heavy over most of the fruit. A little russet in basin, more in cavity

spreading as netting over unflushed parts. Lenticels small pale conspicuous, roundish.
stalk: 1-5 mm stoutish.

cavity: Deep and broad.

eye: Large open. Sepals broad based, erect, tips reflexed or broken.

basin: Wide and fairly deep. Hint of ribbing.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Median to sessile.

cells: Round. Axile, closed.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Acid.

leaf: Broadly oval, tending to obovate. Base tapering. Margin serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.22: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Blood Royal’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: ‘Blood Royal’ is entered in The National Apple Register by M. Smith (1971) but without

provenance. Inclusion justified under category 4 above.
BOX KERNEL




Fig.23: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Box Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000




Fig.23a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Box Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Chris Cadogan, personal communications (1998); Mrs Anne Bull and Nick Bull,

personal communications (2000).
status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. One old tree and 4 young trees grow at

Awre. Graftwood has been taken to France and some specimens now grow near Strasbourg.

Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Believed to have originated in Awre where there is a Box Farm and Little Box

Farm which presumably is where the variety gained -or possibly even gave - its name. Chris

Cadogan reported a 3 ½ acre orchard - the Hedgecrofts - at Guy Hall, Awre which consisted

solely of this variety. The orchard was grubbed out in the late 1970s. Collected for propagation

from a young tree at the Rectory at Awre, which in turn was propagated from one old remaining

tree at Guy Hall.




Awre, Glos

date: Known since at least 1960 but obviously much older. Collected for propagation 2000.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- From a young standard tree 28th October 2000

size: 50-67 mm wide and 52-62 mm tall.

shape: Variable. Round, round conical, conical, oblong-conical. Ribs broad and indistinct.

Five-crowning indistinct and may have extra crowns. Lop-sided. Fairly regular.

skin: Banana yellow, flush absent. Russet usually absent except in cavity. Lenticels

conspicuous and numerous, some very large and mostly round, maybe flushed areolar. Texture

smooth becoming waxy.

stalk: In larger fruits virtually absent. In smaller fruits about 7mm. Swollen at point of

attachment to fruit.

cavity: Narrow and shallow or wide and shallow or wide and deep. A little scaly russet in most

cases.
eye: Variable - flat convergent or with reflexed tips, or connivent. Sepals green, broad based,

acute.

basin: Medium depth and width. Puckered and beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Axile, open typically.

cells: Ovate - Very sparsely tufted.

seeds: Plump and acuminate.

flesh: Slightly sweet with some acidity, juicy. ‘Water core’ present.

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate.

aroma: Aromatic when uncut.

drawn record:




Fig.24: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Box Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000

notes: Cuttings were taken from Guy Hall, Awre by Sid Knight and were propagated in the

village. This variety has been known since 1960 by Mrs Anne Bull who uses it as a culinary

apple. It makes excellent crumble and requires no extra sugar. Reputed to make “ropey” cider -

which may not be the fault of the fruit. Sid Knight (born late 1800s died early 1980s) worked at

Guy Hall and knew this variety well. The fruit will stay on the trees ‘until apples come again’.
BRANDY REDSTREAK

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H. Hawkins of Brookthorpe.

date: First known record 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A sharp variety



BRANDY SNAP

reference: Douglas Oliff (1927-2008), personal communications 1999.

status: Only known record.

provenance: Possibly introduced to the Woolaston area by the Rev. Somerset and propagated by

his gardener Mr W. Morgan.




Woolaston, Glos

date: Still in existence 1930-1940.

use: Dessert

fruit description: As remembered by Douglas Oliff.

size: Small.

shape: Round.

skin: High colour, reinette.

flesh: Sharpish, individual but pleasant flavour. A good keeper.
notes: The Rev. Somerset is credited with introducing a number of apple varieties to the

Woolaston and Alvington area where he was the incumbent rector for 50 years. He was uncle to

the Duke of Beaufort of his time and also hunted and shot.

In the 1930s possibly until 1940, Mr F. Ball propagated this variety. He used to hawk these

apples round Lydney but they were considered too small. One of Mr Ball’s favourite sayings

was: “Once I make a pound I make a prisoner of it!”



BRICES KERNEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by D. Phelps Morgan of Tewkesbury

and Tommy Garland of Lydney.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.



BRIDGE PIPPIN

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Recorded as a Gloucestershire variety .

date: Recorded 1886.

use: Cider.

fruit description: An early apple of good acidity, yellow and sweet.

tree: Erect and a free bearer.
BROMESBERROW CRAB

synonyms: ‘Broomsberrow Crab’, ‘Broomsberry Crab’, ‘Bromsbury Crab’.




Bromesberrow, Glos

reference: Evelyn, John Pomona with contribution by Dr Smith (1664); Marshall, W. The Rural

Economy of Gloucestershire (1796); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit

(1886).

status: Rare and not true to type when being shown just prior to 1886.

use: Cider.

notes: An old variety remembered in R. Hogg’s time (1880s) as having been held in high repute.



BROMLEY

synonym: Old Bromley.

reference: Marshall, W. The Rural Economy of Gloucestershire (1796); Hogg, R. The Fruit

Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886).

status: Last known from O. Hawkins, Forthampton 1903-1929.

provenance: A very old variety from Gloucestershire and Herefordshire, but not abundant in the

latter.

date: First record 1796 and when exhibited in 1883.

use: Cider and culinary.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg (1884)

size: 56 mm wide 51 mm tall.

shape: Round conical. Symmetrical sometimes asymmetrical. Uneven and angular on the sides.

Flat base.
skin: Bright yellow, almost totally covered in well defined broken crimson streaks. Base russet

extending up sides.

stalk: About 15 mm. Straight and stout, protruding.

cavity: Deep and narrow.

eye: Closed, broad flat convergent sepals with reflexed tips.

basin: Fairly deep and narrow.

tube: Short and funnel shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Axile. Open.

cells: Ovate.

flesh: Yellowish, firm, and somewhat woolly in texture.

juice: Pale, plentiful, fairly sweet, with a brisk acidity.

tree: A large broad spreading tree and a shy bearer.

drawn record:




Fig.24a: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Bromley’ fruit by H.G.Bull 1886

notes: A variety held in high esteem in Gloucestershire. The cider was said to be strong but not

sweet. A good cooking apple, especially suitable for sauce. A late variety and a good keeper.



BROMSBURY CRAB – see ‘Bromsberrow Crab’



BROOMSBERROW CRAB - see ‘Bromsberrow Crab’
BROOMSBERRY CRAB – see ‘Bromsberrow Crab’



BROWN FRENCH




Fig.25: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Brown French’ fruit by C.Martell 2006




Fig.25a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Brown French’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

reference: David Barnes, personal communication (2000).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.
provenance: Collected for propagation from Hill Farm, May Hill.

Being a ‘french’ apple presumed to be indigenous to Gloucestershire.




May Hill, Glos

date: Already growing at Hill Farm in 1931. Collected for propagation in 2000.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- 25th September 2001 fom an old tree.

size: 30-40mm wide, 30-42mm tall.

shape: Round-conical or conical. Broadly ribbed. Indistinct, five-crowned. Symmetrical.

Irregular.

skin: Light green. Sometimes lightly flushed with short darker steaks. Netting of scaly russet.

Lenticels pale and indistinct. Texture dry.

stalk: 10-15mm long, under 2mm thick, pubescent.

cavity: Wide and medium depth.

eye: Closed, sepals with reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow or almost absent. Slightly puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Basal clasping to median.

core: Median. Abaxile, open or closed.

cells: Obovate or elliptical.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Dry. Very bitter, slightly sweet.

leaf: Acute. Bi-serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.26: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Brown French’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: Reported to shake well, all the fruit falling together from the tree. David Barnes’s father

came to Hill Farm in 1931, David was born the following year. He has continued his father’s

interest in fruit varieties and a wide range of fruit trees is maintained on the farm. Mr Barnes is a

skilled grafter and incidentally one of the last traditional tent peg makers, a craft with certain

similarities to grafting.



BUCKS KERNEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above but see ‘Box Kernel’.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H.Bennett, Falfield.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A sharp variety.

note: This variety could be confused with ‘Box Kernel’ by the sound of its name but the fruit

description is different.



BULLOCK’S FAVOURITE - see ‘Casey’s Kernel’
BUNCH APPLE (1)




Fig.27: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Bunch Apple -1’ fruit by C.Martell, 2003

reference: Aubrey Allen, personal communication (1993); Steven Welsh, personal

communication (2003); Mervyn Bennett, personal communication (2003)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

provenance: Collected from George Hedges’ farm at Shepperdine.




Shepperdine, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 2003. George Hedges (1912/13 – 2002).

use: Cider.

fruit description: 5th November 2003 from a young and an old tree.

size: 41-49 mm wide 39-46 mm tall (old tree) 49-61 mm wide 43-52 mm tall (young tree)

shape: Round, slightly lop-sided, slightly irregular.
skin: Yellow, flush dark, almost total. Heavily striped. Small unflushed areas appear as yellow

stripes. Russet normally absent except in cavity. Lenticels small, pale and indistinct except on

very heavily flushed specimens. Texture smooth becoming waxy.

stalk: 15-25 mm slender. Protruding.

cavity: Medium depth and width. Scaly russet present.

eye: Erect with reflexed tips. Long dark sepals.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Slightly puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median, axile, closed.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Dry tough sub-acid. Stained red under skin. 10 indistinct red spots sometimes present.

leaf: Oval. Serrate but mostly indistinct. Cupped

drawn record:




Fig.28: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Bunch Apple -1’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2003

notes: Also known from Cowhill.



BUNCH APPLE (2) - see ‘Jelly’
BUSH APPLE

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by Daniel J.Phelps of Tibberton.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A sharp variety.



BUSHY FRENCH




Fig.29: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Bushy French’ fruit by C.Martell, 1993




Fig.29a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Bushy French’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007
reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance; Only known tree at Broadway, Minsterworth.




Misterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- From the only known old tree currently (1993).

size: 38-45 mm wide 46-53 mm tall.

shape: Conical, round conical or flat round. Slightly ribbed. Some crowned. Slightly lop-sided.

Irregular.

skin: Dark green with very slight flush, just a few pink dots and slight streaking. Russet

extending from base. Some netting. Lenticels white on clear areas, or russet, some red (not

areolar)

stalk: 10-21mm long, 2-3mm thick.

cavity: Deep and narrow, russetted.

eye: Sepals connivent or reflexed tips, broadbased.

basin: Broad and very shallow or narrow and deeper. Beading present in shallow specimens.

tube: Cone shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal meeting.

core: Median abaxile closed.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acuminate and acute.

leaves: Broadly oval and broadly acute. Crenate.
tree: Flowering season late. Harvest October. A graft from this tree produced a more vigorous

and heavy bearing tree. The original tree was quite small.

drawn record:




Fig.30: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Bushy French’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993




CABBAGE APPLE

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Gloucestershire.

date: Recorded 1886.

use: Cider and pot fruit.

fruit description: Large and green. Midseason.

tree: Erect and bears well.
CAMBRIDGE QUEENING




Fig.31: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Cambridge Quoining’ fruit by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Cambridge Quinning’

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929; David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1993); Rodney

Summers, personal communication (1995)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Believed to be from the village of Cambridge, Gloucestershire as it was quite well

known locally and since it is a cider variety it is unlikely to have come from Cambridge,

Cambridgeshire. Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by Daniel J.Phelps, Tibberton.

Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.




Cambridge, Glos.

date: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station 1903-1929, probably during the early part of

this period. Collected for propagation 1993.
use: Cider but may be eaten after keeping.

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 52-65mm wide 47-60mm tall.

shape: Conical, slight ribbing. Five crowned. Some specimens symmetrical, some lop-sided

due to partially overdeveloped crown. Regular. This variety is prone to twinning. It appears

that twin apples occur as a result of two fruits developing on adjacent sides of the same fruiting

spur, being practically stalkless the fruits have no option but to graft together in order to develop.

This results in a single heart-shaped fruit. The eyes of this twin fruit remain distinct. Less

frequently I have observed two distinct fruits sharing a single bifurcated stalk. I have only

observed up to about a dozen such twin fruits of the former and less of the latter occurring on a

mature tree in a season.




Fig.32: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Cambridge Quoining’ conjoined fruit by C.Martell

skin: Very pale green to yellow. Diffuse flush overlain with dark crimson stripes. On unflushed

areas these stripes give the impression of having been painted on. Russet netting over whole

fruit partially obliterates stripes. Lenticels variable small, offwhite. Texture dry, waxy on non

russetted parts.

stalk: 10-17mm or a mere fleshy knob. Stalk is shared in some twin fruits.

cavity: Medium narrow, or almost absent. Scaly russet. Lipped in some fruits.

eye: Closed, puckered. Sepals connivent, reflexed tips.

tube: Cone shaped.
stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Median. Core line well defined round to base.

core: Median to sessile. Axile closed. Horizontal section like 5 clover leaves.

cells: Obovate tapering.

seeds: Small acuminate.

flesh: Firm and juicy. Pleasant acid balance with flavour. Classified as a sharp cider apple by

Long Ashton Research Station.

leaf: Broadly acute. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.33: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Cambridge Quoining’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Known from Halmore, the nearest recorded occurrence to Cambridge.



CAMBRIDGE QUINNING - see ‘Cambridge Queening’
CAPTAIN KERNEL

synonyms: ‘Captain Nurse’, ‘Captain Kernelck’, ‘Nurse’s Kernel’.

references: R. Hogg, The Fruit Manual (1884); R. Hogg and H. Bull, The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886); Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety

Competition 1903-1929; Ray Williams, personal communication (1992).

status: Last known of in Harold Phelps’s orchards at Tibberton prior to 1960.

provenance: Probably named by or after Captain Nurse of Epney and Longney district.

Graftwood collected for propagation from Daniel J. Phelps’s old orchard at Tibberton later

proved to be false. Mr Phelps’s orchard was the last site where this variety was known to have

grown post 1945.

date: First known record 1884. Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station for competition

1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg.

size: 60mm wide 55mm tall.

shape: Roundish inclining to flat round.

skin: Yellow, flushed and streaked bright red especially where exposed to the sun. A little thin

russet. Cavity green.

stalk: Slender 5-11 mm.

cavity: Narrow.

eye: Closed. Flat convergent sepals.

basin: Round and rather shallow.

tube: Short, funnel shaped.

stamens: Basal.

cells: Obovate, open.

flesh: Tender, juicy, mildly acid. In 1884 R. Hogg described this as one of the best

Gloucestershire cider apples. But in 1886 he said it has not much character as a cider fruit.

Classified as a sharp cider apple by Long Ashton Research Station.

tree: A slow grower but bears well when full grown.
notes: Jasper Ely (1926-1996) related that Captain Nurse lived in the Epney and Longney district

where the Nurse family was well known. The family had connections with Bridgewater in

Somerset. They had a 150-ton schooner called C. F. Nurse built in steel. Captain Nurse was a

farmer-cum-sailor – ‘one foot on the land, one in the water’. The family died out in

Gloucestershire before the Second World War (1939), but may have continued in Somerset.



CAPTAIN KERNELCK - see ‘Captain Kernel’


CAPTAIN NURSE - see ‘Captain Kernel’


CARRION APPLE - see ‘Kempley Red’


CASE’S KERNEL - see ‘Casey’s Kernel’


CASEYS KERNEL

synonyms: ‘Case’s Kernel’, ‘Bullock’s Favourite’.

reference: David Bennett, John Gifford, Joe Phillips and Robert Wellington, personal

communications 1993.

status: Known to have been in existence in the 1980s and may well reappear.

provenance: Casey and Bullock are well known surnames in Gloucestershire. Started at

Griffin’s Farm, Tibberton before 1954.

date: Known of at least since the 1940s.

use: General purpose.

description: A very juicy apple, fit in September. It doesn’t keep.

notes: Information on the provenance of this variety was given to John Gifford by the auctioneer

Norman Bruton of Bruton Knowles & Co on Mr Gifford’s purchase of the farm in 1954. John

Gifford still occupies Griffin’s Farm (2001). He recalls there used to be 32 acres of orchard at

Griffin’s Farm with many ‘Strawberry Pears’ and little ‘Sugar Pears’. Joe Phillips told me how

as a child the tradition of ‘Casey’s Kernel’ and other local apple varieties was ‘drummed into

them’. William Rhead (see under ‘Rhead’s Reinette’) was born at Griffin’s Farm and later went
to work for the Bullock family at Elton. He was an inveterate grafter and it is tempting to think

he had some connection with this variety.



CHAXHILL RED




Fig.34: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Chaxhill Red’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Duni Red’.

It has been suggested to me that the Duni Red is a similar but separate variety to the Chaxhill

Red and that it grows or grew at Duni Farm, which lies on the right bank of the River Severn

between Minsterworth and Chaxhill. Duni Farm is currently occupied by a member of the

Bennett family which originates from Broadway.

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); David Bennett, David

Browning, Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992, 1996 and 1992 respectively)

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Not endangered 1999.

provenance: Raised by Squire Bennett of Chaxhill House, Chaxhill, Westbury-on-Severn.

Propagation material came from the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale for the Gloucestershire

Apple Collection, Dymock.
Chaxhill Red, Glos.

date: Raised prior to about 1873 when it won a First Class Certificate for cider at Gloucester.

Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose but best known as a cider variety.

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 50-66 mm wide and 42-58 mm tall.

shape: Round conical. Slightly lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Pale green/yellow. Crimson flush over most of fruit, streaked with darker crimson which

continues onto unflushed areas. Russet absent except a very small amount in basin and cavity.

Lenticels widely spaced and inconspicuous except on unflushed areas. Texture very smooth,

waxy and shiny.

stalk: 5-8 mm stout and fleshy. Just a knob in some cases. Barely protrudes. Concealed on

larger specimens.

cavity: Medium depth narrow and shallow.

eye: Small or medium. Tightly closed or open. Sepals fairly long with reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow, shallow. Hint of beading and puckering.

tube: Funnel shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Axile open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Obtuse, plump.

flesh: White, dense. Unremarkable but balanced flavour. Bittersweet.

leaves: Obovate, broadly oval, serrate. Edges upward folding. Leaf downward hanging.
tree: Umbrella-shaped with dense twiggy growth.

drawn record:




Fig.35: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Chaxhill Red’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Squire Bennett, who owned the Chaxhill Estate was interested in fruit production and his

tenants’ farms were well stocked with a broad range of apple and other fruit varieties. He was a

friend of William Viner Ellis of nearby Minsterworth Court. William Viner Ellis is much

mentioned by R. Hogg in The Fruit Manual (1884). He helped Hogg find a number of rare

varieties of apple tree.

I found the Chaxhill area the richest part of Gloucestershire for the number of fruit varieties

which still grow there today (late 1990s). The reason for this, apart from the suitability of

growing conditions, was firstly the proximity of Gloucester and its fruit market, which is a horse

and cart’s drive away, secondly the proximity of Grange Court railway station and latterly the

site of a fruit market, and thirdly the orchards lying adjacent to the River Severn where the trows
could transport the fruit by water to the industrialised areas of South Wales. ‘Chaxhill Reds’

were no exception in being exported there, but when they arrived on the fruit markets they were

re-named ‘Welsh Coxes’.

David Bennett (no relative of Squire Bennett) pointed out that the fruit of the ‘Chaxhill Red’,

which falls all at once, give him the impression of sliding down over the surface of the umbrella-

shaped trees. The apples drop in September but do not suffer damage as they have a tough skin

that cushions their fall. Mr Bennett farms what was one of the estate’s farms where many

‘Chaxhill Reds’ grow.

Robert Wellington (1913-1999) told me that he could remember the oldest worker on the

Chaxhill estate in the early 1900s. He was a man possibly named Everett or maybe Dangerfield.

He had a little shop as well as working on the estate. The shop, one of a row of houses

belonging to Squire Bennett, was situated on Walmer Hill just above Broadway alongside what

is now the A48 road. At a harvest supper or some other event, this man was called on to say a

little ditty for the newly launched ‘Chaxhill Red’ apple in the 1870s. It goes:

                        “We’ve had our fill of beef and bread,

                         I name this apple ‘Chaxhill Red’.”



CLISSOLD’S SEEDLING - see ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’



COOLES SEEDLING

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884).

status: In existence 1884.

provenance: Raised by Miss Coole at Cheltenham.

date: Recorded in 1868.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:-

size: about 62 mm wide 50 mm tall.

shape: Round to round conical. Not ribbed

skin: Lemon yellow with a few streaks and mottling of crimson and a little russet.
stalk: Short, sometimes with a fleshy swelling on one side.

cavity: Shallow.

eye: Open with broad divergent sepals.

basin: Wide and puckered.

tube: Conical.

stamens: Median.

core: Axile closed.

cells: Obovate.

flesh: Firm crisp juicy and sweet. Ripe from October to December.

notes: R. Hogg (1884) describes this as an excellent dessert apple. He also writes that it was

awarded a First Class Cerificate by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1868. However, M. Smith

in The National Apple Register (1971) says no record can be found of this award in the Royal

Horticultural Society’s annals.



CORSAILES - see ‘Corse Hill’
CORSE HILL




Fig.36: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Corse Hill’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell




Fig.36a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Corse Hill’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

synonyms: ‘Corsailes’, ‘Corset Hill’, ‘Cosetelle’, ‘Cosset Hills’.

references: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886); Royal Horticultural Society, Apple and Pear Conference 1934; Long

Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition 1903-1929; Smith, M. The
National Apple Register (1971); David Bennett (born 1930) personal communication (1993 and

2005); David Browning, personal communication (1996); Tim Dudfield, personal

communication (1999); Reg Woolford (born 1912) personal communication (2005).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Rare but probably not endangered 1999.

provenance: Produced by Mr Merchant of Corse Hill Farm, Corse. Collected for propagation

from Mr Bond of Corse Hill. H. V. Taylor (1940) is reported to have described a ‘different’

apple to that of R. Hogg. However the apple described by Hogg is the same as mature trees of

this variety to be found growing in Gloucestershire today.




Corse, Glos.

date: Raised before 1884 when the seedling tree was still in existence. Collected for propagation

1993.

use: General purpose but mostly used for cider in Gloucestershire.

fruit description:- Sample taken from a young standard tree.

size: 51-58 mm wide 51-67 mm tall

shape: Long conical, lop-sided, the crown set at an angle. Approaching regular, waisted.

skin: Green with yellow tinge. Flush 30% dull, even, thinning to pink especially round lenticels.

Borders of flush grey brown with hint of striping. A few small patches of thin russet present.

Lenticels small distinct russetted. Denser round crown. Texture smooth.

stalk: 1-10 mm. Stout, russetted and may be flushed. Thickened abscission point.

cavity: Narrow and shallow or absent. Base of fruit may be flat or even raised round stem.

eye: Closed, sepals connivent.

basin: Small and shallow, puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped, rather long.

stamens: Marginal.
core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Axile, open.

cells: Round to obovate. Tufted.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: White tinged with green, crisp and juicy, pleasant balance of acid and sugar. Skin tough.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.37: original drawing of Malus var.‘Corse Hill’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Known from Arlingham, Dymock, Tibberton, Longney and Westbury-on-Severn as well

as Corse.

Old Mr Merchant’s son Walter (1900-1974) recounted how as a boy he would have to ride on the

back of the horse-drawn cart armed with a whip to ward off the children who would otherwise

steal the fruit when on its way to John Stephens and Son’s Skinner Street pickle factory (locally

known as Vinegar Jack’s) off Worcester Street in Gloucester. Miss Vivian Merchant, daughter

of the founder of this variety and sister to Walter reported that her father did very well out of the

apple which he started at Corse Hill Farm (previously called Megans). Miss Merchant died at

Christmas 1992, aged 99 in Highfields nursing home Newent, where she had kept company with

the daughter of another great Gloucestershire stock breeder, Henry Hunt who started the Jubilee

Game chicken in 1897.

A number of trees have recently been planted at Corse school.
CORSET HILL - see ‘Corse Hill’



COSETELLE - see ‘Corse Hill’



CORSET HILLS - see ‘Corse Hill’



COUNCILLOR




Fig.38: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Councillor’ fruit by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Counsellor’

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929; Aubrey Allen, G. John Hayne and Rodney Summers, personal communications

(1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Believed to have originated in the Berkeley district where the only known trees

grow to-day. Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by T. Fawkes, Leonard Stanley and

Stonehouse, I. Rummels and A. T. Price both of Berkeley. Collected for propagation from Pool

Farm, Breadstone, Berkeley.
Berkeley, Glos

date: Fruit sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period. Collected for

propagation 1999.

use: Cider

fruit description:- from a mature tree at Breadstone.

size: 43-55 mm wide 45-62 mm tall.

shape: Long conical. Ribbed. Five crowned which may not be pronounced. Lop-sided,

irregular.

skin: Mid-green. A few specimens have flush so slight it appears yellow. Slight scarf skin on

base. Russet on base and apex where it may be almost absent. Lenticels small dark and

conspicuous. Texture slightly greasy.

stalk: Short thick and knobbly. Concealed or just protruding beyond base.

cavity: Shallow and narrow, russetted. Lipped.

eye: Sepals erect convergent or connivent with reflexed tips.

basin: Thinly russetted. Puckered, beaded where eye is malformed. Narrow and shallow.

tube: Funnel shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Marginal.

cells: Elliptical, lanceolate at basal end. Tufted.

seeds: Very few. Small brown acute.

flesh: Dry woolly. Bittersweet.
drawn record:




Fig.39: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Councillor’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Ray Williams of Long Ashton Research Station says the trees still in existence do not

match exactly the description given in the old records. Rodney Summers reported that he used to

have ‘Councillors’ but that they were tiny and that he used to dread having to pick them up.

Given to me as a ‘french’ or bittersweet and considered a good cider apple in Berkeley where it

is still used in local cider production. Too many result in a dark cider. ‘Counsellor’ is also a

synonym for ‘Greenup’s Pippin’ which originated at Keswick.



COUNSELLOR - see ‘Councillor’



COW APPLE - see ‘Taynton Codlin’



CRACKSTALK

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: Last known tree died 1992 at Broadway, Minsterworth.

fruit description: A short yellow apple, flat on top.

notes: While still on the tree water would collect round the stem of these apples and cause the

fruit to crack. The last known tree of this variety had just died when I first visited Broadway

Farm in 1992.



CROOME’S KERNEL - see ‘Severn Bank’
DAFFERTON - see ‘Berkeley Pippin’



DAINTY MAIDS

reference: Pat Pierce, personal communication (1998).

status: Last known tree was at Cam.

date: Mr Pierce (born 1927) told me that this variety grew in his father’s orchard at Cam. Last

known tree died in 1997.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:-

shape: Round.

skin: Flushed russet.

notes: Season October. It may be eaten from the tree. A shy bearer.
DENT’S FAVOURITE




Fig.40: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Dent’s Favourite’ fruit by C.Martell




Fig.40a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Dent’s Favourite’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.
provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth. Only known trees.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- from an old tree.

size: 68-73 mm wide 64-66 mm tall.

shape: Round conical, lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Green with long red stripes, some very broad. A little russet in basin extending as the odd

broad line onto cheek, or absent. Scab absent.

stalk: 3-7 mm swollen, or 15 mm fleshy.

cavity: Deep and medium width. A little scarf skin. Occasionally a little russet extending out as

netting.

eye: Erect convergent. Sepals with very broad base.

basin: Some beaded. Medium to narrow. Shallow but obscuring calyx when viewed from side.

Ring of russet round rim of basin. This may not be a consistently diagnostic feature.

tube: Cone shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Round.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Juicy.

leaf: Broadly oval. Cupped downwards but edges curled up. Serrate becoming dentate.
drawn record:




Fig.41: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Dent’s Favourite’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes:



DEURNALS

reference: David Bennett and J. Trigg, personal communications (1993).

notes: Included in a list of local apples provided by J. Trigg who lived in the orchards at

Broadway, Minsterworth. He died in 1985.



DEURNALS SEEDLING

reference: David Bennett and J.Trigg, personal communications (1993).

notes: Included in a list of local apples provided by J.Trigg who lived in the orchards at

Broadway, Minsterworth. He died in 1985.

Presumably a seedling of the above variety. I have no information on the name of this variety or

the one above. It must be an unusual surname.
DOBB’S KERNEL - see ‘Dobbs’s Kernel Golden Pippin’


DOBB’S KERNEL GOLDEN PIPPIN - see ‘Dobbs’s Kernel Golden Pippin’


DOBBS’ KERNEL GOLDEN PIPPIN - see ‘Dobbs’s Kernel Golden Pippin’


DOBBS’ KERNEL PIPPIN - see ‘Dobbs’s Kernel Golden Pippin’


DOBBS’S KERNEL - see ‘Dobbs’s Kernel Golden Pippin’


DOBBS’S KERNEL GOLDEN PIPPIN

synonyms: ‘Dobb’s Kernel’, ‘Dobb’s Kernel Golden Pippin’, ‘Dobbs’ Kernel Golden Pippin’,

‘Dobbs’ Kernel Pippin’, ‘Dobbs’s Kernel’.

reference: M. Smith, The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In existence 1872.

provenance: Raised by Mr. Dobbs of Solomons, near Gloucester. Introduced by Kirke &

Barclay of Brompton.

date: Raised about 1760 and introduced about 1800.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:-

size: Small.

shape: Flat to round-conical, convex, not ribbed.

skin: Golden.

flesh: Firm and crisp. Flavour sub-acid.

season: Very late.

notes: A seedling of Golden Pippin. I know of no ‘Solomons’ near Gloucester. However there

are two Solomon’s Tumps, one to the north east of the village of Huntley, the other to the south

of the same village.



DOCTOR ASHMEAD’S KERNEL - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’
DREWS PIPPIN

reference: Miss Joan Holford, personal communication (2000).

status: Only known record.

provenance: Known from Drews Court and Brookfield, Churchdown.

date: Known from early 1900s.

use: Dessert.

fruit description: As remembered by Miss Holford.

skin: Red stripes tinted pink.

notes: Miss Holford reports that this variety was not very nice to eat but was very decorative and

whole branches complete with fruit would be cut to decorate the church.

Drews Court was a beautiful Queen Anne style house and was demolished possibly in the 1960s.



DUC DE GLO’STER - see ‘Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester’



DUKE of BEDFORD

reference: Hogg R, The Fruit Manual (1884); Mervyn Bennet per Steven Welsh personal

communication (2006); Hilda May Wellington personal communication (2006).

status: Extant

provenance: Only known record as per R.Hogg above until an apple of the same name was

discovered at Churngate Farm, Kington, Oldbury-on-Severn.

date: First record 1884. Subsequent record 2006.

use: Culinary.

fruit description: after R.Hogg

size: 83mm wide 83mm tall.

shape: Roundish. Ribbed. Irregular. Five-crowned

skin: Bright dark green. Grey russet spots on shaded side. Dull red flush with broken streaks.

stalk: Very short with large fleshy swlling on one side.

eye: Closed. Broad flat convergent sepals.

basin: Wide, deep and uneven.
tube: Conical

stamens: Basal,

core: Axile.

cells: Obovate,

flesh: Greenish. Very firm and tender. Very juicy and an agreeable acidity.

leaf: Narrow acute. Dentate.

drawn record:




Fig.41a: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Duke of Bedford’ leaf by C.Martell, 2007

notes: Hilda May Wellington thinks she remembers this variety and says it is like a ‘Reynolds

Kernel’. From Hogg’s description she could be remembering the same variety.


DUNI RED - see ‘Chaxhill Red’
DYMOCK RED




Fig.42: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Dymock Red’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007




Fig.42a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Dymock Red’ fused fruit by C.Martell, 2007

synonym: ‘Peggy Red’

reference: John Evelyn, Pomona (1670); William Marshall, The Rural Economy of

Gloucestershire (1796); William Forsyth, A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit

Trees (1804); R. Hogg, The Fruit Manual (1884); R. Hogg and H. Bull, The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruit (1886).
status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection. Not endangered 1999.

provenance: Credited with originating in the village of Dymock. Collected for propagation

from Bulmer’s scion orchard, Hereford for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.




Dymock, Glos.

date: Probably arose mid 1600s as a second generation variety of bittersweet apple descended

from Lord Scudamore’s initial bittersweet importation from the continent. Collected for

propagation 1992.

use: Cider but also general purpose. It was known locally as an eating apple by children in its

home parish.

fruit description:- From a young standard tree.

size: 60-71mm wide 47-51mm tall.

shape: Round, round conical or flat round. Broad flat ribbing giving the fruit ‘sides’. Hint of

five-crowning on some fruits as a result of broad ribs. Lop-sided. Irregular. Recorded as

growing fused fruit – see illustration.

skin: Yellow with green tinge. Flush almost total, of stripes and mottling. In a sunny season

flush may be total and an intense mahogany colour. Russet may be present as a few thin pale

patches and streaks, on intense flush is cinnamon coloured. Lenticels pronounced, medium sized

and round. Texture smooth.

stalk: Short 4-9 mm and stoutish 3-4 mm, usually concealed in cavity.

cavity: Medium width, narrowing sharply. Sometimes a little scaly russet.

eye: Acute sepals may be more or less connivent or the eye may be open with short obtuse flat

convergent sepals. Sepals with reflexed tips, not touching.

basin: Medium width and medium depth. A few slight puckers on some specimens.

tube: Cone shaped, approaching funnel shaped in some specimens.
stamens: Median where still present.

core line: Median to basal clasping.

core: Median, axile just open.

cells: Ovate or round.

seeds: Obtuse, some almost round.

flesh: Soft and slightly sweet, with slight acidity. Tinged with red under intense flush.

leaf: Round. Bi-serrate.

tree: Thick twiggy growth.

drawn record:




Fig.43: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Dymock Red’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Regarded by Long Ashton Research Station as a vintage quality cider apple on a par with

the ‘Kingston Black’ and containing a sufficient balance of flavour to be suitable for single

variety production. At the Royal Horticultural Society – Fruit Conference 1934 an ‘Ashton

Dymock Red’ was entered by Long Ashton Research Station. The ‘Dymock Red’ is still being

distributed for cider orchard planting by H.P.Bulmer of Hereford (1999). There are a number of

mature trees in the parish of Dymock and surrounding areas. An old tree growing in the grounds

of the Horsehoe Inn at Broom’s Green, Dymock undergoes a wassailing every Twelfth Night

(1990s). It is decorated for the occasion with toast and bunting, has cider poured over its roots

and a muzzle-loading gun is fired into its branches. In spite of or maybe because of this

treatment it flourishes and is a regular cropper.
Dymock has long been famous for the quality and quantity of its cider. Abel Wantner wrote in

1686: -

          “Dimock and Kempley, before mentioned, are

          two of the most note’edst parishes in England for

          making the most and best rare Vinum Dimocuum,

          or that transcendent Liquor, called Redstrake Sider,

          not much inferior to the best French wines. And so

          plentiful that old Master Wyniat, of the old Grainge,

          (a worthy gentleman and a noble housekeeper,)

          hath caused but one apple to be gathered from each

          Apple Tree growing in his Grounds, and with the

          Liquor thereof he hath made a whole hogshead

          reare good Sider."1

The ‘Red-strake’ mentioned above is probably the ‘Hereford Redstreak’ or ‘Scudamore’s Crab’,

supposedly grown from an imported seed by Lord Scudamore of Holme Lacy. This was the first

bitter-sweet cider variety in Britain from which the second generation of bittersweet or ‘french’

cider varieties such as the ‘Dymock Red’ were produced. It is not inconceivable that the

‘Dymock Red’ arose as a seedling at Master Wyniat’s Grange. He certainly had an enormous

orchard, which was not so unusual at that time. If his ‘Redstreak’ apples weighed 100 grammes

each, that is equivalent to about 10,000 apples to the tonne or ton. A hogshead of cider is

normally 110 gallons or 500 litres which weighs 500 kilograms, but requires 1000 kilograms of

fruit to produce assuming a 50% yield. So accordingly he must have had about ‘10,000’

Redstreak cider apple trees. In 1897 one of Mr Wyniat’s descendants said there was only one of

these trees left.

The parish of Dymock may be the birth place of as many as 13 other varieties of apple, 7

varieties of perry pear and one plum. All have been documented in this and other works by the

author.


1
 Bodleian MS. Top. Glouc. c.2 (ff.319-321): Abel Wantner, The History of Gloster, or the Antiquities, Memoirs,
and Annals of ye ancient City and Royal Dukedom of Gloster from its original to the present time by, Citizen of
Gloster (1686)
DYMOCK WHITE BACHE

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by E. T. Lewis, Hill Farm, Dymock.

date: Sent in after 1920.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.

notes: There are records of a ‘White Bache’ apple. Presumably the ‘Dymock White Bache’ had

similarities to this variety.
EDEN




Fig.44: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Eden’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001




Fig.44a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Eden’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

synonym: ‘Fon’s Spring’ (false) – see ‘Fon’s Spring’

reference: M. Smith, The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Probably not endangered 1999
provenance: Parentage ‘John Standish’ x ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’. A sister seedling to ‘Fon’s

Spring’ raised by E. J. Ingleby, Forest and Orchard Nurseries, Falfield. Introduced by Matthews

Fruit Trees Ltd., Thurston, Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk.




Falfield, Glos.

date: Raised 1948, introduced 1957, graftwood received from Brogdale for Gloucestershire

Apple Collection ca.1993

use: Dessert

description:- 16th September 2001 from a young standard tree.

size: 50-62 mm wide and 46-52 mm tall.

shape: Round to round-conical. Indistinct ribs. Indistinctly five crowned.

skin: Greeny yellow. Bright red flush up to 80%. Indistinct darker stripes.

stalk: About 5mm with a fleshy knob on the side. Mostly protruding.

eye: Small, closed. Sepals connivent or reflexed.

basin: Medium width and depth.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal clasping, quite distinct.

core: Distant. Abaxile. Cells all tightly closed whether with pips or not.

cells: Round.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Subacid and slightly sweet. Season mid to late

leaf: Acute. Bi-crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.45: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Eden’ fruit and leaf by C.Martel, 2001

notes: On trial at the National Fruit Trials, Brogdale 1959-1964 and 1964 onwards as ‘Fon’s

Spring’ (see – ‘Fon’s Spring’). Parentage ‘John Standish’ x ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’. Season mid

to late, this sample was picked rather early. Tree is fast growing, tall and upright. The branches

eventually weeping after heavy cropping. It is slow to come into bearing.
ELMORE PIPPIN




Fig.46: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Elmore Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell




Fig.46a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Elmore Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

reference: Smith,M. The National Apple Register (1971); and Wellington,R., personal

communication (1992). Graham Littleton personal communication (2004) John Guilding(born

1922) personal communication (2006), Hilda May Wellington (born 1920), personal

communication (2007)
status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Endangered 1999.

provenance: Still known from the Elmore district (1999) where it still grows today (2004) and

may be presumed to have originated there. There is no information on where it was collected

from for National Fruit Collection, Brogdale. Propagation material received from the National

Fruit Collection, Brogdale for Gloucestershire Apple Collection.




Elmore, Glos

date: First collected for propagation 1949. Graftwood received from the National Fruit

Collection, Brogdale for propagation in Gloucestershire Apple Collection ca. 1993.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:-

size: 57-74 mm wide 45-49 mm tall

shape: Flat, round-conical or round. Not ribbed

skin: Pale yellow slightly flushed light red. Conspicuous russetted lenticels.

flesh: Firm, fine, tough, cream tinged green. Flavour sub-acid.

leaf: Acute. Tip acuminate. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.47: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Elmore Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Season very late. Fruit still on the tree in the middle of November. John Guilding was

born in Elmore in 1922 and left there in 1935. He remembers the ‘Elmore Pippin’ well. His

father Jack Guilding was a cidermaker and had a fruit business in Elmore Back. Hilda May

Wellington (née Gregson) whose father also had a cidermaking and fruit business remembers the

‘Elmore Pippin’ growing at Upper Hall, Elton in 1929.



EVANS KERNEL




Fig.48: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Evans Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: Melville Thompson, personal communication (1998)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Found growing at Warfield Farm, Ruardean.
Ruardean, Glos

date: First recorded 1998. Propagated 1999.

leaf: Acute. Tip acuminate. Bi-crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.49: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Evans Kernel’ leaf by C.Martell
FAWKE’S KERNEL




Fig.50: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Fawke’s’ Kernel fruit by C.Martell, 2006




Fig.50a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Fawke’s’ Kernel fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: R. Hogg and H. Bull, The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886); Ray Williams,

Long Ashton Research Station, personal communication (1973)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock, believed true. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Believed to have been raised by Messrs Fawke of Little Netherton, Dymock.

Collected for propagation from Little Netherton, Dymock.
Dymock, Glos.

date: There was a farmer Fawke in Dymock mentioned in the census of 1851. For details see

under ‘Netherton Nonsuch’. There are few male Fawkes left to-day (2000) but there is at least

one member of the distaff side living just over the border in Much Marcle. Graftwood collected

for propagation 1993.

fruit description: 9th October 2006. From standard trees in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection

planted 1996 on M25 rootstocks.

size: 58-67mm wide 45-54 mm tall.

shape: Round to round-conical. Slightly five crowned. Lop-sided. Mostly fairly regular.

skin: Green becoming pale yellow. Flush pale when present. One, sometimes two hair lines

occasionally observed. Some netting on smaller specimens. Lenticels mostly conspicuous.

Where flushed lenticels are more darkly flushed areolar. Lenticels darker on riper fruit. Texture

waxy.

stalk: 6-12 mm long, 1mm thick. Usually obscured.

cavity: Narrow, medium to deep. Thin pale russet spreading towards base.

eye: Closed, reflexed tips.

basin: Medium to narrow. Medium depth. Deeper in larger specimens. Puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Axile slightly open.

cells: Roundish, yet misshapen.

seeds: Obtuse, almost and plump.

flesh: Quite acid, little or no astringency.
leaf: Broadly acute, tip acuminate. Bi-serrate.

use: General purpose.

drawn record:




Fig.51: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Fawke’s Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C. Martell, 2006

notes: After Hogg and Bull. Yields a high quality cider and is also a useful culinary apple. The

tree grows freely to a large size and crops well. Juice characteristics similar to ‘Tom Putt’.

R. Hogg gives this variety as ‘Fawkes’ Kernel’, rather than ‘Fawke’s Kernel’. His description

seems to indicate that it is the same variety that Ray Williams described to me in 1973 as being

local to Dymock. Hogg received his information for this district from George H. Piper of

Ledbury, which could explain why he misspelt the name. Messrs Fawke must have been known

to Piper personally as Hogg quotes them – see under ‘Netherton Nonsuch’. Norman Blandford

(personal communication (1995)) told me he remembered ‘Fawke’s Nonsuch’ as a boy. Surely

he had coalesced the two varieties from Little Netherton Farm - ‘Netherton Nonsuch’ and

‘Fawke’s Kernel’. At least Mr Blandford’s statement connects the two varieties, hence

identifying them to one farm and the Fawke family.

Although Ray Williams of Long Ashton Research Station thought this variety would be easily

found in Dymock cottage gardens in 1973, I can now find no-one locally, apart from Mr

Blandford, with any knowledge of the variety (1999). I obtained graft material from the farm

where it was probably raised and it is included in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection on the

evidence of R. Hogg and H. Bull’s description.
FLETCHER




Fig.52: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Fletcher’ fruit by C.Martell, 2003

reference: John and Richard Grey personal communication,(1997)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

provenance: Collected from John Grey’s Manor Farm, Shepperdine. Only known from

Shepperdine.




Shepperdine Glos

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 5th November 2003 from an old tree from Shepperdine

size: 58-64 mm wide 47-60 mm tall.

shape: Round conical. Broadly ribbed, faintly five crowned. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Green, yellowing. Mottled flush, broken stripes becoming longer and finer towards abse.

Some fruits with a large patch of russet, others just a little netting. Lenticels few, dark small

distinct. Texture dry.
stalk: 10-15 mm long, 2-4 mm thick, sometimes just a fleshy knob. Protrudes beyond base.

cavity: Medium to deep. Medium to wide. Typically no russett. Stripes extending into cavity

becoming very fine.

eye: Sepals connivent, reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow, slightly puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped. Characteristically very wide and open to the core. Thinly russetted.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Median, abaxile, open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: White, pleasantly sharp and juicy.

leaf: Broadly oval, crenate. Tip acuminate. Surface undulating.

drawn record:




Fig.53 : original drawing of Malus var. ‘Fletcher’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2003
FLOWER OF THE WEST




Fig.54: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Flower of the West’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: David Bennett, Joe Littleton and Robert Wellington, personal communications

(1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Merestones, Northwood Green, Westbury-on-

Severn.




Westbury-on-Severn, Glos.

date: Collected for propagation 1992.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- from a mature tree.

size: 50-55 mm wide 40-49 mm tall.

shape: Flat round. Slightly lop-sided. Fairly regular. Tendency to oblate.
skin: Green colour just showing through russet. Very slight orange cream flush. Russet

complete but satiny at crown and base giving a sheen. Lenticels lumpy.

stalk: Slender to stout and protruding, or knobbly and concealed.

cavity: Deep and narrow. Some brown scaly russet. Some lipped.

eye: Wide and open. Sepals erect with reflexed tips, some broken, with slight grey pubescence.

basin: Deep and wide. Slight brown scaly russet in some samples.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to sessile. Axile, closed.

cells: Very small round but tapering to stem, invaginated at distal end.

seeds: Obtuse, very small (5 mm) and plump. Some almost circular.

flesh: Firm and white. Not too acid.

leaf: Acute. Dentate and bi-dentate. Tip of blade reflexed 90° to plane of stem.

drawn record:




Fig.55 : original drawing of Malus var.‘Flower of the West’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: An attractive little dessert apple but of little character. On account of its name I am

surprised to find it unrecorded elsewhere. In the 1920s Johnnie Butler had a large number of

trees of this variety grafted and planted at Big Naite Farm, Minsterworth. It caused some

comment because the United Kingdom apple industry was going into serious decline at the time

and there was little call for specialist varieties (see also ‘Leathercoat’).
FON’S SPRING




Fig.56: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Fon’s Spring’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006

reference: M.Smith National Apple Register (1971) where it is incorrectly listed as a synonym of

‘Eden’. Joan Morgan New Book of Apples (2002).

status: Probably very rare because it was only distinguished from ‘Eden’ in 2002. In National

Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

provenance: Parentage ‘John Standish’ x ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’. A sister seedling to ‘Eden’

raised by E. J. Ingleby, Forest and Orchard Nurseries, Falfield. Introduced by Matthews Fruit

Trees Ltd., Thurston, Bury St Edmunds.




Falfield, Glos.

date: Introduced 1957, raised 1948. Identified as a separate from ‘Eden’ in 2002.

use: Dessert
fruit description: 28th October 2006 from an established tree at the National Fruit Trials,

Brogdale.

size: 62-69mm wide 50-57mm tall.

shape: Round. Fairly symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Pale green yellowing. Dull flush covering 50% or more with interspersed indistinct slightly

darker stripes. Lenticels distinct angular russetted, paler on flushed parts.

stalk: 18-20mm. 2-3mm wide. Slight pubescence. Swollen at abscission point.

cavity: Medium width. Medium to deep. Some scaly skin.

eye: Closed, connivent with reflexed tips. Sepals slightly pubescent.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Slightly puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Axile open. Slightly tufted.

cells: Elliptical, lanceolate.

seeds: Acute

flesh: Crisp, slightly sweet, no acidity.

leaf: Narrow acute. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.57: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Fon’s Spring’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2006
FOREST STYRE

synonym: ‘Stire’, ‘Stirom’.

reference: John Phillips, Cyder: A poem in two books (1706); William Marshall, The Rural

Economy of Gloucestershire (1796); Thomas Andrew Knight, A Treatise on the Culture of the

Apple and Pear (1797); R. Hogg, The Fruit Manual (1884); R. Hogg and H. Bull, The Apple and

Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886); Northcote Toller,T. The Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Oxford

University Press (1898); Ray Williiams, personal communication (1990s); Gillian Bulmer,

personal communication (1990s);Aubrey Allen, personal communication (1993); Kevin

Minchew, personal communication (2000).

status: Last known to Long Ashton Research Station in the late 1950s at Tommy Garland’s farm

at Aylburton near Lydney. Chris Cadogan said in 1993 that a grand tree of this variety blew

down at the Craddocks at Awre in the 1950s. Its butt was about 4 feet (120 cms) in diameter.

The tree looked like an oak. The last known tree, also very large, grew at Pool Farm, Halmore

near Berkeley. The author knew this tree in the early 1960s and helped to haul its fruit to the

cider mill with horse and cart. Unfortunately he did not appreciate its significance at the time

and it was cut down in the late 1960s without being propagated.

provenance: An old Gloucestershire variety. Cuttings were obtained by William Viner Ellis of

Minsterworth for R. Hogg before 1886 when it had become rare and they were propagated for

the Woolhope Club by Messrs. Cranston and Co. of King’s Acre, Hereford. I have traced a

number of H.P.Bulmer & Co planting records for the ‘Forest Styre’ but in all cases the trees had

been subsequently removed. If any remaining trees of this variety are found they may be

attributable to this planting mentioned by Hogg.




Forest of Dean, Glos
date: First mentioned 1706. Its name at least may be of Anglo Saxon origin – see ‘notes’. Last

known tree cut down around 1968

use: Cider. A.Allen (1993) reports that on keeping, its interior became honey-like and made an

excellent eater.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg

size: Below medium size

shape: Round inclining to flat-round (oblate)

skin: Pale yellow, with an orange blush on the sunny side. Numerous small russet spots

scattered over the surface.

stalk: Short, concealed within cavity

cavity: Narrow and deep, lined with russet which spreads over the base of the fruit

eye: Small and closed, with short obtuse sepals

basin: Narrow, some puckering

flesh: Yellow dry and harsh, but becomes sweet and honey-like with keeping

juice: Small in quantity, pale straw colour, changing to deep amber, with a remarkably sweet

luscious flavour and some astringency.

drawn record:




Fig.58: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Forest Styre’ fruit by HG Bull, 1886

notes: Marshall states that the ‘stire’ was propagated with tolerable success in the Forest of

Dean by planting young wood pulled from the crown of the tree (1796). This ability to strike

root from cuttings was a characteristic common to some of the oldest varieties like the ‘Genet

Moyle’ and ‘Hereford Redstreak’ as well as the ‘Burr-knot’ apples of west Wales. This
characteristic was indespensable when grafting was considered by country people to be a

mystical art and may be one of the reasons that the ‘Styre’ was so widespread in the distant past.

The word ‘styrian’ is an intransitive verb listed in Northcote Toller’s Anglo Saxon dictionary

and means ‘to be in motion’ or by inference ‘lively’. ‘Styre’ may therefore refer to this variety’s

astringent flavour. However, Ray Williams has suggested it may be because of its quick

fermenting properties, a characteristic associated with triploid apples. Other evidence of being a

triploid is the tree’s large size and poor cropping latterly, possibly due to lack of suitable cross

pollinators. The last known tree was cut down due to its poor cropping.

Kevin Minchew a distinguished cider and perry maker, mentioned a letter in his possession,

dated 1790, which discusses the correct proportion of ‘Forest Styre’ and ‘Kingston Black’ in

cidermaking.

The late Bertram Bulmer of Hereford spent many years of his long life searching unsuccessfully

for this variety. However, a small army of Gloucestershire apple enthusiasts is now taking up

the search. An aid to its identification is the enormous size of the tree.
FOXWELL - see ‘Foxwhelp’



FOXWHELP




Fig.59: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Foxwhelp’ fruit by C.Martell, 1999




Fig.59a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Foxwhelp’ fruit by C.Martell,2007

synonym: ‘Foxwell’, ‘Old Foxwhelp’.

reference: Austin, Ralph 1653; Evelyn, John Pomona (part of Sylva) (1664). Worledge, (1676);

Stafford, Hugh Communication (1727); Marshall, William The Rural Economy of

Gloucestershire (1796); Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple

and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886); Ray Williams personal communication (1993).
status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Not endangered 1999.

provenance: The earliest records of this variety assign its origins to Gloucestershire, specifically

the Forest of Dean. It is interesting to note that cider fruit authorities at that time, who were

basing their knowledge on contemporary folklore within Herefordshire had not heard of the

variety, which adds weight to the evidence that it originated in the Forest of Dean. When it

became more widely known it soon took its place as a vintage cider variety, even becoming the

“favourite cider apple of Herefordshire” to quote Robert Hogg who tried to adopt this great apple

as a Herefordshire variety.

Collected for propagation from Daniel J. Phelps’s old orchard at Tibberton which Long Ashton

Research Station used as a source of ‘Foxwhelp’ propagating material until the 1950s. The last

old ‘Foxwhelp’ tree in this orchard was removed in about 1997.




Forest of Dean, Glos

date: First recorded 1653. Trees which provided the sample fruit depicted in the Herefordshire

Pomona were believed to have been planted in about 1609, which if correct make this the earliest

dated Gloucestershire apple variety. Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- 27th October 1999 from a young standard tree.

size: 43-68mm wide 47-67mm tall.

shape: From round through conical to oblong-conical. Lop-sided, irregular. Hint of ribbing and

five-crowning.

skin: Yellow, beautifully striped with deep bright crimson. The side facing the sun is more

crimson than on the shaded side. The stripes appear to have been painted on with a water colour

paint brush. Russet virtually absent except in cavity. Scab present.

stalk: 7-28mm long. Slender.
cavity: Deep and narrow. A little thin russet.

eye: Tightly closed, sepals reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow, shallow and puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped and deep. Open to core giving access to harmful pests.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Median. Indistinct because of length of tube.

core: Distant, abaxile, open.

cells: Ovate, lanceolate at distal end.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Tinged with red. Bittersharp.

leaf: Broadly oval. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.60: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Foxwhelp’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1999
notes: Hogg suggested the name ‘Foxwhelp’ arose because it was a seedling found near a fox’s

earth, or possibly that a foxhunter discovered it, conspicuous because of its bright coloured fruit,

and named it. There was even a suggestion that the eye of the fruit resembles the physiognomy

of a fox cub. ‘Foxwhelp’ cider is reported always to have ‘a peculiar aroma’, possibly

reminiscent of a fox’s scent, and maybe this is what has given rise to its name.

The ‘Foxwhelp’ is prone to producing sports (mutations) on a given branch. This is possibly

how some of the other ‘Foxwhelp’ varieties like ‘Black Foxwhelp’, ‘Broxwood Foxwhelp’, ‘Red

Foxwhelp’ and ‘Rejuvenated Foxwhelp’ occurred rather than as seedlings of the original. An

ancient variety such as this would benefit from being ‘cleaned up’ by heat treatment to remove

the build-up of virus in its tissue. Ray Williams has suggested that its propensity to mutate

would be increased by this heat treatment process and therefore may render it an unsuitable

candidate.



FRENCH OLD BOY

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H. Knight of Deep Filling, Huntley and

Daniel J. Phelps of Tibberton.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.
GILLIFLOWER OF GLOUCESTER




Fig.61: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Gilliflower of Gloucester’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Pat Turner personal communication

(1997).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Possibly not endangered 1999.

provenance: Collected from Saul in 1952. Pat Turner’s father grew this variety. ‘After the

Second World War’ (1945) three members of Long Ashton Research Station staff came to Mr

Turner’s farm and collected graft material. This may be the source of the National Fruit

Collection’s trees. However the Turner’s farm is at Milton End, Arlingham and not nearby Saul.

Jasper Ely (1926-1996) who lived all his life in Saul where this was supposed to have been

collected had never heard of this variety.




Saul, Glos.
Propagation material came from the National Fruit Collection for the Gloucestershire Apple

Collection.

date: Earliest known record 1945 (Pat Turner). Received by the National Fruit Collection,

Brogdale in 1952. Collected for propagation in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock

1993.

use: Dessert.

fruit description: - small sample from young standard tree.

size: 49-51mm wide 66-68mm tall. Some fruits reported to grow ‘very big’.

shape: Conical or oblong conical with broad flat ribs. Five-crowned. Lop-sided, irregular.

Maybe waisted.

skin: Green turning yellow. Light even flush or stippled. Patches of thin russet. Lenticels

indistinct, merging into patches of russet. Texture smooth, dry on russet.

stalk: Variable. 15-30 mm long 2mm thick.

cavity: Narrow and medium depth, russetted. Stripes extending over base and onto cheeks.

eye: Sepals connivent.

basin: Medium depth and narrow.

tube: Cone shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant, abaxile, closed,

cells: Round, tufted.

flesh: Light, fluffy, dry and tasteless. Maybe overripe at time (October).

leaf: Oval. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:
Fig.62: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Gilliflower of Gloucester’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: I have not come across this apple growing in Gloucestershire during my research (1990s).

The only person I met who had heard of it was Pat Turner, whose farm may have been the source

of graft material – see under ‘provenance’. Mr Turner described how his father would keep

some ‘Gilliflower of Gloucester’ apples on the mantelpiece because they were so beautiful.

Milton End was supplied with trees from the Cheltenham nursery of Fuller and Maylem, and Mr

Turner thinks this could be the source of this tree.

When considering the name of the ‘Cornish Gilliflower’, Hogg (1884) says the name is derived

from the French for ‘girofle’, signifying a clove, because the blossom is reputed to smell of that

spice.

                                            ‘Gilliflower’ is a name also given to wallflowers, and it was

                                            the name given to pinks in the Middle Ages. Perversely

                                            some of the oldest varieties of pinks have a heavy scent of

                                            cloves. I have asked a number of people to smell the

                                            blossom of the ‘Gilliflower of Gloucester’. Some say they

                                            can smell something. None has ever identified cloves, as I
Fig.63: original photograph of Malus
var. ‘Gilliflower of Gloucester’
blossom by C.Martell
                                            never have.
GLOUCESTER QUARANTINE

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992); Hilda May

Wellington, personal communication (2006).

status: Last known mid 1900s at Walmer Hill opposite what is now the Severn Bore pub. Only

record.

provenance: Presumably Gloucestershire.

description:- A long red tapered apple.

notes: An early apple which Bob Wellington said he used to steal as a child.



GLOUCESTER QUOINING

synonym: ‘Quoining from Gloucestershire’

reference: Forsyth, W. A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees (1804); Hogg,

R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. National Apple Register (1971).

provenance: Only recorded by W.Forsyth and R. Hogg

date: Only recorded in 1804 and 1884 by the above.

use: culinary and cider.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg

size: 75mm wide 62 mm tall.

shape: Round. Undulating at the apex.

skin: Dull brownish red facing the sun. Streaked with short broken streaks of dark crimson and

green, or yellowish green, on the shaded side. Covered with patches of thin grey russet.

stalk: Slender, inserted all its length in the cavity.

cavity: Narrow and deep, green lined with russet.

eye: Closed with connivent segments.

basin: Rather deep and angular.

tube: Conical sometimes inclining to funnel-shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core: Axile, open

cells: Roundish obovate.
flesh: White, tender, juicy and pleasantly sub-acid.

notes: Keeps until January.



GLOUCESTER ROYAL




Fig.66: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Gloucester Royal’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994




Fig.66a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Gloucester Royal’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007
reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Possibly not endangered 1999.

parentage: ‘McIntosh’ crossed with an unknown variety.

provenance: Raised at Dursley by J.W.Thornhill and introduced by Matthews Fruit Trees Ltd.,

Thurston, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.




Dursley, Glos

date: Raised ca. 1930, first fruit 1941, introduced 1956. Collected for propagation in the

Gloucestershire Apple Collection 1993.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 6th October 1994 from a young standard tree at Hunts Court, Dymock.

size: 55mm wide 45mm tall.

shape: Flat-round or round-conical. Symmetrical, regular.

skin: Flush dense to a deep blood red, covering 90%. Hammering. Russet up to 30% especially

round apex, or absent. Lenticels conspicuous, russetted, pointed, pale areolar. Skin dry

becoming greasy.

stalk: 6-12mm. Slender, swollen at abscission point and often a swelling at base. Protrudes

beyond base.

cavity: Deep and medium width. Russet may be present, as may scarf skin.

eye: Erect convergent or erect divergent.

basin: Broad and deep.

tube: cone-shaped, broad and shallow.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.
cells: Round

seeds: Obtuse, almost circular.

flesh: Coarse, cream tinged green. Flavour sweetish, insipid.

leaf: Broadly acute or broadly oval. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.67: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Gloucester Royal’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994

notes: Season mid to late. Muriel Smith National Apple Register (1971) p.210 describes this

variety as ‘moderately ribbed’. I could only find the merest hint of ribbing in succeeding years.

I have never met with this relatively young variety in Gloucestershire orchards.
GLOUCESTERSHIRE COSTARD




Fig.64: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Gloucestershire Costard’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

synonym:‘Red Costard’

reference: Meager, Leonard The English Garden (Red Costard) (1688); Herefordshire Pomona

(1879); Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Taylor, H.V. ‘The Costard Apple’ Journal of the

Royal Horticultural Society (1958); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); J.H.C.Sale

(Committee member of the Royal Horticultural Society Fruit Group) personal communication

(c.1993).

status: Extant if true. In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple

Collection, Dymock.

provenance: A type, or possibly a sport, of the old English cultivar ‘Costard’. Propagation

material received for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock from the National Fruit

Collection, Brogdale where it is falsely labelled ‘Costard’. Indications are that this may be the

‘Gloucestershire Costard’.

date: First recorded 1876. Collected for propagation in Gloucestershire Apple Collection 1991.

use: Culinary

fruit description:- 25th September 2001 from a young tree on a semi-vigorous rootstock.

size: 59-70mm wide, 72-80mm tall.

shape: Long-conical to oblong-conical. Broad and mostly indistinct. Indistinct crowning. Lop-

sided. Irregular. Slightly waisted.
skin: Dull green. Dark red almost maroon flush about 80%. Indistinct stripes on dark flush,

more distinct on mottled flush. Russet on base, occasionally a little netting on cheek. Lenticels

almost white and distinct round base, otherwise indistinct. Texture greasy.

stalk: 5mm stout and concealed.

cavity: Narrow and deep. Slightly lipped. Pale olive russet overlaid with scaly russet.

eye: Closed. Long, broad-based sepals with reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow, slightly puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped, open to core.

stamens: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, open.

cells: Round or elliptical, slightly tufted.

seeds: Acute, plump.

flesh: Sweetish and of good flavour. Keeps until January.

leaf: Oval. Crenate. Wavy margin.

drawn record:




Fig.65: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Gloucestershire Costard’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: The old ‘Costard’ apple was first recorded as being sold in Oxford in 1296 and held its

position as the premier culinary apple until the end of the seventeenth century. It gave its name
to the London ‘costermongers’. Since that time many other varieties of costard have arisen eg:

‘Crimson’, ‘Green’, ‘Grey’, ‘Herefordshire’, ‘Pope’s Scarle’, ‘Red’, ‘Royal’, ‘White’, as well as

the ‘Gloucestershire’. The ‘Gloucestershire Costard’ was recorded in 1883 and with all the

confusion surrounding this subject it is impossible to say whether the costard described above is

in fact the ‘Gloucestershire Costard’. Some experts believe it is.
GLOUCESTERSHIRE UNDERLEAF




Fig.68: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Gloucestershire Underleaf’ fruit by C.Martell, 1992

synonym: ‘Yellow Underleaf’.

references; Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Ray Williams, personal

communication (1973). Sidney Hewlett, personal communication (1998) Pat Turner, personal

communication (1997)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. An unspecified ‘Underleaf’ is in the

National Fruit Collection, Brogdale.

provenance: Presumably Gloucestershire. Collected for propagation from Tawnies Farm,

Oxenhall. Verified by Ray Williams of Long Ashton Research Station as a true ‘Gloucestershire

Underleaf’.

date: First record 1883. Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- from an old tree growing at Tawnies Farm, Oxenhall 1992

size: 55-60mm wide, 43-44mm tall. Small sample.

shape: Flat round. Hint of ribs. Slightly five-crowned. Nearly symmetrical. Nearly regular.

skin: Yellow. Greener towards cavity and basin. Slight orange blush. A few red stripes in

cavity of some specimens. Lenticels russetted or green and not russetted (on same fruit). A few

odd marks of russet present. Texture greasy

stalk: Short 5mm. Medium or thick. Projects slightly from cavity.

cavity: Medium to narrow and deep.
eye: Sepals connivent or divergent. Sepals green with dark border.

basin: Shallow or deep and narrow. In shallow specimens hint of beading and puckering.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Axile open.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Off-white. Acid. Mid-season (October/November)

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate and bi-crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.69: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Gloucestershire Underleaf’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1992

notes: A well known and much loved variety throughout Gloucestershire where people still

speak with affection for this apple which they could eat, cook and make into cider. There are a

number of sub varieties of ‘Underleaf’ which may mean it is an older type than indicated above.

It is probably the best-known general-purpose variety in Gloucestershire. Hogg mentions the

‘Hereford Underleaf’ in his Herefordshire based surveys, but it doesn’t seem to have been as

important a variety there as the ‘Gloucestershire Underleaf’ in its home county. Perhaps the

‘Underleaf’ spread from Gloucestershire into Herefordshire. I had assumed that the name

‘Underleaf’ indicated that the fruit grew under the leaf but Sidney Hewlett of Rodley assured me

that the name arose for the reverse reason, that is the leaf grows under the fruit. Inspection of

trees in full fruit leaves me undecided as to the true reason.
GOLDEN GLOUCESTER

reference: Hogg, Robert The Apple (1851); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In existence 1872.

date: Described 1851. Last known record 1872.

fruit description:-

size: Medium.

shape: Flat.

skin: Gold flushed red.

notes: Season, very late. I am assuming this is or was a Gloucestershire variety in the absence of

information to the contrary.



GRANDPA RHEAD’S - see ‘Rhead’s Reinette’



GREEN STYRE

reference: Hogg, Robert and Bull, Henry The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886); Long

Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition 1903-1929; Aubrey Allen,

personal communication (1992).

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to to Long Ashton Research Station by R.E.Taylor of Dymock.

date: Fruit sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider and culinary.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg and H. Bull.

size: Middle-sized.

skin: Presumably green. Becomes yellow.

flesh: A sharp apple. Late season. When it becomes yellow it is a good culinary apple.

Considered very good as a cider fruit. Bears “tremendously”. The tree is very large like the

‘Forest Styre’.
GREEN TWO YEAR OLD




Fig.70: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Green Two Year Old’ fruit by C.Martell, 1993

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 17th November 1993 from an old tree growing at Broadway Farm, Walmore

Hill.

size: 55-66mm wide 45-57mm tall. Small sample.

shape: Round. Ribs almost absent, five-crowned. 90% symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Dark green. Slight dull flush on some fruits. Russet almost absent, though lenticels may

be russetted. Lenticels pale, conspicuous. Texture greasy.

stalk: Almost concealed. Slender and short.
cavity: Deep and narrow. Very little thin russet which appears to be an extension of lenticels

heading into cavity.

eye: Small and closed, sepals connivent.

basin: Narrow and shallow, puckered and may be beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal.

core: Median, abaxile, some open, some closed.

cells: Obovate. Lanceolate at base end.

seeds: Acuminate. Flattened where they have grown in pairs.

flesh: Hard and sour.

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.71: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Green Two Year Old’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: This variety is so named for its long keeping qualities. There is also a ‘Red Two Year

Old’ - see below.
GREEN UNDERLEAF




Fig.72: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Green Underleaf’ by C.Martell, 2003

reference: Pat Turner and Mervyn Bennett, personal communication (1997).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Milton End Farm, Arlingham.




Arlingham, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1998.

use: General purpose.

fruit description: 20th November 2003, from an old tree.

shape: Oblong-conical. More or less ribbed. Five-crowned. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Green yellowing. Occasional thin flush. A little scarf skin on base. Some irregular spots

and splashes of dark russet usually around crown. Lenticels distinct especially where russetted.

Texture greasy.

stalk: 10-20mm, slender about 1.5mm thick. Pubescent. Protruding.

cavity: Narrow, medium depth. Some russet.
eye: Sepals connivent, reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Puckered.

tube: Coneshaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Abaxile, open.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Lanceolate.

flesh: Firm and white, slightly sweet and mellow. No acidity or astringency.

leaf: Reflexed. Broadly acute.

drawn record:




Fig.73: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Green Underleaf’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2003

notes: According to Pat Turner, in the old days this apple would be “wurded” or ripened in heaps

under ‘boltings’ (big thrashed sheaves) of wheat straw. They would turn yellow when ripe and

be good for eating. See also under ‘Bastard Underleaf’. Known also from Oldbury on Severn.
GYPSY RED




Fig.74: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Gypsy Red’ fruit by C.Martell, 2003

reference: Mervyn Bennett, personal communication (2003).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2003.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Churngate Farm, Kington, near Oldbury-on-

Severn . Only known record.




Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 2003.

use: Cider

fruit description: 12th Novemeber 2003, from an old tree.

size: 42-52mm wide 37-54mm tall.

shape: Round or oblong conical. Slightly lop-sided, slightly irregular.
skin: Dark dull red flush total with indistinct long darker stripes. A little thin russet round apex.

Lenticels mostly indistinct, a few pale russetted. Texture smooth.

stalk: A knob of 3-8mm, fleshy, 3-4mm thick. Concealed or protruding.

cavity: Narrow and shallow, slightly russetted.

eye: Open, erect, reflexed tips. Sepals may be joined at the base forming a tubular calyx.

basin: Narrow and shallow.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core-line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant, abaxile open.

cells: Ovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Dense, stained red under skin. Fine textured. Bittersharp.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.75: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Gypsy Red’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2003

notes: A very distinctive little apple in appearance. The tree is small and fine with one or two

long spreading main limbs.
HACKETT’S KERNEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by J. Mayo of Dymock.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

description: A sharp variety.
HAGLOE CRAB




Fig76: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Hagloe Crab’ fruit from an old tree by C.Martell, 1993




Fig.77: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Hagloe Crab’ fruit from a young tree by C.Martell, 2003

reference: Marshall, William The Rural Economy of Gloucestershire (1796); Knight, Thomas

Andrew Pomona Herefordensis (1811); Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull,

H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886); Royal Horticultural Society - Apple and Pear

Conference 1934.

status: In the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock where there are a number of young

trees. This highly esteemed and historic variety is unknown elsewhere currently (1999) and is

therefore critically rare.
provenance: The ‘Hagloe Crab’ is stated by William Marshall (1796) to have been raised by Mr

Bellamy of Hagloe near Blakeney. Graftwood was obtained from the only known verified tree at

H.J.Phelps’ old orchard at Tibberton, from where Long Ashton Research Station would obtain

graft material up to the 1950’s. This tree was cut down sometime before the autumn of 1998, but

was previously confirmed as the true ‘Hagloe Crab’ by Ray Williams of Long Ashton who

worked with this variety in the 1950s.




Hagloe, Glos.

date: William Marshall wrote in 1796 that it was produced ‘about seventy years ago, in a nursery

among other stocks raised from the seed’ (ibid.). Thomas Andrew Knight thought that it was in

fact just beginning to be recognised in the 1720s and that it had originated earlier (1811).

Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- Sample taken from the late H. J. Phelps’ orchard at Tibberton 30th November

1993.

size: 40-48mm wide 42-58mm tall.

shape: Oblong ovate. Ribs absent but may be flattened on one side. Five crowned lop-sided

irregular.

skin: Pale yellow to green. Flush bright red, broken streaks, flush orange where it thins over

yellow. Surface rough and knobbly, possibly caused by raised lenticels. Russet as netting over

most of surface. Lenticels small and inconspicuous, may be almost white, brown or almost

black. Texture dry.

stalk: 10mm or less, slender, flattened in one plane.

cavity: Narrow, deep, thinly russetted and lipped. Curved stem to one side.

eye: Closed, sepals reflexed.
basin: Medium width, shallow, puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped. May be open to the core.

stamens: Basal.

core line: Basal meeting or basal clasping.

core: Median or distant. Axile open.

cells: Obovate tapering to stem.

seeds: Small and brown. Round, obtuse. Few viable.

flesh: Firm dry sweet and bitter.

leaf: Broadly acute. Acuminate tip. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.78: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Hagloe Crab’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: The first photograph shows fruit from Harold Phelps’s orchard at the Elms at Tibberton.

The lower picture depicts fruit from trees planted in 1994 on M25 rootstocks.

William Marshall (1796) stated that this variety would be exchanged ‘barrel for barrel for

spiritous liquor’. The question may be asked;

-    If the Hagloe Crab was so highly esteemed in the past why did it almost die out?

The answer could lie in the build up of viruses which get transferred during propagation. These

viruses could adversley affect the flavour of cider. Perhaps this variety could benefit from being

heat treated in order to eliminate this virus infection. It then could be possible to drink the cider

as it was in the ‘Hagloe Crab’s’ hey-day. A bit like restoring an old master painting to its

original condition.
HARD IRONS

reference: Melville Thompson (born 1931), personal communication (2007)

status: Lost.

provenance: Known from Ruardean. Only known record as above.

use: Dessert, surplus fruit to cider

description: ‘A lovely apple to eat’



HARD KNOCK




Fig.79: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Hard Knock’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Fred Washbourne, personal communication (2000).

status: Known to Fred Washbourne who has lived all his life in Oxenton and his family for ‘500

years before him’. In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Only known from two old trees at Oxenton. Collected for propagation from Helen

Beardsell’s cottage, Oxenton.




Oxenton, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 2000.

use: Cider and also a cooker.
fruit description:- 15th September 2001 from an old tree.

size: 47-60mm wide 37-55mm tall.

shape: Flat-round or round. Broadly and irregularly ribbed. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Dark green. Flush mottled with darker well defined broken or continuous stripes from

basin to cavity. A few spots of russet in basin and more on base. Lenticels small, pale and

indistinct. Texture smooth, rougher on apex.

stalk: 10-20mm, medium thickness to slender.

cavity: Medium width and depth. A little thick and scaly ginger-coloured russet.

eye: Closed, reflexed tips.

basin: Medium to shallow. Medium to narrow.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Axile or abaxile, open.

cells: Round but misshapen at widest point. Lanceolate nearest stem.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Rough, acid. Dense and hard.

leaf: Broadly oval. Serrate and crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.80: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Hard Knock’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: Fred Washbourne noted that ‘when the apples start to drop they are all down in a week’.

Anyone who has shaken cider apples from the tree with a lug hook will know how falling apples

can hurt when they hit you. This dense heavy apple must have had a reputation for giving a

‘hard knock’.



HATCHER

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886).

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Gloucestershire.

use: Cider

fruit description: Green and russety, with red streaks on the sunny side. It is a late variety.

tree: Medium sized and bears abundantly.
HAWKINS KERNEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by Tom Garland of Aylburton.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.
HAYWOOD KERNEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H. Knight, Deep Filling, Huntley.

Mr Knight used to buy in a lot of fruit for cider making, hence this variety may not have been

produced on his farm which was mainly planted with plums.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider but as a sweet variety was possibly also a culinary and dessert variety.



HEMING

reference: Evelyn, John Pomona (1670); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage

Fruit (1886).

status: Previously well known but very rare by the late 1800s.

provenance: An old Gloucestershire variety.

date: Well known in the mid 17th century but scarcely to be found by the late 19th century.

use: Cider.
HENS’ TURDS




Fig.81: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Hens’ Turds’ fruit from an old tree, by C.Martell, 30th September 2001




Fig.82: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Hens’ Turds’ fruit from a young tree, by C.Martell, 5th November 2001

reference: Sidney Hewlett and Frank Gibson, personal communications (1998)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Named by the ‘old people’ working at Rodley Court, Rodley.
Rodley, Glos

date: Regarded as an old variety in 1998. Propagated 1998.

use: Cider.

fruit description: 25th September 2001 from an old tree at Rodley Court. Fruit falling.

size: 49-59mm wide, 42-49mm tall.

shape: Round conical, lop-sided. Fairly regular. Some slightly waisted.

skin: Pale green, yellowing. Thin flush. Russet on base and very little at eye.

stalk: 15-25mm. Slender and angled, green. Sometimes 10mm and stout. Protruding.

cavity: Deep and medium width. Thinly russetted with a few longitudinal streaks onto base.

Slightly lipped.

eye: Closed. Connivent or reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Puckered and beaded.

tube: cone-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Median to basal meeting.

core: Median to distant. Abaxile, open.

cells: Round, slightly tufted.

seeds: Acute, plump.

flesh: Acid, slight astringency.

leaf: Oval. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.83: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Hens’ Turds’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: The tree is small and spreading. I don’t know why or how this variety earned its

disparaging name. The illustrations demonstrates the changes apples may undergo on ripening.

The top photograph shows fruit at the end of September. The lower one 5 weeks later.
HOLBERT’S VICTORIA

synonyms: ‘Hulbert’s Victoria’, ‘Victoria’, ‘Victoria de Holbert’, ‘Victoria de Hulbert’, ‘Victoria

(Hulbert)’

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In existence 1895.

provenance: Raised by a Mr Holbert of Gloucester.

date: Raised first half of the 1800s.

use: Dessert

fruit description:- After R.Hogg 1884

size: Small.

shape: Ovate.

skin: Greenish yellow almost covered with pale grey russet.

stalk: 20mm long.

cavity: Wide and shallow.

eye: Open,sepals long and sharp-ponted, divergent or reflexed tips.

basin: Wide, shallow and puckered.

tube: Funnel shaped.

stamens: Median.

core: Axile, closed.

cells: Ovate.

flesh: Firm and yellowish. Flavour subacid, aromatic.

notes: Very late season.
HOLBROOK




Fig.84: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Holbrook’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: Aubrey Allen, Jasper Ely and Rodney Summers, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Believed to have originated in the Berkeley district. Collected from Halmore where

the only known old trees grow (1999).




Berkeley, Glos
date: No known history. Collected for propagation 1999.

use: Cider or culinary. A ‘scrumper’ or cask filler.

fruit description:- From an old tree at Pool Farm, Halmore.

size: 62-72mm wide 55-60mm tall.

shape: Flat round. Ribbed. Mostly symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Pale greenish yellow. Light flush, lightly striped and streaked with red. Russet mostly

absent, but an occasional streak spreading from eye. Lenticels conspicuous, uncoloured. Waxy

skin.

stalk: 5mm-10mm. Some a knob, others medium thickness.

cavity: Deep and wide.

eye: Sepals obtuse. Connivent.

basin: Shallow, narrow and ribbed.

tube: Funnel shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median axile, open.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute. The seeds in the fruit were found to make a pronounced rattle when shaken.

flesh: Open texture. Slightly acid and little flavour.

aroma: Little.

tree: Upright.

leaf: Broadly oval. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.85: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Holbrook’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Known of in Arlingham.



HOOK STREET PIPPIN

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971). Brian Wherrett, personal

communication (2005) Sarah Juniper, personal communication (2005) Ian Hunter Darling,

personal communication (2006)

status: Last known trees at Hope House Farm, Cambridge

provenance: A ‘Hook Street Pippin’ was exhibited at Bristol. Possibly the same variety

described here which seems likely to have arisen at Hook Street Farm (now Hope House Farm),

although there is a Hook Street at nearby Berkeley

date: Exhibited at Bristol 1883 if the same variety. Hook Street Farm’s name was changed to

Hope House Farm in about 1900. 2 trees known to have existed in 1996 or 1997. They were

gone before the Wherretts sold the farm sometime after 1997.

use: Dessert and cider.

fruit description: ‘an early apple’ which ‘looked like a cider apple’

size: small.

skin ‘orangey’

flesh: ‘had a tang’

tree: tall.
notes: Ian Hunter Darling has pointed out that Hope House Farm was previously named Hook

Street Farm until about 1900. He has seen a photograph of the then Hook Street Farm in Stroud

Museum proving this point. There is a Hook Street on the outskirts of Berkeley



HULBERT’S VICTORIA - see ‘Holbert’s Victoria’



HUNT’S DUKE OF GLO’STER - see ‘Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester’
HUNT’S DUKE OF GLOUCESTER




Fig.86: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester’ fruit by C.Martell

synonyms: ‘Duc de Glo’ster’, ‘Hunt’s Duke of Gl’oster’.

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Not endangered 1999.

provenance: Raised by Dr Fry of Gloucester and introduced by Thomas Hunt of Stratford-on-

Avon.

date: Introduced 1820.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:-

size: 41-51mm wide and 41-50mm tall.

shape: Round, round-conical, oblong-conical, conical. Fairly symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Light green/yellow. Lenticels inconspicuous, lumpy on base. Thin russet almost complete.

Occasional thin flush. Texture dry.

stalk: 12-15mm. Fairly slender. Pubescent.

cavity: Medium depth, wide. Russet as on cheek.

eye: Closed, reflexed tips.

basin: Shallow, narrow. Slightly puckered. Partial russet.
leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.87: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Hunt’s Duke of Gloucester’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
JACKETS AND PETTICOAT – see ‘Little Herbert’



JACKETS AND PETTICOATS




Fig.88: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Jackets and Petticoats’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Jackets and Waistcoats’

reference: June Dallman, John Ennis and Mr and Mrs Andrew Shayle, personal communications

(1996 and 2001).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Ashleworth but see notes.




Ashleworth, Glos

date: No known history. Collected for propagation 1996.

use: Dessert.
fruit description:-

size: 51-56mm wide 40-48mm tall.

shape: Flat-round. Slightly ribbed and crowned. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Green, yellowing. Flush slight. Well defined stripes. Russet slight, but if present mostly

round apex. Lenticels small and idistinct. More concentrated round apex, larger round apex.

Lenticels small and indistinct. More concentrated round apex, larger on base. Skin texture

smooth and dry, but becoming a little waxy.

stalk: 12-15mm. Stout, thickening at point of entry. Sometimes angled. Protruding.

cavity: Sometimes very narrow and shallow - the base of the fruit being flat, or broad and

medium shallow. Russet absent.

eye: Small. Sepals erect convergent, erect or reflexed tips.

basin: Medium and shallow. Slightly ribbed.

tube: Cone shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Axile, open.

cells: Round - slightly elliptical.

seeds: Acute, dark brown.

flesh: White crisp, sweet and mellow. This cultivar is noted for its banana flavour.

leaf: Broadly oval. Tip acuminate. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.89: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Jackets and Petticoats’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
notes: This variety was noted in the centre of Ashleworth village and at Longridge End Farm,

Ahleworth which has been occupied by the Shayle family for 3 generations. Their farm still has

(1996) extensive well maintained traditional orchards.

In the early 1900s there used also to be a similarly banana-flavoured apple growing at Slowwe

Farm, Arlingham. It was a big yellow apple and was named merely ‘Codlin’. See also

‘Wheelers Russet of Glocestershire’ for this flavour characteristic.

See also ‘Little Herbert’ which has the synonym ‘Jackets and Petticoat’. Now lost, its synonym

was recorded from Frampton-on-Severn some 11 miles down stream from Ashleworth .



JACKETS AND WAISTCOATS - see ‘Jackets and Petticoats’



JELLY

reference: Robert Wellington, personal communication (1992).

status: Only known record.

description: A small yellow (‘white’- R.Wellington), long conical apple with thick stem.

date: Probably still in existence in the late 1900s.

provenance: Only known records as above. Last known to be growing in Hay Redding orchard

at Chaxhill.

fruit description:- A small long conical white or yellow apple with a long thick stalk. -

R.Wellington.

notes: This is quite different to the ‘Bunch Apple’ which has the synonym ‘Jelly’.
JENNY LIND




Fig.89a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Jenny Lind’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

reference: Mike Evans personal communication,(1999)

status: Critically rare. In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock

provenance: Received from the only known tree at the Strand, Westbury on Severn.




Westbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: Jenny Lind was born in 1820, so well after this date. Collected for propagation 1999.

use: Dessert, also a cooker.

fruit description: from a young tree 23rd August 2007

size: 53-60mm wide, 50-51mm tall.

shape: Round. Faintly five-crowned. Lop-sided.Regular.
skin: Pale green. Restricted dull pinkish flush. Faintly striped. Reinette, russet on base and eye

spreading as netting over surface. Russet may be tuberculous especially on base. Lenticels

indistinct, green areolar where unflushed. Texture partially dry, partially greasy.

stalk: 8-18mm long. 3-4mm thick. Diagnostic feature is the swollen abscission point.

cavity: Medium to narrow. Medium depth. Pale scaly russet and tuberculous.

eye: Closed, reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Slight puckering.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Axile closed.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Sampled when underripe. Probably well balanced later.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.89b: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Jackets and Petticoats’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: Jenny Lind (1820-1887) was a famous opera singer of her time. For the fine quality of her

voice she was known as the Swedish Nightingale. Such was her fame that theatres, streets,

schools and dams were named after her. It seems an apple can be included in this list.
JILL JEFFERIES

reference: John Jefferies & Son catalogue late 1930s; Tim Jefferies, personal communication

(1999 and 2000).

status: Original tree still standing at Siddington Nursery (2000). In Gloucestershire Apple

Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Raised at the Siddington Nursery of John Jefferies & Son in about 1934, believed

to have been a chance seedling. Edward Arthur Jefferies (c. 1889-1959), grandfather of Tim and

Jill Jefferies - see above - is credited with starting this variety. The foreman responsible was

Tom Burrows. Propagating material collected from the original tree




Siddington, Glos

date: Raised about 1934 but not named until a few years later. Distributed late 1930s. Collected

for propagation 2000.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- from a young tree. 12th Novemeber 2005. A very limited sample.

size: 56-61mm wide and 53-54mm tall.

shape: Round to round conical. Five crowned. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Light green to yellow. Flush not intense, almost total. Faint striping especially towards

base. Scarf skin. Tuberculous patches of russet present. Lenticels pale conspicuous, more

densley distributed and smaller towards apex. Texture fairly dry. Scab previously noted but not

in this sample.

stalk: 15mm long, 5mm wide and flattened.

cavity: Narrow and medium depth or shallow. More or less lipped.

eye: Flate convergent with reflexed tips. Sepals broad based and pubescent.

basin: Shallow and narrow. Slight beading may be present.
tube: Funnel-shaped and deep.

stamens: median.

core line: Median.

core: Median to distant. Fairly axile, closed.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute

flesh: Hint of red tinging under skin. Mildly acid, firm and fairly juicy. Keeps until October.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.91: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Jill Jefferies’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2005

notes: Jill Jefferies (born 1934) is the sister of Tim Jefferies and daughter of John Jefferies of

John Jefferies & Son of Siddington Nurseries. The original nursery was started in 1795 by

Richard Gregory who died in 1837. The company was sold to County Gardens in 1985.

Jill Jefferies’s grandfather Edward Jefferies is credited with starting this variety which wasn’t

named until a few years after Jill was born and was listed in the company’s catalogues of the late

1930s. At the time, staff at the Siddington Nursery were awaiting the final ripening of the first

young ‘Jill Jefferies’ apples with great anticipation. One day a neighbouring farm worker

finding himself short of a midday meal saw some lovely looking apples in the nursery and so

picked and ate them. They were of course the ‘Jill Jefferies’. While listed in the John Jefferies

& Son catalogue this variety was distributed outside the county but never had a big sale.
JOSEY




Fig.91a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Josey’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell 2007

synonym: Jozey

reference: Unnamed source via Mrs S.River, personal communication (2000); Melville

Thompson (born 1931) and Mrs Thompson, personal communication (2007); Gerald Berrow

(born 1930), personal communication (2007)

status: Extant. In Gloucesterashire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare.
provenance: Known from Brockweir, Whitecliff and Ruardean. Graftwood collected from

Whitecliff for propagation in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection (via Keith Orchard and Steve

Welsh)




Forest of Dean, Glos

date: Known to have been in existence well before 1931. Collected for propagation 2006.

use: Cider.

fruit description: From a mature tree 1st October 2007

size: 41-50mm wide, 35-40mm tall

shape: Round. Indistinct ribs. Symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Pale green, yellowing. Flush slight, orange with darker mottling. Thinnish russet on base,

overlain with some thicker corky russet. Lenticels indistinct. Texture dry.

stalk: 8-13mm long, 1.5-2mm thick. Protruding.

cavity: Narrow and shallow.

eye: Open, with flat sepals facing inwards, some with reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Median to marginal.

core: Median to distant.Axile, partially open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute and obtuse.

flesh: Bittersweet.

leaf: (sampled from a vigorous shoot) Broadly oval. Indistinctly dentate.

drawn record:
Fig.91b: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Josey’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2007

notes: A Forest of Dean variety. There used to be a number of trees at Gerald Berrow’s land at

Whitecliff where only one now survives. Mr Berrow’s father James had a horse-drawn cider mill

and press and would travel the district.
KEMPLEY RED

synonym: ‘Carrion Apple’.

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886).

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Exhibited in Hereford Apple Shows as ‘Kempley Red’ prior to its description in the

above work where it is referred to as ‘Carrion Apple’.

date: Exhibited prior to 1886.

use: Cider.

fruit description:-

size: Small

shape: Oblong to round.

skin: Yellowish green where shaded, but otherwise nearly the whole surface coloured crimson

which becomes very dark on the side to the sun. Splashes of a deeper shade all over the fruit.

stalk: Long and slender.

cavity: Small and narrow.

eye: Small and closed.

basin: Absent.

flesh: Yellow, tinged pink under the skin.

juice: Small in quantity. Amber coloured, viscous, sweet with some astringency.

tree: Medium size and very prolific.

drawn record:




Fig.91c: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Kempley Red’ fruit by H.G.Bull 1886
notes: Kempley is a neighbouring village to Dymock - see under ‘Dymock Red’. It is safe to

assume that this variety takes its name from Kempley in Gloucestershire because of that village’s

cider production fame. Hogg and Bull doubtless preferred to call it ‘Carrion Apple’ because the

farm where they obtained their samples named it so. They explain: ‘This variety takes its name,

in the Pyon district of Herefordshire from the fact of one of the oldest trees being used to hang

the dog’s meat on’.
KENCHY PIPPIN




Fig.92: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Kenchy Pippin’ fruit from an old tree by C.Martell, 1996




Fig.92a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Kenchy Pippin’ fruit from a young tree by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Rodney Summers and Aubrey Allen, personal communications (1994 and 1996)

respectively.

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1996.
provenance: Collected from Halmore near Berkeley where the only known old trees grow

(1995).




Halmore, Glos

date: Known ‘many years ago’. Collected for propagation 1995.

use: Cider and dessert.

fruit description:- 3rd November 1996 from an old standard tree.

size: 50mm wide 44mm tall.

shape: Round. Slightly five crowned. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Pale flush, mottled. Darker stripes. Slight russet present as extensions of lenticels. In

some case lenticels may be raised into russetted lumps. Texture dry. May become waxy. Skin

thin. Some scab present.

stalk: Typically totally encased in a fleshy angled protruberance.

cavity: Partly absent because of angled fleshy protruberance. Otherwise narrow and shallow.

eye: Sepals convergent with reflexed tips. Obtuse and green.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Lightly puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute. Quite broad.

flesh: Not crisp. Juicy with a hint of astringency. Flesh may be flushed on core line. Mr

Summers says it has a ‘sweet scented flavour’.

leaf: Oval. Bi-crenate.
tree: Very large.

drawn record:




Fig.93: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Kenchy Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1996

notes: This variety has a thin skin and if left in wet grass the skin breaks and peels back.

‘Kenchy’ trees were planted years ago by Rodney Summers’s ancestors to provide cider fruit for

the cider house at Halmore which was at one time in the Summers family. This cider house, The

Apple Tree, was one of the last in Britain. When the author used to drink there in the mid 1960s

it was furnished with bench seating and scrubbed wooden tables, each simply topped with a vase

of Lilies of the Valley.
KERNEL UNDERLEAF




Fig.94: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Kernel Underleaf’ fruit by C.Martell, 1996




Fig.94a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Kernel Underleaf’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: David Browning, personal communication (1996). Graham Littleton, personal

communication (2004)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1996.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Waterend Farm, Longney where the only known old

trees grow (1996).
Longney, Glos

date: No known history. Collected for propagation 1996.

use: Cider and culinary. Because trees of this variety are scattered around in his orchards, David

Browning has suggested that they may have been planted as pollinators.

fruit description:- 3rd November 1996. From an old standard tree.

size: 55mm wide 45mm tall.

shape: Round-conical. Slight trace of ribs sometimes because of slight five-crowning. Typically

symmetrical, but may be lop-sided possibly as a result of damage. Slightly irregular.

skin: Flush very slight on base as vermillion stripes. Russet scaly in cavity. Some examples

with a large patch of scaly russet linked to the cavity by a russetted hair line. Skin green and

shiny with distinct large white lenticels becoming smaller and denser nearer apex, larger and

fewer on base. Scab present.

stalk: Variable 3mm - 27mm. Medium thickness, pubescent.

cavity: Wide and deep, russetted.

eye: Sepals green, erect with reflexed tips

basin: Narrow and shallow or almost absent. Skin puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Axile closed.

seeds: Acuminate brown.

flesh: Dry firm and insipid.

leaf: Broadly acute. Bi-serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.95: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Kernel Underleaf’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1996

notes: Appears to be immune to attack by the codlin moth but pigs love this fruit.

There are a number of ‘Underleaf’ varieties. This name may refer to the presentation of the fruit

on the tree rather than to a particular family. This variety is very different to the

‘Gloucestershire Underleaf’. Known also from Farley’s End, Elmore.
KILL-BOYS




Fig.96: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Kill-Boys’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000




Fig.96a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Kill-Boys’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (1886); Rodney

Summers and Mervyn Bennett personal communications (1997). Richard Grey personal

communication (1997) Contemporary local sources round, Shepperdine and Oldbury (Steven

Welsh, Mike Riddle, Harry Tibbenham and Mr Illingworth) personal communications (2003).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.
provenance: Documented as a Gloucestershire variety by Hogg and Bull. Collected for

propagation from Churngate Farm, Kington, Oldbury-on-Severn.




Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: Described in 1886 as an established variety. Collected for propagation 2000.

use: Cider

fruit description:- 15th November 2000. From an old standard tree at Churngate Farm, Oldbury-

on-Severn.

size: 54-67mm wide 46-54mm tall.

shape: Flat-round or round. A little distorted at crown. A few broad ribs. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Green. Partial dull vermillion mottled flush. Scarf skin all over, broken in stripes on

cheeks, darker green skin showing through. Some with extensive areas of thick and scaly russet.

Scab present (2000 was a damp cool summer). Lenticels small pale and inconspicuous except

under russet where they may form lumps. Greasy.

stalk: Absent or encased in a fleshy protruberance.

cavity: Small and may be almost filled by a swelling encasing stalk.

eye: Open and distorted, sepals flat convergent, partly erect, or erect.

basin: Shallow and slightly puckered and distorted.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Abaxile, closed.

cells: Elliptical, lanceolate.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Dense and white. Harsh. Little astringency.
leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate. Tip acute.

tree: As described by R. Hogg in 1886, today’s trees although suffering from die-back still

exhibit the drooping habit. Cattle have worn a trench under one tree where they have come to

scratch themselves on a down- curving branch.

drawn record:




Fig.97: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Kill-Boys’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000

notes: R. Hogg ascribes this intriguing name to the ‘acrid rough taste’ of its fruit. Local legend

has it however that man and boy were gathering fruit one day and the boy was playing the fool.

The man threw an apple at him, hit him on the head and the apple being so hard killed the boy.

Known to have grown in Halmore. There is a ‘Dead Boy’ perry pear.
KING APPLE




Fig.98: original photograph of Malus var. ‘King Apple’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000

reference: Pat Turner, personal communication (1995) Sidney Hewlett, personal

communications (1998); Frank Gibson, personal communications (1999).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected from Little Coulstance, Bollow near Westbury-on-Severn. Known also

from Arlingham if the same variety




Westbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: One tree said in 1995 to have been ‘planted 100 years ago’ if same. An established tree in

1998 whence collected for propagation 2000.

use: Cider but quite edible.

fruit description: 5th November 2000 from an old standard tree.

size: 50-59mm wide 40-49mm tall.

shape: Round-conical or round. Slightly lop-sided. Mostly slightly irregular.
skin: Green yellowing. Flush over about 50%. Lenticels conspicuous, russetted and irregularly

shaped, numerous at apex. Hammering present at lenticels. A few small patches of russet on

some fruits. Skin uneven due to hammering, becoming waxy.

stalk: 0-5mm. Some a fleshy knob. Many with a small protruberance on either side of base of

stalk.

cavity: Narrow and medium depth. Occasionally absent and everted. A little thin or scaly russet

which may spread onto base.

eye: Large, open. Sepals broad-based, long, tips reflexed or broken. Stamens erect and

prominent.

basin: Wide, medium depth.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median, may be indistinct.

core: Median to sessile.

cells: Elliptical or obovate. Axile or abaxile, closed.

seeds: Obtuse, pale.

flesh: Very mild bittersweet. Dense and chewy.

leaf: Broadly oval. Tip acuminate. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.99: original drawing of Malus var. ‘King Apple’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000

notes: This appears to be different from other ‘King apples’ mentioned in literature. Warner’s

King and Northern Spy both have the synonym of ‘King apple’ but the apple described here is

neither of these nor is it ‘King of the Pippins’.
LADY BUDGET

reference: Mike Evans of the Strand, Rodley personal communication (1999)

notes: I have no further information on this variety and can find no reference to it elsewhere.



LAKE’S KERNEL




Fig.100: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Lake’s Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

synonyms: ‘Ashleworth’, ‘Prince’s Pippin’, ‘Princess Pippin’.

references: Royal Horticultural Society - Fruit Conference 1934; M. Smith, The National Apple

Register (1971). John Ennis, personal communication (2001). June Dallman, personal

communication (2001).

status: Found growing in Ashleworth (2001). In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Probably not endangered 2000.

provenance: Brought to Ashleworth by Mr Lake. Graftwood obtained for propagation in the

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock from the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale.
Ashleworth, Glos

date: First exhibited 1905.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 25th September 2001 from a young standard tree.

size: 52-67mm wide and 42-49mm tall.

shape: Flat-round or round. Nearly symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Green. Partial flush with broken stripes. Thin khaki russet spreading from base to create a

spiky netting on cheek. Lenticels small and inconspicuous except on flush where they are palely

russetted. Texture dry.

stalk: 12-20mm long. 2-3mm wide.

cavity: Medium to deep. Meidum width. A little very thin russet.

eye: Closed. Sepals with reflexed tips.

basin: Shallow, medium depth. Puckered and occasionally beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped or funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal or median to basal.

core line: Variable, marginal to basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, closed.

cells: Round, angled at widest point.

seeds: Acute or obtuse.

flesh: Firm, fine, pale, cream. Flavour sub-acid.

leaf: Acute. Reflexed. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.101: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Lake’s Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: This apple is still known in Ashleworth (2001). June Dallman recounted that her father-

in-law, Leslie Dallman, who was born locally, got graftwood for this variety from the Old

Cottage at Hasfield just after 1970. She went on to mention that her father would buy a piglet

for fattening from Mr Merchant at Corse Hill Farm and carry it home to Hasfield in a sack. It

was Mr Merchant who introduced the ‘Corse Hill’ apple. John Ennis mentions a Jack Lake of

Hasfield and a Bill Lake of Hartpury, both were blacksmiths and now deceased. The latter had

his blacksmith’s shop opposite the Royal Exchange public house and it is believed to be this Mr

Lake who introduced this apple. Descendants of Mr Lake still live in the neighbourhood of

Ashleworth to-day (2000).



LASSINGTON - see ‘Severn Bank’



LAYNE’S COLONEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by F.E.Fowler of Hartpury.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.

notes: I feel sure this variety started life as ‘Layne’s Kernel’.
LEATHERCOAT




Fig.102: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Leathercoat’ fruit by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Leatherjacket’ (Ray Williams Long Ashton Cider Research Station).

reference: Shakespeare, W. Henry IV part2 (late 1500s); Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884);

Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Ray Williams, personal communication (1993);

David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1993); Barrie and Sarah

Juniper, personal communication (2000); Walter Grey, personal communication (2002 and

2005); Hilda May Wellington, personal communication (2005)

status: Extant if true. In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

provenance: First recorded mention in Shakespeare’s Henry IV part 2 when Davy says to

Bardolph:

                 “There is a dish of Leathercoats for you,”

- the scene is laid in Gloucestershire.

Fruit samples collected for R. Hogg by W. Viner Ellis from the Vale of Berkeley. Propagating

material for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection obtained from Sarah Juniper at Dursley who

brought it with her when she moved from her family home at Kennington near Oxford. It had

been planted there by her family before 1974 having been obtained from a nursery (possibly

Scott’s of Merriott) as ‘Leathercoat’.
date: ‘Recorded’ from Gloucestershire late 1500s. Still in cultivation 1886. Known to Long

Ashton Cider Research Station in the 1950s. Collected for propagation 2000.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 19th September 2007 from a young tree.

size: 55-65 mm wide and 52-55 mm tall but can be very variable from year to year.

shape: Round, round-conical or oblong. Five crowned, lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Yellowish green russet. Thicker corky russetting at lenticels and distributed over surface

particularly where damaged. Lenticels tuberculous. Rough.

stalk: 12-22 mm long. 4mm thick.

cavity: Medium depth and width.

eye: Flat convergent.

basin: Small, shallow and puckered.

tube: Intermediate, truncated.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median.

cells: Obovate. Axile, closed. Tufted.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Greenish, crisp, juicy, sweet and briskly flavoured.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.103: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Leathercoat’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
notes: A dessert apple of good flavour. In season from November until February.

Johnnie Butler of the Big Naite, Bollow was planting this variety along with another russet the

‘Flower of the West’ (see above) in the 1920s. Walter Grey who was familiar with this planting

confirms the identification of fruit in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection as true examples of

this variety and reports that there used to be a tree beside the A48 at Walmer Hill. It was

removed when the road was widened. Bollow and Walmer Hill mentioned above are both in

William Viner Ellis country – see provenance.

There is some confusion over the ‘Leathercoat’, arising because of its antiquity and duplicity of

its name.

The first detailed description I can find is as above by R. Hogg from 1886. In his description he

says:

        “This is the old Leathercoat, which has been in cultivation for centuries,

         and is totally distinct from the Royal Russet which is sometimes called

         by that name.”

However in her ‘The Book of Apples’ Joan Morgan points out that the scion wood of the ‘Royal

Russet’ at the National Fruit Collection,Brogdale was assured to be from the ‘true Leathercoat’

by its sender. Unfortunately no date is given. On her visit to Hunts Court Joan Morgan said she

now discounts this possibility. R. Hogg discusses both the ‘Royal Russet’ and the ‘Leathercoat’,

I have to assume that Hogg is correct and that he describes the true ‘Leathercoat’. For two

varieties which were in existence in the 1500s perhaps it is rather futile at this late stage to argue

as to their authenticity.

Sarah Juniper states that the fruit of this variety is very variable in size.



LEATHERJACKET - see ‘Leathercoat’



LEMON PIPPIN - see ‘Lemon Pippin of Gloucestershire’


LEMON PIPPIN - see ‘Taynton Codlin’
LEMON PIPPIN of GLOUCESTERSHIRE




Fig.104: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Lemon Pippin of Gloucestershire’ fruit by C.Martell, 1997

synonym: Known in Gloucestershire as ‘Lemon Pippin’.

reference: David Bennet, John and Richard Grey, Arthur Pullin and Robert Wellington, personal

communications (1997).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Known from Walmore Hill and Shepperdine and was probably widespread in

Gloucestershire. Collected for propagation from Lowgoods Farm, Shepperdine.

date: Because it is known from widespread localities it may well be an old variety. Collected for

propagation 1997.

use: Dessert, and probably found its way into the cider cask.

fruit description:- 29th October 1997. From an old tree at Lowgoods Farm, Shepperdine.

size: 52-67 mm wide and 40-51 mm tall.

shape: Flat or flat-round.

skin: Lemon yellow. Some fruits have a slight diffuse flush. Russet spreading from cavity onto

base and sometimes cheek. This russet may be tuberculous (lumpy). Lenticels are laid in

widening concentric circles spreading from basin. Lenticels on the cheek grade into a star shape

and become fewer towards the base.

stalk: 5-10 mm medium to stout.

cavity: Small narrow and medium depth. Slightly lipped.
eyes: Large, open. Sepals short obtuse not touching. Reflexed tips.

basin: Broad and shallow. Slight puckering sometimes. Sepals a little pubescent.

tube: Funnel-shaped. Broad and flat at exterior, narrowing sharply and culminating shortly.

core line: Basal meeting or basal clasping.

core: Distant. Abaxile, closed.

cells: Round or eliptical in same fruit. Lanceolate towards eye.

seeds: Small,obtuse. Frequently absent.

flesh: Firm, close tetured. Medium juiciness and lemon flavour.

leaf: Oval. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.105: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Lemon Pippin of Gloucestershire’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997

notes: The fruit seems to be indistinguishable from the ‘Spout Apple’.

‘Taynton Codlin’ has the synonym ‘Lemon Pippin’. The better known ‘Lemon Pippin’ is indeed

lemon-shaped and is not recorded as a Gloucestershire variety.
LEMON ROY




Fig.106: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Lemon Roy’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: David Bennet, personal communication 1993.

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1993.

provenance: Only known trees at Broadway, Minsterworth.




Minsterworth, Glos.

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Culinary.

fruit description:- 19th September 2001 from a young standard tree.

size: 62-72mm wide 68-78mm tall.

shape: Round, conical,long-conical. Lop-sided, irregular. Five crowned with interstitial crown.

Very slightly waisted. Scab-infection may be severe.
skin: Lime green with an unusual pale vermillion/pink flush, darker on parts exposed to the sun.

Scarf skin extends from the base over the cheek. A little thin russet may extend from the base as

netting over the cheek. Lenticels few and inconspicuous.

stalk: 10mm stout with one or two spurs terminating in a filament.

cavity: Narrow and shallow. Thinly russetted in healthy specimens. Some fruit slightly lipped

as a result of scab attack which causes the stem to bend towards the infected area.

eye: Partly closed. Sepals long and green with reflexed tips.

basin: Medium width and shallow.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Sessile. Abaxile, partially open or closed.

cells: Round. Tufted.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: White, dense. Acid. Chewey.

aroma: Almondy, possibly from cut pips.

leaf: Narrow oval. Dentate.

drawn record:




Fig.107: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Lemon Roy’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: Fruit from an old tree was found to be severly distorted through scab attack and but for the

distinctive colour and scarf skin could have passed for a different variety.
LITTLE HERBERT




Fig.108: Copy of a print from Mabey R., The Frampton Flora publ: Thames Head Ltd (1985) Malus var. ‘Little
Herbert’ fruit. Reproduced by kind permission of Mr Rollo Clifford.

synonym: Jacket and Petticoat

reference: Mabey, R. The Frampton Flora (1985, Illustration mid 1800s); Hogg, R. The Fruit

Manual (1884); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In existence in 1884.

provenance: Gloucestershire.

date: Described 1851.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg.

size: Small.

shape: Round.

skin: Russet.

notes: Esteemed in Gloucestershire as a first-rate dessert fruit, but judged by Hogg to be only

second-rate. The tree a shy bearer, its fruit ready December to March. See also ‘Jackets and

Petticoats’.
LODGEMORE NONPAREIL




Fig.109: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’ fruit by C.Martell, 1997

synonyms: ‘Clissold’s Seedling’, ‘Lodgemore Seedling’ (original name), ‘Logdemore

Nonpareil’, ‘Non Pareille de Lodgemore’, ‘Nonpareille de Lodgemore’.

references: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

Morgan, J. The Book of Apples (1993).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale (if true) and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Possibly not endangered 2000.

provenance: Raised by Mr Cook of Lodgemore, Stroud and introduced by Mr Clissold, a

nurseryman who subsequently rented the garden where it had been started. He propagated and

sold it under the name of ‘Clissold’s Seedling’. There is some doubt as to whether the variety of

this name in existence today is true. Brogdale has two sources of this variety, Hoff and Shand. J.

Morgan assigns the Hoff source to be nearest to Hogg’s description.
Stroud, Glos.

date: Raised 1808.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- From a young standard tree of either Hoff or Shand source. 29th October

1997.

size: 57-71mm wide 47-55mm tall.

shape: Round conical. Broadly ribbed, five crowned. Nearly symmetrical. Nearly regular.

skin: Pale green to yellow. Flush thin and pinkish. Reinette, russet may be flushed. A little

scarf skin on base of some fruit. Lenticels pale and indistinct or larger and russetted. Texture

dry.

stalk: Up to 10mm long and up to 5mm thick. May protrude but usually deeply embedded in

cavity. Abscission point broad up to 5mm.

cavity: Narrow and medium depth slightly puckered. Very thin slightly scaly russet.

eye: Flat convergent sepals, may have slightly reflexed tips.

basin: Shallow, medium width. May be slightly puckered. Sepals with a little pale grey

pubescence.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile open or closed.

cells: Round, a little lanceolate. Tufted.

seeds: Acuminate, or obtuse.

flesh: Firm, juicy and pleasantly sweet.

leaf: Cupped. Broadly acute. Bi-serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.110: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997




LODGEMORE SEEDLING - see ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’


LOGDEMORE NONPAREIL - see ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’
LONGNEY RUSSET




Fig.111: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Longney Russet’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006




Fig.111a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Longney Russet’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Marshall, W. The Rural Economy of Gloucestershire (1796); Smith, M. The National

Apple Register (1971). David Bennet, David Browning and Robert Wellington, personal

communications (1993) Graham Littleton, personal communication (2004) Lionel Longney,

personal communication (2007)

status: In National Fruit Collection,Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

Still to be found growing locally round Longney and over the river at Minsterworth 1992.

Possibly not seriously endangered 2000.
provenance: Received at National Fruit Collection, Brogdale source of graftwood for the

Gloucestershire Apple Collection.




Longney, Glos.

date: Well known cider variety in 1796. Received at Brogdale 1949 whence sourced for

Gloucestershire Apple Collection 1993.

use: Dessert and locally in Gloucestershire for cider.

fruit description: 9th October 2006. From standard trees in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection

planted 1996 on M25 rootstocks.

size: 53-63mm wide, 47-53mm tall.

shape: Round to round-conical. Broadly ribbed. Five-crowned. Slightly lop-sided. Fairly

regular. Many specimens very slightly waisted.

skin: Green. Flush sometimes present. Russet total or more than 50%. Lenticels pale tan.

Texture dry.

stalk: 9-23mm. 2mm wide. Protruding.

cavity: Medium depth. Wide.

eye: Closed. Sepals quite long, green. Reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Russet absent. Puckered

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Axile, closed

cells: Tufted. Round.

seeds: Acute, quite large.

flesh: Dense, white, not acid.
leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.112: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Longney Russet’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2006

notes: Surprisingly this important old variety is not mentioned by Robert Hogg. Henry Elwes

reported in 2006 that he carried out a public engagement in Longney in his capacity as Lord

Lieutenant of Gloucestershire but that no-one there seemed aware of the existence of the

Longney Russet apple. However it is well known among some of the older country people of the

district including Lionel Longney (born 1928) a knowlegeable and skilled orchardist. The

illustration below depicts Mr Longney from Longney with a young Longney Russet apple tree he

had grafted. Known from Farley’s End, Elmore
Fig.111a: original photograph of Lionel Longney with Malus var. ‘Longney Russet’ fruit and tree.
                                                                                        Photo by C.Martell, 2007
LONGSTALK




Fig.113: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Longstalk’ fruit by C.Martell,1996




Fig.113a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Longstalk’ fruit by C.Martell,2007

reference: David Bennett, David Browning, Frank Gibson, Robert Wellington, personal

communications (1995) and Graham Littleton, personal comunication (2004).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1996.

provenance: Collected for propagation from The Sloop at Bollow.
Minsterwoth, Glos

date: First recorded as a few old trees in existence 1995. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Cider.

fruit description: From an unhealthy old tree. 6th October 1996. Fruit from a young tree sampled

in 2005 showed total flush on all fruit and was more uniform in size. It was as expected larger –

up to 65mm wide and 66mm tall.

size: 38-56mm wide 31-50mm tall.

shape: Round or round conical. Occasional shallow rib, slightly five crowned. Usually

symmetrical except where a rib occurs. Fairly regular.

skin: Flushed but very variable. Mostly on base of fruit. Stripes well defined and broken.

Partial russet netting. Lenticels small and indistinct except where russetted. Texture becoming

waxy.

stalk: 11-33mm slender or stout. May be flushed or striped. Some angled by a lipped cavity.

cavity: Medium depth and width or narrow and shallow where stalk is shorter and stouter. May

be slightly scaly. Occasional rib which terminates as a protruberance at base of cavity.

eye: Erect convergent or convergent with reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and shallow or absent. May be slightly puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Axile, closed.

cells: Round but variable.

seeds: Acuninate.

flesh: White crisp acid.
leaf: Acute. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.114: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Longstalk’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1996

notes: This variety is hard to shake off the tree because the fruits just flop up and down on their

long stems. Locally well known in the Minsterworth and Longney area. Found growing at

Waterend Farm, Longney, Farley’s End, Elmore as well as at Bollow.
MAGGIE

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Only recorded from Gloucestershire.

dates: Recorded 1884 and 1886.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg.

size: 70mm wide 58mm tall.

shape: Flat-round. Lop-sided.

skin: Yellow with flush where not shaded. Russet spots.

stalk: Short and slender.

cavity: Narrow and rather deep.

eye: Open with erect sepals with reflexed tips.

basin: Irregular.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

cells: Roundish, obovate. Open.

flesh: Yellowish, extremely acid and austere.

tree: Bears well.



MAIDEN BLUSH

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by S.F.Cowles of Westbury-on-

Severn, H.Knight of Deep Filling, Huntley and R.E.Turner of Dymock.

date: First and only known records 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.
fruit description: A sharp variety.

notes: This is neither the Maiden Blush of USA nor the Maiden’s Blush of Ireland. Nor yet of

the Maiden’s Blush in the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale. It is easy to imagine how the

term Maiden Blush can be applied to an apple.



MARTIN’S KERNEL




Fig.115: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Martin’s Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 1997

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Pat Turner, personal communication

(2003); Percy Haywood, personal communication (2006)

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Possibly endangered 2000.

provenance: Received from Gloucestershire.




Arlingham, Glos

date: Received 1953 but said to be an old variety.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- From a young standard tree. 3rd November 1997.
size: 57-68mm wide 53-57mm tall.

shape: Round-conical to conical. Ribs broad and flat, slightly five-crowned. Lop-sided. Rather

irregular.

skin: Green turning yellow. Crimson flush mottled with indistinct short broken stripes. Slight

indistinct scarf skin sometimes apparent. Broken scaly russet extending over base. Lenticels

areolar and prominent becoming smaller and more densely distributed towards apex. Texture

roughish due to prominent lenticels.

stalk: Variable 4-15mm long 2-3mm thick. Stout and concealed or long and protruding.

cavity: Wide and deep. Thin russet overlaid with thicker almost red striated scaly russet.

eye: Tightly closed with long wavy reflexed tips.

basin: Shallow, narrow or medium width. Puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Axile, closed.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Juicy, woolly. Insipid.

leaf: Acute. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.116: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Martin’s Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997
notes: The young trees in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection are regular and plentiful bearers.

Recorded growing round Arlingham at Milton End Farm where Pat Turner’s family used to grow

it. Also recorded by Percy Haywood as growing in Arlingham.



MAURICE’S PIPPIN - see ‘Morris’s Pippin’



MIDDLE HILL BRANDY

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by A. T. Price of Berkeley.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.

notes: See ‘Appleridge Pippin’ also sent in by A. T. Price. See also ‘Pedington Brandy’.



MOBLEY’S SOWING

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by W. E. King of Berkeley.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A sharp variety.

note: Mobley lies on the eastern approach to Berkeley. There are still orchards there today

(2000). I assume Mr King farmed there. He also sent in ‘Red Vallis’ - see below.
MOLLY KERNEL




Fig.117: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Molly Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000




Fig.117a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Molly Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Mervyn Bennett, personal communication (1997); Rodney Summers, personal

communication (1997); Steve Welsh, personal communication (2006)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Churngate Farm, Kington near Oldbury-on-Severn.
Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: First known record 1997. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 13th November 2000. From an old tree at Churngate Fram, Kington, Oldbury-

on-Severn.

size: 42-62mm wide 42-51mm tall.

shape: Round-conical. Broadly ribbed. Five crowned. Lop-sided. Nearly regular.

skin: Green yellowing. Some with dull red flush. Netting with most russet at crown where it

may be laid in fine concentric rings. Little or no russet towards base. Lenticels roundish and

russetted. Texture slightly greasy on non-russetted parts.

stalk: 5-12mm long 2mm thick. Protruding.

cavity: Deep and wide. Sometimes flattened in one plane when stalk is set at a slight an angle.

A very little scaly russet.

eye: Partly open with reflexed tips.

basin: Medium to shallow, medium width. Ribbed and puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal clasping. Line well defined and sometimes double.

core: Median. Abaxile, open.

cells: Round. Very slightly tufted.

seeds: Acute.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.118: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Molly Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000

notes: Steve Welsh regards this as a local variety found elsewhere in Oldbury. Also known of in

Halmore.
MORNING PIPPIN

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: Recorded from the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale. Subsequently found to be false.

provenance: Sent in to R. Hogg by G. S. Wintle of Gloucester.

date: Described 1876. Sent in to R. Hogg before 1884.

use: Culinary.

fruit description: after R. Hogg.

size: 63mm wide 57mm tall

shape: Flat-round. Regular. Possibly five crowned.

skin: Deep yellow washed with thin pale red and broken stripes of crimson. Where exposed to

the sun a dark shining crimson. Smooth and shining, patches of pale brown russet.

stalk: 7mm woody or a fleshy knob.

cavity: Very shallow and narrow.

eye: Half open. Sepals erect, reflexed tips frequently broken.

basin: Shallow and slightly ribbed.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

cells: Ovate. Axile.

flesh: Greenish white, very firm and crisp, fairly juicy with a brisk and agreeably perfumed

flavour.

notes: A good culinary apple which bakes well and has a pleasant acidity. In season December

to March. The tree is an excellent bearer.



MORRIS’S PIPPIN

synonym: Maurice’s Pippin.

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known record.

provenance: Gloucestershire.

date: Recorded in 1886.
use: Cider.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg and H. Bull.

size: Medium.

skin: Green, russetted.

notes: A late variety and considered to make excellent cider.
NETHERTON NONSUCH

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (1886); Dennis

Williams, personal communication (2001)

status: Only known record.

provenance: Presumed to have been raised at Little Netherton, Dymock by Messrs Fawke or

their predecessors at Little Netherton.

date: Presumed by Hogg and Bull to have beeen raised towards the end of the 1700s. In 1880

there were two very old trees and many freshly grafted young ones at Little Netherton, the last

known record for this variety.

use: Dessert, culinary and cider.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg and H. Bull.

size: Large.

shape: Broad-based.

skin: Highly coloured.

basin: Deep.

notes: According to Robert Hogg it was ‘Recommended by Messrs Fawke who reported it a

good all rounder and a wonderful apple to ‘run’ (juice from the press), the cider pleasant but

pale. A prolific and useful variety.’

Dennis Williams nephew of Beryl Evans (née Fawke) says the Fawke family would have just

been arriving at the time the ‘Netherton Nonsuch’ was first grown at the end of the 1700s.

In the 1851 census a Joseph Fawke aged 48 was farming 118 acres in Dymock parish. His wife

Lydia bore him 6 children of whom the eldest son was named Joseph. There were many other

Fawkes in the district who were, with the exception of Joseph, all farm labourers (ibid.). It

seems likely therefore that these - Joseph senior and or Joseph junior are the Fawkes of Little

Netherton. There were also a number of farming Fawkes in the neighbouring parish of Much

Marcle. See also ‘Fawke’s Kernel’.
NEWPOOLS




Fig.119: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Newpools’ fruit by C.Martell, 1992
Fig.120: original photograph of Malus var.‘Newpools’ conjoined fruit by C.Martell, 1992




Fig.120a: original photograph of Malus var.‘Newpools’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000. The last remaining

old trees at Broadway are now said to be gone (2000).

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth. Only known trees.
Minsterworth, Glos.

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- October 1992. From an old tree at Broadway, Minsterworth.

size: 51-69mm wide 62-78mm tall.

shape: Oblong or long-conical. Ribs very pronounced giving whole shape to fruit. Some may

appear triangular in horizontal section. Lop-sided and irregular. Some specimens slightly

waisted.

skin: Pale green yellowing, green mottled. Dull or bright crimson flush, streaked or in a broad

solid stripe. Lenticels pronounced, russetted, or smaller green areolar. Thin russet spreading

over cheek from basin and cavity.

stalk: 8-12mm Medium to stout. Protruding.

cavity: Medium depth, narrow. Russetted.

eye: Large. Partly open, reflexed tips. Sepals long, acute and contorted.

basin: Narrow shallow ribbed and puckered. Russetted.

tube: Between cone and funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal or marginal/median. Easily dislodged.

core line: Basal clasping to median.

core: Median. Axile open.

cells: Elliptical. Tufted.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Tight smooth texture. Off white. Pleasant balance of acid and sugar.

leaf: Long narrow acute. Cupped.
drawn record:




Fig.121: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Newpools’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1992

notes: Fruit sometimes appear as ‘twin’ apples - see illustration. I am told ‘triplets’ also

sometimes occur though I havn’t observed this myself.
NEW BROMLEY

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Much esteemed in Gloucestershire.

date: Recorded 1884 and 1886.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg 1884 and 1886.

size: Small or below medium-sized.

shape: Roundish.

skin: Yellow dappled with crimson on the shaded side and glossy bright crimson where exposed

to the sun.

stalk: Very short. Totally imbedded.

cavity: Round even and smooth.

basin: Narrow and puckered.

flesh: Yellow, tinged with crimson, like the apple ‘Sops-in-Wine’. Juicy, and with an

astringency peculiar to cider apples.

notes: There is also a ‘Bromley’ apple - see above. The two varieties don’t appear to show much

similarity. ‘New Bromley’ may be a seedling of ‘Bromley’.
NINE OF DIAMONDS




Fig.122: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Nine of Diamonds’ fruit by C.Martell, 1997




Fig.122a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Nine of Diamonds’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: John Hayne and Rodney Summers, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: There were originally 2 trees proudly owned by Fred Timbrell, at Pool Farm,

Breadstone near Berkeley, grafted from the last remaining old tree (now gone 1997) by Rodney

Summers at Halmore. Collected for propagation from the resulting tree.
Halmore, Glos

date: Grafted from an old tree at Pool Farm before 1993. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Cider and dessert.

fruit description:- 27th October 1997 from a young standard tree.

size: 47-51mm wide 44-47mm tall.

shape: Round or conical. Vestige of five crown. Symmetrical except in one aspect as it has a

tilted crown. Regular.

skin: Green yellow. Pale mottled flush overlaid with darker stripes and stippling. Stripes

coalesce into intense liver coloured flush. Very little thin russet may extend from base.

Lenticels small, russetted, but small and white on intense flush.

stalk: 13-19mm slender. 1.5-3mm at abscission. Protruding.

cavity: Medium depth, medium to narrow width. Some green warty russet present.

eye: Open or closed with reflexed tips.

basin: Small and shallow. Sepals protruding.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Median to sessile. Abaxile, closed.

cells: Obovate. Distant end set away from axis of core.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Tinged red especially 2-3mm under skin. This variety is named after the nine red spots in

the flesh to be seen in horizontal section. Ten red spots were also found to occur. This variety is

very similar to the ‘Ten Commandments’ currently claimed as a Herefordshire variety. A

difference is that the core of the ‘Nine of Diamonds’ is abaxile resulting in the coalescing of two
of the 10 red spots in the flesh. More comparative work of the two varieties needs to be carried

out to describe the differences in greater detail.




Fig.122b: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Nine of Diamonds’ fruit section by C.Martell, 2007

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.123: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Nine of Diamonds’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997
NINE SQUARE




Fig.124: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Nine Square’ fruit by C.Martell, 2005




Fig.124a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Nine Square’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007
reference: Forsyth, W. A Treatise on the Culture and Management of Fruit Trees (1804); Royal

Horticultural Society - Apple and Pear Conference 1934; Smith, M. The National Apple

Register (1971); Jasper Ely, Pat Turner and Mrs Norman Neal, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. One old tree remaining of a group at

Milton End Farm, Arlingham.

provenance: Recorded as a Gloucestershire variety by W. Forsyth (1804) and known locally still

in Gloucestershire.




Arlingham, Glos

date: First reference 1804. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 2th November 2005. From a young tree.

size: 67-90mm wide 70-78mm tall.

shape: Round-conical. Broadly ribbed with less distinct interstitial ribs. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Yellow with hint of green, light flush over part. Rather thick and scaly russet spreading

from cavity. Lenticels small and russetted. Waxy.

stalk: 7-13mm. 4-5mm thick. May protrude.

cavity: Narrow and shallow russetted. Lipped

eye: Sepals connivent, reflexed tips.

basin: Medium depth and narrow. Slightly puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped. Stamens median.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Fairly axile, open.

cells: Round lanceolate. Slightly tufted.

seeds: Acuminate.
flesh: Sub-acid. Very juicy.

leaf: Acute. Crenate.

tree: Erect.

drawn record:




Fig.125: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Nine Square’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2005

notes: ‘Nine Square’ is also the synonym of a number of varieties including: ‘Catshead’, ‘Tom

Putt’, ‘Sheep’s Head’ and the ‘Devonshire Nine Square’. It is not certain if the variety described

above is the same as W. Forsyth’s which he describes thus:

‘ ‘Nine square’ is a Gloucestershire Apple. This is a large angular shaped fruit of a fine red

towards the sun and yellow with a small mixture of red. Keeps till April’ (1804).

This description likens it rather to the ‘Devonshire Nine Square’. However it is possible that

‘Nine Square’ is just a generic title for varieties with the named characteristic.



NON PAREILLE DE LODGEMORE - see ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’


NONPAREILLE DE LODGEMORE - see ‘Lodgemore Nonpareil’
NORMAN PIPPIN




Fig.125: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Norman Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994

reference: Richard Grey personal communication (1994); Mervyn Bennett (born 1925) personal

communication (1997); John Grey, Arthur Allen and Steven Welsh, personal communications

(2003).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Known from Cowhill, Oldbury,

Shepperdine and Hill. Critically rare 2003.

provenance: Graftwood collected from Shepperdine and Hill. Possibly originated in that area as

it is currently unrecorded elsewhere.




Berkeley, Glos

date: First recorded 1994. Located and propagated 2003.

use: Dessert and Cider.

fruit description: 12th November 1994 from an old tree.

size: 57-71mm wide 50-62mm tall.
shape: Round conical or round. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Pale green yellowing. Flush more than 50% to almost total, mottled and short indistinct

stripes. Scarf skin widespread over base and sides. Russet absent except large patches at sites of

splitting damage. Lenticels few, pale and russetted, areolar under scarf skin. Texture waxy.

stalk: 7-14 mm, fleshy 3-4 mm thick. Swollen at abscission point.

cavity: Medium depth and width. Russet almost absent.

eye: Closed connivent with reflexed tips. Some open with reflexed tips.

basin: Shallow, medium width. Puckered, some beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core-line: Basal clasping.

core: Median inclining to distant. Axile, open or closed, or abaxile, open.

cells: Lanceolate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Pleasant, sub-acid.

leaf: Crenate. Broadly oval.

drawn record:




Fig.126: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Norman Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994

notes: This is neither the ‘Norman’s Pippin’, which has little flush, nor the ‘Normandy Pippin’ a

lost Gloucestershire variety - see below. Mervyn Bennett described this variety which used to

grow on his farm as having ‘upright fruit – Cox-like and more stripey - bluey/purple’ The tree

was very big and a ‘heavy cropper’.
NORMANDY PIPPIN

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Robert Wellington, personal

communication (1993). Chris Cadogan, personal communication (1997)

status: In existence until 1990.

provenance: Origin unknown but known from Berkeley, Bollow and Awre (a different variety).

date: Known to have been in existence 1863 until 1990.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- after National Apple Register.

size: Small.

shape: Round or flat-round.

skin: Greenish yellow. ‘White’ (R.Wellington).

flesh: Sweet. Mid season.

notes: I was shown the spot by Bob Wellington where the last known tree of this variety grew.

Tragically I arrived three years too late to save it. Chris Cadogan describes a variety of the same

name thus: flesh ‘very red – no green – red right through’ and was ‘very bittersweet – dry your

mouth’ and ‘fruited every year by a ditch. When the fruit fell it filled the ditch.’ The variety Mr

Cadogan was familiar with seems to be a very different variety to the one described by Muriel

Smith and Robert Wellington.
NORMINGTON

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929; Eric and Nigel Lewis, personal communications (1990s)

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by E. T. Lewis of Hill Farm,

Dymock.

date: Sent in after 1920.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety.

note: This variety may still be in existence. The orchards at Hill Farm are still well maintained

by Mr E. T. Lewis’s son Eric. Eric and his brother Nigel told me that when they were young

they were not encouraged to take an interest in cider making and so are neither familiar with this

nor some of the other old varieties on the farm. Hence its identity may now be lost.
NORTHLAND SEEDLING




Fig.127: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Northland seedling’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Possibly endangered 2000.

provenance: Raised at Northland Cottage, Tetbury by A. P. Kitcat. Propagating material for the

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock, received from the National Fruit Collection,

Brogdale.




Tetbury, Glos.

date: Received at Brogdale 1930. Graftwood received from National Fruit Collection, Brogdale

c.1993.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 24th September 2001 from a young standard tree.

size: 59-68mm wide 43-55mm tall.
shape: Flat, flat-round, round or round-conical. Fairly symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Pale greenish yellow. Flush even, fading into unflushed areas. Reinette, larger fruits being

russetted in distinctive longitudinal streaks. Lenticels pale and indistinct. Scarf skin on base.

Texture greasy except on russet.

stalk: A concealed fleshy knob or 10mm protruding.

cavity: Slightly lipped.

eye: Closed, sepals connivent.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Firm, crisp. Flavour sub-acid.

season: Mid to late.

leaf: Acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.128: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Northland Seedling’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

note: A Mrs Kitcat of Tetbury is recorded as having bought a donkey from the Gloucestershire

pedlar Robert Hicks - ‘Johnnie in the Morning’ who frequented the Tetbury area around 1900.

Mrs Kitcat recalled: ‘Besides donkeys he sold rock-salt and silver sand, and kept black humbugs
in a little box at the side of the cart to give to the children. He lived in his cart, and was always

around Shipton Moyne and Westonbirt. He must have been born in 1820 or earlier’. Curiously a

Miss A. P. Kitcat (same initials as the founder of this variety) of Chalford Hill died aged about

60 in about 2000.



NURSE’S KERNEL - see ‘Captain Kernel’
OLD FRENCH

reference: W.Reece, Lydney Park Estate, Aylburton, personal communication 1992.

provenance: Mr Reece told me this variety grew round Aylburton. It could have been a more

specific french variety.

use: Cider



OLD BROMLEY - see ‘Bromley’


OLD FOXWHELP - see ‘Foxwhelp’


OLD SUGAR PIPPIN - see ‘Sugar Pippin’
OLD TANKARD




Fig.129: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Old Tankard’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994




Fig.129a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Old Tankard’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

synonym: ‘Tankard’.

reference: Joe Littleton, personal communication (ca 1994). Alexandra Martell, personal

communication (2007).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from an old recumbent tree at Merestones, Northwood

Green near Westbury-on-Severn. Only known tree.
Westbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: Propagated 1994.

use: Cider and a tolerable eating apple at Christmas.

fruit description:- 1994. From only tree as above at Merestones.

size: 44-62mm wide 45-61mm tall.

shape: Oblong conical. Flat angular sides join as broad flat ribs. Apex uneven, partially

crowned. Lop-sided, irregular, some fruits waisted.

skin: Pale green to yellow, translucent. Thin diffuse blush on some specimens. Lenticels

inconspicuous, but green areolar. Russet absent except in cavity, spreading. Very little in basin.

Texture greasy.

stalk: Less than 5mm concealed, fleshy.

cavity: Medium depth, medium width.

eye: Large partly open, reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow, deep, ribbed and puckered, very little russet. Sepals downy.

tube: Cone-shaped. Stamens below marginal.

core line: Median.

core: Sessile, axile closed.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: White, juicy fresh acid flavour. Fruit bruises easily.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.130: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Old Tankard’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994

notes: This could well be the variety ‘Tankard’ which is in the the National Fruit Collection,

Brogdale. Further research will decide. The following varieties are also known as ‘Tankard’ but

they are not the ‘Tankard’ described here: ‘Catshead’, ‘Dutch Codlin’, ‘Royal Codlin’, ‘Stoup

Leadington’. The late Joe Littleton (1908-1998) was insistent that I propagate this variety and

show its fruit to Bulmers orcharding department for evaluation as he considered it a useful cider

variety.
OVER APPLE




Fig.131: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Over Apple’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth. Only known trees.




Over, Glos.

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider.

fruit description: 20th November 1993. From an old tree at Broadway, Minsterworth.

size: 62-80mm wide 58-72 mm tall.

shape: Conical, ribbed, five crowned. Lop-sided possibly as a result of scab attack. Irregular,

possibly as a result of scab attack.
skin: Green to yellow. Very slight diffuse flush. Broken hair line present. Russet spreading

from base with a scattering on cheek. Lenticels small round dark inconspicuous. Scab present.

Prone to ‘bitter pit’ (brown spots in the flesh caused by calcium deficiency). Texture becoming

greasy.

stalk: Very short, concealed.

cavity: Deep and narrow, russetted.

eye: Flat convergent. Sepals broad-based.

basin: Narrow shallow and puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped, but wide open to cells.

stamens: Basal - not easily discernible.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile wide open, tufted.

cells: Round lanceolate.

seeds: Brown acuminate.

flesh: Soft fluffy but juicy. Lovely sweet foretaste. No aftertaste.

leaf: Broadly acute. Tip acuminate. Serrate.

drawn record:
Fig.131: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Over Apple’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: I assume that this apple is named after the hamlet of Over, the ancient Severn crossing

place on the western outskirts of Gloucester. The single arch 150 feet stone bridge there was

designed by Telford and completed in 1828. It replaced an eight-arched bridge that had stood

there since the early 13th Century. But there is also an Over near Almondsbury and an Over

Court at Bisley one time home of Queen Elizabeth I. (references: T.A.Ryder: Portrait of

Gloucestershire. Roy Palmer: The Folklore of Gloucestershire)
OVERLEAF




Fig.132: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Overleaf’ fruit by C.Martell, 1993

references: David Bennett, Robert Wellington and Bert Gregson, personal communications

(1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.




Misterworth, Glos.

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- End of September.

size: 43-53mm wide 37-45mm tall.

shape: Round conical. Ribbed. Slightly lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Yellow green, slight orange flush. Russet round stem and eye. Netting over surface

merging into larger patches. Lenticels small russet and distinct. Lenticels areolar on flush.

stalk: 1mm. Thickening at point of attachment to fruit.
cavity: Deep, medium width. Scaly russet overlying thinner russet.

eye: Connivent, tips may be reflexed.

basin: Slight and narrow.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median.

cells: Ovate. Axile, closed.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: White. Acid.

drawn record:




Fig.133: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Overleaf’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: This contrasting variety to the better known ‘Underleaf’ used to be more widespread in

the area west of the Severn. See notes under ‘Gloucestershire Underleaf’. The mature tree has

an extreme weeping habit and was described by David Bennett as looking like a dead octopus on

a stick! Ray Williams points out that extreme weeping varieties like this should be pruned with

caution as the mat of dead wood acts as a support for the living branches which would otherwise

collapse completely. The young trees in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection show no sign of

weeping yet (2001).
OVERTON RED




Fig.134: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Overton Red’ fruit by C.Martell, 1993

reference: J. J. Cobourn, Ron Collins, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Tump Farm, Tirley.




Tirley, Glos

date: Collected 1993.

use: Cider and possible culinary.

fruit description:- 2nd December 1993

size: 53-64mm wide 46-60mm tall.
shape: Round, conical, oblong-conical some with narrow base. Larger specimens ribbed.

Faintly five crowned. Mostly lop-sided. Regular or irregular.

skin:Yellow green. Flush almost complete, crimson almost mahogany on side facing sun. Faint

streaks on thinner flush. Russet may be absent. Hair line. Lenticels pale small inconspicuous.

Texture smooth.

stalk: 10-15mm protruding.

cavity: Narrow and deep.

eye: Closed, sepals fairly long.

basin: Medium width and depth. Some puckering.

tube: Funnel-shaped, narrow.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Median.

core: Median.

cells: Ovate, tufted. Axile, closed.

seeds: Brown, acute.

flesh: Pink round eye. Sweet, fluffy.

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.135: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Overton Red’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: Ray Williams of Long Ashton Cider Research Station examined this variety and

described it as a medium sharp cider variety which could be useful as a dual purpose juice or

cider apple. There is more than one place called Overton and they are presumably associated
with crossing points of the river Severn. The nearest one to Tump Farm lies above Maisemore

about 5 miles to the south west of Tirley. Ron Collins also reported this variety from nearby

Hasfield.
PAGES YELLOW

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by Lord Bledisloe of Lydney Park

and Tommy Garland of Lydney and Aylburton.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A sharp variety.



PARLOUR DOOR




Fig.136: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Parlour Door’ fruit by C.Martell, 2002

synonym: ‘Seven Square’

reference: Richard Hanby and Mrs Wheeler, personal communications (1998).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Was known from Down Hatherley as ‘Seven Square’. Collected for propagation

from Apperley Hall Farm, Apperley.
Apperley, Glos

date: Known from Down Hatherley in the 1950s. Collected 1998.

use: General purpose.

fruit description: From a young standard tree 8th October 2002

size: 60-65mm wide, 43-58mm tall.

shape: Flat round to round-conical. Ribbed. Five-crowned. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Dull green yellow. Long stripes or complete flush unstriped. Lenticels small and

indistinct. Texture greasy.

stalk: 4mm. Concealed or ptrotruding 14mm. Medium thickness about 2mm.

cavity: Deep and wide or medium and narrow. A little thin russet.

eye: Tightly closed and distorted. Sepals connivent or reflexed tips. Green.

basin: Basin narrow and may be shallow or pronounced. Puckered and beaded.

tube: Funnel-shaped. Open to core.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median.

cells: Elliptical. Abaxile. Open. Tufted.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Dull, floury (Possibly over ripe at time of tasting)

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.137: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Parlour Door’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2002

notes: Known as ‘Seven Square’ at Down Hatherley in the 1950s. Also recorded from China

Cross, Corse Lawn. I have considered the possibility that ‘Door’ may have originated as ‘d’or’

(French for ‘of gold’) but can find no reason for accepting this - the fruit isn’t golden in

appearance. I presume that it merely arose as a seedling at the parlour door somewhere.



PEAR BOX




Fig.138: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Pear Box’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000

reference: Mervyn Bennett, personal communication 1998.

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Churngate Farm, Kington, Oldbury-on -Severn.

Only known record.
Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: First recorded 1998 and collected for propagation 1999.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- 14th November 2000.

size: 47-59mm wide 46-60mm tall.

shape: Oblong-conical. Very slightly and broadly ribbed. Crown uneven but not five crowned.

Lop-sided. Surprisingly regular as every fruit appears almost malformed in symmetry.

skin: Green. Flush nearly total, partial or slight as broken stripes, occasionally meeting to from

total flush. Flush bright or dull red.

stalk: Almost absent to 3mm. Some a knob. Concealed.

cavity: Narrow or very narrow and shallow. Thick very scaly russet restricted or spreading to

base.

eye: Small and tightly closed, connivent.

basin: Skin puckered. Overgrowth almost obscuring eye.

tube: Cone-shaped. Long, opening to core.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median.

cells: Lanceolate. Tufted when not open to eye. If open, less tufted and coloured beige.

Abaxile closed.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Sweet.

tree: Small, a good cropper.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.139: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Pear Box’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000

notes: The most inscrutable name of any Gloucestershire apple. Perhaps ‘pear’ could have been

‘pere’ but that doesn’t really help. It has been suggested that at some stage the fruit had been

stored in old wooden Pears Soap boxes and the name stuck.



PEDINGTON BRANDY




Fig.140: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Pedington Brandy’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Mervyn Bennett, personal communication (1997); John Grey, personal

communication, (2003).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Churngate Farm, Kington, Oldbury-on-Severn.
Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- 14th November 2001.

size: 47-59mm wide 41-62mm tall.

shape: Variable. Round-conical, conical, long-conical, oblong-conical. Uneven apex result of

being partially five crowned. Partial broad ribs. Lop-sided. Regular or irregular. Long

specimens waisted.

skin: Yellow. Occasional slight blush. A little thin scarf skin extending onto base. Lenticels

inconspicuous except where russetted. Small spots of scab present which are areolar flushed.

Russet mostly absent except in cavity.

stalk: Absent.

cavity: Narrow, medium depth. Thin russet extending onto base.

eye: Sepals connivent.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped but variable in size.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant.

cells: Lanceolate. Abaxile, closed.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Sweet. No acidity.

leaf: Broadly acute. Bi-serrate.
drawn record:




Fig.141: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Pedington Brandy’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: See notes on ‘Middle Hill Brandy’. Maybe this variety originated from the same farm.

The late George Grey of Manor Farm, Shepperdine recommended mixing this variety with

‘Kingston Black’ apples to make the best cider.



PEGGY RED - see ‘Dymock Red’
PERSH APPLE

reference: David Browning, personal communication (1995).

status: Remembered by Mr Browning possibly from information passed on by his father who

farmed at Waterend, Longney before him.

notes: Persh is the vale name for willow - possibly specifically basketmaking willow. At nearby

Maisemore there is a Persh Farm situated adjacent to the river Severn as is Waterend where the

persh thrives. The town of Pershore also derives its name from the persh. Presumably the ‘Persh

Apple’ tree looked like a willow or the variety might have originated at Persh Farm. I have no

more information on this variety.



PHELPS FAVOURITE




Fig.142: original photograph of Malus var.‘Phelps Favourite’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.
Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 5th October 1994

size: Variable. 63-73mm wide 50-62mm tall.

shape: Conical but variable and misshapen. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Green to pale yellow. Lightly mottled with short flushed streaks to complete red flush.

Russet absent except for scaly russet in cavity. Lenticels russetted with or without pale areolar

on flush. Lenticels more numerous round apex. Scab present. Greasy texture.

stalk: Medium thickness, just protruding from cavity.

cavity: Deep and narrow.

eye: Erect divergent, tips reflexed.

basin: Narrow and medium depth or shallow. Slight puckering.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant.

cells: Round. Axile, open.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Cox-like texture and flavour, but lacking aftertaste.
drawn record:




Fig.143: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Phelps Favourite’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994

notes: Phelps is a well known name in farming circles in Gloucestershire. There were well

known father and son cidermakers, Daniel and Harold Phelps at Elm Farm, Tibberton. Many

people alive now remember Harold who carried on the cidermaking tradition until his death in

the 1950s. In his later years old Harold Phelps used to travel on the bus to Gloucester market

with a basket of apples. For this outing he always wore a bowler hat. On one such occasion

Glyn Worsnip, then a boy, was travelling in uniform to a meeting of army cadets. Harold

assumed Glyn was a ‘real’ soldier and insisted on giving up his seat to him! The Phelps’s cider

house was tiled out and at the time must have been unusual and also would have set a very high

standard. They made bottle conditioned (Champagne-style) cider. The remnants of their

orchards provided me with cuttings of the ‘Foxwhelp’, ‘Spout Apple’, ‘Skyrmes Kernel’ (a

Herefordshire variety), possibly the ‘Styre Wilding’ as well as the famous ‘Hagloe Crab’ - the

only source of material of this variety I have come across. All these old trees are now gone.
PINE APPLE

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hilda May Wellington, personal communication

(2005)

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Gloucestershire.

date: Recorded 1884 and 1929-1939.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg.

size: 70mm wide 60mm tall.

shape: Oblong-conical to conical.

skin: Lemon yellow with an orange tinge on the side facing the sun. Covered with large russet

spots.

stalk: Very short.

cavity: Wide and deep, rough russet which extends out as lines over base.

eye: Open, erect covergent segments.

basin: Rather deep and ribbed. Sometimes higher on one side than on other.

tube: Conical.

stamens: Median.

cells: Roundish or roundish elliptical. Abaxile.

flesh: Yellowish, tender with an agreeable sub-acid flavour.

notes: Mrs Wellington mentioned a variety of this name which grew at Upper Hall, Elton during

the time she lived there 1929-1939. She describes it as ‘like a Leatherjacket (see Leathercoat)

biggish, golden, roundish’. From this description it could be the same apple referred to by Hogg.

However apples suffering from a condition called ‘water core’ develop a pineapple flavour and

may accordingly be named ‘pineapple’.
PORT WINE KERNEL - see ‘Port Wine Pippin’


PORT WINE PIPPIN




Fig.144: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Port Wine Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell,

synonym: ‘Port Wine Kernel’, ‘Portwine Kernel’, ‘Portwine Pippin’.

reference: Joe Littleton and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992); Percy

Haywood personal communication (2006)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Grew at Hay Redding orchard at Chaxhill whence it was propagated at Merestones,

Northwood Green, Westbury-on-Severn. Also recorded from Arlingham. Graftwood for

Gloucestershire Apple Collection obtained from Merestones.




Chaxhill, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1992.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- From Merestones.
size: 55-60mm wide 57-59mm tall.

shape: Conical. Ribbed to almost absent. Five crowned or smooth. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Yellow to gold. Cherry red flush, which may be quite diffuse over 50% of fruit. Barely

discernible flushed streaking especially on base which merges into flush. Scarf skin on base of

some specimens. Russet absent except in cavity and on lenticels. Lenticels, small, numerous

and conspicuous, pale on unflushed areas. Some russetted. Texture greasy.

stalk: 5-15mm slender. Thickening at point of attachment to fruit.

cavity: A little thin russet or absent. Lipped, stalk awry.

eye: Sepals erect convergent.

basin: Narrow and shallow.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Broad at termination round tube. Basal-marginal as far as it is possible to discern.

core: Sessile or distant.

cells: Elliptical, tufted. Axile, open.

seeds: Acute, plump.

flesh: Sweet.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate, slightly bi-serrate. Surface undulating.

drawn record:




Fig.145: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Port Wine Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: This strikingly handsome apple was, as with so many other varieties documented here,

named to me only verbally. I therefore consider the very real possibility that it is ‘Portwine’
Kernel or Pippin. ‘Portwine’ is a rare surname to be found on both sides of the North Atlantic.

The variety described here is not the same as the cider variety ‘Port Wine’, a synonym of ‘Harry

Master’s Jersey’.



PRETTY BEDS




Fig.146: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Pretty Beds’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Percy Haywood and Pat Turner, personal communications (2001).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Known from Milton End, Arlingham and Wick Court, Saul. Believed to be

indigenous to the Arlingham peninsula. Graftwood collected from the last known old tree at

Wick Court which blew over just afterwards.




Arlingham, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 2002.

use: Dessert and cider.

fruit description:- 22nd October 2001. From an old standard tree.
size: 46-54mm wide, 39-50mm tall.

shape: Round-conical. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Green, yellowing. Mottled flush about 50%. Some darker broken stripes. Lenticels large,

pale indistinct. Texture greasy. Scab attack may be severe.

stalk: 7-15mm. Slender or fleshy and stout. Protruding.

cavity: Medium depth and width. A little scaly russet.

eye: Closed, reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow and medium to shallow.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, partially open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: White and dense. Brisk sub-acid. Slightly chewey.

leaf: Broadly acute. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.147: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Pretty Beds’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: One of the varieties included in the ‘Arlingham’ orchard at Milton End Farm – see under

‘Arlingham Churchyards’. The term ‘Beds’ may be a curruption of the word ‘bads’ a local term

for the fleshy outer covering of the walnut and also the husks of the hazelnut, here possibly

indicating the skin of the apple. John Ennis of Ashleworth uses the word ‘hud’ for ‘bads’.
PRICE’S SEEDLING

reference: Taylor, H. V. The Apples of England (1948).

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Recorded as grown in Gloucestershire.

date: Recorded 1948.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- After H.V. Taylor.

size: Small.

shape: Tall, oblong and angular.

skin: Pale yellow nearly entirely covered with deep red and some russet.

stalk: Short.

cavity: Shallow, russetted.

eye: ‘Apical’, closed.

notes: Given as ‘grown in Gloucestershire’ so may not be indigenous.
PRIDE OF THE ORCHARD




Fig.148: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Pride of the Orchard’ fruit by C.Martell 2007

reference: Smith M., The National Apple Register (1971); Edward John ‘Jack’ Beddis (born

1925) personal communication (2007)

status: Extant, critically rare (2007). Known from 3 trees at Camaroy Farm, Broadoak. In

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock

provenance: A seedling named by Eli Amos Price at Bowspring Nurseries, Tidenham

date: Named 1930’s. Propagated 2007

use: Dessert

fruit description:- 12th August 2007. Fruit normally ripe mid September

size: 60-73mm wide 60-65mm tall

shape: Conical. Ribbed. More or less five-crowned sometimes with interstitial crown. Lop-

sided. Irregular. Sometimes slightly waisted.

skin: Pale green. Striped dull flush about 50%. Scarf skin present. Lenticels large pale and

indistinct. Slightly greasy. Slight bloom present.

stalk: 15mm long fairly consistent. Stoutish 3-4mm wide.

cavity: Medium width. Medium to shallow.

eye: Closed, reflexed tips.
basin: Narrow, medium depth. Puckered.

tube: Broad and deep. Cone shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Median to basal

core: Median. Abaxile, open.

cells: Elliptical.

seeds: Acute

flesh: Juicy. Rather lacking in character. Little acidity. Browning very quickly.

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate. Downward hanging. Undulating surface.

drawn record:




Fig.149: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Pride of the Orchard’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2007

notes: Eli Amos Price selected this seedling at his Bowspring Nurseries at Tidenham. Jack

Beddis, Mr Price’s grandson maintained the variety at Camaroy Farm from 1939 – 2000 when he

moved with his wife to Newent. The variety is still maintained today (2007) and his been

propagated by the current owners of Camaroy, Jo Badij and her husband. Jo Badij once worked

as a geneticist at Long Ashton Cider Research Station.

An apple named ‘Pride of the Orchard’ was exhibited from Sussex in 1883 (only record) and

with no description. Because of the provenance of the apple described from Camaroy Farm I

must assume firstly that we are not describing the same variety which was exhibited from Sussex

in 1883 because Mr Price didn’t select his seedling until the 1930s. Secondly, if Mr Price hadn’t

invented the name himself then perhaps he had come across it and given it to his own apple.
The name Camaroy Farm seemed to offer lots of research potential until Jack Beddis pointed out

that he had knocked down the original 2 cottages on his property and replaced them with the

current house which he named after his 3 children, Caroline, Malcolm and Royston.
PRINCE’S PIPPIN (1)- see ‘Lake’s Kernel’



PRINCE’S PIPPIN (2)




Fig.150: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Prince’s Pippin’ fruit from an old tree by C.Martell, 1993
Fig 150a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Prince’s Pippin’ fruit from a young tree by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Royal Horticultural Society, Apples and Pears – Varieties and Cultivation in 1934

(1935); Smith,M. National Apple Register (1971); Nancy Campbell, personal communication

(1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Numerical status uncertain but probably

endangered 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Ivy Cottage, Brooms Green, Dymock.




Dymock, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 19th September 1993

size: 57-65mm wide 67-70mm tall.

shape: Conical to round conical. Ribbed, crowned, lop-sided, regular.
skin: Pale green to yellow. Flush restricted, diffuse. Russet and scarf skin at cavity, spreading.

Russet mostly absent but slight netting on some. Scab present. Lenticels small dark or pale geen

areolar, small pale and distinct on flush. Texture smooth.

stalk: 1-5mm long about 2mm thick.

cavity: Narrow and deep.

eye: Erect divergent or connivent. Quite large.

basin: Narrow and shallow.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant.

cells: Ovate, tufted. Axile.

seeds: Acute.

leaf: Broadly oval. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.151: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Prince’s Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993
notes: Also known from Henberrow, Leadington.

Apart from the variety described above, I have been able to trace descriptions of four ‘Prince’s

Pippins’ which I list below:

1. National Apple Register recorded 1842 from Gloucester. Still in existence 1946. Conical to

round conical. Skin yellow with red stripes.

2. National Apple Register recorded once in 1863 in America, no description.

3. Royal Horticultural Society - Apple and Pear Conference 1934 sourced from Gloucester.

Conical, yellow red striped.

4. Taylor, H.V. The Apples of England (1948). Yellow, red flush and stripes.

It seems 1, 3 and 4 may be the same variety (for our purposes 2 may be discounted). All are

flushed. From the brief descriptions above it seems we may be dealing with the same variety as

the one in The Gloucestershire Apple Collection. However the evidence is not conclusive.



PRINCESS PIPPIN - see ‘Lake’s Kernel’
PUCKRUPP - see ‘Puckrupp Pippin’


PUCKRUPP PIPPIN




Fig.152: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Puckrupp Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell, 1999

synonyms: ‘Puckrupp’, ‘Puckrupp’s Pippin’, ‘Puckrupt Pippin’

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Probably endangered 2001.

provenance: Graftwood obtained from National Fruit Collection, Brogdale.




Puckrup, Glos

date: First record and description 1872. Graftwood obtained for Gloucestershire Apple

Collection from National Fruit Collection ca.1993.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 3rd October 1999 - from a young standard tree.

size: 49-55mm wide 46-52mm tall.
shape: Round-conical. Hint of five crowning. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Green yellowing. Thin russet over 80%, netting over remainder. Patches of thinnish flush

on some fruits giving a characteristic cinnamon hue to the russet. Lenticels conspicuous, may be

tuberculous (slightly raised) on base of fruit.

stalk: 10mm slender.

cavity: Medium depth. Wide, narrowing sharply.

eye: Wide open, broad. Sepals separated, tips reflexed.

basin: Wide and shallow.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core: Sessile to median.

cells: Round, but tapering towards base. Axile, closed.

seeds: Acuminate, brown.

flesh: Acid but sweet, firm off white.

leaf: Acute. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.153: original drawing of Malus var. Puckrupp Pippin fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1999

notes: This variety is included here on the evidence of its name. The small village of Puckrup,

currently spelt with one ultimate ‘p’, lies to the north of Tewkesbury. I have assumed that this is

the origin of the ‘Puckrupp Pippin’.

Emma-Jane Allen reports from Brogdale (2006) that this variety was sent in there as ‘Puckrupt

Pippin from Crawley, Sussex in 1942 and that it doesn’t match published descriptions of

Puckrupp Pippin.’
The description given in the National Apple Register is:

       Size medium; shape conic; skin golden yellow covered with cinnamon russet;

       flesh crisp; flavour rich; season mid to very late.

In spite of its brevity, I find this description concurs with the description above. However,

except for its name, there is no further evidence I can find which indicates that this variety

originated in Gloucestershire.



PUCKRUPP’S PIPPIN - see ‘Puckrupp Pippin’



PUCKRUPT PIPPIN - see ‘Puckrupp Pippin’
QUOINING OF GLOUCESTERSHIRE see ‘Gloucestershire Quoining’
RAYNAL’S CRAB - see ‘Reynold’s Kernel’



RED COSTARD - see ‘Gloucestershire Costard’


RED DICK

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station from Dymock.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A bittersharp variety sent in by S.P.Taylor



RED FRENCH

reference: Royal Horticultural Society - Conference on Apples and Pears 1934.

status: Only known record.

provenance: Gloucestershire -see ‘notes’.

use: Cider.

fruit description: Small, conical, red.

notes: This variety is included here on the advice of Ray Williams cider pomologist at Long

Ashton Research Station. ‘French’ is the Gloucestershire name for a bittersweet cider variety.

Corresponding terms used in Herefordshire and Somerset are ‘norman’ and ‘jersey’ respectively.
RED ROYAL

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Recorded ‘as a favourite apple in the Gloucestershire Orchards’.

date: First record 1884.

use: Primarily cider, also culinary and dessert.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg and H. Bull.

size: 55mm wide 51mm tall.

shape: Round to oblate and oblong-conical. Broadly ribbed.

skin: Yellow, almost entirely covered with dark crimson. Surface sprinkled with russet spots.

stalk: Short and slender.

cavity: Rather deep.

eye: Closed with convergent segments.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

cells: Obovate, small. Axile, open.

flesh: White tender and pleasantly sub-acid and was ‘thought to make cider of the first quality, of

good colour and flavour, and very sweet and pleasant.’

tree: Hardy and bears well. ‘It likes a high situation and deep strong loam, well drained’.

drawn record:




Fig.153a: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Red Royal’ fruit by H.G.Bull 1886
RED SOLDIER

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants,

Cider Variety Competition 1903-1929.

status: Only two known records as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in from T. Yarnold of Leigh, O. Hawkins of Forthampton, A. Edwards of

Tewkesbury.

date: First record 1884, fruit sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg

skin: Brightly coloured.

notes: R. Hogg describes this as ‘a very lucky bearer’ because of this and its bright colour it has

been much sought after. However it only makes a thin, poor cider.
RED STYRE




Fig.154: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Red Styre’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886); Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety

Competition 1903-1929; H. P. Bulmer and Co, Planting Records 1932; Aubrey Allen, personal

communication (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: As a named ‘styre’ it is included here on the advice of Ray Williams cider

pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station.

Graftwood obtained from Ashgrove, Glasbury-on-Wye, an orchard planted by H. P. Bulmer and

Co for Mr E.Selman..

date: First record and description 1884. Planting record 1932. Graftwood obtained for

Gloucestershire Apple Collection 1999.

use: Cider but an acceptable dessert apple.

fruit description:- 15th September 2001 from a 69 year old tree.

size: 50-63mm wide and 40-45mm tall.

shape: Round to round-conical. Lop-sided. Regular or slightly irregular. Indistinct ribs.

skin: Pale green. Mottled flush with darker broken streaks. Lenticels indistinct. Pale areolar.

stalk: Variable. About 10mm long or a fleshy knob. Thickened at abscission point.

Occasionally slender. Protruding.
cavity: Lipped and deep. Very little thin russet on lip.

eye: Closed with reflexed tips.

basin: Almost absent. Puckered and beaded.

tube: Short, funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Distant. Axile, closed or open

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Mild bittersharp.

leaf: Broadly oval or broadly acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.155: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Red Styre’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: This description varies slightly from Hogg’s, notably the basin which he describes as

‘pretty deep and somewhat angular’. Flowers after ‘Upright Styre’ with which it shares the

orchard where it was rediscovered. A bittersharp variety sent in to Long Ashton by H. Knight of

Huntley, H. J. Phelps of Tibberton and W. E. King of Berkeley.

This variety was on the planting list of H. P. Bulmer and Co of Hereford in the 1930s. They

mantain records of these plantings back to 1927. Through their records the author traced this

variety to a planting carried out on 23rd and 27th March 1932 at Mr E. Selman’s ‘Llwynon’ at
Glasbury-on-Wye. There the scent went cold as nobody had heard of Mr Selman or Lwynon. It

was a number of years before I met Sheila Leitch co-ordinator of the Marcher Apple Network

who happens to live in Glasbury. Within 12 hours she had traced Llwynon which had become

anglicised to ‘Ashgrove’ and confirmed that the trees were still growing there. With the aid of

Bulmer’s planting plan, inscribed in beautiful copper-plate writing, Mrs Leitch was able to

pinpoint the ‘Red Styre’ along with ‘Upright Styre’ trees. She has since kindly sent me fruit

samples for description and graftwood material for propagation. See also under ‘Upright Styre’.

Hogg lists the ‘Red Styre’ as a Hereford variety. However he also makes the same comment for

the ‘Forest Styre’ long recognised as a Gloucestershire variety. It is included here primarily on

the evidence of its name and it is in any case convenient for conservation purposes to include it

in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection ensuring the survival of this critically endangered

variety.
RED TWO YEAR OLD




Fig.156: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Red Two Year Old’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description: 17th November 1993

size: 59mm wide 52mm tall.

shape: Flat-round. Ribbed, five crowned. Lop-sided, regular.
skin: Green. 80% flush, dark dull red approaching brown, stripes just discernible. Russet scaly

in basin and cavity, spreading in patches over cheek. Lenticels, pale and conspicuous. Texture

greasy.

stalk: Knob.

cavity: Russet thick and scaly, laid in concentric rings.

eye: Flat convergent large eye. Small sepals not touching.

basin: Broad and medium depth.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Between median and basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Rather sessile. Axile, open.

cells: Basal clasping.

seeds: Brown, acuminate, not large.

flesh: Hard and sour - but not ripe at time of tasting.

leaf: Broadly oval. Acuminate tip. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.157: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Red Two Year Old’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: Jonathen Trigg who lived in the orchards at Bollow did in fact keep a ‘Red Two Year

Old’ apple for two years. History doesn’t relate its condition at the end of this time. See also

‘Green Two Year Old’.
RED VALLIS

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by W. E. King of Berkeley.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

fruit description: A sweet variety.

notes: Mr King also sent in ‘Mobley’s Sowing’ - see above. See also ‘Vallis’ - there can’t be a

redder variety than this and maybe ‘Red Vallis’ is the same variety.
REYNOLD’S CRAB - see ‘Reynold’s Kernel’



REYNOLD’S KERNEL




Fig.158: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Reynold’s Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell

synonyms: ‘Reynold’s Crab’, ‘Raynal’s Crab’ mentioned by R. Hogg, but see notes.

reference: If truly synonymous with above then first reference is Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The

Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886); Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider

Variety Competition 1903-1929; David Bennett, Robert Wellington and Eric Freeman

(Reynold’s Crab), personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by E. Edgwick, Tewkesbury and H.

Knight, Huntley. Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth and Cyprus Cottage,

Minsterworth. Material from both sources represented in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection.

They appear to be identical.




Minsterworth, Glos
date: First recorded 1886, if synonymous. Next reference 1903-1929, Long Ashton Research

Station. Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider and culinary.

fruit description:- from a young standard tree.

size: 59-63mm wide 49-55mm tall.

shape: Round. Faintly ribbed. Five crowned. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Pale green. Flush thin. Few short narrow streaks of red. Russet netting or absent except in

cavity. Lenticels small and grey. Waxy except on russet.

stalk: 5-13mm long. Medium thickness.

cavity: Deep and wide. The base of cavity flattens slightly making the point of attachment of the

stem easily discernible. Lined with thin russet, which may have darker scaly patches.

eye: Closed, tips reflexed. Sepals green

basin: Shallow and narrow. Slightly puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile open.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Juicy, bittersharp.

leaf: Oval or broadly oval with acuminate tip. Dentate.
drawn record:




Fig.159: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Reynold’s Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: R. Hogg and H. Bull only give the following curtailed description so it is impossible to

say if it is synonymous with the variety described above:

        ‘A yellow fleshed fruit, with something of the flavour of the Siberian Crab,

         The tree grows to a large size, and bears “wonderfully”. The fruit makes “the

         very best cider”.’

However David Bennett reports that this variety had the reputation of ruining good cider if

mixed with it (2006).
RHEAD’S REINETTE




Fig.160: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Rhead’s Reinette’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997

synonym: ‘Grandpa Rhead’s’

reference: Robert and Peggy Wellington, personal communications (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001 but was never

widespread.

provenance: Raised from seed by William Rhead (1852-1955) at either Elton Farm, Elton or

Peglars Farm, Flaxley.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Uncertain, but 1900 would have been the mid-point of Mr Rhead’s long life

use: Dessert.

fruit description: From a young tree 3rd November 1997.

size: 58-68mm wide 53-59mm tall.
shape: Round or round conical. Slight five crowning. Lop-sided, nearly regular.

skin: Yellow green. Flush 80%, thin, mottled, with some darker streaks. As implied by its

name, a reinette. Lenticels pale small and indistinct. Texture smooth or dry depending on extent

of russet.

stalk: 12-22mm long, slender protruding.

cavity: Medium width, shallow scaly russet. Slightly lipped.

eye: Sepals convergent with reflexed tips.

basin: Shallow or very shallow, medium width. Puckered, a little downy.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median to basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile open.

cells: Round or obovate. Slightly tufted.

seeds: Acute or obtuse.

flesh: Slightly yellow, juicy. Excellent flavour like ‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’.

leaf: Broadly acute or broadly oval. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.161: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Rhead’s Reinette’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997

notes: William Rhead was born at Griffin’s Farm, Tibberton. He went to work for Morgan

Phillips Price (M.P.Price M.P.) on the Tibberton Court Estate. Dissatisfied with his lot there he

went to work for Samuel Bullock (see ‘Casey’s Kernel’ and ‘Taynton Codlin’) at Elton Farm.

He worked here for 16 years before moving to Peglars Farm, Flaxley to set up farming on his
own account. Apparently he got fed up with the unconventional spelling of his name and

changed it to Reed. He was married for 71 years! This variety was kept going by William

Rhead’s grand-daughter Peggy Wellington at her Cyprus Cottage, Minsterworth after being

grafted for her by her late husband Bob, a well known fruit man and one to whom I am greatly

indebted for so much information included in this work.

Ray Williams of Long Ashton Cider Research Station was of the opinion that this is a seedling of

‘Cox’s Orange Pippin’ and has its attendant disadvantage of susceptibility to disease.



ROCK KERNEL




Fig.162: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Rock Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: Colin Jones, personal communication (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: In nearby Dymock there is an Old Rock Farm and New Rock Farm and I suspect

this variety arose at one of these farms. Collected for propagation from Tawnies Farm, Oxenhall




Dymock, Glos.
date: Collected for propagation 1992.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:-

size: 48-57mm wide 44-54mm tall.

shape: Round. One or two shallow ribs. Five crowned or more. Symmetrical, irregular.

skin: Pale green to yellow, well flushed. Over marked with a darker spotting and streaking.

Thin russet spreading from cavity in some specimens. Lenticels conspicuous, pale russetted with

green areolar where flush is thin. Waxy skin but not very shiny.

stalk: 5-10mm slender. Protruding.

cavity: Deep and narrow. Thin russet usually present.

eye: Very small and closed, connivent or reflexed tips. Sepals narrow.

basin: Small narrow ribs almost puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, open or closed. Some fruits were found to have only four cells.

cells: Obovate. Very slightly tufted.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Tough, crisp. Flushed between core line and skin at apex and base.

leaf: Broadly acute. Margins curling upwards. Serrate and crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.163: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Rock Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
ROSE OF CIREN




Fig.163a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Rose of Ciren’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007


reference: H.W.G.Elwes, personal communication (2007)

status: Extant, critically rare, known only from 2 original trees. In Gloucestershire Apple

Collection, Dymock.

provenance: Believed to have been bred by John Jefferies & Sons at their Royal Nursey.

Propagating material collected from the only known trees above.




Siddington, Glos.

date: Known to have been in existence in 1956 when it was already a mature tree which Mr

Elwes describes as now being ‘100 years old’ (2007). Collected for propagation 2007.

use: Dessert

fruit description: From an old tree 11th September 2007.

size: 50-60mm wide, 52-57mm tall.
shape: Round conical. Broadly and unevenly ribbed, an angular apple. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Pale yellow. Partial light flush. Lenticels conspicuous especially on flush where they may

be more intensely coloured. Possibly becoming waxy later

stalk: Fleshy knob.

cavity: Narrow and medium to deep.

eye: Medium to large. Open, reflexed tips .

basin: Broad and medium to shallow. Puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped, deep and open to the core.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Axile, or abaxile in very irregular fruit. Closed

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Under-ripe but a promising acidity balanced with pleasant lemony flavour. No hint of

‘bitter pit’in this sample.

leaf: Acute. Crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.163b: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Rose of Ciren’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2007

notes: Mr Elwes describes it as an apple which doesn’t keep well and that it develops brown

spots in the flesh which may prove to be ‘bitter pit’. See – ‘flesh’ above. Mr Elwes also recounts

that when he took over the Colesbourne Estate in 1956 the old gardener, Charlie Neve, identified

the tree and said it had come from John Jefferies & Sons, Cirencester. Mr Neve died in 1963

aged just over 80. This seems to be another variety produced by John Jefferies & Son of

Siddington. See also ‘Jill Jefferies’ and ‘Siddington Russet’ which were distributed by the same

company.
ROYAL TURK




Fig.164: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Royal Turk’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000

reference: Joan and John Holford, personal communications (2000) Ann Smith, personal

communication (2000).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Brookfield, Churchdown. Only known source.




Churchdown, Glos

date: Known to be in existence well before 1904 because a mature tree was noted just after this

date.

use: Culinary.

fruit description:- 8th October 2000. From an old tree at Churchdown.

size: 64-80mm wide 53-63mm tall.

shape: Conical or round-conical. Ribbed with intermediate less distinct ribs. Five crowned.

Lop-sided, irregular, concave.
skin: Light green, yellowing. Lenticels indistinct, pale areolar. Texture smooth. Scab present.

stalk: 10-23mm slender.

cavity: Wide becoming deep and narrow. Smoothly russetted.

eye: Sepals connivent.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Extent of puckering is delineated by a groove encircling the eye.

tube: Funnel-shaped, open to core.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Axile, open.

cells: Lanceolate, tufted.

seeds: Small brown acute or acuminate.

flesh: Crisp juicy, slightly sweet, some acidity.

leaf: Broadly acute to broadly oval. Bi-serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.165: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Royal Turk’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000

notes: The Holford family have been three generations (since 1904) on the farm where this

variety grows. The fruit is ripe at the end of August but may still be falling at the end of

September. Miss Holford describes this as an early cooker. She bakes it with brown sugar and it

is eaten with cream.




ROYAL-WILDING

synonym: This is not the same variety as ‘Royal Wilding’ which has the synonym ‘Cadbury’
reference: Rudge, T. A General View of the Agriculture of the County of Gloucester (1807)

status: Only known record but appears to have been widespread in the past. Rudge records that it

‘is a great favourite among the planters in the upper part of the Forest district, and is much

introduced in the Vale, on the east side of the Severn."

provenance: Rudge describes this variety as a native of Dymock.

date: 1807 only date given.

use: Cider.

general description: Rudge describes this variety as a ‘free, clean, and handsome grower; makes

excellent cider.’



RUSTY COAT

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971). There is an indefinite reference to

this variety being exhibited from Devon - the only record - in 1883, Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual

(1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886). R. Hogg is quite

definite that this a Gloucestershire cider apple of good repute.

status: Only known records as above.

provenance: Gloucestershire.

date: First record if the same variety 1883 - otherwise 1884 and by implication had been in

existence some time because it had a good reputation.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg.

size: 70mm wide 50mm tall.

shape: Oblong. Even and regular in outline.

skin: Yellow with orange cheek. Thich coarse russet dots and patches of rough russet.

stalk: Very short.

cavity: Deep, round and russetted.

eye: Open, sepals erect convergent with reflexed tips.

basin: Deep round and smooth.

tube: Conical.
stamens: Median.

core: Axile.

cells: Round.

flesh: Yellowish, firm, juicy, sweet and well flavoured.

notes: Considered one of the best Gloucestershire cider apples. Ripe during October and

November.
SAMLING VON ASHMEAD - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



SELINA PIPPIN

reference: David Bennett and J. Trigg, personal communications (1993).

Included in a list of local apples provided by J. Trigg who lived in the orchards at Broadway,

Minsterworth. He died in 1985. There is a ‘Selina’ apple which is a synonym of ‘Kentucky Red

Streak’, an American variety, and this may be the apple to which Mr Trigg was referring.



SEMIS d’ASHMEAD - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



SEVEN APOSTLES

reference: Gerald Morris, personal communication (1993).

status: Only known record.

provenance: Was found by the River Leadon at Bellamy’s Farm, Greenway, Dymock.

date: In existence up to at least 1950.

description: This variety was characterised by having seven cells.



SEVEN SQUARE - see ‘Parlour Door’
SEVERN BANK




Fig.166: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Severn Bank’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994

synonyms: ‘Lassington’ (Vale of Berkeley), ‘Croome’s Kernel’ (Minsterworth).

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Royal Horticultural Society - Fruit Conference

1934; Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Joan Morgan and Alison Richards, The

Book of Apples (1993); David Bennett, Robert Wellington and Ray Williams, personal

communications (1993); David Browning, personal commuincation (1996); John Grey, personal

communication (1997)

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale (2 sources) and in Gloucestershire Apple

Collection, Dymock. Rare but possibly not endangered 2001.

provenance: Joan Morgan writes that it travelled well from Gloucestershire to Midland Markets

in 19th Century. Still to be found growing in the Severn Vale in Gloucestershire (2001) where it

is relatively well known and widespread being recorded as far down river as Shepperdine. There

is more than one type of the ‘Severn Bank’, possibly as a result of seedlings being grown on or

of mutations.

date: Known of in 19th Century. First recorded date1884. One source of graftwood was collected

for Brogdale from Much Marcle in the 1970s. Received for propagation in the Gloucestershire

Apple Collection from the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale ca. 1993.
use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 5th October 1994. From an old tree at Broadway, Minsterworth growing on

the banks of the Severn.

size: 63mm wide 53mm tall

shape: Round-conical. Slight ribs. Lop-sided, irregular. Fruit distorted through scab attack.

skin: Green yellow, partial thin flush with stripes of more intense colour. Russet absent except

in cavity. Lenticels inconspicuous russetted, clustered near apex. Scarf skin round base.

Texture waxy. Thick.

stalk: Short and fleshy, just projecting beyond base. Some just a fleshy knob.

cavity: Wide and deep or narrow and shallow. Scaly russet.

eye: Closed reflexed tips. Seplas long with broad base.

basin: Narrow and shallow. Slight puckering.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile,open.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute, quite angular.

flesh: Acid. Classified as a sharp for cider.

leaf: Round to broadly oval. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.167: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Severn Bank’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000
notes: A previously widespread commercial variety that gained fame by travelling to Midland

markets probably by trow up the Severn as well as by train to supply the burgeoning urban

population. As with so many popular fruit varieties it comes in more than one form and it is

doubtful whether a ‘true type’ can be ascribed to one particular source of this good old working

variety. However the fruit sample described above from the banks of the Severn is

indistinguishable from that of the strain held at Brogdale. As well as being a good early cooker,

coming at just the right time to accompany blackberry dishes, it was known for producing an

early cider ready for Christmas when it was reported to be quite sparkly. I was told that when it

was to be milled water would have to be added to it – no reason was given. The sample

submitted to the Royal Horticultural Society Fruit Conference in 1934 was classified as a late

variety, in contrast to the known strains to-day which all seem to be classified as early.

The tree is unshapely and large, especially on the rich alluvial soils of the Vale. It frequently

suffers from wind damage from which it recovers with vigour.



SEYANETS ASHMIDA - see ‘Ashmead’s Kernel’



SHATFORDS

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station anonymously from Wick.

date: First known record 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

fruit description: A sharp variety.
SHEEP’S NOSE of OLDBURY




Fig.168: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Sheep’s Nose of Oldbury’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006

synonym: None if distinct from other varieties of the same name.

reference: Steve Welsh on behalf of Christobell Timko and others, personal communication

(2006).

status: Rare. In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

provenance: Steve Welsh (2006) says the people of his native Oldbury-upon-Severn insist that

this is a variety that originated in their district.




Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: First brought to notice 2006.

fruit description: From young growth from a graft onto a mature tree of a different variety. 10th

October 2006.

size: 65-78 mm wide, 63-66mm tall.
shape: Round-conical to conical. Very indistinct broad ribs. Indistinctly five crowned. Lop-

sided. Irregular. Very slightly waisted in most specimens.

skin: Pale green. Scarf skin present. Flush variable and as broad stripes laid over fine mottling.

Pale corky russet on base. Lenticels small dark and indistinct. Texture slightly waxy.

stalk: 10-24mm long. 1.5mm wide. Slender for size of fruit. May protrude.

cavity: Deep and narrow. Pale corky russet spreading out over base of fruit.

eye: Smallish, open with reflexed tips. Sepals broad based.

basin: Narrow, medium depth. Slightly puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped. Some wide and blunt, almost basin-shaped.

stamens: Median to basal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, open. Tufted

cells: Elliptical. The cell walls thick and tough.

seeds: Plentiful, variable in shape; acuminate, obtuse and acute. Light brown.

flesh: Medium density. Variable, light balanced flavour, neither acid, nor astringent. Or floury

and tasteless.

leaf: Broadly oval. Serrate. Surface slightly undulating.

use: General purpose.

drawn record:




Fig.169: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Sheep’s Nose of Oldbury’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2006

notes: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971) list 4 Sheep’s Nose apples.
1. Also listed by Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884), where he describes an apple which is

concave and strongly ribbed. Two years later Hogg, R. and Bull, H. Apple and Pear as Vintage

Fruits 1886 describe it as ‘a somewhat narrow, oblong shape, with sharp angles.’, and ‘largely

grown in Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, and Worcestershire.’ I presume the two references are

to the same apple.

2. Described as tall and ribbed.

3. Tall and rectangular. It is in the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale.

4. Synonym: American Golden Russet. This variety is not flushed.

From their descriptions and without absolute certainty I believe all the 4 above may be

discounted as being synonymous with the apple described here. It is therefore distinguished

from these by its suffix ‘of Oldbury’ where it is believed to have originated. This variety was

verified for Steven Welsh by Christobell Timko (née Jones ca. 1960). She has lived in Cowhill

all her life and her father owned and ran Cowhill Cider.
SHEPPERDINE SILT




Fig.170: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Shepperdine Silt’ fruit by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Black Tanker’.

reference: John and Richard Grey, personal communications (1994); George Hedges, personal

communication per Steven Welsh (2001)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Presumably arose in Shepperdine where it still grows on a farm with a long

tradition of cidermaking (but see – notes). Collected for propagation from Manor Farm,

Shepperdine.




Shepperdine, Glos

date: First recorded 1994. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: Cider.
fruit description:- From an old tree at Shepperdine.

size: 47-54mm wide 37-49mm tall.

shape: Round. Slightly lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Pale green yellow almost totally covered in dark blood red flush, with darker stripes.

Russet spreading from cavity forming netting which may extend over whole surface. Russet

becomes cinnamon on flush. Russet denser on unflushed areas. Lenticels inconspicuous

because of netting.

stalk: 5-10mm mostly fleshy or very fleshy and contiguous with fruit.

cavity: Shallow and narrow. Russetted over gark gren skin. Mostly lipped giving angled stalk.

eye: Small. Flat convergent. Slightly beaded.

basin: Medium width, shallow to absent.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping to median.

core: Median. Axile closed.

cells: Round to obovate.

seeds: Acuminate or acute.

flesh: Some red tinging especially in a cut fleshy stem. Lightly dry. Balance of acidity and

astringency.

leaf: Reflexed. Uneven surface. Broadly acute. Serrate.

tree: Reported to make a large tree. Above specimens collected from an old broken tree.

drawn record:




Fig.171: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Shepperdine Silt’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
notes: Very similar fruit to a ‘Kingston Black’ but reputed in its home district to make a better

flavoured cider. According to George Hedges (1912/13-2002) this variety arose as an unlabelled

bundle of young fruit trees which was bought from Gloucester Market. They were named

‘Shepperdine Silt’ on their arrival in that village. ‘Kingston Black’ has synonyms ‘Taynton

Black’ and ‘Taunton Black’ while ‘Shepperdine Silt’ has ‘Black Tanker’. Further study is

needed to document the differences between the ‘Kingston Black’ and the ‘Shepperdine Silt’.
SHILLING




Fig.172: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Shilling’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Colin Jones, personal communication (1992); George Dudfield, Mud on my Boots - A

View of Dymock life 1909 to 1930 (c.1996).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Tawnies Farm, Oxenhall.




Dymock, Glos.

date: Recorded early 1900s and collected for propagation 1992.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- From young standard tree 9th September 2001.

size: 60-85mm wide 67-94mm tall.

shape: Round-conical or long-conical, slight ribbing, slightly five crowned.
skin: Yellow green, flush extensive dense and even or fading. Striping and mottling. Partial

hairline occasionally present. Russet absent except on hairline and cavity. Lenticels pale

conspicuous and maybe green areolar on unflushed parts. Texture greasy.

stalk: Short stout concealed.

cavity: Narrow and deep, or almost absent and lipped in long conical fruits which may be ‘king’

fruits.

eye: Partially open, reflexed tips. Sepals long, acute and pubescent.

basin: Medium depth, medium width - slightly puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to sessile. Tufted, abaxile open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acuminate. Very long and slender.

flesh: Juicy, pleasant sub-acid balance of flavour. Open texture.

leaf: Round. Serrations acuminate.

drawn record:




Fig.173: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Shilling’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: Known from Pitthouse Farm, Dymock in the early 1900s. Apparently unrecorded since

then until discovered growing at Tawnies Farm, Oxenhall in 1992. In my limited experience of

this variety it is a shy bearer. The only mature tree was small and has since been cut down.
SHOPGROUND KERNEL




Fig.174: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Shopground Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: David Bennett, Frank Gibson and Robert Wellington, personal communications

(1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 1999.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Broadway, Minsterworth. Known from one other

site near Broadway.




Minsterworth, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Dessert and culinary.

fruit description:-

size: 66-83mm wide 65-85mm tall.

shape: Oblong to oblong-conical. Ribs prominent, five crowned. Lop-sided irregular.
skin: Yellow green, flush light to dark up to almost total. Lightly mottled with very dark streaks.

Streaks extending into cavity. Thin russet netting in large patches extending to cavity and basin.

Lenticels pale on flush, green on unflushed parts. Texture slightly rough and greasy.

stalk: 2mm, slender and tapering into cavity. Mostly protruding beyond base.

cavity: Very deep and cone-shaped. Russetted, becoming scaly.

eye: Very small, tightly puckered, closed. Sepals short and connivent.

basin: Deep and narrow, thinly russetted.

tube: Funnel-shaped, 15mm long.

stamens: Median. 5mm from margin.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Abaxile, closed.

cells: Round, lanceolate, tufted.

seeds: Acuminate, flat.

flesh: Areas of transparency occur in the flesh which give the appearance of ‘stress’ lines

emanating from the core, but beyond the core line. This may be suffering from a condition

called ‘water-core’ which gives the flesh a pineapple flavour. A very pleasant eater with a good

balance of sugar and acid.

leaf: Round, leathery, crenate.
drawn record




Fig.175: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Shopground Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: I don’t know which shop ground this variety may have originated in.
SIDDINGTON RUSSET




Fig.176: original photograph of Malus var.‘Siddington Russet’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006




Fig.176a: original photograph of Malus var.‘Siddington Russet’ fruit by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Smith, M. National Apple Register (1971); Tim Jefferies, personal communication

(2000).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Possibly endangered 2001.
provenance: Discovered at the nurseries of John Jefferies and Sons Ltd at Siddington,

Cirencester as a sport of the ‘Galloway Pippin’.




Siddington, Glos.

date: Discovered 1923. Listed in the catalogue of John Jefferies & Sons in 1930s. Graftwood

received from Brogdale for propagation in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection c. 1993.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 29th September 2006. From an 11 year old tree on M25 rootstock.

size:62-74mm wide, 49-56mm tall.

shape: Flat-round. Lop-sided. Regular.

skin: Green yellowing. Flush absent. Russet rough and scaley. Laid in indistinct concentric

rings towards apex. Lanticels pale distinct and slightly raised. Texture rough.

stalk: Protruding. 10-19mm long. 3mm wide pubescent and russetted. Swollen and green at

abscission point.

cavity: Medium width, medium depth.

eye: Longish sepals, reflexed tips. Pubescent

basin: Not russetted. Broadish, medium to shallow.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Axile, closed.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Dense white and good brisk flavour.

leaf: Broadly acute, blade 70mm, stem 24mm. Acutely crenate
use: Dessert.

drawn record:




Fig.177: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Siddington Russet’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2006

notes: The nurseries of John Jefferies & Sons were established in 1795 by Richard Gregory who

died in 1837. Latterly three Jefferies brothers took responsibility for developing different

branches of the business. John Jefferies (born 1907) is the current (2000) head of the family and

landscape specialist. Richard (1910-2000) specialised in seeds and roses. Robert (born 1912)

ran the nursery and was responsible for propagating apple varieties for sale including the ‘Jill

Jefferies’ apple (see above) and the ‘Siddington Russet’.



SMALL STYRE

synonym: ‘Styre’ (but see ‘Forest Styre’)

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits (1886).

status: Only known reference as above, discounting synonym.

provenance: Believed to be a Gloucestershire variety on account of its name.

date: Recorded 1886.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- After R. Hogg and H. Bull.

size: Small.

shape: Oblong.

skin: Red.

flesh: Yellow.

notes: The apples which looked like plums on the tree were reported to make excellent cider.
SOPHIE TUCK - see ‘Sophie Turk’



SOPHIE TURK

synonym: ‘Sophie Tuck’.

reference: David Bennett and Walter Grey, personal communications (1997).

status: Only known record.

provenance: Grew at Taylor’s Hill on Walmore Common. Sophie Tuck may have been a maid

at Chaxhill House, home of Squire Bennett who grew so many of the varieties mentioned in this

work on his estate.

date: Probably growing before 1899.

use: Cider.

fruit description:

A greeny red , longish apple.

notes: If this apple was indeed named after Sophie Tuck then this name should be the primary

name and not the secondary.



SOUR VALLIS

reference: RHS, Royal Horticultural Society - Fruit Conference 1934.

status: Only known record.

provenance: Sourced from Gloucestershire.

date: Recorded 1934.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- From Apple and Pear Conference 1934.

size: Small.

shape: Conical.

skin: Striped.

flesh: A late season sharp apple. See also ‘Vallis’ and ‘Red Vallis’. ‘Vallis’ is a surname from

the south of Gloucestershire.
SPOUT APPLE




Fig.178: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Spout Apple’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994

synonym: This variety may be synonymous with ‘Lemon Pippin of Gloucestershire’.

reference: Joe Littleton (1908-1998) personal communication (1994)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Found in the orchard of Harold J. Phelps at Tibberton. Identified by Joe Littleton

(1908-1998) of Northwood Green, previously fruit buyer for The Gloucestershire Marketing

Society.




Tibberton, Glos

date: Identified and collected for propagation 1994.

use: Dessert

fruit description:- 27th October 2006 from a young standard tree on M25 rootstock

size: 56-67mm wide 41-56mm tall.
shape: Flat or flat-round. Fairly symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Banana yellow. Very slight occasional flush. Smooth pale russet on base extending out

from cavity. Lenticels distinct large russetted and angular. Laid in concentric rings round eye.

Tuberculous (raised) under russet on base. Texture dry.

stalk: 3-8mm. 2-4mm thick. Sometimes protruding.

cavity: Narrow and shallow. Sometimes lipped.

eye: Large, up to 8mm in diameter. Open. Sepals upright with refelexed tips or divergent.

basin: Broad, medium to shallow.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Axile, closed

cells: Elliptical.

seeds: Acute

flesh: Close textured. Juicy with pleasant tang.

leaf: Oval. Bi-crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.179: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Spout Apple’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994

notes: DNA profiling would confirm whether this variety is indeed synonymous to ‘Lemon

Pippin of Gloucestershire’ or not.
STANTWAY KERNEL




Fig.180: original photograph of Malus var.’ Stantway Kernel’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994

reference: David Bennett and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Assumed to have originated at the village of Stantway near Westbury-on-Severn.

Collected for propagation at nearby Broadway, Minsterworth. Only known trees.




Stantway, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 3rd October 1994 from an old tree at Broadway.

size: 56mm wide 46mm tall.

shape: Round-conical or round. Slightly five crowned. Faint ribbing may be present. Lop-

sided. Mostly irregular.
skin: Green. Flush 50% with darker streaks which may be present on otherwise unflushed parts.

Some scarf skin on base. Netting, usually coalescing to a russet patch at apex. Lenticels small

and inconspicuous, may appear as small white subcutaneous spots. Texture dry.

stalk: 12mm. Medium thickness. Pubescent. Usually projects beyond base at an angle.

cavity: Deep and narrow. Usually with some thick scaly russet.

eye: Closed. Sepals rather long with reflexed tips. Base of sepals thickened.

basin: Shallow and narrow, the sepals protruding. Sepals downy.

tube: Small, funnel-shaped but indistinct.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Basal clasping to median.

core: Distant. Axile, just open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acuminate.

flesh: Dense, white. Unremarkable flavour. Possibly under-ripe.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate.

drawn record:




Fig.181: original drawing of Malus var.’ Stantway Kernel’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994




STIRE - see ‘Forest Styre’


STIROM - see ‘Forest Styre’


STYRE - see ‘Forest Styre’ or ‘Small Styre’
STYRE WILDING

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruit (1886); Ray Williams personal communication (2000); Marcher Apple Network,

Apples & Pears Vol2 No1 (2007)

status: Only known records as above. Known to have been in existence in the late 1950s. The

Marcher Apple Network are currently (2007) checking a possible example of this variety.

provenance: As a named 'styre’ it is included here on the advice of Ray Williams cider

pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station.

date: First known record 1884.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- After Robert Hogg -.

size: 50mm wide 57mm tall.

shape: Conical. Broadly ribbed. Irregular.

skin: Lemon yellow. Flushed on side exposed to the sun. Skin smooth and shining.

stalk: Very short.

cavity: Deep, russetted and lipped.

eye: Closed, erect convergent sepals with reflexed tips.

basin: Fairly deep, narrow and puckered.

tube: Conical.

stamens: Median.

core: Axile.

cells: Open, obovate.

flesh: Soft and woolly, sweetish.
drawn record:




Fig.182: copy of original drawing of Malus var. ‘Styre Wilding’ fruit by HG Bull, 1886

notes: The fruit is reported to have hung on the trees ‘like ropes of onions’. The trees were

biennial croppers. This variety may be in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection as an unnamed

accession. Further study may establish its veracity. It was collected from H.J.Phelps’s orchard at

Tibberton. Long Ashton Research Station recorded this variety from Mr Phelps’s orchard in the

late 1950s.
SUGAR PIPPIN




Fig.183: original photgraph of Malus var. ‘Sugar Pippin’ fruit by C.Martell, 1994

synonym: ‘Old Sugar Pippin’.

reference: Joe Littleton and Robert Wellington, personal communications (1992); Sidney

Hewlett personal communication (1998).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Graftwood obtained for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection originated from

Cyprus Cottage, Walmore Hill, Minsterworth.




Walmore, Glos

date: Recorded 1992 and when collected for propagation, but see under ‘notes’.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- 14th October 1994 from an old tree at Cyprus Cottage, Walmore Hill.
size: 49mm wide 44mm tall.

shape: Round tending towards conical. Mostly symmetrical. The merest hint of ribbing may be

detected. Regular.

skin: Pale green, yellowing slightly. Dull flush sometimes. Russet round stem and eye. Chiefly

round eye, scattering onto cheek. Russet round eye may have ‘stretch’ marks in concentric rings.

Lenticels small and inconspicuous, except where russetted. Texture greasy except on russet.

stalk: Stout and swollen, lipped sometimes, filling cavity. Usually concealed within cavity.

cavity: Narrow and medium depth or absent. Russet present which may be pale.

eye: Small, closed with reflexed tips. Larger eyes may be open with convergent sepals.

basin: Shallow and medium narrow.

tube: Conical.

stamens: Marginal to median.

core line: Basal, clasping.

core: Distant to median. Abaxile, open

cells: Lanceolate at distal end, round at basal end.

seeds: Large, acute.

flesh: This is a pleasantly sweet dessert apple. Its small size makes it ideal for children.

leaf: Acute. Serrate. Tip of blade reflexed almost 90° to plane of stalk.

drawn record:




Fig.184: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Sugar Pippin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1994

notes: A variety named ‘Sugar Pippin’ was sent in as an entrant to the Long Ashton Cider variety

competition 1903-1929 from Dymock. ‘Sugar Apple’ (synonym: ‘Sugar Loaf’) is depicted in the
Herefordshire Pomona by Robert Hogg and Henry Bull. The fruit is quite different, being a long

yellow variety (1886).



SWEET FRENCH

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

use: Cider.

description: A bittersweet variety sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H. Knight, Deep

Filling, Huntley.
TANKARD - see ‘Old Tankard’



TAYNTON CODLIN




Fig.185: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Taynton Codlin’ fruit by C.Martell

synonyms: ‘Cow Apple’, ‘Lemon Pippin’, ‘Tibberton Pippin’.

references: David Bennett, David Browning, Mike Evans, Eric Freeman, John Gifford, Roger

Lewis, Joe Littleton, Joe Phillips, Mr Watkins, Robert Wellington, Ray Williams, personal

communications (1990s).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Rare 2001.

provenance: Started as a seedling at Griffins Farm, Tibberton, reputedly growing out of a cow

pat - hence its synonym which was possibly its first name. Collected for propagation from an

orchard by Byfords Farm, Taynton.
Taynton, Glos

date: Raised before 1954. Collected for propagation in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection

1993.

use: General purpose. Used in the preparation of Christmas mincemeat as it didn’t lose its

moisture during storage.

fruit description:- Sample taken from a young standard tree.

size: 65mm wide 52-60mm tall.

shape: Flat-round or round. Merest hint of ribbing. Nearly symmetrical, nearly regular.

skin: Yellow, blush on one side. Slight scarf skin on base. Hammering. Russet spreading as

patches, mainly from eye. Partial netting of russet. Lenticels few and fairly inconspicuous.

Reported to become very waxy causing fruit lying on the ground to stick together when being

harvested for cider.

stalk: 5mm and stout or 15mm and slender.

cavity: Deep and medium width.

eye: Sepals flat and convergent, but distorted by puckering. Sepals broad based.

basin: Narrow and deep. Russetted, spreading.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Median.

core: Sessile median. Abaxile, closed.

cells: Obovate.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Acid.

leaf: Broadly oval. Bi-serrate.
tree: Spreading.

drawn record:




Fig.186: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Taynton Codlin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell

notes: See under notes of ‘Casey’s Kernel’ and ‘Rhead’s Reinette’. ‘Taynton Codlin’ is well

known in the village of its name. People there are well aware of their fruit tree heritage as

Taynton is also home to the ‘Early’ and ‘Late Taynton Squash Pears’ and the ‘Excelsior of

Taynton Walnut’. Known from Bollow,Longney, Longhope and Rodley.
TEWKESBURY BARON




Fig.187: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Tewkesbury Baron’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: Smith, M. The National Apple Register (1971); Fred Washbourne, Robert Wellington

and Jack Williams, personal communications (2000, 1993 and 1996).

status: In the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale and Gloucestershire Apple Collection,

Dymock. Rare 2001.

provenance: Origin unknown but presumably Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire and not Tewkesbury,

New Jersey U.S.A. Old trees are known from Westbury on Severn, Corse Lawn and Oxenton

making the English connection seem more likely.




Tewkesbury, Glos.

date: Recorded 1883. Graftwood received from the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale for

propagation in Gloucestershire Apple Collection ca. 1993.

use: Dessert, but locally in Gloucestershire for general purpose including cider.
fruit description:- 25th September 2001 from a young standard tree.

size: 25-68mm wide, 47-57mm tall.

shape: Flat-round, round or round-conical. Fairly symmetrical, almost regular.

skin: Light gey green, dark blood-red flush almost total. Lenticels pale, conspicuous. Texture

greasy and shiny smooth.

stalk: About 10mm, stout or a fleshy knob. Concealed or protruding.

cavity: Narrow and shallow or medium. Russet absent. Occasional scarf skin.

eye: Closed, sepals connivent or where longer with reflexed tips.

basin: Broad and deep, broad and shallow or narrow and shallow. Puckered.

tube: Funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Median.

core: Median. Axile, closed.

cells: Round to ovate.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Tinged red at apex. Mild flavour, juicy, pleasant.

leaf: Broadly acute. Bi-crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.188: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Tewkesbury Baron’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001




TIBBERTON PIPPIN - see ‘Taynton Codlin’
TIPPETTS




Fig.189: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Tippetts’ fruit by C.Martell, 1993




Fig.190: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Tippetts’ conjoined fruit by C.Martell, 1993

reference: J. J. Cobourn, personal communication (1993)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Tump Farm, Tirley.
Tirley, Glos

date: Collected 1993.

use: General purpose.

fruit description:- 17th November 1993 from an old tree.

size: 65-86mm wide 80-95mm tall.

shape: Long-conical. Ribs sometimes arranged to give the fruit 3 or 4 flat sides or may be

absent making the fruit mango-shaped. Five crowned but filled giving an uneven apex. Roughly

symmetrical. Irregular. Waisted.

skin: Banana yellow mottled with green under lenticels. Flush where present like a mango, a

beautiful even crimson with a very few darker stripes near base. A little russet in cavity and

even less in basin. Lenticels small and dark, conspicuous and a little pitted. Texture greasy.

stalk: About 15mm. Thickened at point of attachment to fruit. Swollen below abscission point.

Protruding.

cavity: Narrow and deep, slightly lipped.

eye: Large, reflexed tips with long twisted sepals.

basin: Narrow, medium, puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Basal to median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Sessile, axile open.

cells: Lanceolate, tufted.

seeds: Large, 10mm long. Acuminate or acute.

flesh: Creamy white slightly dry. ‘Cooking’ flavour.

leaf: Acute or broadly acute. Crenate.
drawn record:




Fig.191: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Tippetts’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: The fruits of this variety sometimes occur as ‘twins’ having a common stem and base but

separate apices and eyes - see illustration. See also ‘Cambridge Queening’ and ‘Newpools’ for

this characteristic.



TIPPLER’S KERNEL

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929.

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Fruit sent in to Long Ashton Research Station by H. Knight, Deep Filling, Huntley.

Mr Knight used to buy in a lot of fruit for cider making, hence this variety may not have been

produced on his farm which was mainly planted with plums. It is likely that this was selected as

a useful variety from the quantities of fruit delivered to him and possibly given a fanciful name

in order to enter the cider competition.

date: Sent in 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period.

use: Cider.

description: A bittersharp.
TRANSPARENT CODLIN




Fig.192: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Transparent Codlin’ fruit by C.Martell, 1993

reference: Smith, M. National Apple Register (1971); Robert Wellington, personal

communication (1993).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Cyprus Cottage, Walmer Hill, Minsterworth.




Walmore, Glos

date: Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Culinary and dessert.

fruit description:- 3rd August 1993 - fruit falling.

size: 46-59mm wide 45-55mm tall.

shape: Conical, waisted. Ribbed, crowned, lop-sided. Irregular

skin: Flush absent. Russet usually absent, occasional netting on cheek. Lenticels small, dark.

Smooth and slightly greasy. Some with raised hair lines.
stalk: 7-22mm. Slender.

cavity: Medium width and depth. A little russet occasionally.

eye: Sepals connivent.

basin: Small narrow, ribbed, sometimes puckered.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Abaxile, open.

cells: Elliptical.

seeds: Acute.

flesh:Sweet white, very soft and easily bruised.

leaf: Broadly acute. Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.193: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Transparent Codlin’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1993

notes: ‘Transparent Codlins’ are listed in The Fruit Manual by R. Hogg (1884) and in The

National Apple Register by M. Smith (1971). The ‘Transparent Codlin’ above is neither of these

on account of its colour and cropping season. The ‘Transparent Codlin’ described here crops up

at the end of July and early August - a ‘first early’. John Jefferies & Sons Ltd of Siddington,

Cirencester (see ‘Siddington Russet’) listed an ‘Early Transparent Codlin’ in the 1930s but no

description is given. Whether it is this one or not, this ‘Transparent Codlin’ stands as a

Gloucestershire variety. It can be made into excellent apple tart on account of its sweetness - if it

can be picked before the birds get it.
UPRIGHT FRENCH




Fig.194: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Upright French’ fruit by C.Martell

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Ray Williams, personal communication (1993);

Melville Thompson, personal communication (2007).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Endangered or possibly critical 2001.

provenance: R. Hogg describes this as a Herefordshire variety. On account of its name -

‘french’ - it is included here as a Gloucestershire variety. Ray Williams of Long Ashton

Research Station considered that the ‘centre’ for this variety is Gorsley and Longhope and thinks

that it may have arisen there. Known from Ruardean.




Gorsley, Glos.

date: First known record 1884. Collected for propagation 1993.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- From a mature tree.

size: 43-57mm wide 36-55mm tall.
shape: Round, conical or oblong conical. Variable in shape as well as size. Some ribbing, five

crowned. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Darker green than most apples. Some specimens with up to 50% flush, with darker

blotches rather than streaks. Russet obscures flush. Russet thin up to 90% complete. Lenticels

pale fawn, numerous, conspicuous, becoming more numerous and smaller towards basin and

larger, less numerous and more elongate towards cavity. On larger fruit lenticels less

conspicuous. Texture dry.

stalk: 5-15mm. May be very stout (4mm) on smaller fruit. May be laterally flattened.

cavity: Narrow, medium depth. Russet thin, and some thicker scaly russet.

eye: Tightly closed, sepals connivent. Sepals broad-based, pubescent.

basin: Shallow, narrow, puckered and may be beaded.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Disarranged through distortion and puckering of the eye. Roughly median.

core line: Basal clasping, also distorted.

core: Distant, axile, slightly open.

cells: Obovate, tapering to cavity.

seeds: Obtuse. Plump.

flesh: Bittersweet, dry. Browns very quickly.

leaf: Broadly oval. Bi-serrate. Tip acuminate.

drawn record:




Fig.195: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Upright French’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell
notes: Although this variety is mentioned in The Fruit Manual of 1884, Hogg doesn’t mention it

in The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit of 1886.

According to Ray Williams of Long Ashton Research Station the ‘Upright French’ seemed to

have its home round Gorsley and Longhope. This is an area of many smallholdings, a fertile

breeding ground for new varieties of fruit in an environment of competitive creativity. ‘Upright’

is supposed to refer to the shape of the tree. Some old trees in the Dymock area, perhaps because

of their age, seem to have long spreading lower branches and are anything but upright.
UPRIGHT STYRE




Fig.196: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Upright Styre’ fruit by C.Martell, 2001

reference: H. P. Bulmer and Co, Planting Records (1932); Royal Horticultural Society -

Conference on Apples and Pears (1934).

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: As a named ‘styre’ it is included here on the advice of Ray Williams cider

pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station. Graftwood obtained from Ashgrove, Glasbury-on-

Wye, Powys, an orchard planted by H. P. Bulmer and Co for Mr E. Selman in 1932.

date: Earliest record 1920s and 1930s. Graftwood was sourced from trees planted in March

1932. Collected for propagation 1999.

use: Cider.

fruit description:- 14th September 2001 from a mature tree. Fruit not quite falling.

size: 38-46mm wide 36-45mm tall.

shape: Conical. Partially and variably ribbed. Partially five crowned.

Lop-sided.Irregular. Sometimes slightly waisted.

skin: Pale green with darker green blotches. Flush pronounced, mottled with broken streaks.

Russet mostly absent. Scab present. Lenticels small and indistinct. Texture smooth and shining.

stalk: 2-5mm. Stout and may be knobbed. Protruding or concealed.

cavity: Narrow and shallow. Slightly lipped.

eye: Closed. Reflexed tips.

basin: Puckered. Narrow and shallow.
tube: Cone or funnel-shaped. Style distinctively green thick and woody.

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Abaxile, open.

cells: Obovate, a little tufted.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Mild bittersweet.

leaf: Oval. Crenate. Tip acuminate.

tree: Vigorous, upright - hence its name, very fertile with knobbly trunk and limbs as in

‘Arlingham Schoolboys’. The trees at Glasbury growing on fertile land were mistaken from a

distance for ‘Blakeney Red’ pear trees with their red fruit, upright habit, and great size.

drawn record:




Fig.197: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Upright Styre’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2001

notes: See ‘notes’ on ‘Red Styre’.
VALLIS




Fig.198: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Vallis’ fruit by C.Martell, 2000

reference: Long Ashton Research Station, List of Entrants, Cider Variety Competition

1903-1929; Royal Horticultural Society - Apple and Pear Conference 1934; Mervyn Bennett,

personal communication (1997); Copas, Liz A Somerset Pomona (2001);

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2000.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Churngate Farm, Cowhill, Oldbury-on-Severn.




Oldbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: First known record 1903-1929, probably during the early part of this period. Collected for

propagation 1997.

use: Cider, also sold as dessert.

fruit description:- 15th November 2000 from an old tree at Churngate Farm, Cowhill.

size: 53-63mm wide 40-47mm tall.

shape: Flat or flat round. Uneven crown approaching five crowning. Some indistinct broad-

sided ribs. Lop-sided. Approaching regular.

skin: Flush total, dark red. Some hammering. Lenticels round, small and inconspicuous. May

be russetted. Texture greasy.
stalk: Variable from a knob of 5mm to 19mm and slender. May protrude or be hidden.

cavity: Deep and wide, a little scaly russet emerging in thin streaks.

eye: Connivent, reflexed tips. Sepals with grey pubescence at base.

basin: Medium width and shallow. Sometimes a little distorted.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Basal to median.

core line: Basal clasping to median.

core: Distant. Axile, open.

cells: Round.

seeds: Acute.

flesh: Mild and sweet. No astringency. Not stained red. There is a ‘Black Vallis’ (in Bulmers

scion wood collection), ‘Red Vallis’ and ‘Sour Vallis’(see above). ‘Red Vallis’ was sent in as a

‘sweet’ variety and ‘Sour Vallis’ as a ‘sharp’ to Long Ashton Research Station. Some or all of

them may be synonymous with ‘Vallis’. In A Somerset Pomona Liz Copas who has worked

with this variety as a Cider Pomologist, is uncertain as to the true situation (2001). She lists this

as originating in North Somerset (ibid.). ‘Vallis’ is a common Bristol surname. ‘Vallis’ is

distinguished from ‘Blood Royal’ by its longer stalk.

leaf: Broadly oval. Serrate. Tip acuminate.

drawn record:




Fig.199: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Vallis’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2000
VICTORIA - see ‘Holbert’s Victoria’


VICTORIA(HULBERT) - see ‘Holbert’s Victoria’


VICTORIA DE HOLBERT - see ‘Holbert’s Victoria’


VICTORIA DE HULBERT - see ‘Holbert’s Victoria’
WELLSTEAD PIPPIN

reference: Jenny Humphris, personal communication (2007).

status: Extant, known from one remaining tree at Hall End Farm, Wickwar. Currently under

propagation for distribution.

provenance: Presumed to have been started at Wellstead Farm where it used to grow. Wellstead

Farm was at the junction of Gravel Hill Road and Love Lane, Yate. It is now a housing estate.

date: Already growing at Wellstead Farm in 1938/1939 when it was a mature tree of 25-30 ft

tall. As an unidentified variety it was named at this time by Levi Isaac. Planting carried out at

Hall End Farm in the 1940s. The original tree blew down in gales in 1987.

use: Late keeping dessert.

fruit description: after Jenny Humphris.

size: ca 66mm wide ca 32mm tall.

shape: Flat, regular, symmetrical.

skin: Darkish green paling with age, flushed and distinctly streaked. Colouring a bit like

‘Kingston Black’. Smooth.

flesh: Hard but juicy apple. Rather sharp until December when it is in season until March.

notes: A regular cropper. Mary Isaac and Esther Owens, daughter of Levi Isaac recounts through

Jenny Humphris: Levi Isaac bought and moved to Hall End Farm sometime before 1920. In 1938

he bought and moved to Wellstead Farm leaving his son Bruce at Hall End. Wellstead Farm was

a famous cidermaking farm in the area. There were 8 acres of orchard at the time and the

‘Wellstead Pippin’ was in one of these orchards. Levi, who was interested in apples, made and

sold cider which he kept in a cellar under the house. There was a flagstone in the sitting room

floor with a hole in it through which the newly pressed juice was poured into the barrels below.

At this time (after 1938) Levi planted a ‘Wellstead Pippin’ at Hall End Farm where his grandson

David currently (2007) farms with his wife Mary.
WELSH DRUID




Fig.200: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Welsh Druid’ fruit by C.Martell, 1997

reference: Douglas Oliffe(1927-2008), personal communication (1996); Mrs Margaret

Reynolds(born 1926), personal communication (2007); Miss Christine Childer, personal

communication (2007)

status: In Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. A few trees are to be found at Woolaston,

Bigsweir and Brockweir. Critically rare 2001.

provenance: Collected for propagation from Woolaston Woodside where it had been propagated

from material derived from The Kennels, Lower Meend, Bigsweir. Here it had been propagated

by a Mr Reynolds a previous owner of The Kennels. Distributed by Mrs Felgate the present

owner of the property (1996) to Douglas Oliffe. Also known in Brockweir where it was familiar

to another branch of the Reynolds family.
Woolaston, Glos

date: First known possibly early 1900s. Collected for propagation 1997.

use: General purpose.

fruit description: - 27th October 1997 from a young transplant on its own roots.

size: 57-72mm wide 55-65mm tall.

shape: Round, broadly ribbed. Five crowned interspersed with puckering. Lop-sided, irregular.

skin: Various shades of green to yellow. Flush absent. Round distinct lenticels on yellow fruits

becoming green areolar.

stalk: About 20mm and slender. Green, protruding.

cavity: Narrow and shallow, the base of the fruit being quite flat. Thinly russetted extending

over base as hair lines or broader streaks.

eye: Small tightly closed, connivent.

basin: Small, shallow, beaded and puckered. Puckering may conceal calyx.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median to marginal.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Distant. Abaxile, open.

cells: Elliptical, lanceolate, tufted.

seeds: Obtuse, tip acuminate.

flesh: Chewy, slight acidity, not sweet, skin bitter.

leaf: Broadly acute. Serrate.

tree: A burr-knot variety. Cuttings - even branches - will strike root very readily from the knots

or blastophores, which are adventitious roots.
drawn record:




Fig.201: original drawing of Malus var.’Welsh Druid’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 1997

notes: First recorded from the Kennels, Lower Meend, Bigsweir. Mr Reynolds who had lived

there was a ‘habitual grafter’ as was his son, a postman in St Briavels for 40 years, who died in

about 1991. Douglas Oliffe told me he planted a branch about 4 feet (over 1 metre) long which

he had obtained from the Kennels, it rooted and the following summer produced 30 apples. Mrs

Margaret Reynolds (born 1926) who has lived all her life in Brockweir, told me she had obtained

her ‘Welsh Druid’ from Mountain near Chepstow. It died in 2007. She didn’t think much of the

quality of this apple. Her husband John Reynolds (1918-1982) also a postman but in Brockweir,

would always leave these apples on the tree for the birds.

‘Burr-knot’ apple varieties are frequently reported from Wales particularly over in the west of

the Principality.
WHEELER’S EXTREME

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. National Apple Register (1971).

status: In existence 1884.

provenance: Raised by James Wheeler of Gloucester.

date: Probably raised late 1700s. Original tree still standing about 1884.

use: Dessert.

fruit description:- after R. Hogg.

size: 47mm wide 31mm tall.

shape: Oblong.

skin: Pale greenish yellow, russetted, particularly round eye and covered with fine clear red,

mottled with deeper red.

stalk: Very short.

cavity: Small and shallow.

eye: Small and closed.

basin: Shallow.

flesh: Yellowish, white, crisp, tender, sweet and delicately perfumed.

notes: A pretty little dessert apple not of first rate quality. Ripe from November to February.

Raised by James Wheeler of Gloucester. In the late 1800s the original tree was still standing in

Wheeler’s nursery then in the ownership of his great grandson. Cheslin Wheeler informed Hogg

that it supposedly gained its name because it was a tip-bearer producing its fruit on the

extremeties of last year’s shoots.
WHEELERS RUSSET of GLOUCESTERSHIRE




Fig.202: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Wheelers Russet of Gloucestershire’ fruit by C.Martell, 2006

synonym: ‘Wheelers Russet’.

To avoid confusion this ‘Wheelers Russet’ has been qualified as the ‘Wheelers Russet of

Gloucestershire’. It may eventually be accepted as the ‘Wheelers Russet’ as described by Hogg

1884, in which case it will lose its suffix. The ‘Wheelers Russet’ in the National Fruit

Collection, Brogdale (which is indistinguishable from the ‘Pinner Seedling’)is now regarded as

false (2006).

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Smith, M. National Apple Register (1971);

R.Wellington and D.Bennett, personal communication (1999); Emma-Jane Allen, personal

communication (2006); Percy Haywood, personal communication (2006).

status: Extant, critically rare, only 2 known very large fragile trees (2006)

provenance: Found growing at Broadway Farm, Bollow close to the Severn. Graftwood

collected from there for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock and sent for evaluation to

the National Fruit Collection, Brogdale
Westbury-on-Severn, Glos

date: If this is the original ‘Wheelers Russet’, possibly 1717. Its history is uncertain however.

fruit description: from an old tree 28th September 2006. Fruit mostly fallen

size:49-54mm wide, 47-57mm tall

shape: Conical and oblong-conical. Slightly and broadly ribbed. Five crowned distinctly,

partially or absent. Lop-sided. Irregular.

skin: Flush very occasional. Thin russet total or partial. Where incomplete may give way to

netting. See notes.

stalk: 10-27mm long, 2.5-4mm wide or a fleshy knob.

cavity: Frequently more or less lipped. Medium depth and width where not heavily lipped.

eye: Small. Sepals erect convergent with reflexed tips. Downy.

basin: Medium width. Shallow.

tube: Cone-shaped.

stamens: Median

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median to distant. Abaxile, closed

cells: Obovate.

seeds:Acuminate.

flesh: Sweet, dry aftertaste.

leaf: Broadly acute. Bi-serrate.

use: Dessert. A keeping variety. David Bennett reported that this variety was his mother’s

favourite apple growing on a holding where up to 50 varieties were grown for the markets in

Gloucester and further afield. He also said that on keeping, this variety develops a banana

flavour. See also ‘Jackets and Petticoats’ for this characteristic.
notes: Jim Arbury personal communiction (2006) on discussing the more restricted russet of the

above sample compared with Hogg’s description, commented that the extent of russetting can be

influenced by environmental factors. Percy Haywood knew of this apple many years ago in

Arlingham. He described it as a longish apple (2006). David Bennett said they were ‘quite rare’

on his side of the river at Bollow (right bank of the Severn). His 2 trees were the only ones he

knew of, although there may have been some at nearby Chaxhill House.

drawn record:




Fig.203: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Wheelers Russet of Gloucestershire’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2006
WHITE FLANDERS




Fig.204: original photograph of Malus var. ‘White Flanders’(if true) fruit by C.Martell

synonym: ‘Sweet Cleave’

reference: Smith, M. National Apple Register (1971).

status: In existence 1946.

provenance: Gloucester.

date: Recorded 1934.

use: Culinary or dessert.

fruit description: ‘similar to ‘Lord Derby’’.

notes: The description given for ‘Flanders’ in The National Apple Register is somewhat similar

to that for ‘Lord Derby’ which is noted as resembling ‘White Flanders’. In addition ‘White

Flanders’ and ‘Flanders’ share the same synonym – ‘Sweet Cleave’. It is just possible therefore

that ‘White Flanders’ and ‘Flanders’ are one and the same variety.

The fruit photographed came from a tree which was removed before graftwood could be

collected.



WHITE FRENCH

reference: David Bennett, personal communication (1992).

status: Only known record as above.

provenance: Presumed to be a Gloucestershire variety on account of its name.

use: Cider.
WHITE STYRE

reference: Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruit (1886) Ray Williams,

personal communication (2000)

status: Lost

provenance: As a named ‘styre’ it is included here on the advice of Ray Williams cider

pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station. Last known trees grew at Hownhall Farm,

Taynton.

date: First record 1886. Long Ashton Research Station worked with this variety in the late

1950s. The last known record.

use: Cider

fruit description:- after Hogg and Bull

size: Medium

shape: Round but obtusely ribbed.

skin: Uniform lemon yellow. Russetted in patches and lines especially on the side facing the

sun. Small russetted spots (lenticels?) distributed over the surface

stalk: Slender 15mm

cavity: Deep. Russetted

eye: Closed. Sepals connivent.

basin: Rather deep.

tube: Short and funnel-shaped.

stamens: Median.

cells: Open

seeds:

flesh: Yellowish, soft and tender.
drawn record:




Fig.204a: original drawing of Malus var. ‘White Styre’ fruit by H.G.Bull 1886

notes: Ray Williams reports that the situation with regard to the ‘White Styre’ is rather confused.

But for his knowledge of working with this variety in the 1950s, the ‘Wick White Styre’ would

have been accepted as the true ‘White Styre’. Long Ashton Research Station regarded the

‘White Styre’ which they worked with at Hownhall Farm, Taynton as the true ‘White Styre’ as

described by Hogg and Bull above.
WICK WHITE STYRE




Fig.205: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Wick White Styre’ fruit by C.Martell, 2005

synonym ‘White Styre’

reference: Aubrey Allen, Mervyn Bennett, Pat Turner, Joe Wherrett, personal communications

(1993). Ray Williams, personal communication (2000)

status: Extant. A number of trees still standing (2005) were found in the Vale of Berkeley. In

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock.

provenance: As a named ‘styre’ it is included here on the advice of Ray Williams cider

pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station. Described from mature trees growing in the Folly

at Wick Court, Saul. Graftwood for the Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock sourced from

Milton End Farm, Arlingham.




Arlingham, Glos
date: Named 1993 by Ray Williams cider pomologist of Long Ashton Research Station – see

notes.

use: Cider.

fruit description: sample taken from mature trees at Wick Court 12th November 2005.

size: 50-55mm wide 41-55mm tall.

shape: Round. Slightly five cowned and puckered. Symmetrical. Regular.

skin: Yellow. The slightest orange flush. Sometimes netting. Lenticels small dark and

conspicuous. Green areolar. Texture dry.

stalk: 15-23mm 2-3mm thick. Occasionally fleshy, 5mm thickened at abscission point.

cavity: Narrow and shallow. Russet pale but with a dark border. Very slightly lipped.

eye: Small, closed, connivent or reflexed tips.

basin: Narrow shallow to almost absent. Beaded

tube: Cone-shaped, penetrating to core.

stamens: Marginal.

core line: Marginal.

core: Median. Axile mostly closed.

cells: Elliptical. Slightly tufted.

seeds:Acute.

flesh: Sharp. Juicy.

leaf: Broadly acute. Uneven crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.206: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Wick White Styre’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2005
notes: This variety is commonly known as the ‘White Styre’ in its home range. To avoid

confusion with the true ‘White Styre’ which is now lost, it was renamed by Ray Williams after a

field trip to Wick Court where there are a number of trees of this variety.
YELLOW STYRE




Fig.207: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Yellow Styre’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2005




Fig.207a: original photograph of Malus var. ‘Yellow Styre’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2007

reference: Hogg, R. The Fruit Manual (1884); Hogg, R. and Bull, H. The Apple and Pear as

Vintage Fruits (1886); Vincent Yorke, personal communication (2000).

status: A very few young trees grow at Bushley in a commercial cider orchard. In

Gloucestershire Apple Collection, Dymock. Critically rare 2005.

provenance: Known from north Gloucestershire where it had been re-introduced because of the

historical connection with the district. Graftwood had been obtained for this planting from
Bulmers scion orchard where the variety is no longer held. As a named ‘styre’ it is included here

on the advice of Ray Williams cider pomologist at Long Ashton Research Station. Collected for

propagation in the Gloucestershire Apple Collection from Bushley.




Forthampton, Glos

date: First recorded 1884. Collected for propagation in the Gloucestershire Collection 1999.

use: Known as a cider variety but is a pleasant eater.

fruit description: from a young tree 12th November 2005.

size: 45-54mm tall 52-58mm wide.

shape: Round, round-conical or conical. Very faintly ribbed. Slightly lop-sided. Irregular.

Some slightly waisted.

skin: Yellow. Slight orange flush. Netting over most of the surface. Lenticels few dark and

indistinct because of netting. Slightly greasy.

stalk: 5-10mm, 2mm thick. Usually not protruding.

cavity: Narrow and fairly deep. Usually with thin russet conjoined to netting.

eye: Connivent, reflexed tips. Long green sepals.

basin: Medium width, shallow.

tube: Cone-shaped and usually shallow (but see drawn record sampled from the same tree the

previous year when the fruit was larger).

stamens: Median.

core line: Basal clasping.

core: Median. Axile, partially open.

cells: Elliptical.

seeds: Obtuse.

flesh: Dense fine grained and white.
leaf: Oval, Crenate.

drawn record:




Fig.208: original drawing of Malus var. ‘Yellow Styre’ fruit and leaf by C.Martell, 2005




YELLOW UNDERLEAF – see ‘Gloucestershire Underleaf’

				
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