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Trait and Factor Theory

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					Trait and Factor Theory
 Development of assessment instruments (study the
 individual)
 Refinement of occupational information (surveying
 occupations)
 Plays a vital role in career development
 It’s impact and influence is transtheoretical

Trait and Factor Limitations
 There is a single career goal for everyone
 Career decisions are primarily based on measured abilities
 Static – not developmental
 Does not account for interests, values, aptitudes,
 achievements
 Personality traits grow and change

Roe’s Theory of Career Choice
 Based on the writings of Maslow
   Hierarchy of needs
 Psychodynamic influences
 Influences on career development
   Genetics
   Family and SES
   Interests, attitudes, personality
   Need fulfillment
 Influence of family and parents

Roe’s Strengths & Limitations
 Complexity encompasses much of the human condition
 and experience
 Complexity limits generalizability and usefulness
 Widely published, lots of research
 Only a small part of research supports her position
Super’s Developmental Theory
 Self-concept plays an integral role
   Occupation choice reflection of self-view
 Self-concept develops through
   Physical & mental growth
   Observations of work
   Identification with working adults
   Environment & experiences
 Career maturity

Super’s Theory & Adolescents
 Orientation to vocational choice
 Information & planning
 Consistency of vocational preference
 Crystallization of traits (self-concept)
 Vocational independence
 Wisdom of vocational preferences
                       Career Maturity

Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad & Herma
 Fantasy
   Play orientation becomes work orientation
 Tentative
   Interests – likes and dislikes
   Capacity – awareness of abilities
   Values – perceptions of occupational styles
   Transition – aware of decision & responsibility

Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad & Herma
 Realistic
   Exploration – narrow choices
   Crystallization – commitment to a career
   Specification – select job or training
David Tiedeman
 Process of cognitive development
 Resolution of ego relevant crises
 Erikson’s psychosocial crises

David Tiedeman
 Differentiation
   Evaluate self & self-in-world
   Study career information
 Integration
   Congruency in the world of work
   Establish meaning society & individual have for one another

Krumboltz, Mitchell & Gelatt
 Lifelong learning process in a social context
 Learning experiences can lead to distorted beliefs &
 cognitions about career & work
 Broad range of techniques

Lofquist & Dawis
 Person-environment-correspondence (PEC)
 Work adjustment
   Achieve & maintain positive relationship with work environment
   Individual meets job requirements
   Work environment fulfills requirements of individual
   Attempt to improve the “fit” – active or reactive
Lofquist & Dawis
 Worker personality and work environment should be
 amenable
 Individual needs determine “best fit”
 Interplay of individual needs and work reinforcer system
 determine stability & tenure
 Job placement matches worker traits with environment
 requirements

John Holland
 Career choice is extension or expression of personality
 (self) into the world of work
 Modal personal orientation
   Heredity, history, experiences, environment
   Drives career decision making & choice
   Congruence occurs when personality type matches work
   environment

Linda Gottfredson
 Circumscription and compromise
   Process of developing career aspirations
 Self-concept is key to career development
 People seek jobs consistent with self-image
 Role of social class, intelligence, gender-typing

Linda Gottfredson
 The process of individual development
   Orientation   to   size and power
   Orientation   to   gender role
   Orientation   to   social valuation
   Orientation   to   internal, unique self
 Career aspirations are progressively circumscribed
 throughout these developmental steps
Linda Gottfredson
 Self-concept – view of self
   Appearance, abilities, personality, gender, values, place in
   society
 Images of occupations – stereotypes
 Cognitive maps of occupations
   Field of work, gender type, prestige
   Assess how self-concept fits with cognitive map

Linda Gottfredson
 Social space – Where do I want to fit in society?
 Circumscription
   Narrow the options (territory)
 Compromise
   Adjust aspirations to fit reality
   Trade-offs
      Sacrifice interests before prestige or gender type


Future Theoretical Trends
 Cognitive – focus on process of decision making
 Social context and sociological variables
   Class, race, economy, environment
 Values
   Impact on human development; guiding & motivating force
 Contextual or Constructivist
   Methods, means, pathways to creating meaning from what we
   do, how we interact

				
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