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					united kingdom                                                                                                     united kingdom
statistical                                                                                                             statistical
profile no.18                                                                                                         profile no.18
january 2010                                                                                                             january 2010



                                            	        united	kingdom
                                                     Statistical Profile
                                            Matt Flynn




                                            introduction	to	united	kingdom
                                            Since 1992, the United Kingdom has had a relatively long period of economic growth
                                            and stability. However, the impact of the global economy, increases in world fuel and
                                            food costs, collapse of financial institutions, and the credit crunch have led to both a rise
                                            in unemployment and fall in house prices which in turn has led to deflation. As late as
                                            Autumn 2008, the Bank of England had been reluctant to lower the base rate, fearful of a
   Ireland                                  re-emergence of inflation. However, this policy was quickly reversed, and the base rate now
                  United Kingdom
                                            stands at 0.5%. The cut in the base rate, along with high levels of government spending
                                            had been expected to stimulate consumer spending growth. However, the Bank of England
                                   France
                                            Governor has predicted a long period of slow economic growth.

About this Statistical Profile              In order to survive the current recession, British employers are presently cutting jobs,
                                            particularly in the dominant financial and manufacturing sectors. Despite short term
Organizations striving to be
                                            pressures to reduce workforces, in the long term, employers face demographic changes
employers-of-choice in different
                                            which will make skilled labour more scarce. Problems of labour and skills shortages which
countries around the world need
                                            became manifest during the period of rapid growth have persisted, particularly in the South
access to current information about
the economic, social, political, and        East. Unlike many of its European counterparts, the United Kingdom has a weak youth
demographic characteristics of the          apprenticeship and vocational training system, and labour shortages tend to be relieved
countries where their employees live        by bringing “contingent” workers (e.g. the very young, working parents, and older people)
and work.                                   into the labour market. Migration from new EU member states has also relieved labour
                                            shortages, but as the recession takes hold, migrants are returning home. That said, the
The Country Profile Series focuses          United Kingdom has had more success than other European states in bringing in under-
on statistics that can guide decision-      represented groups such as older workers into the labour market.
making at the workplace: workforce
highlights, economic highlights, and
population highlights. This Country
Profile is part of a set of resources
about the United Kingdom available
on the website of the Global
Perspectives Institute:
 www.bc.edu/agingandwork.


                                                                                                                 Sponsored by:



                                                               agework@bc.edu                                                          1
labor	force	highlights
      à 50% of the total the United Kingdom population is in the labour force.1

      à Approximately 83% of the workforce is economically active. Of the 17% of the workforce
        that is inactive (defined as not in work, self-employment or ILO defined unemployed),
        about a third of these would like to work if given the opportunity.1

      à The current (August 2009) unemployment rate is 7.8%. Long-term unemployment
        has steadily fallen since the 1990s but has been creeping back since 2004.1

      à The United Kingdom has one of the highest rates of part-time work in Europe.
        According to the Labour Force Survey, 8% of those who work part-time have no
        other choice for work.1

      à The self-employment rate is 12.9%.1



Figure 1.   Employed as Percentage of Total Population - Selected GNI Countries, 2007


                             Italy                                                                                            42.0
                                                                                                                                                                                         Figure 1 compares the rate of
                      France                                                                                                         44.7                                                employment as a percent of the total
            United Kingdom                                                                                                                     50.4                                      population in the United Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                         with other countries with high gross
                    Germany                                                                                                                    50.7
                                                                                                                                                                                         national incomes. The employment
                           Japan                                                                                                                    52.2                                 rates of the countries included in
                     Canada                                                                                                                           54.7                               Figure 1 range from 42% in Italy to
                                                                                                                                                                                         54.7% in Canada
                                  0%                   10%                  20%             30%                  40%                  50%                  60%
Source: OECD. (2009a)2



Figure 2. Employment Rates, Ages 15-64 by Gender: United Kingdom and comparable
          OECD nations, 2007

            100%                                                                                                                                                                Male
                                                                                                                                                                                Female
                                                                                                                                                                  81.7
                                                                                                        78.4           78.4           79.6          80.0
                                                                            77.8          78.0
             80%                                74.7
                                                              77.2
                                                                                                 73.2
                                  70.7                               70.1
                    68.6                                                                                                                                   68.1
                                                                                   65.9                                       66.3           66.1
                                                       63.2                                                    64.4
                           59.4                                                                                                                                          59.5            The employment rates among
             60%
                                                                                                                                                                                         persons aged 15-64 years are
                                         46.6
                                                                                                                                                                                         presented in Figure 2. 78.4% of men
             40%                                                                                                                                                                         and 66.3% of women in this age
                                                                                                                                                                                         group are employed in the United
                                                                                                                                                                                         Kingdom.
             20%


               0%
                     France        Italy        Germany Canada              United        Sweden Austria               United Australia Netherlands Japan
                                                                            States                                    Kingdom



Source: OECD. (2009b)3



  2                                                                                         http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork
united kingdom                         Figure 3.    Employment Rates in the United Kingdom, within age group, 2008
statistical
profile no.18                              100%
january 2010                                                                  80.7     82.1       82.0
                                             80%
                                                                   66.5
                                                                                                            58.2
                                             60%
The employment rates among
                                                        43.1
persons aged 15-64 years are
presented in Figure 2. 78.4% of men
                                             40%
and 66.3% of women in this age
group are employed in the United             20%
Kingdom.
                                              0%
                                                       15-19     20-24       25-34    35-44      45-54    55-64

                                       Source: OECD. (2009b)3



                                       Figure 4. Employment Rates in the United Kingdom Compared to Selected Regional
                                                 Countries, within age group, 2007

                                          100%                                                               Italy
Most people who are currently                                                                                France
working are between 25 and 54               80%                                                              Germany
years old, however, there are clear                                                                          Sweden
differences between the oldest and                                                                           Austria
youngest age groups. Most people            60%                                                              United Kingdom
aged 55 to 64 years are working in
Sweden (70.1%), the fewest in Italy         40%
(33.8%). Most people aged 15 to
24 years are working in the United          20%
Kingdom (55.9%), the fewest in Italy                    15-24                25-54            55-64
(24.7%).
                                       Source: OECD. (2009b)3




                                                            agework@bc.edu                                                    3
Figure 5a. Current & Projected Economically Active Population Estimates and Projections
           in the United Kingdom, within age group, 2007 and 2020


  100%                                                                                                                                                            2007
                                                                        85.2   85.6 85.7   85.7 86.9
                                          84.2 84.9 84.2 85.3    84.6
                                                                                                       82.6
                                                                                                               86.2
                                                                                                                             78.2
                                                                                                                                                                  2020
      80%                  74.9
                                  73.7                                                                                72.8


             56.1
      60%           53.1
                                                                                                                                             48.2
                                                                                                                                      44.7

      40%

      20%
                                                                                                                                                            8.0
                                                                                                                                                      6.6


      0%     15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+

Source: ILO. (2009)4



Figure 5b. Current & projected % of Total Population Economically Active in the
           United Kingdom, 2007 and 2020


                                                                   32.0                                                  21.5                                      Under 20
        2007 Male                           3.2
                                                                                                                                                                   20-44
      2007 Female                           2.8                  25.7                                  17.1                                                         45+

        2020 Male                          2.5                   30.2                                                 23.3

      2020 Female                         2.3            24.2                                      19.4
                                  0                10               20                     30                  40                     50                    60

Source: ILO. (2009)4



Figure 6. Long term unemployed as % of workforce, 2008

       3.5
                                                                                                                                                                              Long term unemployment has
                                                                                                                                                                              steadily fallen as the 1980-
       3.0
                                                                                                                                      Men                                     1990’s industrial transition from
                                                                                                                                      Women                                   manufacturing to service related
       2.5
                                                                                                                                                                              industries has matured. High
                                                                                                                                                                              levels of long-term unemployment
       2.0
                                                                                                                                                                              amongst blue collar male workers
                                                                                                                                                                              have particularly fallen over the long
       1.5                                                                                                                                                                    term. However, the cooling of the
                                                                                                                                                                              UK economy of late has resulted in
       1.0                                                                                                                                                                    a rise in both short and long term
                                                                                                                                                                              unemployment.
       0.5
                                                                                                                                               2008
                                                                                                                                    2007
                                                  2000




                                                                                                                      2006
                                                                                            2004
                                                                        2002

                                                                                  2003




                                                                                                        2005
                                         1999




                                                          2001
                           1998
             1997




Source: ILO. (2009)4



  4                                                                                             http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork
united kingdom                           Figure 7.     Part-time working in the UK and across Europe, 2007
statistical
profile no.18                                80%                                                                                                                                     75.0
                                                                                                                                                                                            Male

january 2010                                                                                                                                                                                Female
                                             70%
The UK has a higher rate of part-           60%
time working than most other
EU member states, outpacing                  50%                                                                                                          44.1
                                                                                                                                                                       45.8
                                                                                                                                            42.3
the Scandinavian countries, but                                                                                               40.0

still behind Germany and the                40%                                                                 36.2
                                                                                                 31.2
Netherlands. In the UK, employees                                                  30.2
                                             30%
with children aged eight or younger                                                                                                                                           23.6

(or disabled children 18 or younger)         20%
                                                                                                         13.5                                      13.9
                                                                      12.5
or with eldercare responsibilities                                                                                     11.8          10.9                        9.4
have the right to request part-time or       10%                6.6          5.7
                                                                                           7.7

                                                     1.3 2.1
flexible work arrangements, with the
                                              0%
employer having a right to refuse for                Bulgaria   Poland       France         EU27        Denmark Sweden                United Norway Germany Netherlands
                                                                                                                                     Kingdom
business related reasons.
                                         Source: Eurostat. (2008)5



                                         Figure 8. Gender pay gap in the UK and across Europe, 2007

Gender pay gap is defined as the                                                                                                                      24
                                             25%
difference between average gross                                                                                       21              22
hourly earnings of male paid                 20%
employees and of female paid                                                                            16
                                                                                      15
employees as a percentage of                 15%
average gross hourly earnings of                                        11
                                                         9
male paid employees                          10%
Despite equal pay laws, the gender
pay gap in the UK remains one of the           5%
highest in Europe.
                                              0%
                                                     Ireland      France            EU27         Sweden United Germany Cyprus
                                                                                                       Kingdom

                                         Source: Eurostat. (2008)7




                                                                      agework@bc.edu                                                                                                                 5
economic	highlights
      à Gross Domestic Product per capita in the United Kingdom is $48,000. The UK GDP
        growth has outpaced Western Europe’s since the 1990’s. However, the recession
        has hit Britain particularly hard.3

      à GDP in the second quarter of 2009 shrank by 0.7%.2




Figure 9. GDP Growth                                                                                     The UK has seen higher levels of
                                                                                                         growth in GDP and productivity
 120                                                                                                     than most of Western Europe,
                                                                                                         which has in turn led to low levels of
                                                                                                         unemployment for most of the 21st
 100                                                                                                     century (although now rising). This
                                                                                                         has led to increases in labour market
                                                                                        United Kingdom   participation of under-represented
                                                                                        EU15             groups such as older workers.
  80                                                                                    G7 Countries     More recently, the UK has been hit
                                                                                                         harder by the recession than its EU
                                                                                                         and G7 counterparts, which may
  60                                                                                                     lead to employers shedding their
          1990
          1991
          1992
          1993
          1994
          1995
          1996
          1997
          1998
          1999
         2000
          2001
         2002
          2003
         2004
          2005
         2006
       2007 q1
       2007 q2
       2007 q3
       2007 q4
       2008 q1
       2008 q2
       2008 q3
       2008 q4
       2009 q1
                                                                                                         contingent workforces.


Source: OECD. (2009b)3




Figure 10. Total External Debt as Percentage of GDP, selected Regional Countries,
           1992-2008


  120%                                                                                  United Kingdom
                                                                                        France
 100%                                                                                   Italy
                                                                                        Germany
   80%

   60%

   40%

   20%
           1998

                  1999

                         2000

                                2001

                                       2002

                                              2003

                                                     2004

                                                            2005

                                                                   2006

                                                                          2007

                                                                                 2008




Source: OECD. (2009a)2




                                                                                        Austria




  6                                                            http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork
united kingdom                            Figure 11a. Labour productivity per hour labour
statistical
profile no.18                                115
january 2010

                                            105                                                                                                 United Kingdom
Labour productivity in the UK has                                                                                                               EU15
historically been low compared to                                                                                                               G7 Countries
the US and Japan, in large part due           95                                                                                                Japan
to low skill levels and limited capital                                                                                                         United States
investment made by employers.
                                              85




                                                                                            2000




                                                                                                                                       2006
                                                                                                                         2004
                                                                                                           2002

                                                                                                                  2003




                                                                                                                                2005
                                                           1996




                                                                                                   2001
                                                                                     1999
                                                                              1998
                                                                       1997
                                                    1995
                                          Source: OECD. (2009b)3




                                          Figure 11b. Unit labour cost

                                                         Japan
                                                    Germany
                                                       Austria
                                                             G7
                                                      Sweden
                                                         Korea
                                                       Finland
Unit labour costs (ULC) measure                     Euro area
the average cost of labour per unit of           OECD - Total
output and are calculated as the ratio               Belgium
                                                        France
of total labour costs to real output,            Netherlands
indexed to 2000=100. Despite the                United States
introduction of the Minimum Wage             European Union
in 2000 and new employment law               United Kingdom
                                                       Canada
concerning annual leave, flexible                Luxembourg
working, anti-discrimination and              OECD - Europe
working hours, labour unit costs                    Denmark
have increased at a slow pace similar                    Spain
                                              Slovak Republic
to that of the USA.                                  Australia
                                              Czech Republic
                                                           Italy
                                                        Cyprus
                                                     Slovenia
                                                 New Zealand
                                                      Norway
                                                       Ireland
                                                    Lithuania
                                                     Hungary
                                                      Bulgaria
                                                       Estonia
                                                         Latvia
                                                     Romania
                                                                   0            50          100           150        200        250           300    350        400

                                          Source: OECD. (2009b)3




                                                                       agework@bc.edu                                                                            7
Figure 11c. Job vacancies

      Luxembourg
                Spain
            Slovenia
            Bulgaria                                                                                                Job vacancies is defined as the
            Slovakia                                                                                                number of job vacancies / (number
            Hungary                                                                                                 of occupied posts + number of job
              Greece                                                                                                vacancies)
             Sweden
               Latvia
              Poland
               Malta
           Romania
             Finland
                EU27
                EU15
           Lithuania
  United Kingdom
             Estonia
   Czech Republic
           Germany
              Cyprus
                        0            1           2                    3               4              5          6

Source: Eurostat. (2008)7



Figure 11d. Hard to fill vacancies                                                                                  Because of economic growth and
                                                                                                                    long periods of low unemployment,
         Applicants lacking                                                                              45
                                                                                                                    employers have faced high labour
            required skills
                                                                                                                    and skills shortages, especially
         Applicants lacking                                                      30
          required attitude                                                                                         in London and the South East.
   Lack of work experience                                                25                                        This has led to government and
      Lack of qualifications                          16                                                            employer organisations developing
                                                                                                                    programmes for encouraging
Too little interest in the job                                                             37
                                                                                                                    labour market participation of
 Low number of applicants                                                                 36
                                                                                                                    under-represented groups: working
         Competition from
          other employers
                                                           18                                                       parents, older workers, people with
 Poor terms and conditions                                       21                                                 disabilities, for example. According
                                                     15
                                                                                                                    to a large survey of employers, there
                  Shift-work
                                                                                                                    are three reasons why vacancies
                                             9
           Remote location                                                                                          are difficult to fill: either the job
   Poor career progression               8                                                                          specifications are unattractive;
             Seasonal work       3                                                                                  the labour pool is too small; or
                                                                                                                    recruitment drives are not attracting
                            0%           10%               20%                 30%             40%            50%
                                                                                                                    the people with the right skills.
Source: IES10




  8                                                                   http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork
united kingdom   demographic	highlights
statistical
profile no.18
                      à The United Kingdom population currently stands at 61.4 million.11
january 2010
                      à The United Kingdom is 92% White European.12

                      à Total fertility rate indicates the number of children to be born to a woman during
                        her reproductive span of her life. The total fertility rate for women in the United
                        Kingdom was 1.41 in 2009.13

                      à In 2009, 16.2% of the United Kingdom’s population was age 65 or older, compared
                        to 16.4% in France and 20.3% in Germany.13




                 Figure 12. Median Age, by Gender, Regional Comparisons, 2009

                                                                                   42.6             Germany
                                                                                 41.1
                    Male                                                38.0                        Austria
                                                                               41.8
                                                                           39.6                     France
                                                                          39.1
                                                                                                    Italy
                                                                                       45.2         Netherlands
                                                                                    43.2
                                                                               40.9                 United Kingdom
                 Female                                                                44.8
                                                                                41.2
                                                                                41.3


                           0         10          20          30          40                   50

                 Source: CIA13




                 Figure 13. Life Expectancy at Birth, Regional Comparisons, 2009

                                                                         76.3                       Germany
                                                                         76.6
                    Male                                                  77.8                      Austria
                                                                          77.3
                                                                         76.8                       France
                                                                         76.5
                                                                                                    Italy
                                                                                82.4                Netherlands
                                                                                82.6
                                                                                  84.3              United Kingdom
                 Female                                                          83.3
                                                                               82.1
                                                                               81.6


                           0         20          40          60          80                   100

                 Source: CIA13




                                    agework@bc.edu                                                             9
      à In the United Kingdom, 14.1% of the male population and 18.2% of the female
        population is 65 or older.14 In comparison,
              • In Germany, 18.9% of the male population and 23.1% of the female population
                is 65 or older.

              • In France, 13.9% of the male population and 18.7% of the female population is
                65 or older.




Figure 14a. Population Distribution of United Kingdom, 2009

                                             100+
                        Male                 95-99                    Female
                                             90-94
                                             85-89
                                              80+
                                             75-79
                                             70-74
                                             65-69
                                             60-64
                                             55-59
                                             50-54
                                             45-49
                                             40-44
                                             35-39
                                             30-34
                                             25-29
                                             20-24
                                             15-19
                                             10-14
                                              5-9
                                              0-4
10        8         6           4   2        0   0        2       4        6          8   10
                                        % of Population

Source: U. S. Census Bureau14




Figure 14b. Population Distribution of Germany, 2009

                                             100+
                        Male                 95-99                    Female
                                             90-94
                                             85-89
                                              80+
                                             75-79
                                             70-74
                                             65-69
                                             60-64
                                             55-59
                                             50-54
                                             45-49
                                             40-44
                                             35-39
                                             30-34
                                             25-29
                                             20-24
                                             15-19
                                             10-14
                                              5-9
                                              0-4
10        8         6           4   2        0   0        2       4        6          8   10
                                        % of Population

Source: U. S. Census Bureau14




 10                                                  http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork
united kingdom   Figure 14c. Population Distribution of France, 2009
statistical                                                                          100+
profile no.18                                Male                                    95-99                            Female
                                                                                     90-94
january 2010                                                                         85-89
                                                                                      80+
                                                                                     75-79
                                                                                     70-74
                                                                                     65-69
                                                                                     60-64
                                                                                     55-59
                                                                                     50-54
                                                                                     45-49
                                                                                     40-44
                                                                                     35-39
                                                                                     30-34
                                                                                     25-29
                                                                                     20-24
                                                                                     15-19
                                                                                     10-14
                                                                                      5-9
                                                                                      0-4
                 10        8           6             4             2             0       0           2            4        6        8   10
                                                                        % of Population

                 Source: U. S. Census Bureau14




                 Figure 15. Country of birth profile of UK workforce

                      35,000

                   30,000                                                                                                      EU8
                                                                                                                               EU14
                      25,000                                                                                                   N0n UK
                                                                                                                               UK
                   20,000

                      15,000

                   10,000

                       5,000

                           0
                                                                                      2004
                                                                                             2005


                                                                                                           2007
                                                            2001
                                                                       2002




                                                                                                    2006
                                                     2000




                                                                              2003




                                                                                                                  2008
                               1997
                                      1998
                                              1999




                 Note:   EU14 defined as Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, France, Germany,
                         Italy, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Greece. EU8 defined as Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary, Poland,
                         Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

                 Source: UK Labour Force Survey 20081




                                             agework@bc.edu                                                                             11
references	
1 UK Labour Force Survey (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from: http://nesstar.esds.ac.uk/webview/in-
   dex.jsp?v=2&mode=documentation&submode=abstract&study=http%3A%2F%2Fnesstar.esds.ac.uk%3A80
   %2Fobj%2FfStudy%2F6199&top=yes

2 OECD. (2009a). Country statistical profiles. Retrieved November 3, 2009 from : http://www.oecd.org/statsport
   al/0,3352,en_2825_293564_1_1_1_1_1,00.html

3 OECD. (2009b). Stat. Extracts. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from: http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx

4 International Labour Office. (2009). LABORSTA internet. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from: http://laborsta.
    ilo.org/

5 EUROSTAT. (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/extraction/evalight/
   EVAlight.jsp?A=1&language=en&root=/theme3/une/une_ltu_a

6 EUROSTAT. (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=t
   able&init=1&language=en&pcode=tps00159&plugin=1

7 EUROSTAT. (2008). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=t
   able&init=1&language=en&pcode=tsdsc340&plugin=0

8 Oxford Economics. (2008). Retrieved August 25, 2009, from: http://www.oxfordeconomics.com/Free/pdfs/
   oxfordeconomicspressreleasejan08.pdf

9 Eurostat. (2007). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/
    product_details/metadata?p_product_code=JVS_A_ESMS

10 Institute for Employment Research (2003). National employers’ skills survey. Coventry: DfES.

11 ONS. (2009). Retrieved December 3, 2009, from: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/popnr0809.pdf

12 ONS. (2009). Regreived December 3, 2009, from: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/focuson/ethnicity/

13 Central Intelligence Agency. (2009). The CIA world factbook. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from: https://
     www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook

14 US Census Bureau. (2009). International data base. Retrieved December 2, 2009, from: http://www.census.
    gov/ipc/www/idb/




 12                                                          http://www.bc.edu/agingandwork
united kingdom                            about	the	institute
statistical
profile no.18                             Established in 2007 by the Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College, the Global
january 2010                              Perspectives Institute is an international collaboration of scholars and employers
                                          committed to the expansion of the quality of employment available to the 21st century
                                          multi-generational workforce in countries around the world.

Country Context Team Leaders              The Global Perspectives Institute focuses on innovative and promising practices that might
                                          be adopted by employers and policy-makers.
Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes, Director, Sloan
Center on Aging and Work                  The Institute’s research, publications, and international forums contribute to:
Tay K. McNamara, Director of Research,
Sloan Center on Aging and Work
                                               à    a deeper understanding of the employment experiences and career aspirations of
Jungui Lee, Postdoctoral researcher,                employees of different ages who work in countries around the world;
Sloan Center on Aging and Work
                                               à    informed decision making by employers who want to be employers-of-choice in
                                                    different countries; and

                                               à    innovative thinking about private-public partnerships that promote sustainable, high-
                                                    quality employment.



                                          The Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College promotes quality of employment as
                                          an imperative for the 21st century multi-generational workforce. We integrate evidence from
                                          research with insights from workplace experiences to inform innovative organizational
                                          decision making. Collaborating with business leaders and scholars in a multi-disciplinary
                                          dialogue, the Center develops the next generation of knowledge and talent management.

                                          The Sloan Center on Aging & Work is grateful for the continued support of the Alfred P.
                                          Sloan Foundation.



                                          Matt Flynn is a senior lecturer at Middlesex University. His research focus is on workplace age diversity.
                                          He has carried out work for the European Union and UK government on the subject. He has written the
                                          age diversity good practice guide for the UK Trades Union Congress and Chartered Institute for Personnel
                                          and Development, and is currently conducting a study for the British Council comparing the experiences of
                                          older workers in the UK and Japan. His work can be found at www.agediversity.org




                                                                agework@bc.edu                                                                 13
     For additional Sloan Center publications, visit our website at www.bc.edu/agingandwork

     Global Statistical Profile 01 - Japan           Global Statistical Profile 10 - Denmark
     Global Statistical Profile 02 - United States   Global Statistical Profile 11 - South Africa
     Global Statistical Profile 03 - Pakistan        Global Statistical Profile 12 - India
     Global Statistical Profile 04 - South Korea     Global Statistical Profile 13 - Kenya
     Global Statistical Profile 05 - China           Global Statistical Profile 14 - Australia
     Global Statistical Profile 06 - Greece          Global Statistical Profile 15 - Germany
     Global Statistical Profile 07 - Armenia         Global Statistical Profile 16 - France
     Global Statistical Profile 08 - Italy           Global Statistical Profile 17 - Sweden
     Global Statistical Profile 09 - Singapore




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