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PartI

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 211

  • pg 1
									How to Use This Soil Survey
Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps can be useful in planning the use and management of small areas.

To find information about your area of interest, you can locate the Section, Township, and Range by zooming in
on the Index to Map Sheets, or you can go to the Web Soil Survey at (http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/).

Note the map unit symbols that are in that area. The Contents lists the map units by symbol and name and
shows the page where each map unit is described.

See the Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.
ii




         This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
     of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
     agencies, including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The Natural
     Resources Conservation Service has leadership for the Federal part of the National
     Cooperative Soil Survey.
         Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1990. Soil names and descriptions
     were approved in 1992. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this publication refer to
     conditions in the survey area in 1991. This survey was made cooperatively by the United
     States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service and Forest
     Service; United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management; and the
     Montana Agricultural Experiment Station. It is part of the technical assistance furnished to
     the Carter County Conservation District.
         The most current official data are available through the NRCS Soil Data Mart website
     at http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov. Soil maps in this survey may be copied without
     permission. Enlargement of these maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the
     detail of mapping. If enlarged, maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that
     could have been shown at a larger scale.
         The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all of its
     programs on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability,
     political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases
     apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for
     communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should
     contact the USDA’s TARGET Center at 202-720-2600 (voice or TDD).
         To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
     Room 326W, Whitten Building, 14th and Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC
     20250-9410, or call 202-720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity
     provider and employer.


       Cover: Archin soils are in the foreground with the Long Pines in the background.




           Additional information about the Nation’s natural resources is available online
        from the Natural Resources Conservation Service at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov.
                                                                                                                                                     iii




Contents
Part I                                                                            75A—Archin-Absher complex, 0 to 2 percent
                                                                                      slopes .......................................................... 31
How To Use This Soil Survey .................................. i                  75C—Archin-Absher complex, 2 to 8 percent
Index to Taxonomic Units ...................................... x                     slopes .......................................................... 32
Index to Map Units ................................................ xi            175A—Archin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........ 33
Summary of Tables .............................................. xvi              175C—Archin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........ 33
Foreword .............................................................. xix       275D—Archin, gullied-Delpoint complex,
General Nature of the Survey Area ....................... 1                           4 to 15 percent slopes ................................. 33
   History .................................................................. 1   375C—Archin-Ynot complex, 2 to 8 percent
   Industry and Recreation ...................................... 2                   slopes .......................................................... 34
   Physiography and Drainage................................. 2                   Arsite Series ...................................................... 34
   Geology ............................................................... 2      79C—Arsite clay, 0 to 8 percent slopes ............. 35
   Mineral Resources ............................................... 4            179E—Arsite-Rock outcrop complex, 8 to 25
   Ground-water Resources ..................................... 5                     percent slopes ............................................. 35
   Climate ................................................................. 6    Assinniboine Series ........................................... 36
How This Survey Was Made .................................... 6                   74A—Assinniboine sandy clay loam, 0 to 2
Formation and Classification of the Soils .......... 13                               percent slopes ............................................. 37
   Formation of the Soils ........................................ 13             74C—Assinniboine sandy clay loam, 2 to 8
      Climate .......................................................... 13           percent slopes ............................................. 37
      Living Organisms ........................................... 13             174C—Assinniboine-Ynot complex, 2 to 8
      Topography .................................................... 13              percent slopes ............................................. 38
      Parent Material .............................................. 14           13F—Badland .................................................... 38
      Time ............................................................... 14     Bascovy Series .................................................. 38
   Classification of the Soils ................................... 14             90C—Bascovy clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes ......... 39
Soil Series and Detailed Soil Map Units ............. 23                          90D—Bascovy clay, 8 to 15 percent slopes ....... 40
   Abor Series ........................................................ 24        490C—Bascovy-Ethridge complex, 2 to 8
   51C—Abor silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                           percent slopes ............................................. 40
       slopes .......................................................... 25       590C—Bascovy-Marvan complex, 2 to 8
   251D—Abor-Yawdim silty clay loams, 4 to 15                                         percent slopes ............................................. 40
       percent slopes ............................................. 25            623D—Bascovy clay, warm, 0 to 9 percent
   Absher Series .................................................... 26              slopes .......................................................... 41
   168B—Absher-Gerdrum complex, 0 to 4                                            633D—Bascovy-Neldore clays, warm, 6 to 21
       percent slopes ............................................. 27                percent slopes ............................................. 41
   Alona Series ...................................................... 27         Beaverflat Series ............................................... 42
   20C—Alona silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 28                           30A—Beaverflat loam, 0 to 4 percent
   621C—Alona silt loam, warm, 2 to 8 percent                                         slopes .......................................................... 43
       slopes .......................................................... 29       130A—Beaverflat sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent
   Alzada Series .................................................... 29              slopes .......................................................... 43
   92C—Alzada clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                           Beenom Series .................................................. 43
       slopes .......................................................... 30       49A—Beenom-Reeder loams, 1 to 4 percent
   Archin Series ..................................................... 30             slopes .......................................................... 44
iv




     116C—Beenom-Parchin complex, 2 to 8                                        170D—Busby-Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy
         percent slopes ............................................. 45            loams, 8 to 25 percent slopes ..................... 60
     Belltower Series ................................................. 45      170E—Busby-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
     144D—Belltower-Reeder-Vebar complex,                                           complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes .................. 60
         4 to 15 percent slopes ................................. 46            270E—Busby, gullied-Delpoint-Yawdim
     144E—Belltower-Dast-Reeder complex,                                            complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes .................. 61
         15 to 35 percent slopes ............................... 47             Cabba Series ..................................................... 62
     144F—Belltower-Dast complex, 35 to 60                                      112D—Cabba silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
         percent slopes ............................................. 48            slopes .......................................................... 62
     Bickerdyke Series .............................................. 48        212E—Cabba-Rock outcrop complex,
     87A—Bickerdyke clay, 0 to 2 percent slopes ..... 49                            15 to 45 percent slopes ............................... 63
     87C—Bickerdyke clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes ..... 49                        312D—Cabba-Dast complex, 8 to 15 percent
     Blacksheep Series ............................................. 50             slopes .......................................................... 63
     55D—Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy loams,                                  Cabbart Series ................................................... 64
         8 to 15 percent slopes ................................. 50            60D—Cabbart silt loam, 4 to 15 percent
     55E—Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy loams,                                      slopes .......................................................... 64
         15 to 45 percent slopes ............................... 51             160E—Cabbart-Rock outcrop-Delpoint
     155E—Blacksheep-Rock outcrop complex,                                          complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes ................ 65
         25 to 50 percent slopes ............................... 51             160F—Cabbart-Rock outcrop-Yawdim
     Bonfri Series ...................................................... 52        complex, 15 to 70 percent slopes ................ 65
     91C—Bonfri loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........... 53                      260D—Cabbart-Cambeth silt loams, 8 to 15
     91D—Bonfri loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes ......... 53                           percent slopes ............................................. 66
     191C—Bonfri-Cambeth complex, 2 to 8                                        360D—Cabbart-Bascovy complex, 4 to 15
         percent slopes ............................................. 53            percent slopes ............................................. 66
     291D—Bonfri-Cabbart loams, 8 to 15 percent                                 Cambeth Series ................................................. 67
         slopes .......................................................... 54   160D—Cambeth-Yamacall complex, 8 to 15
     391C—Bonfri-Parchin complex, 2 to 8 percent                                    percent slopes ............................................. 68
         slopes .......................................................... 55   260C—Cambeth-Cabbart silt loams, 2 to 8
     Broadus Series .................................................. 55           percent slopes ............................................. 68
     126D—Broadus-Ridge-Reeder complex,                                         260E—Cambeth-Cabbart-Yawdim complex,
         8 to 25 percent slopes ................................. 56                15 to 25 percent slopes ............................... 69
     126F—Broadus-Ridge-Rock outcrop complex,                                   Carfall Series ..................................................... 69
         25 to 65 percent slopes ............................... 57             14C—Carfall loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes .......... 70
     Bullock Series .................................................... 57     114C—Carfall-Assinniboine complex, 2 to 8
     Busby Series ...................................................... 58         percent slopes ............................................. 70
     70C—Busby fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent                                  114D—Carfall-Assinniboine complex, 8 to 15
         slopes .......................................................... 59       percent slopes ............................................. 71
     70D—Busby fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent                                 214C—Carfall fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent
         slopes .......................................................... 59       slopes .......................................................... 71
                                                                                                                                              v




214D—Carfall fine sandy loam, 8 to 15                                      271D—Delpoint-Yamacall loams, 8 to 15
    percent slopes ............................................. 72            percent slopes ............................................. 86
Chinook Series .................................................. 72       DA—Denied access ........................................... 86
83A—Chinook sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent                                     Eapa Series ....................................................... 86
    slopes .......................................................... 73   84A—Eapa loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ............ 87
83C—Chinook sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent                                     84C—Eapa loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ............ 88
    slopes .......................................................... 73   84D—Eapa loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes .......... 88
83D—Chinook sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent                                    167C—Eapa-Yamacall loams, 2 to 8 percent
    slopes .......................................................... 74       slopes .......................................................... 88
183C—Chinook-Assinniboine complex, 2 to 8                                  184C—Eapa-Archin loams, 2 to 8 percent
    percent slopes ............................................. 74            slopes .......................................................... 89
283C—Chinook-Archin complex, 2 to 8                                        603C—Eapa loam, warm, 1 to 6 percent
    percent slopes ............................................. 75            slopes .......................................................... 89
Cohagen Series ................................................. 75        Ethridge Series .................................................. 90
Creed Series ...................................................... 76     66C—Ethridge silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
54A—Creed loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........... 77                           slopes .......................................................... 91
54C—Creed loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes .......... 77                        85A—Ethridge loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ....... 91
154C—Creed-Absher complex, 2 to 8 percent                                  85C—Ethridge loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ....... 91
    slopes .......................................................... 78   185A—Ethridge-Daglum complex, 0 to 4
254C—Creed-Gerdrum complex, 2 to 8                                             percent slopes ............................................. 92
    percent slopes ............................................. 78        626C—Ethridge silty clay loam, warm, 2 to 8
602C—Creed-Gerdrum complex, warm, 2 to 6                                       percent slopes ............................................. 92
    percent slopes ............................................. 79        Gerdrum Series ................................................. 93
Daglum Series ................................................... 79       65A—Gerdrum clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
45B—Daglum loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes ........ 80                             slopes .......................................................... 94
Dast Series ........................................................ 80    65C—Gerdrum clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
125F—Dast-Ridge-Rock outcrop complex,                                          slopes .......................................................... 94
    35 to 60 percent slopes ............................... 81             165A—Gerdrum-Absher complex, 0 to 2
225E—Dast-Vebar complex, 15 to 35 percent                                      percent slopes ............................................. 95
    slopes .......................................................... 82   165C—Gerdrum-Absher complex, 2 to 8
225F—Dast-Vebar complex, 35 to 60 percent                                      percent slopes ............................................. 95
    slopes .......................................................... 82   611B—Gerdrum-Absher complex, warm,
325E—Dast-Cabba-Mowbray complex,                                               0 to 3 percent slopes ................................... 96
    15 to 35 percent slopes ............................... 83             611D—Gerdrum-Absher complex, warm,
Delpoint Series .................................................. 84          3 to 9 percent slopes ................................... 96
71C—Delpoint loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ....... 84                        Glendive Series ................................................. 97
171C—Delpoint-Cabbart complex, 2 to 8                                      61A—Glendive sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
    percent slopes ............................................. 85            slopes .......................................................... 98
171D—Delpoint-Cabbart complex, 8 to 15                                     161B—Glendive sandy loam, saline, 0 to 4
    percent slopes ............................................. 85            percent slopes ............................................. 98
vi




     Hanly Series ...................................................... 98     Marmarth Series .............................................. 113
     7B—Hanly-Ryell fine sandy loams, 0 to 4                                    81C—Marmarth loam, 2 to 8 percent
          percent slopes ............................................. 99           slopes ........................................................ 114
     Haploborolls ....................................................... 99    629C—Marmarth loam, warm, 2 to 8 percent
     Harlake Series ................................................. 100           slopes ........................................................ 114
     57A—Harlake silty clay, saline, 0 to 2 percent                             Marvan Series ................................................. 114
          slopes ........................................................ 101   89A—Marvan silty clay, 0 to 2 percent
     157A—Harlake silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                   slopes ........................................................ 116
          slopes ........................................................ 101   89C—Marvan silty clay, 2 to 8 percent
     606B—Harlake silty clay loam, warm, saline,                                    slopes ........................................................ 116
          0 to 3 percent slopes ................................. 102           613B—Marvan-Vanda clays, warm, 0 to 3
     608B—Harlake clay, warm, 0 to 3 percent                                        percent slopes ........................................... 116
          slopes ........................................................ 102   614C—Marvan clay, warm, 0 to 6 percent
     Havre Series .................................................... 103          slopes ........................................................ 117
     56A—Havre loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ......... 103                        635C—Marvan-Bascovy clays, warm, 0 to 6
     156A—Havre loam, saline, 0 to 2 percent                                        percent slopes ........................................... 117
          slopes ........................................................ 104   M-W—Miscellaneous water ............................. 118
     256A—Havre-Harlake complex, 0 to 2 percent                                 Mowbray Series ............................................... 118
          slopes ........................................................ 104   152F—Mowbray-Cabba-Vebar complex,
     Julin Series ...................................................... 105        35 to 60 percent slopes ............................. 119
     Kirby Series ..................................................... 105     Moyerson Series .............................................. 119
     176D—Kirby-Cabbart complex, 8 to 25                                        77D—Moyerson silty clay loam, 4 to 15
          percent slopes ........................................... 106            percent slopes ........................................... 120
     276F—Kirby-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop                                         277D—Moyerson-Orinoco silty clay loams,
          complex, 25 to 60 percent slopes .............. 107                       4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 121
     Kobase Series ................................................. 107        477E—Moyerson silty clay loam, 15 to 35
     78A—Kobase silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                     percent slopes ........................................... 121
          slopes ........................................................ 108   605E—Moyerson, warm-Rock outcrop
     78C—Kobase silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                     complex, 9 to 45 percent slopes ................ 121
          slopes ........................................................ 109   Neldore Series ................................................. 122
     Kremlin Series ................................................. 109       58D—Neldore-Rock outcrop complex,
     72A—Kremlin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ...... 110                             4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 123
     72C—Kremlin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 110                         58E—Neldore-Rock outcrop complex,
     172C—Kremlin-Cabbart complex, 2 to 8                                           15 to 45 percent slopes ............................. 123
          percent slopes ........................................... 111        158D—Neldore clay, 4 to 15 percent
     Marias Series ................................................... 111          slopes ........................................................ 123
     94A—Marias silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                 158E—Neldore clay, 15 to 35 percent
          slopes ........................................................ 112       slopes ........................................................ 124
     94C—Marias silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                 258D—Neldore-Volborg clays, 4 to 15 percent
          slopes ........................................................ 113       slopes ........................................................ 124
                                                                                                                                              vii




358D—Neldore-Bascovy clays, 4 to 15 percent                               13E—Rock outcrop .......................................... 139
    slopes ........................................................ 125   177E—Rock outcrop-Moyerson complex,
625E—Neldore clay, warm, 3 to 25 percent                                       15 to 50 percent slopes ............................. 139
    slopes ........................................................ 125   Ryell Series ...................................................... 139
Noonan Series ................................................. 126       Shambo Series ................................................ 140
Orinoco Series ................................................. 127      131C—Shambo-Noonan loams, 4 to 15
53C—Orinoco silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                    percent slopes ........................................... 141
    slopes ........................................................ 127   231D—Shambo-Mowbray-Parchin complex,
153D—Orinoco-Yawdim silty clay loams,                                          4 to 25 percent slopes ............................... 142
    4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 128            Tanna Series .................................................... 142
253D—Orinoco-Weingart complex, 4 to 15                                    64C—Tanna silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
    percent slopes ........................................... 128             slopes ........................................................ 143
631D—Orinoco-Yawdim silty clay loams,                                     164C—Tanna-Ethridge silty clay loams, 2 to 8
    warm, 4 to 15 percent slopes .................... 129                      percent slopes ........................................... 143
Parchin Series ................................................. 129      164D—Tanna-Ethridge silty clay loams,
21C—Parchin fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent                                    8 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 144
    slopes ........................................................ 131   Teigen Series ................................................... 144
121C—Parchin-Bullock complex, 2 to 8                                      95A—Teigen silty clay loam, 0 to 4 percent
    percent slopes ........................................... 131             slopes ........................................................ 145
Parshall Series ................................................. 131     95D—Teigen clay loam, gullied, 4 to 15
36A—Parshall sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent                                        percent slopes ........................................... 146
    slopes ........................................................ 132   Tricart Series .................................................... 146
36D—Parshall fine sandy loam, 4 to 15                                     23D—Tricart clay loam, 4 to 15 percent
    percent slopes ........................................... 133             slopes ........................................................ 147
136D—Parshall-Cohagen fine sandy loams,                                   23E—Tricart gravelly loam, 15 to 45 percent
    4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 133                 slopes ........................................................ 147
Prego Series .................................................... 134     Twilight Series .................................................. 148
48D—Prego sandy loam, 2 to 15 percent                                     69C—Twilight fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent
    slopes ........................................................ 134        slopes ........................................................ 148
Reeder Series .................................................. 135      69D—Twilight fine sandy loam, 8 to 15
42C—Reeder loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 136                              percent slopes ........................................... 149
142D—Reeder-Cabba loams, 4 to 15 percent                                  269C—Twilight-Bonfri complex, 2 to 8 percent
    slopes ........................................................ 136        slopes ........................................................ 149
242D—Reeder-Dast complex, 4 to 15 percent                                 269D—Twilight-Bonfri complex, 8 to 15
    slopes ........................................................ 136        percent slopes ........................................... 150
Rentsac Series ................................................ 137       369C—Twilight-Delpoint complex, 2 to 8
99F—Rentsac-Twilight-Rock outcrop complex,                                     percent slopes ........................................... 150
    15 to 45 percent slopes ............................. 138             369D—Twilight-Cabbart complex, 8 to 15
Ridge Series .................................................... 138          percent slopes ........................................... 151
viii




       Ustochrepts ...................................................... 151      86C—Yamacall loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes .... 166
       17E—Ustochrepts-Haploborolls complex,                                       86D—Yamacall loam, 8 to 15 percent
           slump, 15 to 45 percent slopes ................. 152                        slopes ........................................................ 166
       Vaeda Series ................................................... 153        186A—Yamacall-Havre loams, 0 to 2 percent
       96A—Vaeda silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                       slopes ........................................................ 167
           slopes ........................................................ 154     186C—Yamacall-Havre loams, 2 to 8 percent
       196C—Vaeda-Creed complex, 0 to 4 percent                                        slopes ........................................................ 167
           slopes ........................................................ 154     193C—Yamacall-Cambeth complex, 2 to 8
       Vanda Series ................................................... 154            percent slopes ........................................... 168
       97A—Vanda silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                   286C—Yamacall-Delpoint loams, 2 to 8
           slopes ........................................................ 155         percent slopes ........................................... 168
       197A—Vanda-Marvan complex, 0 to 2                                           386E—Yamacall-Cabbart loams, 15 to 35
           percent slopes ........................................... 155              percent slopes ........................................... 169
       197C—Vanda-Marvan complex, 2 to 8                                           586D—Yamacall-Delpoint-Cabbart loams,
           percent slopes ........................................... 156              8 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 169
       Varney Series .................................................. 156        Yawdim Series ................................................. 170
       22A—Varney loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ....... 158                          162D—Yawdim silty clay loam, 4 to 15 percent
       22C—Varney loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ....... 158                              slopes ........................................................ 170
       122C—Varney-Gerdrum complex, 2 to 8                                         262E—Yawdim-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
           percent slopes ........................................... 158              complex, 15 to 45 percent slopes .............. 171
       Vebar Series .................................................... 159       Yegen Series .................................................... 171
       Volborg Series ................................................. 160        41C—Yegen loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........ 172
       98C—Volborg clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........ 160                        41D—Yegen loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes ...... 172
       198D—Volborg silty clay, saline, 4 to 15                                    141C—Yegen-Rentsac complex, 2 to 8
           percent slopes ........................................... 161              percent slopes ........................................... 173
       298E—Volborg-Julin-Rock outcrop complex,                                    Ynot Series ...................................................... 173
           8 to 25 percent slopes ............................... 161              59C—Ynot sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent
       398E—Volborg-Volborg, saline-Rock outcrop                                       slopes ........................................................ 174
           complex, 8 to 45 percent slopes ................ 162                    59D—Ynot sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent
       634E—Volborg-Julin complex, warm, 6 to 60                                       slopes ........................................................ 174
           percent slopes ........................................... 162          Zatoville Series ................................................ 175
       W—Water ........................................................ 163        178C—Zatoville silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
       Weingart Series ............................................... 163             slopes ........................................................ 176
       15C—Weingart silty clay, 2 to 8 percent                                     Zeona Series ................................................... 176
           slopes ........................................................ 164     119D—Zeona-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
       620C—Weingart silty clay loam, warm, 0 to 6                                     complex, 4 to 15 percent slopes ................ 177
           percent slopes ........................................... 164        References .......................................................... 179
       Yamacall Series ............................................... 165       Glossary .............................................................. 181
       86A—Yamacall loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes .... 166
                                                                                                                                                        ix




Part II                                                                            Main Forest Access Road Limitations and
                                                                                        Hazards ..................................................... 137
How To Use This Soil Survey .................................. i                   Forestland of Carter County ............................ 138
Detailed Soil Map Unit Legend ............................. iv                   Recreation........................................................... 147
Summary of Tables ................................................ ix            Wildlife Habitat ................................................... 171
Agronomy ............................................................... 9         Elements of Wildlife Habitat ............................. 171
  Cropland Limitations and Hazards ...................... 9                        Kinds of Wildlife Habitat ................................... 171
  Crop Yield Estimates .......................................... 10               Wildlife of Carter County .................................. 172
     Pasture and Hayland Management ............... 11                           Engineering ........................................................ 173
  Land Capability Classification ............................ 11                   Building Site Development ............................... 173
  Prime Farmland and Other Important                                               Sanitary Facilities ............................................. 174
      Farmland ..................................................... 12            Waste Management ......................................... 175
  Erosion Factors .................................................. 13            Construction Materials ..................................... 176
  Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings ......... 14                              Water Management ......................................... 177
Range .................................................................... 77    Soil Properties .................................................... 273
  Similarity Index .................................................. 78           Engineering Index Properties .......................... 273
  Rangeland Management ................................... 78                      Physical and Chemical Properties ................... 274
  Understory Management ................................... 79                     Water Features ................................................ 276
Forestland ........................................................... 135         Soil Features .................................................... 277
  Woodland Ordination System .......................... 135                      References .......................................................... 411
  Forestland Management and Productivity ....... 136                             Glossary .............................................................. 413

                                                                          Issued 2003
x




Index to Taxonomic Units
    Abor Series ........................................................ 24   Kirby Series ..................................................... 105
    Absher Series .................................................... 26     Kobase Series ................................................. 107
    Alona Series ...................................................... 27    Kremlin Series ................................................. 109
    Alzada Series .................................................... 29     Marias Series ................................................... 111
    Archin Series ..................................................... 30    Marmarth Series .............................................. 113
    Arsite Series ...................................................... 34   Marvan Series ................................................. 114
    Assinniboine Series ........................................... 36        Mowbray Series ............................................... 118
    Bascovy Series .................................................. 38      Moyerson Series .............................................. 119
    Beaverflat Series ............................................... 42      Neldore Series ................................................. 122
    Beenom Series .................................................. 43       Noonan Series ................................................. 126
    Belltower Series ................................................. 45     Orinoco Series ................................................. 127
    Bickerdyke Series .............................................. 48       Parchin Series ................................................. 129
    Blacksheep Series ............................................. 50        Parshall Series ................................................. 131
    Bonfri Series ...................................................... 52   Prego Series .................................................... 134
    Broadus Series .................................................. 55      Reeder Series .................................................. 135
    Bullock Series .................................................... 57    Rentsac Series ................................................ 137
    Busby Series ...................................................... 58    Ridge Series .................................................... 138
    Cabba Series ..................................................... 62     Ryell Series ...................................................... 139
    Cabbart Series ................................................... 64     Shambo Series ................................................ 140
    Cambeth Series ................................................. 67       Tanna Series .................................................... 142
    Carfall Series ..................................................... 69   Teigen Series ................................................... 144
    Chinook Series .................................................. 72      Tricart Series .................................................... 146
    Cohagen Series ................................................. 75       Twilight Series .................................................. 148
    Creed Series ...................................................... 76    Ustochrepts ...................................................... 151
    Daglum Series ................................................... 79      Vaeda Series ................................................... 153
    Dast Series ........................................................ 80   Vanda Series ................................................... 154
    Delpoint Series .................................................. 84     Varney Series .................................................. 156
    Eapa Series ....................................................... 86    Vebar Series .................................................... 159
    Ethridge Series .................................................. 90     Volborg Series ................................................. 160
    Gerdrum Series ................................................. 93       Weingart Series ............................................... 163
    Glendive Series ................................................. 97      Yamacall Series ............................................... 165
    Hanly Series ...................................................... 98    Yawdim Series ................................................. 170
    Haploborolls ....................................................... 99   Yegen Series .................................................... 171
    Harlake Series ................................................. 100      Ynot Series ...................................................... 173
    Havre Series .................................................... 103     Zatoville Series ................................................ 175
    Julin Series ...................................................... 105   Zeona Series ................................................... 176
                                                                                                                                              xi




Index to Map Units
 7B—Hanly-Ryell fine sandy loams, 0 to 4                                   55E—Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy loams,
    percent slopes ............................................. 99           15 to 45 percent slopes .............................. 51
 13E—Rock outcrop ......................................... 139            56A—Havre loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........ 103
 13F—Badland .................................................... 38       57A—Harlake silty clay, saline, 0 to 2 percent
 14C—Carfall loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ......... 70                         slopes ........................................................ 101
 15C—Weingart silty clay, 2 to 8 percent                                   58D—Neldore-Rock outcrop complex, 4 to 15
    slopes ........................................................ 164       percent slopes ........................................... 123
 17E—Ustochrepts-Haploborolls complex,                                     58E—Neldore-Rock outcrop complex, 15 to 45
    slump, 15 to 45 percent slopes ................. 152                      percent slopes ........................................... 123
 20C—Alona silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ..... 28                       59C—Ynot sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent
 21C—Parchin fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent                                  slopes ........................................................ 174
    slopes ........................................................ 131    59D—Ynot sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent
 22A—Varney loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ....... 158                           slopes ........................................................ 174
 22C—Varney loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 158                         60D—Cabbart silt loam, 4 to 15 percent
 23D—Tricart clay loam, 4 to 15 percent                                       slopes .......................................................... 64
    slopes ........................................................ 147    61A—Glendive sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent
 23E—Tricart gravelly loam, 15 to 45 percent                                  slopes .......................................................... 98
    slopes ........................................................ 147    64C—Tanna silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
 30A—Beaverflat loam, 0 to 4 percent                                          slopes ........................................................ 143
    slopes .......................................................... 43   65A—Gerdrum clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
 36A—Parshall sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent                                      slopes .......................................................... 94
    slopes ........................................................ 132    65C—Gerdrum clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
 36D—Parshall fine sandy loam, 4 to 15                                        slopes .......................................................... 94
    percent slopes ........................................... 133         66C—Ethridge silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
 41C—Yegen loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........ 172                           slopes .......................................................... 91
 41D—Yegen loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes ...... 172                         69C—Twilight fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent
 42C—Reeder loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 136                            slopes ........................................................ 148
 45B—Daglum loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes ....... 80                         69D—Twilight fine sandy loam, 8 to 15
 48D—Prego sandy loam, 2 to 15 percent                                        percent slopes ........................................... 149
    slopes ........................................................ 134    70C—Busby fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent
 49A—Beenom-Reeder loams, 1 to 4 percent                                      slopes .......................................................... 59
    slopes .......................................................... 44   70D—Busby fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent
 51C—Abor silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                     slopes .......................................................... 59
    slopes .......................................................... 25   71C—Delpoint loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 84
 53C—Orinoco silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                               72A—Kremlin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ...... 110
    slopes ........................................................ 127    72C—Kremlin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ..... 110
 54A—Creed loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes .......... 77                       74A—Assinniboine sandy clay loam, 0 to 2
 54C—Creed loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes .......... 77                          percent slopes ............................................. 37
 55D—Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy loams,                                 74C—Assinniboine sandy clay loam, 2 to 8
    8 to 15 percent slopes ................................. 50               percent slopes ............................................. 37
xii




      75A—Archin-Absher complex, 0 to 2 percent                                 94A—Marias silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
         slopes .......................................................... 31      slopes ........................................................ 112
      75C—Archin-Absher complex, 2 to 8 percent                                 94C—Marias silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
         slopes .......................................................... 32      slopes ........................................................ 113
      77D—Moyerson silty clay loam, 4 to 15                                     95A—Teigen silty clay loam, 0 to 4 percent
         percent slopes ........................................... 120            slopes ........................................................ 145
      78A—Kobase silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                                95D—Teigen clay loam, gullied, 4 to 15
         slopes ........................................................ 108       percent slopes ........................................... 146
      78C—Kobase silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                96A—Vaeda silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
         slopes ........................................................ 109       slopes ........................................................ 154
      79C—Arsite clay, 0 to 8 percent slopes ............ 35                    97A—Vanda silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent
      81C—Marmarth loam, 2 to 8 percent                                            slopes ........................................................ 155
         slopes ........................................................ 114    98C—Volborg clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes ....... 160
      83A—Chinook sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent                                    99F—Rentsac-Twilight-Rock outcrop
         slopes .......................................................... 73      complex, 15 to 45 percent slopes ............. 138
      83C—Chinook sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent                                    112D—Cabba silt loam, 8 to 15 percent
         slopes .......................................................... 73      slopes .......................................................... 62
      83D—Chinook sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent                                   114C—Carfall-Assinniboine complex, 2 to 8
         slopes .......................................................... 74      percent slopes ............................................. 70
      84A—Eapa loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........... 87                       114D—Carfall-Assinniboine complex, 8 to 15
      84C—Eapa loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........... 88                          percent slopes ............................................. 71
      84D—Eapa loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes ......... 88                        116C—Beenom-Parchin complex, 2 to 8
      85A—Ethridge loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ...... 91                           percent slopes ............................................. 45
      85C—Ethridge loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ...... 91                        119D—Zeona-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
      86A—Yamacall loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ... 166                             complex, 4 to 15 percent slopes ............... 177
      86C—Yamacall loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ... 166                          121C—Parchin-Bullock complex, 2 to 8
      86D—Yamacall loam, 8 to 15 percent                                           percent slopes ........................................... 131
         slopes ........................................................ 166    122C—Varney-Gerdrum complex, 2 to 8
      87A—Bickerdyke clay, 0 to 2 percent slopes .... 49                           percent slopes ........................................... 158
      87C—Bickerdyke clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes .... 49                        125F—Dast-Ridge-Rock outcrop complex,
      89A—Marvan silty clay, 0 to 2 percent                                        35 to 60 percent slopes .............................. 81
         slopes ........................................................ 116    126D—Broadus-Ridge-Reeder complex,
      89C—Marvan silty clay, 2 to 8 percent                                        8 to 25 percent slopes ................................. 56
         slopes ........................................................ 116    126F—Broadus-Ridge-Rock outcrop complex,
      90C—Bascovy clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes ........ 39                          25 to 65 percent slopes .............................. 57
      90D—Bascovy clay, 8 to 15 percent slopes ...... 40                        130A—Beaverflat sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent
      91C—Bonfri loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes .......... 53                         slopes .......................................................... 43
      91D—Bonfri loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes ........ 53                       131C—Shambo-Noonan loams, 4 to 15
      92C—Alzada clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                                         percent slopes ........................................... 141
         slopes .......................................................... 30
                                                                                                                                             xiii




136D—Parshall-Cohagen fine sandy loams,                                   165A—Gerdrum-Absher complex, 0 to 2
   4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 133                percent slopes ............................................. 95
141C—Yegen-Rentsac complex, 2 to 8                                        165C—Gerdrum-Absher complex, 2 to 8
   percent slopes ........................................... 173            percent slopes ............................................. 95
142D—Reeder-Cabba loams, 4 to 15 percent                                  167C—Eapa-Yamacall loams, 2 to 8 percent
   slopes ........................................................ 136       slopes .......................................................... 88
144D—Belltower-Reeder-Vebar complex,                                      168B—Absher-Gerdrum complex, 0 to 4
   4 to 15 percent slopes ................................. 46               percent slopes ............................................. 27
144E—Belltower-Dast-Reeder complex,                                       170D—Busby-Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy
   15 to 35 percent slopes .............................. 47                 loams, 8 to 25 percent slopes ..................... 60
144F—Belltower-Dast complex, 35 to 60                                     170E—Busby-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
   percent slopes ............................................. 48           complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes ................. 60
152F—Mowbray-Cabba-Vebar complex,                                         171C—Delpoint-Cabbart complex, 2 to 8
   35 to 60 percent slopes ............................ 119                  percent slopes ............................................. 85
153D—Orinoco-Yawdim silty clay loams,                                     171D—Delpoint-Cabbart complex, 8 to 15
   4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 128                percent slopes ............................................. 85
154C—Creed-Absher complex, 2 to 8 percent                                 172C—Kremlin-Cabbart complex, 2 to 8
   slopes .......................................................... 78      percent slopes ........................................... 111
155E—Blacksheep-Rock outcrop complex,                                     174C—Assinniboine-Ynot complex, 2 to 8
   25 to 50 percent slopes .............................. 51                 percent slopes ............................................. 38
156A—Havre loam, saline, 0 to 2 percent                                   175A—Archin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes ........ 33
   slopes ........................................................ 104    175C—Archin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes ....... 33
157A—Harlake silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent                              176D—Kirby-Cabbart complex, 8 to 25
   slopes ........................................................ 101       percent slopes ........................................... 106
158D—Neldore clay, 4 to 15 percent slopes ... 123                         177E—Rock outcrop-Moyerson complex,
158E—Neldore clay, 15 to 35 percent                                          15 to 50 percent slopes ............................ 139
   slopes ........................................................ 124    178C—Zatoville silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent
160D—Cambeth-Yamacall complex, 8 to 15                                       slopes ........................................................ 176
   percent slopes ............................................. 68        179E—Arsite-Rock outcrop complex, 8 to 25
160E—Cabbart-Rock outcrop-Delpoint                                           percent slopes ............................................. 35
   complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes ............... 65                    183C—Chinook-Assinniboine complex, 2 to 8
160F—Cabbart-Rock outcrop-Yawdim                                             percent slopes ............................................. 74
   complex, 15 to 70 percent slopes ............... 65                    184C—Eapa-Archin loams, 2 to 8 percent
161B—Glendive sandy loam, saline, 0 to 4                                     slopes .......................................................... 89
   percent slopes ............................................. 98        185A—Ethridge-Daglum complex, 0 to 4
162D—Yawdim silty clay loam, 4 to 15                                         percent slopes ............................................. 92
   percent slopes ........................................... 170         186A—Yamacall-Havre loams, 0 to 2 percent
164C—Tanna-Ethridge silty clay loams,                                        slopes ........................................................ 167
   2 to 8 percent slopes ................................. 143            186C—Yamacall-Havre loams, 2 to 8 percent
164D—Tanna-Ethridge silty clay loams,                                        slopes ........................................................ 167
   8 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 144
xiv




  191C—Bonfri-Cambeth complex, 2 to 8                                       260E—Cambeth-Cabbart-Yawdim complex,
     percent slopes ............................................. 53           15 to 25 percent slopes .............................. 69
  193C—Yamacall-Cambeth complex, 2 to 8                                     262E—Yawdim-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
     percent slopes ........................................... 168            complex, 15 to 45 percent slopes ............. 171
  196C—Vaeda-Creed complex, 0 to 4 percent                                  269C—Twilight-Bonfri complex, 2 to 8 percent
     slopes ........................................................ 154       slopes ........................................................ 149
  197A—Vanda-Marvan complex, 0 to 2                                         269D—Twilight-Bonfri complex, 8 to 15
     percent slopes ........................................... 155            percent slopes ........................................... 150
  197C—Vanda-Marvan complex, 2 to 8                                         270E—Busby, gullied-Delpoint-Yawdim
     percent slopes ........................................... 156            complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes ................. 61
  198D—Volborg silty clay, saline, 4 to 15                                  271D—Delpoint-Yamacall loams, 8 to 15
     percent slopes ........................................... 161            percent slopes ............................................. 86
  212E—Cabba-Rock outcrop complex,                                          275D—Archin, gullied-Delpoint complex,
     15 to 45 percent slopes .............................. 63                 4 to 15 percent slopes ................................. 33
  214C—Carfall fine sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent                              276F—Kirby-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
     slopes .......................................................... 71      complex, 25 to 60 percent slopes ............. 107
  214D—Carfall fine sandy loam, 8 to 15                                     277D—Moyerson-Orinoco silty clay loams,
     percent slopes ............................................. 72           4 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 121
  225E—Dast-Vebar complex, 15 to 35 percent                                 283C—Chinook-Archin complex, 2 to 8
     slopes .......................................................... 82      percent slopes ............................................. 75
  225F—Dast-Vebar complex, 35 to 60 percent                                 286C—Yamacall-Delpoint loams, 2 to 8
     slopes .......................................................... 82      percent slopes ........................................... 168
  231D—Shambo-Mowbray-Parchin complex,                                      291D—Bonfri-Cabbart loams, 8 to 15 percent
     4 to 25 percent slopes ............................... 142                slopes .......................................................... 54
  242D—Reeder-Dast complex, 4 to 15 percent                                 298E—Volborg-Julin-Rock outcrop complex,
     slopes ........................................................ 136       8 to 25 percent slopes ............................... 161
  251D—Abor-Yawdim silty clay loams, 4 to 15                                312D—Cabba-Dast complex, 8 to 15 percent
     percent slopes ............................................. 25           slopes .......................................................... 63
  253D—Orinoco-Weingart complex, 4 to 15                                    325E—Dast-Cabba-Mowbray complex, 15 to
     percent slopes ........................................... 128            35 percent slopes ........................................ 83
  254C—Creed-Gerdrum complex, 2 to 8                                        358D—Neldore-Bascovy clays, 4 to 15
     percent slopes ............................................. 78           percent slopes ........................................... 125
  256A—Havre-Harlake complex, 0 to 2                                        360D—Cabbart-Bascovy complex, 4 to 15
     percent slopes ........................................... 104            percent slopes ............................................. 66
  258D—Neldore-Volborg clays, 4 to 15                                       369C—Twilight-Delpoint complex, 2 to 8
     percent slopes ........................................... 124            percent slopes ........................................... 150
  260C—Cambeth-Cabbart silt loams, 2 to 8                                   369D—Twilight-Cabbart complex, 8 to 15
     percent slopes ............................................. 68           percent slopes ........................................... 151
  260D—Cabbart-Cambeth silt loams, 8 to 15                                  375C—Archin-Ynot complex, 2 to 8 percent
     percent slopes ............................................. 66           slopes .......................................................... 34
                                                                                                                                             xv




386E—Yamacall-Cabbart loams, 15 to 35                                     613B—Marvan-Vanda clays, warm, 0 to 3
   percent slopes ........................................... 169            percent slopes ........................................... 116
391C—Bonfri-Parchin complex, 2 to 8 percent                               614C—Marvan clay, warm, 0 to 6 percent
   slopes .......................................................... 55      slopes ........................................................ 117
398E—Volborg-Volborg, saline-Rock outcrop                                 620C—Weingart silty clay loam, warm,
   complex, 8 to 45 percent slopes ............... 162                       0 to 6 percent slopes ................................. 164
477E—Moyerson silty clay loam, 15 to 35                                   621C—Alona silt loam, warm, 2 to 8 percent
   percent slopes ........................................... 121            slopes .......................................................... 29
490C—Bascovy-Ethridge complex, 2 to 8                                     623D—Bascovy clay, warm, 0 to 9 percent
   percent slopes ............................................. 40           slopes .......................................................... 41
586D—Yamacall-Delpoint-Cabbart loams,                                     625E—Neldore clay, warm, 3 to 25 percent
   8 to 15 percent slopes ............................... 169                slopes ........................................................ 125
590C—Bascovy-Marvan complex, 2 to 8                                       626C—Ethridge silty clay loam, warm, 2 to 8
   percent slopes ............................................. 40           percent slopes ............................................. 92
602C—Creed-Gerdrum complex, warm, 2 to 6                                  629C—Marmarth loam, warm, 2 to 8 percent
   percent slopes ............................................. 79           slopes ........................................................ 114
603C—Eapa loam, warm, 1 to 6 percent                                      631D—Orinoco-Yawdim silty clay loams,
   slopes .......................................................... 89      warm, 4 to 15 percent slopes .................... 129
605E—Moyerson, warm-Rock outcrop                                          633D—Bascovy-Neldore clays, warm, 6 to 21
   complex, 9 to 45 percent slopes ............... 121                       percent slopes ............................................. 41
606B—Harlake silty clay loam, warm, saline,                               634E—Volborg-Julin complex, warm, 6 to 60
   0 to 3 percent slopes ................................. 102               percent slopes ........................................... 162
608B—Harlake clay, warm, 0 to 3 percent                                   635C—Marvan-Bascovy clays, warm, 0 to 6
   slopes ........................................................ 102       percent slopes ........................................... 117
611B—Gerdrum-Absher complex, warm,                                        DA—Denied access .......................................... 86
   0 to 3 percent slopes ................................... 96           M-W—Miscellaneous water ............................. 118
611D—Gerdrum-Absher complex, warm,                                        W—Water ........................................................ 163
   3 to 9 percent slopes ................................... 96
xvi




Summary of Tables
      Part I

        Temperature and precipitation .................................................................................................. 8

        Freeze dates in spring and fall ................................................................................................ 10

        Growing season ...................................................................................................................... 12


                                   For tables with the most current data, please visit the
                                   Soil Data Mart at http://soildatamart.nrcs.usda.gov/.
                                                                                              xix




Foreword
       This soil survey contains information that affects land use planning in this survey
    area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also
    highlights limitations and hazards inherent in the soil.
       This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters,
    and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
    needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
    engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land
    use, select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure
    proper performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in
    recreation, wildlife management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the
    survey to help them understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
       Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
    special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
    intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
    treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land
    users identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations on various land uses. The
    landowner or user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and
    regulations.
       Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils
    are seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
    unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are
    poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
    poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
       These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
    survey. The location of each soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the
    survey area is described. Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in
    using this publication and additional information are available at local offices of the
    Natural Resources Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.


    Dave White
    State Conservationist
    Natural Resources Conservation Service
                                                                                                                1




Soil Survey of
Carter County, Montana
             Fieldwork by Richard G. Bandy, Gary F. Berger, James F. Dorr, John A. Lindahl,
             Dan L. McLean, William R. Johnson, and Kenneth T. Scalzone, Natural Resources
             Conservation Service

             United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
             in cooperation with
             the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service; United States
             Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management; and the Montana
             Agricultural Experiment Station


    CARTER COUNTY is located in southeastern Montana
(fig. 1). It has a land area of 2,139,300 acres, or
3,342 square miles. Nearly a third of the county
consists of Federal land.
    The major occupations in Carter County are
ranching and dryland farming. The county is the
largest producer of sheep and lambs in Montana.
About 10 percent of the county is used for dryland
farming, with the majority used mainly for range.
    Elevations range from 2,760 to 4,450 feet. The
annual precipitation ranges from 12 to 17 inches, and
the frost-free period ranges from 110 to 130 days.
    Descriptions, names, and delineations of soils in
this soil survey do not fully agree with those on soil          Figure 1.—Location of Carter County, Montana
maps for adjacent survey areas. Differences are the
result of better knowledge of soils, modifications in
series concepts, intensity of mapping, and the extent        Carter County was established in 1917 and was
of soils within the survey.                              named in honor of Thomas Henry Carter, Montana’s
                                                         first representative to Congress. Ekalaka, the county
General Nature of the Survey Area                        seat, is located in the north-central part of the county
                                                         and is the largest town. The other town of significant
   This section describes some of the environmental      population is Alzada, located in the southern part of
and cultural features that affect the use and            the county.
management of soils in the survey area. These                Carter County is located in an area known as the
features are history, industry and recreation,           rolling prairie. In 1882, the first herd of cattle was
physiography and drainage, geology, mineral              trailed from Texas to Box Elder Creek. In 1897, the
resources, ground-water resources, and climate.          first school in the county was built near Ekalaka. In
                                                         late 1908, the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, and
History                                                  Pacific Railroad was completed through the town of
                                                         Baker, located 36 miles north of Ekalaka in Fallon
   The first known inhabitants of Carter County were     County. Baker became the main freight station and
Native American hunters who followed bison herds         point of departure for hundreds of homesteaders
into the area.                                           seeking plots of land to make their fortunes.
2                                                                                                          Soil Survey




Schoolhouses became a part of every community,                  southeast corner of the county and extends into the
and many post offices were established, generally in            Black Hills of Wyoming and South Dakota.
ranch or farm homes. In the 1930s, hard times hit and               The county consists predominantly of gently rolling
many homesteads were abandoned.                                 plains with shallow creek valleys and broad flat
                                                                divides. The landscape is semiarid with infrequent
Industry and Recreation                                         badland areas. Remnants of younger, relatively
                                                                resistant sandstone formations form the prominent
    Raising livestock, growing crops, and mining                pinnacles and ridges of the Ekalaka Hills, Long Pine
bentonite are the principal industries in Carter                Hills, and Chalk Buttes. Landscapes typical in the
County. Livestock operations, primarily cow-calf and            northeastern part of the county are flat-topped buttes
sheep, account for nearly 82 percent of the farm                and summits capped by sandstone or resistant baked
income. The main dryland-farming crop is winter                 shale and clinker (scoria) beds. Topography in the
wheat. Other crops, such as spring wheat, barley, and           central portion of the county is more subdued,
grass hay, are also grown. Some alfalfa and grass               containing large flat areas with little relief.
hay are grown on waterspreading systems, which are                  Relatively resistant reddish baked shale beds can
located along Beaver and Box Elder Creeks and the               be seen capping summits in the northeastern part of
Little Missouri River.                                          the county; these beds were formed by burning
    Livestock auction yards in Baker and Miles City,            underground coal seams. Burning coal baked the
Montana, and Belle Fourche, South Dakota, provide               surrounding sediments and made them more
ranchers with good livestock marketing facilities.              resistant to erosion.
Some of the calves are sold directly from the ranch to              In this semiarid climate, landscape is directly
feeder buyers. Nearly all of the small grain produced           controlled by the characteristics of underlying
is marketed through elevators in Baker, Miles City,             bedrock. Elevations range from a low of 2,760 feet
and Belle Fourche.                                              above sea level to a high of 4,450 feet. The lowest
    The Alzada area is an important bentonite mining            point is located where Spring Creek exits the county
area. The bentonite produced here is shipped via                at the western county line. West Butte, located
truck to the Colony, Wyoming, area for refining.                6 miles north of the southwestern corner, is the
    Carter County offers numerous opportunities for             highest point in the county.
outdoor recreation. Mule deer, white-tailed deer, and               The major northeast flowing drainages are Box
antelope populations, along with upland game birds,             Elder Creek and the Little Missouri River. Box Elder
such as Merriam’s turkey, sage grouse, sharp-tailed             Creek drains the central portion of the county. It is
grouse, and Hungarian partridge, create excellent               perennial north of the town of Ridgway. The Little
hunting opportunities. Many small ponds provide                 Missouri River is located to the southeast of Box
good fishing.                                                   Elder Creek and is perennial throughout Carter
    Medicine Rocks State Park and the abundance of              County. The northwestern corner of the county is
forested lands in the county provide tremendous                 drained by O’Fallon Creek, draining to the northwest.
opportunity for camping, picnicking, hiking, and                The extreme southeastern corner drains southeast,
photography. The Carter County Historical Museum is             toward the Belle Fourche River, which is located in
renown for its paleontological collections and early            Wyoming and South Dakota.
human artifacts.                                                    Major streams, with numerous ephemeral
                                                                tributaries arranged in a relatively linear dendritic
Physiography and Drainage                                       pattern, follow meandering courses in wide, nearly
                                                                level valley bottoms. The pattern is approximately
   Mary Marshall Garsjo, State Geologist, Natural Resources     parallel to the strike of the formations.
Conservation Service, prepared the Physiography and Drainage,
Geology, Mineral Resources, and Ground-water Resources
sections.                                                       Geology
   The entire county is located within the Missouri                The oldest rocks exposed in Carter County belong
Plateau physiographic province. The county is divided           to sedimentary formations deposited during the
into two physiographic subprovinces by a northwest-             Cretaceous Period. At that time, a transcontinental
trending line that runs through the center. This line           sea covered the area between the Gulf of Mexico and
separates the Montana Plains Province to the north              the Arctic Ocean. Thick sequences of sediments were
from the Central Rocky Mountain Foreland Province               deposited on coastal plains and shallow sea floors
to the south. The Black Hills Uplift begins in the              during alternating periods of emergence and
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   3




submergence. These repeated marine invasions                 Cretaceous System (135- to 65-million years
created a thick sequence of marine shales deposited       before present): The oldest rocks exposed in Carter
on the sea floor. Brackish shales, freshwater shales,     County belong to the Colorado Group. This group is
and sandstones were deposited on the coastal plains.      approximately 2,000-feet thick and is composed of
These sandstone and shale beds grade both                 formations that are primarily marine shale.
vertically and horizontally into each other.              Formations of the Colorado Group are exposed in an
    Marine migrations continued without interruption      arcuate pattern in the south-central portion of the
until the Late Cretaceous Period, when uplift of the      county. In order of decreasing age, these formations
Rocky Mountains began in western Montana. Marine          include the Thermopolis Formation, with its upper
deposition ended in Carter County at the end of           Newcastle Sandstone Member; Mowry Shale; Belle
Pierre Shale time. The overlying Hell Creek               Fourche Shale; Greenhorn Formation; Carlile Shale;
Formation was the last unit to be deposited in the        and the Niobrara Formation.
Late Cretaceous Period. The extinction of dinosaurs,         Formations in the Colorado Group consist
approximately 65-million years ago, marked the end        primarily of shale with smaller amounts of
of the Cretaceous Period. At this time, fossils           interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and marl (a
changed dramatically, but the character of the            calcareous shale). Most of these formations contain
sediments remained the same.                              limestone and iron concretions. Bentonite occurs in
    Volcanism occurring to the west, during the           beds from a few inches to several feet thick. The
Cretaceous Period, spread thick layers of volcanic        Gerdrum, Marvan, and Neldore soil series typically
ash over the area. Bentonite, which is derived from       are derived from this group.
devitrified volcanic ash, occurs in many of the              Directly overlying the Colorado Group is the Pierre
Cretaceous sediments, particularly the marine             Shale. It occupies most of central Carter County,
shales. Bentonite is found in layers from a few inches    between Cottonwood and Big Ramme Creeks. The
thick to mineable beds with thicknesses up to 10 feet.    Pierre Shale is 1,500- to 2,000-feet thick and consists
    Deposition of massive amounts of sediment from        primarily of dark gray marine shale. Interbedded in
the Rocky Mountain Uplift continued during the            the shale are bentonite beds, iron concretions,
Tertiary Period. Sluggish rivers meandering across        limestone concretions, veins and crystals of gypsum,
the coastal plains deposited these sediments. The         and local sandstone lenses. Many saline pan spots
coastal plains were swampy and covered with lush          are associated with this formation. On the weathered
vegetation. These marshes were eventually buried by       exposures, gypsum crystals glitter in the sun like
accumulating sediments and converted to coal.             broken glass. Small lenses of clean, rounded quartz
    Approximately 50-million years ago, uplift and        pebbles, weathered from the Pierre Shale, can be
granitic intrusions occurred in the Black Hills area to   found capping small rises. The Gerdrum, Marvan,
the southeast. This igneous activity was accompanied      and Neldore soil series are also typically derived from
by regional folding and faulting, including the           this formation.
formation of the Cedar Creek anticline and the               The overlying Fox Hills Sandstone consists of
adjacent Ekalaka syncline, between the Powder River       cross-bedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale from
Basin and the Williston Basin, and the Black Hills        marine and brackish water deposits. It is 25- to
Uplift to the east of the Power River Basin. The Black    100-feet thick and crops out in a relatively narrow
Hills Uplift domed the overlying sedimentary              band surrounding the Pierre Shale. The upper
formations upward as it rose. These sediments             member of the Fox Hills Sandstone is the Colgate
currently surround it in a concentric pattern of          Member. It is a light-colored, permeable sandstone
decreasing age. In general, rocks of southern Carter      that is distinct from the darker underlying material.
County influenced by the Black Hills Uplift occur in an   The Colgate Member is locally thin or absent. The
arcuate pattern typical of an anticlinal fold, with age   formation becomes more shaly downward and grades
decreasing to the north.                                  into the underlying Pierre Shale. The Blacksheep and
    Summarized below and listed in order of               Twilight soil series typically are derived from this
decreasing age is the sequence of exposed rocks for       formation.
the county. Classification of rock units based on their      The Hell Creek Formation overlies the Fox Hills
lithology is group, formation, and member, from           Sandstone, ranging from 20- to 30-feet thick in this
largest to smallest. For example, formations are          area. This formation consists of nonmarine and
subdivided into members. “Systems” refers to the          brackish water deposits of sandstone and shale and
rocks deposited during a particular geologic period.      contains the last of the dinosaur fossils. Together with
4                                                                                                   Soil Survey




the underlying Colgate Member, this formation               The Chadron Formation consists of interbedded
becomes sandier downward and forms a relatively          conglomerate and limestone with sandstone and pale
thick and continuous aquifer. This aquifer supplies      green bentonitic shales. The overlying Brule
much of the domestic and stock water in the region.      Formation consists of massive orange and pink
The Archin, Eapa, and Ynot soil series typically are     tuffaceous siltstone with interbeds of shale and
derived from this formation.                             sandstone. The White River Group has relatively high
   Tertiary System (65- to 2.5-million years before      permeability but is generally not considered an
present): The Fort Union Formation overlies the Hell     aquifer because of its limited recharge area.
Creek Formation and is exposed in the northeastern          The Arikaree Formation overlies the White River
part of the county. This formation covers a large        Group in the Ekalaka Hills and has a wider
portion of eastern Montana but does not occur in         distribution in South Dakota and Wyoming. This
significant quantities in Carter County. In this area,   formation is up to 250-feet thick and forms resistant
the Fort Union Formation has a maximum thickness         bluffs in the southern margin of the Ekalaka Hills,
of 1,800 feet and has been subdivided into the lower     Long Pine Hills, and Chalk Buttes. The Arikaree
Ludlow Member and the upper Tongue River Member.         Formation consists of light-colored tuffaceous
Like the Hell Creek Formation, the Fort Union            sandstone and shales with interbedded volcanic ash
Formation consists of sandstone, shale, and coal         and is locally capped by hard green quartzite. The
beds. Brick red summits and shoulders of hills formed    Belltower, Dast, and Vebar soil series typically are
from baked shale give the outcrops a distinctive         derived from this formation.
appearance. Thin sandy soils mantle the sandstone           Slump areas are located at the base of the
summits. Deeper soils occur on the intermediate          Ekalaka Hills, Long Pine Hills, and Chalk Buttes.
valleys that are eroded into shales. There are 6- to     These areas are composed of both Tertiary- and
12-feet thick gravel terraces associated with this       Cretaceous-aged sedimentary rocks. Most of this
formation. The gravels of these terraces are both        movement occurred in the Miocene Epoch (mid-
cleaner and younger than the gravels associated with     Tertiary Period). The Miocene Epoch was more humid
the Pierre Shale.                                        than the contemporary climate. This additional
   In most of the Tongue River Member, shale occurs      moisture compounded generally unstable conditions
more frequently than sandstone; however, shale           in the Brule Formation. The resulting soils have been
weathers more rapidly into soil-covered slopes and is    mapped in the Haploboroll and Ustochrept families.
not as conspicuous as the sandstone. The Tongue             At the north end of the county, Medicine Rocks
River Member is the chief coal-bearing formation in      State Park consists of unusual and spectacular
eastern Montana and contains many thick coal beds.       geology. The park contains knobs and ridges that
The Cabbart, Cambeth, and Eapa soil series typically     formed in the soft erodible sandstone of the Tongue
are derived from this member. The Kirby soil series      River Member. These features are considered
developed on the baked shale.                            remnants of an old dune field that were shaped by
   The Ludlow Member consists of interbedded             wind erosion. Like contemporary dune fields, the
sandstone, siltstone, and shale and weathers to          sand grains are small and uniform and have a
badlands-like topography. In other areas of Montana,     crossbedded structure.
the Ludlow Member is subdivided into the upper Lebo
Shale and lower Tullock Members. Coal in the Ludlow      Mineral Resources
Member occurs as thin lenticular beds. The Archin,
Bonfri, and Chinook soil series typically are derived        Carter County is located within eastern Montana’s
from this member.                                        oil and gas producing region. Oil and gas are
   Directly overlying the Tongue River Member, the       produced from different stratigraphic horizons. Oil and
White River Group is exposed only in small areas of      gas accumulation is a factor of both geologic
higher hills. This group is subdivided into two          structure and porosity variations within individual
formations, the older Chadron Formation and the          formations.
overlying Brule Formation. They crop out in the              Two oil and gas fields have been developed in the
summits and pinnacles of Long Pine Hills as small        county. Hammond Field is located northwest of
exposures overlying the Tongue River. The White          Alzada, and Repeat Field is located south of the
River Group is more widely distributed in South          Humbolt Hills near the South Dakota border.
Dakota and does not occur in other areas of                  In the Repeat Field, oil and associated gas are
Montana.                                                 produced from the Red River Formation. This
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   5




formation is of mid-Ordovician-age and consists of        They contain only small amounts of saline water,
limestone and dolomite. The Red River Formation is        which is often too mineralized for any use. Drill
one of the most widespread formations in the              depths to underlying artesian aquifers can be quite
Williston Basin and is one of its main hydrocarbon        deep.
reservoirs. The Repeat Field is associated with the           Sandstone beds occur In the Pierre Formation and
Fallon County fields along the crest of the Cedar         the underlying Newcastle, Muddy, and Lakota
Creek anticline to the east.                              Sandstones. Deep wells have been successfully
   Hammond Field produced natural gas from the            completed in these sandstone beds. Because of
Muddy Sandstone Member of the lower Cretaceous            structural configuration, wells occur under artesian
Colorado Group. In the past several years, there has      conditions. Some wells may flow depending on their
not been any production from this field.                  location.
   Carter County contains significant exposures of            Ground water in northern Carter County is
formations that are known to contain mineable beds        obtained primarily from the Fox Hills-Lower Hell
of bentonite. Bentonite beds occur in the Arikaree        Creek aquifer wherever the overlying Fort Union
Formation, the Monument Hill Bentonitic Member of         Formation is not too thick. Total dissolved solids
the Pierre Formation, and the Belle Fourche and           concentration from this aquifer are generally low,
Mowry Shales.                                             ranging from well under 500 to 2,000 mg/l. The best
   Potentially economic deposits of lignite are present   quality water is found near recharge areas. Average
in Carter County. Lignite is soft and crumbly and         yields are 10 gallons-per-minute (gpm), though yields
contains significant moisture. It has the lowest heat     of as high as 40 gpm are possible.
content of coal types. These deposits have                    In the Fort Union Formation, the Tongue River
undergone little development. They occur in relatively    Member typically yields 8 to 15 gpm, and the more
thin, less than 10-feet thick, beds in the Tongue River   shaly Ludlow Member typically yields 3 to 8 gpm.
Member. A few thin beds also occur in the underlying      Water is produced from frequently occurring
Ludlow Member and Hell Creek Formation.                   sandstone and baked shale beds. These beds occur
   The Ekalaka Lignite Field produced 2,250 tons of       as discontinuous lenses with limited areal extent.
lignite between 1926 and 1934. There has been no          Their exact locations are impossible to predict at a
further reported development of this field.               particular site. After years of use, shallow wells often
   Current economic geology maps do not designate         fail when the limited sandstone lens is completely
“strippable coal reserves” in Carter County. Minor        drained.
amounts of uranium have been found in lignite beds            Water in the Fort Union Formation contains total
that crop out along the Ekalaka Hills and Long Pine       dissolved solids concentrations (TDS) ranging from
Hills. Uranium was leached by ground water from           400 to 2,000 mg/l. In general, the best quality water is
windblown tuffs or weathered igneous rocks and            obtained from baked shale beds. The Environmental
deposited in organic-rich lignite. Most uranium in the    Protection Agency has recommended a maximum
county has been found in the Fort Union Formation         TDS concentration of 500 mg/l for human
and the overlying Arikaree Formation. Uranium also        consumption. Water with greater than 7,000 mg/l TDS
occurs at depth in lower Cretaceous Formations that       is generally considered unfit for any use.
do not crop out in the area.                                  Unconsolidated deposits of alluvium occur in the
   Aggregate, such as sand and gravel, used to make       valleys of larger streams. These deposits, consisting
concrete occur in mineable quantities within the          of interbedded clay, silt, sand, and gravel, have
county.                                                   thicknesses up to 50 feet and are commonly used for
                                                          ground-water development. They produce average
Ground-water Resources                                    yields of 15 gpm. TDS concentrations range from 450
                                                          to 6,000 mg/l.
  Usable ground-water aquifers occur at the surface           The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology’s
only in the northern and northeastern portions of         Open File Report HY77-1, Compilation of
Carter County. The remaining shale formations,            Hydrogeological Data for Southeastern Montana,
exposed to the south, are generally impermeable.          reported a total of 867 wells in Carter County in 1977.
6                                                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Their average depth was 172 feet, with average static                                    vegetation of the survey area. Each kind of soil and
water levels of 72 feet. In 70 percent of the wells,                                     miscellaneous area is associated with a particular
static water level was less than 160 feet.                                               kind of landform or with a segment of the landform.
   Well use current to April 1991 is summarized                                          By observing the soils and miscellaneous areas in
below. Often wells have multiple uses and are listed                                     the survey area and relating their position to specific
under both domestic and stockwater supplies,                                             segments of the landform, soil scientists develop a
causing the total to appear less than the sum of the                                     concept, or model, of how the soils were formed.
uses. This information was provided by the Montana                                       During mapping, this model enables soil scientists to
Groundwater Information Center, Butte, Montana.                                          predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the
       Stockwater .......................................................... 918         kind of soil or miscellaneous area at a specific
       Household and Domestic .................................... 239                   location on the landscape.
       Unknown ............................................................... 33           Individual soils on the landscape commonly merge
       Other ....................................................................... 3   into one another as their characteristics gradually
       Industrial .................................................................. 2   change. To construct an accurate map, however, soil
       Unused .................................................................... 1     scientists must determine the boundaries between
                                                                                         the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
       TOTAL WELLS ................................................. 1,089               soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
                                                                                         supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
Climate                                                                                  vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to
                                                                                         verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
    Following this section are tables giving data on                                     determine the boundaries.
temperature and precipitation, probable dates of the                                        Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring, and                                  soil profiles that they studied. They noted color,
data on length of the growing season.                                                    texture, size, and shape of soil aggregates; kind and
    Growing-degree days are the equivalent to “heat                                      amount of rock fragments; distribution of plant roots;
units.” During the month, growing-degree days                                            reaction; and other features that enable them to
accumulate by the amount that the average                                                identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
temperature each day exceeds a base temperature                                          area and determining their properties, soil scientists
(40 degrees F). The normal monthly accumulation is                                       assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
used to schedule single or successive plantings of a                                     Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic
crop between the last freeze in spring and the first                                     class has a set of soil characteristics with precisely
freeze in fall.                                                                          defined limits. The classes are used as a basis for
                                                                                         comparison to classify soils systematically. Soil
How This Survey Was Made                                                                 taxonomy, the system of taxonomic classification
                                                                                         used in the United States, is based mainly on the
   This survey was made to provide information                                           kind and character of soil properties and the
about the soils and miscellaneous areas in the                                           arrangement of horizons within the profile. After the
survey area. This information includes a description                                     soil scientists classified and named the soils in the
of the soils and miscellaneous areas and their                                           survey area, they compared the individual soils with
location and a discussion of their suitability,                                          similar soils in the same taxonomic class in other
limitations, and management for specified uses. Soil                                     areas so that they could confirm data and assemble
scientists observed the steepness, length, and shape                                     additional data based on experience and research.
of the slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the                                         While a soil survey is in progress, samples of
kinds of crops and native plants; and the kinds of                                       some of the soils in the area generally are collected
bedrock. They dug many holes to study the soil                                           for laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil
profile, which is the sequence of natural layers, or                                     scientists interpret data from these analyses and
horizons, in a soil. The profile extends from the                                        tests as well as field-observed characteristics and soil
surface down into the unconsolidated material in                                         properties to determine the expected behavior of the
which the soil formed. The unconsolidated material is                                    soils under different uses. Interpretations for all of the
devoid of roots and other living organisms and has                                       soils are field tested through observation of the soils
not been changed by other biological activity.                                           in different uses and under different levels of
   The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey                                       management. Some interpretations are modified to fit
area are in an orderly pattern that is related to the                                    local conditions, and some new interpretations are
geology, landforms, relief, climate, and natural                                         developed to meet local needs. Data are assembled
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   7




from other sources, such as research information,            After soil scientists located and identified the
production records, and field experience of               significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area,
specialists. For example, data for crop yields under      they drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
high levels of management are modeled and                 photographs and identified each as a specific map
validated with farm records and field or plot             unit. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields,
information on the same kinds of soil.                    roads, and rivers, all of which help in locating
   Predictions about soil behavior are based not only     boundaries accurately.
on soil properties but also on such variables as             Descriptions, names, and delineations of the soils
climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are      in this survey area may not fully agree with those of
predictable over long periods, but they are not           the soils in adjacent survey areas. Differences result
predictable from year to year. For example, soil          from a better knowledge of soils, modifications in
scientists can predict with a fairly high degree of       series concepts, or variations in the intensity of
accuracy that a given soil will have a high water table   mapping or in the extent of the soils in the survey
within certain depths in most years, but they cannot      areas.
predict that a high water table will always be at a
specific level in the soil on a specific date.
8                                                                                             Soil Survey



                                     Temperature and Precipitation

                   (Recorded in the period 1964-1994 at Albion, Ekalaka, and Ridgway)

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
           |                                               |
           |            Temperature (Degrees F)            |            Precipitation (Inches)
                                                           |
           |_____________________________________________________________________________________________
           |       |       |       |                       |       |       |            |       |
           |       |       |       |        2 years        |Average|       | 2 years    |Average|
   Month   |       |       |       |         in 10         |Number |       |   in 10    |Number |
           |Average|Average|       |       Will Have—      | of    |       | Will Have— |of Days|Average
           | Daily | Daily |Average|           |           |Growing|Average|     |      | With | Total
           |Maximum|Minimum|       | Maximum | Minimum |Degree |           |Less | More |0.10 or|Snowfall
           |       |       |       |Temperature|Temperature| Days* |       |Than | Than | More |
           |       |       |       | More Than | Less Than |       |       |     |      |       |
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
ALBION:    |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
January----| 28.5 |    1.0 | 14.8 |      54    |    -36    |     1 | 0.28 |0.11 | 0.46 |    1   | 3.0
February---| 34.4 |    6.3 | 20.3 |      62    |    -31    |     5 | 0.28 |0.07 | 0.47 |    0   | 3.2
March------| 44.9 | 17.6 | 31.2 |        72    |    -14    |    23 | 0.51 |0.26 | 0.82 |    1   | 3.7
April------| 57.0 | 28.2 | 42.6 |        84    |       6   |   122 | 1.56 |0.51 | 2.41 |    3   | 6.9
May--------| 68.4 | 38.9 | 53.7 |        91    |      19   |   371 | 2.12 |1.13 | 2.99 |    5   | 0.6
June-------| 76.7 | 47.9 | 62.3 |        99    |      32   |   608 | 3.15 |1.95 | 4.23 |    7   | 0.0
July-------| 86.1 | 53.0 | 69.5 |       104    |      37   |   827 | 1.82 |0.57 | 2.83 |    4   | 0.0
August-----| 85.7 | 50.2 | 68.0 |       104    |      32   |   737 | 1.28 |0.40 | 2.00 |    2   | 0.0
September--| 74.3 | 39.1 | 56.7 |       100    |      20   |   435 | 0.99 |0.35 | 1.58 |    3   | 0.6
October----| 60.8 | 28.1 | 44.5 |        87    |       2   |   171 | 1.12 |0.40 | 1.80 |    2   | 0.7
November---| 41.8 | 15.3 | 28.5 |        70    |    -19    |    15 | 0.42 |0.16 | 0.63 |    1   | 3.4
December---| 32.5 |    5.1 | 18.8 |      61    |    -31    |     2 | 0.41 |0.16 | 0.65 |    1   | 4.7
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
Yearly:    |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
 Average---| 57.6 | 27.6 | 42.6 |       ———    |    ———    | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ———
 Extreme---| 108.0 | -48.0 | ——— |      106    |    -38    | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ———
 Total-----| ——— | ——— | ——— |          ———    |    ———    | 3,316 | 13.93 |8.88 |16.10 | 30    | 26.8
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
EKALAKA:   |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
January----| 29.5 |    6.9 | 18.2 |      56    |    -30    |     3 | 0.53 |0.22 | 0.78 |    1   | 0.0
February---| 34.9 | 12.4 | 23.7 |        59    |    -25    |     7 | 0.44 |0.17 | 0.69 |    1   | 0.5
March------| 44.2 | 20.5 | 32.4 |        71    |    -14    |    44 | 0.71 |0.29 | 1.07 |    2   | 1.1
April------| 57.1 | 30.8 | 43.9 |        82    |       6   |   181 | 1.77 |0.76 | 2.64 |    4   | 0.1
May--------| 68.3 | 40.9 | 54.6 |        90    |      20   |   448 | 2.57 |1.28 | 3.69 |    5   | 0.0
June-------| 77.4 | 49.6 | 63.5 |        96    |      33   |   698 | 3.64 |2.10 | 5.01 |    6   | 0.0
July-------| 85.6 | 55.4 | 70.5 |       101    |      39   |   936 | 1.77 |0.68 | 2.69 |    3   | 0.0
August-----| 84.0 | 53.3 | 68.6 |        99    |      34   |   875 | 1.24 |0.41 | 2.00 |    3   | 0.0
September--| 72.0 | 42.7 | 57.3 |        96    |      22   |   512 | 1.57 |0.43 | 2.48 |    3   | 0.0
October----| 59.3 | 31.9 | 45.6 |        83    |       6   |   229 | 1.32 |0.52 | 2.06 |    2   | 0.3
November---| 42.1 | 19.7 | 30.9 |        70    |    -12    |    34 | 0.68 |0.24 | 1.04 |    2   | 2.7
December---| 32.1 | 10.2 | 21.2 |        59    |    -29    |     6 | 0.63 |0.22 | 0.97 |    2   | 2.6
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
Yearly:    |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |
 Average---| 57.2 | 31.2 | 44.2 |       ———    |    ———    | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ———
 Extreme---| 105.0 | -43.0 | ——— |      102    |    -34    | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ———
 Total-----| ——— | ——— | ——— |          ———    |    ———    | 3,973 | 16.87 |12.78|20.16 | 34    | 7.4
           |       |       |       |           |           |       |       |     |      |       |

    See footnote at end of table.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                          9



                                Temperature and Precipitation--Continued
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
           |                                               |
           |            Temperature (Degrees F)            |            Precipitation (Inches)
                                                           |
           |_____________________________________________________________________________________________
           |       |       |       |                       |       |       |            |       |
           |       |       |       |        2 years        |Average|       | 2 years    |Average|
   Month   |       |       |       |         in 10         |Number |       |   in 10    |Number |
           |Average|Average|       |       Will Have—      | of    |       | Will Have— |of Days|Average
           | Daily | Daily |Average|            |          |Growing|Average|     |      | With | Total
           |Maximum|Minimum|       | Maximum | Minimum |Degree |           |Less | More |0.10 or|Snowfall
           |       |       |       |Temperature|Temperature| Days* |       |Than | Than | More |
           |       |       |       | More Than | Less Than |       |       |     |      |       |
           |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________
           |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
RIDGWAY:   |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
           |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
January----| 28.7 |    3.0 | 15.8 |      54     |   -32    |     1 | 0.32 | 0.17| 0.62 |    1   | 5.1
February---| 34.2 |    8.8 | 21.5 |      59     |   -29    |     4 | 0.28 | 0.09| 0.50 |    1   | 4.3
March------| 43.7 | 19.1 | 31.4 |        72     |   -16    |    30 | 0.68 | 0.18| 1.17 |    1   | 6.9
April------| 57.0 | 30.5 | 43.8 |        83     |      8   |   169 | 1.51 | 0.60| 2.28 |    4   | 4.3
May--------| 67.7 | 40.6 | 54.2 |        90     |     21   |   430 | 2.30 | 0.95| 3.45 |    5   | 0.4
June-------| 76.6 | 49.6 | 63.1 |        97     |     32   |   663 | 2.69 | 1.74| 3.54 |    6   | 0.1
July-------| 85.0 | 55.5 | 70.3 |       102     |     39   |   881 | 1.69 | 0.66| 2.56 |    4   | 0.0
August-----| 84.2 | 52.8 | 68.5 |       100     |     34   |   832 | 1.04 | 0.53| 1.61 |    2   | 0.0
September--| 72.6 | 41.3 | 56.9 |        97     |     20   |   490 | 1.21 | 0.39| 2.03 |    3   | 0.8
October----| 60.2 | 29.8 | 45.0 |        85     |      3   |   201 | 1.01 | 0.34| 1.69 |    2   | 1.7
November---| 42.5 | 16.8 | 29.7 |        72     |   -17    |    26 | 0.53 | 0.19| 0.95 |    1   | 4.7
December---| 32.0 |    6.3 | 19.1 |      59     |   -34    |     2 | 0.48 | 0.19| 0.87 |    1   | 5.4
           |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
Yearly:    |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
 Average---| 57.0 | 29.5 | 43.3 |       ———     |   ———    | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ———
 Extreme---| 108.0 | -51.0 | ——— |      103     |   -39    | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ——— | ———
 Total-----| ——— | ——— | ——— |          ———     |   ———    | 3,728 | 13.75 |10.39|16.35 | 31    | 33.7
           |       |       |       |            |          |       |       |     |      |       |
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________

     * A growing-degree day is a unit of heat available for plant growth. It can be calculated by adding
the maximum and minimum daily temperatures, dividing the sum by 2, and subtracting the temperature below
which growth is minimal for the principal crops in the area (Threshold: 40.0 degrees F).
10                                                                                 Soil Survey



                          Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall

         (Recorded in the period 1964-1994 at Albion, Ekalaka, and Ridgway)

     ___________________________________________________________________________
                                   |
                                   |                Temperature
                                   |____________________________________________
              Probability          |              |              |
                                   | 24 Degrees F | 28 Degrees F | 32 Degrees F
                                   |   or Lower   |   or Lower   |   or Lower
                                   |              |              |
     ___________________________________________________________________________
                                   |              |              |
     ALBION:                       |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     Last freezing temperature     |              |              |
      in spring: January-July      |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     1 year in 10 later than-------|       May 16 |       May 31 |      June 7
                                   |              |              |
     2 years in 10 later than------|       May 12 |       May 25 |      June 2
                                   |              |              |
     5 years in 10 later than------|       May 2 |        May 13 |       May 24
                                   |              |              |
     First freezing temperature    |              |              |
      in fall: August-December     |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     1 year in 10 earlier than-----| September 13 | September 4 |     August 27
                                   |              |              |
     2 years in 10 earlier than----| September 18 | September 8 |     August 31
                                   |              |              |
     5 years in 10 earlier than----| September 28 | September 17 | September 10
                                   |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     EKALAKA:                      |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     Last freezing temperature     |              |              |
      in spring: January-July      |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     1 year in 10 later than-------|       May 10 |       May 20 |      June 6
                                   |              |              |
     2 years in 10 later than------|       May 5 |        May 15 |      June 1
                                   |              |              |
     5 years in 10 later than------|     April 25 |       May 5 |        May 21
                                   |              |              |
     First freezing temperature    |              |              |
      in fall: August-December     |              |              |
                                   |              |              |
     1 year in 10 earlier than-----| September 16 | September 9 | September 1
                                   |              |              |
     2 years in 10 earlier than----| September 22 | September 14 | September 6
                                   |              |              |
     5 years in 10 earlier than----|   October 4 | September 25 | September 16
                                   |              |              |
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                               11



                              Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall--Continued
              ___________________________________________________________________________
                                            |
                                            |                Temperature
                                            |____________________________________________
                       Probability          |              |              |
                                            | 24 Degrees F | 28 Degrees F | 32 Degrees F
                                            |   or Lower   |   or Lower   |   or Lower
                                            |              |              |
              ___________________________________________________________________________
                                            |              |              |
              RIDGWAY:                      |              |              |
                                            |              |              |
              Last freezing temperature     |              |              |
               in spring: January-July      |              |              |
                                            |              |              |
              1 year in 10 later than-------|       May 16 |       May 24 |      June 6
                                            |              |              |
              2 years in 10 later than------|       May 10 |       May 18 |       May 31
                                            |              |              |
              5 years in 10 later than------|     April 28 |       May 8 |        May 20
                                            |              |              |
              First freezing temperature    |              |              |
               in fall: August-December     |              |              |
                                            |              |              |
              1 year in 10 earlier than-----| September 16 | September 7 |     August 26
                                            |              |              |
              2 years in 10 earlier than----| September 21 | September 12 | September 1
                                            |              |              |
              5 years in 10 earlier than----|   October 3 | September 22 | September 11
                                            |              |              |
              ___________________________________________________________________________
12



                                  Growing Season

        (Recorded in the period 1964-1994 at Albion, Ekalaka, and Ridgway)

     ________________________________________________________________________
                                |
                                |          Daily Minimum Temperature
                                |____________________________________________
             Probability        |               |              |
                                | Higher Than | Higher Than | Higher Than
                                | 24 Degrees F | 28 Degrees F | 32 Degrees F
                                |               |              |
     ________________________________________________________________________
                                |     Days      |     Days     |      Days
                                |               |              |
     ALBION:                    |               |              |
                                |               |              |
       9 years in 10------------|     126       |     104      |      86
                                |               |              |
       8 years in 10------------|     133       |     111      |      95
                                |               |              |
       5 years in 10------------|     148       |     125      |     112
                                |               |              |
       2 years in 10------------|     163       |     138      |     129
                                |               |              |
       1 year in 10-------------|     170       |     145      |     138
                                |               |              |
                                |               |              |
     EKALAKA:                   |               |              |
                                |               |              |
       9 years in 10------------|     138       |     120      |      94
                                |               |              |
       8 years in 10------------|     146       |     128      |     102
                                |               |              |
       5 years in 10------------|     161       |     142      |     117
                                |               |              |
       2 years in 10------------|     177       |     157      |     132
                                |               |              |
       1 year in 10-------------|     184       |     164      |     140
                                |               |              |
                                |               |              |
     RIDGWAY:                   |               |              |
                                |               |              |
       9 years in 10------------|     130       |     112      |      91
                                |               |              |
       8 years in 10------------|     139       |     121      |      99
                                |               |              |
       5 years in 10------------|     157       |     136      |     115
                                |               |              |
       2 years in 10------------|     175       |     152      |     130
                                |               |              |
       1 year in 10-------------|     184       |     160      |     138
                                |               |              |
     ________________________________________________________________________
                                                                                                                 13




Formation and Classification of the Soils
   This section relates the soils in the survey area to      contain more organic matter and are dark colored.
the major factors of soil formation and describes the        Soils that have warm temperatures and low
system of soil classification. The tables,                   precipitation, such as the Yamacall series, generally
“Classification of the Soils” and “Acreage and               contain less organic matter and are light colored. In
Proportionate Extent of the Soils,” at the end of this       Carter County, precipitation ranges from 10 to 19
section show the classification and extent of the soils      inches annually.
in this survey area.
                                                             Living Organisms
Formation of the Soils
                                                                 Living organisms are active in the formation of
    Soil is a natural, three-dimensional body on the         soils. Among the earliest inhabitants of rock material,
earth’s surface. Soil has properties that result from        fungi and algae contribute to the decomposition of
the integrated effect of climate and living matter           bedrock. As rocks decompose, grasses, shrubs, and
acting on earthy parent material, as conditioned by          trees are able to grow and support animal life.
relief over a period of time.                                    Organic matter is the main source of the dark color
    Although there are many different soils, each soil       of the surface layer. The kinds of plants and animals
is the result of the interaction of the same five factors.   in an area largely determine the kind and amount of
These factors are the effect of climate on the parent        organic matter added to the soil and the manner in
material, the kinds of plants and organisms living in        which this matter is incorporated into mineral parts of
the soil, the relief of the land, the physical and           the soil. Plants, animals, insects, and microorganisms
chemical composition of the parent material, and the         affect gains or losses in organic matter, plant
length of time it took for the soil to form.                 nutrients, and changes in porosity and structure.
    Within short distances, the combination of these         Roots, rodents, and insects penetrate the soil and
factors varies, and, consequently, the soils that form       influence its structure. Microorganisms, chemicals in
differ in fertility, productivity, and physical and          the soil, and insects change leaves, roots, and entire
chemical characteristics. In the following paragraphs,       plants that remain in the surface layer to humus.
the factors of soil formation are discussed as they              Animals increase porosity by burrowing through
relate to the soils in the survey area.                      the soil and leaving open channels for the movement
                                                             of water and air. Common burrowing animals are
Climate                                                      badger, field mice, ground squirrel, prairie dog, and
                                                             rabbit. Burrowing rodents brought up many of the
   Temperature and precipitation mainly determine            pebbles and cobbles on the surface of terraces.
climate, an active force in the formation of soils. Soils        Native vegetation in Carter County consists mainly
form in rocks that have been broken into suitable            of short and mid grasses, forbs, and shrubs.
materials by erosion and alternate freezing and
thawing. Chemical reactions, such as solution and            Topography
hydration, further break down this weathered
material. Water and wind are active agents in                   Topography, or relief, is determined by the
transporting and separating weathered material.              resistance of bedrock or soil material to water erosion
   Precipitation and temperature affect the kind and         and soil blowing. Topography influences soil
amount of vegetation that grows on the soil.                 development through its effect on drainage and
Vegetation decays to produce organic matter in the           runoff. On eroded uplands in the survey area, runoff
soil. Soils that have cool temperatures and high             water has carved deep intermittent drains with many
precipitation, such as the Parshall series, generally        branches into the original bedrock formations. This
14                                                                                                     Soil Survey




rugged relief contrasts sharply with the smooth low        generally indicated by the thickness and distinctness
relief of terraces and flood plains.                       of subsurface horizons, content of organic matter and
   On uplands, the number and distinctness of soil         clay, depth to which soluble material is leached, and
horizons generally decrease as the slope increases.        form and distribution of calcium carbonate and
Soils on steep slopes that have rapid runoff have          gypsum in the soil.
many characteristics similar to those of soils formed         Havre loam, a soil of the Entisol order, is a young
in arid climates. Nearly level to gently rolling soils     soil that formed in alluvium on a flood plain. This soil
have many characteristics similar to those of soils        contains little organic matter with which to form an A
formed in semiarid climates. Examples of these             horizon. It has no clay accumulation and limited
patterns, typical in Carter County, are the shallow        translocation of carbonates has occurred to form Bk
Blacksheep soil that has strongly sloping to steep         horizons.
slopes and no B horizon and the nearly level to gently        Eapa loam formed in parent material similar to, but
rolling Eapa soil that is very deep with a 7- to 24-inch   much older than, that of the Havre soil. Eapa soil
thick B horizon.                                           formed in alluvium on alluvial fans and stream
                                                           terraces and is a mature soil of the Mollisol order. It
Parent Material                                            contains enough organic matter to have a dark A
                                                           horizon. Also, it has a distinct clay accumulation in
    Most soils in Carter County formed in place over       the B horizon, and nearly all of the carbonates have
semiconsolidated sedimentary beds or                       been leached below a depth of about 24 inches.
semiconsolidated shale. Many soils formed in
alluvium and were deposited in valleys. Soils, such as     Classification of the Soils
the Blacksheep series, that formed in material
derived from semiconsolidated, sandy sedimentary               The system of soil classification used by the
beds are generally sandy. Soils, such as the Bascovy       National Cooperative Soil Survey has six categories
series, that formed in shale are clayey, since clay is     (Soil Survey Staff, 1975 and 1990). Beginning with
the basic constituent of shale. Soils, such as the         the broadest, these categories are the order,
Havre series, that formed in mixed alluvium derived        suborder, great group, subgroup, family, and series.
from semiconsolidated, loamy sedimentary beds are          Classification is based on soil properties observed in
loamy.                                                     the field or inferred from those observations or from
    Many soils in the county, such as the Alona series,    laboratory measurements. The table, “Classification
have acquired salt and sodium from their parent            of the Soils,” shows the classification of the soils in
materials. Salt and sodium make these soils saline or      the survey area. The categories are defined in the
alkaline and limit the kind and amount of plants able      following paragraphs.
to grow on them. The density of the parent rock and            ORDER. Eleven soil orders are recognized. The
its mineral composition can limit the rate of              differences among orders reflect the dominant soil-
weathering and the depth of a soil.                        forming processes and the degree of soil formation.
                                                           Each order is identified by a word ending in sol. An
Time                                                       example is Mollisol, from mollis, meaning soft.
                                                               SUBORDER. Each order is divided into suborders
   Change taking place in soils over a long period is      primarily on the basis of properties that influence soil
called soil genesis. As a result of these changes,         genesis and are important to plant growth or
distinct horizons, or layers, develop in the soils. The    properties that reflect the most important variables
length of time that parent materials have been in          within the orders. The last syllable in the name of a
place and exposed to climate and living organisms is       suborder indicates the order. An example is Boroll
generally reflected in the degree to which the soil        (Bor, meaning northern, plus oll, from Mollisol).
profile has developed. The kind and arrangement of             GREAT GROUP. Each suborder is divided into
these horizons are called soil morphology. These           great groups on the basis of close similarities in kind,
layers are described in terms of chemistry, color,         arrangement, and degree of development of
consistence, permeability, structure, texture, and         pedogenic horizons; soil moisture and temperature
thickness.                                                 regimes; type of saturation; and base status. Each
   Soils are classified according to their approximate     great group is identified by the name of a suborder
age, from young to mature. Age or maturity of a soil is    and by a prefix that indicates a property of the soil.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                  15




An example is Argiboroll (Argi, meaning having an          properties and other characteristics that affect
argillic or clay accumulation, plus boroll, the suborder   management. Generally, the properties are those of
of the Mollisols that are cool).                           horizons below plow depth where there is much
   SUBGROUP. Each great group has a typic                  biological activity. Among the properties and
subgroup. Other subgroups are intergrades or               characteristics considered are particle-size class,
extragrades. The typic subgroup is the central             mineral content, temperature regime, thickness of the
concept of the great group; it is not necessarily the      root zone, consistence, moisture equivalent, slope,
most extensive. Intergrades are transitions to other       and permanent cracks. A family name consists of the
orders, suborders, or great groups. Extragrades have       name of a subgroup preceded by terms that indicate
some properties that are not representative of the         soil properties. An example is Fine-loamy, mixed
great group but do not indicate transitions to any         Typic Argiborolls.
other taxonomic class. Each subgroup is identified by         SERIES. The series consists of soils within a family
one or more adjectives preceding the name of the           that have horizons similar in arrangement in the
great group. The adjective Typic identifies the            profile, color, consistence, mineral and chemical
subgroup that typifies the great group. An example is      composition, reaction, structure, and texture. An
Typic Argiborolls.                                         example is the Reeder series, which is a Fine-loamy,
   FAMILY. Families are established within a               mixed Typic Argiboroll.
subgroup on the basis of physical and chemical
                                                                                                                  23




Soil Series and Detailed Soil Map Units
    In this section, arranged in alphabetical order,        called noncontrasting, or similar, components. They
each soil series recognized in the survey area is           may or may not be mentioned in a particular map unit
described. Each description is followed by the              description. Other minor components, however, have
detailed soil map units associated with the series.         properties and behavioral characteristics divergent
    Characteristics of the soil and the material in which   enough to affect use or to require different
it formed are identified for each soil series. A pedon,     management. These are called contrasting, or
a small three-dimensional area of soil, that is typical     dissimilar, components. They generally are in small
of the series in the survey area is described. The          areas and could not be mapped separately because
detailed description of each soil horizon follows           of the scale used. Some small areas of strongly
standards in the “Soil Survey Manual” (Soil Survey          contrasting soils or miscellaneous areas are
Division Staff, 1962). Many of the technical terms          identified by a special symbol on the maps. The
used in the descriptions are defined in “Soil               contrasting components are mentioned in the map
Taxonomy” (Soil Survey Staff, 1975). Unless                 unit descriptions. A few areas of minor components
otherwise stated, colors in the descriptions are for dry    may not have been observed, and, consequently,
soil. Following the pedon description is the range of       they are not mentioned in the descriptions, especially
important characteristics of the soils in the series.       where the pattern was so complex that it was
    The map units delineated on the detailed soil           impractical to make enough observations to identify
maps in this survey represent the soils or                  all of the soils and miscellaneous areas on the
miscellaneous areas in the survey area. The map unit        landscape.
descriptions in this section, along with the maps, can          The presence of minor components in a map unit
be used to determine the suitability and potential of a     in no way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of
unit for specific uses. They also can be used to plan       the data. The objective of mapping is not to delineate
the management needed for those uses.                       pure taxonomic classes but rather to separate the
    A map unit delineation on a soil map represents an      landscape into landforms or landform segments that
area dominated by one or more major kinds of soil or        have similar use and management requirements. The
miscellaneous areas. A map unit is identified and           delineation of such segments on the map provides
named according to the taxonomic classification of          sufficient information for the development of resource
the dominant soils. Within a taxonomic class, there         plans. If intensive use of small areas is planned,
are precisely defined limits for the properties of the      however, onsite investigation is needed to define and
soils. On the landscape, however, the soils are             locate the soils and miscellaneous areas.
natural phenomena, and they have the characteristic             An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name
variability of all natural phenomena. Thus, the range       in the map unit descriptions. Each description
of some observed properties may extend beyond the           includes general facts about the unit and gives the
limits defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of     principal hazards and limitations to be considered in
a single taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be            planning for specific uses.
mapped without including areas of other taxonomic               Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
classes. Consequently, every map unit is made up of         up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of
the soils or miscellaneous areas for which it is named      the surface layer, all of the soils of a series have
and some minor components that belong to                    major horizons that are similar in composition,
taxonomic classes other than those of the major             thickness, and arrangement.
soils.                                                          Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
    Most minor soils have properties similar to those of    surface layer, slope, stoniness, salinity, degree of
the dominant soil or soils in the map unit, and thus        erosion, and other characteristics that affect their use.
they do not affect use and management. These are            On the basis of such differences, a soil series is
24                                                                                                        Soil Survey




divided into soil phases. Most of the areas shown on         Bss—4 to 14 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The           silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature               moist; moderate medium prismatic structure
that affects use or management. For example,                    parting to moderate fine and medium subangular
Glendive sandy loam, saline, 0 to 4 percent slopes, is          blocky; very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic;
a phase of the Glendive series.                                 few very fine and fine roots; few slickensides;
   Some map units are made up of two or more major              slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual
soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are               wavy boundary.
complexes, associations, or undifferentiated groups.         Bssky—14 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y
   This survey includes complexes. They consist of              6/2) silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
two or more soils or miscellaneous areas in such an             moist; moderate medium prismatic structure
intricate pattern or in such small areas that they              parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;
cannot be shown separately on the maps. The                     very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very
pattern and proportion of the soils or miscellaneous            fine roots; few slickensides; few fine nests and
areas are somewhat similar in all areas. Gerdrum-               seams of gypsum crystals; common fine masses
Absher complex, warm, 3 to 9 percent slopes, is an              of lime; strongly effervescent; moderately
example.                                                        alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
   This survey includes miscellaneous areas. They            By—26 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
have little or no soil material and support little or no        silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
vegetation. Badland is an example.                              moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
   The table, “Acreage and Proportionate Extent of              structure; very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic;
the Soils,” in Parts I and II of the manuscript gives the       few very fine roots; few fine masses and nests of
acreage and proportionate extent of each map unit.              gypsum; slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline;
Other tables (see “Summary of Tables”) give                     gradual wavy boundary.
properties of the soils and the limitations, capabilities,   Cr—32 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
and potentials for many uses. Many of the terms used            semiconsolidated shale that crushes to silty clay
in describing the soils or miscellaneous areas are              and silty clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
defined in the “Glossary.”                                      moist.

                                                                          Range in Characteristics
Abor Series
                                                             Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F (60 to
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                   72 degrees F summer temperatures)
Drainage class: Well drained                                 Depth to the Bssky horizon: 10 to 16 inches
Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)                    Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                       Other features: When dry, this soil has 1/4- to 2-inch
Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale                          cracks that extend to a depth of about 20 inches.
Slope range: 2 to 15 percent
                                                             A horizon
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid
                                                                Chroma: 1 to 4 (The 1 chroma is inherent from
   Leptic Udic Haplusterts
                                                                    the parent material.)
                                                                Clay content: 35 to 40 percent
                    Typical Pedon
                                                                Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent
Abor silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area             pebbles
of rangeland, 2,000 feet north and 250 feet west of             Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
the southeast corner of sec. 19, T. 6 S., R. 56 E.              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
A—0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty        Bss horizon
  clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
  moderate fine and medium granular structure;                  Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
  hard, friable, very sticky, very plastic; many very           Chroma: 1 to 4
  fine roots; slightly alkaline; clear smooth                   Texture: Silty clay, silty clay loam, or clay
  boundary.                                                     Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                  25




    Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm                A typical soil description with range in
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                              characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                         in this section.
Bssky horizon
   Hue: 2.5Y, 5Y, 10YR, or 2.5YR                                             Management
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 to 4                                          For management information about this map unit,
   Texture: Silty clay, silty clay loam, clay loam, or   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
      clay
   Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
   Slickensides: Few to common                           251D—Abor-Yawdim silty clay loams,
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm                 4 to 15 percent slopes
   Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                                                 Setting
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
                                                         Landform:
By horizon
                                                         • Abor—Hills
    Hue: 2.5Y, 5Y, 10YR, or 2.5YR
                                                         • Yawdim—Hills
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                         Position on landform:
    Chroma: 1 to 4
                                                         • Abor—Backslopes
    Texture: Silty clay, silty clay loam, or clay
                                                         • Yawdim—Shoulders and summits
    Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
                                                         Slope:
    Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
                                                         • Abor—4 to 15 percent
    Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
                                                         • Yawdim—4 to 15 percent
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                         Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
                                                                             Composition
51C—Abor silty clay loam,                                Major Components
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                 Abor and similar soils: 60 percent
                                                         Yawdim and similar soils: 30 percent
                        Setting                          Minor Components
                                                         Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains
                                                         Marias and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                         Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                         Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                    Composition
                                                                  Major Component Description
Major Components
                                                         Abor
Abor and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                         Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Minor Components                                         Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                Drainage class: Well drained
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                 Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                    residuum
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                         Flooding: None
         Major Component Description
                                                         Available water capacity: Mainly 4.6 inches
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)           Yawdim
Drainage class: Well drained                             Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale         Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
    residuum                                             Drainage class: Well drained
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                       Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Flooding: None                                               residuum
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.9 inches              Native plant cover type: Rangeland
26                                                                                                       Soil Survey




Flooding: None                                             Bknyz—10 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.5 inches                   6/2) clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
                                                              moderate coarse subangular blocky structure;
   A typical soil description with range in                   very hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine pores;
in this section.                                              common very fine and fine nests and seams of
                                                              gypsum crystals; few fine seams of other salts;
                    Management
                                                              few fine masses of lime; violently effervescent;
                                                              moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Bkyz—24 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
                                                              massive; very hard, firm, moderately sticky,
Absher Series                                                 moderately plastic; common very fine and fine
                                                              nests of gypsum crystals; few very fine and fine
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  seams of other salts; few fine masses of lime;
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                       strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Parent material: Alluvium                                  Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F (60 to
Slope range: 0 to 9 percent                                    68 degrees F summer temperatures)
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                      Depth to the Bknyz horizon: 6 to 20 inches
                                                           Other features: In areas that are cultivated, a clay
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Typic                  texture results from mixing the E and Bt horizons.
   Natriboralfs                                            Taxonomic note: Map units 611B and 611D are
                                                               taxadjuncts to the Absher series in order to join
                   Typical Pedon
                                                               soils that have an average soil temperature
Absher clay, in an area of Absher-Gerdrum complex,             greater than 47 degrees F.
0 to 4 percent slopes, in an area of rangeland,
                                                           E horizon
650 feet north and 1,250 feet east of the southwest
                                                              Hue: 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
corner of sec. 25, T. 9 S., R. 59 E.
                                                              Value: 6 or 7 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
E—0 to 1 inch; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy               Chroma: 1 to 3
    loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate thin               Texture: Clay when mixed to 7 inches
    platy structure parting to weak fine granular; soft,      Clay content: 15 to 20 percent
    very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very          Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
    fine and fine roots; common very fine tubular             Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
    pores; slightly alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                           Btn1 horizon
Btn1—1 to 7 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                               Hue: 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
    clay, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium
                                                               Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    columnar structure parting to strong fine and
                                                               Chroma: 1 to 3
    medium subangular blocky; very hard, firm,
                                                               Texture: Silty clay, clay, or clay loam
    moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few fine
                                                               Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
    and many very fine roots; few very fine and fine
                                                               Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
    pores; common faint clay films on faces of peds
                                                                  pebbles
    and in pores; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
                                                               Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
    boundary.
                                                               Sodium adsorption ratio: 18 to 70
Btn2—7 to 10 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay,
                                                               Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
    brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate fine and
    medium subangular blocky structure; very hard,         Btn2 horizon
    very firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;          Hue: 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
    few very fine and fine roots; few very fine pores;         Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    common faint clay films on faces of peds and in            Chroma: 1 to 3
    pores; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline;         Texture: Silty clay, clay, or clay loam
    clear smooth boundary.                                     Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                               27




    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent        Native plant cover type: Rangeland
       pebbles                                        Flooding: None
    Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm          Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
    Sodium adsorption ratio: 18 to 70                 Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
    Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches
Bknyz and Bkyz horizons
                                                      Gerdrum
   Hue: 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
                                                      Surface layer texture: Clay loam
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                      Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                      Drainage class: Well drained
   Texture: Clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay,
                                                      Dominant parent material: Alluvium
      clay, or silty clay loam
                                                      Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Clay content: 27 to 50 percent
                                                      Flooding: None
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                      Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
      pebbles
                                                      Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 4 to 15 percent
                                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
   Electrical conductivity: 16 to 30 mmhos/cm
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 18 to 70
                                                         A typical soil description with range in
   Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
                                                      characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.6
                                                      in this section.
                                                                          Management
168B—Absher-Gerdrum complex,
   0 to 4 percent slopes                                For management information about this map unit,
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                       Setting
Landform:
• Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces            Alona Series
• Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                      Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Position on landform:
                                                      Drainage class: Well drained
• Absher—Microlows
                                                      Permeability: Moderately slow (0.2 to 0.6 inch/hour)
• Gerdrum—Microhighs
                                                      Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope:
                                                      Parent material: Alluvium
• Absher—0 to 4 percent
                                                      Slope range: 2 to 8 percent
• Gerdrum—0 to 4 percent
                                                      Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                   Composition                        Taxonomic Class: Fine-silty, mixed, frigid Aridic
                                                         Ustochrepts
Major Components
Absher and similar soils: 60 percent                                     Typical Pedon
Gerdrum and similar soils: 30 percent
                                                      Alona silt loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
Minor Components                                      rangeland, 800 feet north and 1,000 feet east of the
Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent               southwest corner of sec. 1, T. 8 S., R. 59 E.
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 4 percent: 0 to      A—0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt
    2 percent                                           loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; 1/2- to
Very deep nonsaline soils: 0 to 2 percent               1-inch vesicular crust over moderate fine and
                                                        medium granular structure; slightly hard, friable,
         Major Component Description
                                                        slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine
Absher                                                  roots; common very fine tubular pores; slightly
Surface layer texture: Clay                             effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)            boundary.
Drainage class: Moderately well drained               Bw—3 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silt
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                      loam, dark grayish brown (2.5 4/2) moist;
28                                                                                                   Soil Survey




   moderate medium subangular blocky structure;              Chroma: 2 to 4
   hard, friable, moderately sticky, moderately              Texture: Silt loam or silty clay loam
   plastic; common very fine roots; many very fine           Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
   tubular pores; strongly effervescent; strongly            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.                          Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
Bk—10 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 40
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)            Reaction: pH 9.1 to 9.6
   moist; moderate medium and coarse subangular
                                                         Bkz horizon
   blocky structure; hard, friable, moderately sticky,
                                                            Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; common
                                                            Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   very fine tubular pores; common very fine
                                                            Chroma: 2 to 4
   masses of lime; violently effervescent; strongly
                                                            Texture: Loam, silty clay loam, or silt loam
   alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
Bkz—22 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
                                                            Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                            Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 40
   structure; hard, friable, moderately sticky,
                                                            Reaction: pH 8.5 to 9.6
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few very
   fine pores; few fine nests and seams of salt
   crystals; common fine and medium masses of            20C—Alona silt loam,
   lime; violently effervescent; strongly alkaline.         2 to 8 percent slopes
             Range in Characteristics
                                                                                 Setting
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Depth to the Bk horizon: 6 to 18 inches                  Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Soil phases: Warm                                        Slope: 2 to 8 percent
Taxonomic note: Map unit 621C is a taxadjunct to         Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
    the Alona series in order to join soils that have
                                                                             Composition
    an average soil temperature greater than
    47 degrees F.                                        Major Components
                                                         Alona and similar soils: 85 percent
A horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                     Minor Components
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist                   Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                        Soils that have darker colored surface layers: 0 to
   Clay content: 18 to 27 percent                            4 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm              Very deep nonsaline soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 2 to 10                      Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent             3 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                                  Major Component Description
Bw horizon
                                                         Surface layer texture: Silt loam
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Texture: Silt loam or silty clay loam
                                                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
                                                         Flooding: None
   Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
                                                         Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 40
                                                         Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
                                                         Available water capacity: Mainly 6.2 inches
   Reaction: pH 8.5 to 9.6
Bk horizon                                                  A typical soil description with range in
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                               characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist                  in this section.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                 29




                    Management                             Slope range: 2 to 8 percent
                                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Fine, mixed, frigid Aridic
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              Ustochrepts
                                                                             Typical Pedon
621C—Alona silt loam, warm,
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Alzada clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                           rangeland, 2,200 feet north and 2,500 feet west of the
                                                           southeast corner of sec. 24, T. 9 S., R. 58 E.
                        Setting
                                                           A—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                              sandy clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                              moist; moderate fine and medium subangular
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                              blocky structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly
                    Composition                               sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine roots;
                                                              slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Major Components
                                                           Bw—2 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark
Alona and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                              grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak medium
Minor Components                                              prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and
Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent                   medium subangular blocky; hard, firm, very
Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to              sticky, very plastic; common very fine roots; few
    4 percent                                                 very fine and fine pores; common faint clay films
Very deep, nonsaline soils: 0 to 4 percent                    on faces of peds and in pores; disseminated lime;
Soils that have darker colored surface layers: 0 to           slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual
    3 percent                                                 smooth boundary.
                                                           Bk—10 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay,
         Major Component Description
                                                              dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate
Surface layer texture: Silt loam                              fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  hard, friable, moderately sticky, very plastic;
Drainage class: Well drained                                  common very fine roots; few fine masses of lime;
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            gradual smooth boundary.
Flooding: None                                             2Bkyz—16 to 36 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) silty clay
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                        loam, very dark gray (10YR 3/1) moist; weak
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       medium prismatic structure; hard, firm,
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.2 inches                   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many fine
                                                              and medium nests and seams of gypsum
   A typical soil description with range in                   crystals; few fine seams of other salts; few fine
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           seams of lime; strongly effervescent; neutral;
in this section.                                              gradual wavy boundary.
                                                           2C—36 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1) clay, very dark
                    Management
                                                              gray (10YR 3/1) moist; massive; hard, firm,
                                                              moderately sticky, moderately plastic; neutral.
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.               Range in Characteristics
                                                           Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F
                                                           Depth to the Bk horizon: 8 to 16 inches
Alzada Series                                              Depth to the 2Bkyz horizon: 12 to 22 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               A horizon
Drainage class: Well drained                                  Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)                    Value: 6 or 7 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                   Chroma: 2 or 3
Parent material: Alluvium                                     Texture: Clay loam when mixed to 7 inches
30                                                                                               Soil Survey




     Clay content: 27 to 35 percent                 Minor Components
     Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm       Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
     Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.3                        Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                    Teigen and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Bw horizon
                                                    Very shallow soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                    Soils that have slopes less than 2 percent: 0 to
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                        3 percent
   Chroma: 2 to 4
   Texture: Silty clay loam or clay
                                                              Major Component Description
   Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm         Surface layer texture: Clay loam
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 13                 Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                          Drainage class: Well drained
                                                    Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Bk horizon
                                                    Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                    Flooding: None
    Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                    Available water capacity: Mainly 8.4 inches
    Chroma: 2 to 4
    Texture: Silty clay loam or clay
                                                       A typical soil description with range in
    Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
                                                    characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
                                                    in this section.
    Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 13
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent                       Management
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                      For management information about this map unit,
2Bkyz horizon
                                                    see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
   Chroma: 1 or 2
   Texture: Silty clay loam or clay                 Archin Series
   Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
                                                    Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
                                                    Drainage class: Well drained
   Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
                                                    Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                    Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and
2C horizon                                              sedimentary plains
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                Parent material: Alluvium
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist                  Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
   Chroma: 1 or 2                                   Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Texture: Clay loam, silty clay loam, or clay
   Clay content: 35 to 50 percent                   Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Borollic
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm            Natrargids
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                                        Typical Pedon
                                                    Archin fine sandy loam, in an area of Archin-Absher
92C—Alzada clay loam,                               complex, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
   2 to 8 percent slopes                            rangeland, 1,700 feet south and 650 feet east of the
                                                    northwest corner of sec. 14, T. 3 N., R. 56 E.
                       Setting
                                                    A—0 to 4 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces           loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine granular
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                 structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches            plastic; many very fine roots; many very fine
                                                      pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                    Composition
                                                    E—4 to 7 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3) loam,
Major Components                                      dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak
Alzada and similar soils: 85 percent                  medium subangular blocky structure parting to
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                               31




   weak fine granular; slightly hard, very friable,      Btn horizon
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very fine         Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   roots; few fine and common very fine pores;               Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.                          Chroma: 2 to 4
Btn—7 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)         Texture: Loam or clay loam
   clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;           Clay content: 25 to 34 percent
   moderate medium prismatic structure parting to            Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
   strong medium subangular blocky; hard, very               Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
   firm, very sticky, moderately plastic; common very        Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
   fine and fine roots; many very fine pores; many
                                                         Bky horizon
   faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                            Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Chroma: 1 to 4
Bky—20 to 28 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) loam,
                                                            Texture: Loam or clay loam
   grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate
                                                            Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
   medium and coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                            Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
   slightly hard, firm, slightly sticky, moderately
                                                            Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
   plastic; few very fine roots; common fine nests
                                                            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   and seams of gypsum crystals; many fine and
                                                            Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
   medium masses of lime; strongly alkaline; clear
                                                            Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   smooth boundary.
BC—28 to 34 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)       BC horizon
   loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak          Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   medium and coarse subangular blocky structure;           Chroma: 1 to 4
   hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;        Texture: Loam or clay loam
   strongly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.              Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
C—34 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
   loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;               Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
   massive; hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly        Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   plastic; strongly alkaline.
                                                         C horizon
                                                            Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
             Range in Characteristics
                                                            Chroma: 1 to 4
                                                            Texture: Loam or clay loam
Depth to the Bky horizon: 12 to 30 inches
                                                            Clay content: 20 to 30 percent
Soil phases: Gullied
                                                            Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
Other features: Some pedons have a Bkz horizon.
                                                            Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
Taxonomic note: The Archin soil is a taxadjunct to the
                                                            Reaction: pH greater than 8.4
    series. It classifies as Fine-loamy, mixed Typic
    Natriboralfs. Use and management is similar.
A horizon                                                75A—Archin-Absher complex,
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                        0 to 2 percent slopes
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 to 3                                                              Setting
   Texture: Loam or fine sandy loam
                                                         Landform:
   Clay content: 10 to 25 percent
                                                         • Archin—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
                                                         • Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
E horizon                                                Position on landform:
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                     • Archin—Microhighs
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist               • Absher—Microlows
   Chroma: 1 to 3                                        Slope:
   Texture: Loam or fine sandy loam                      • Archin—0 to 2 percent
   Clay content: 10 to 25 percent                        • Absher—0 to 2 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3                               Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
32                                                                                                      Soil Survey




                    Composition                            Position on landform:
                                                           • Archin—Microhighs
Major Components
                                                           • Absher—Microlows
Archin and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Slope:
Absher and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           • Archin—2 to 8 percent
Minor Components                                           • Absher—2 to 8 percent
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Very deep, nonsaline soils: 0 to 3 percent                                     Composition
Soils that have darker colored surface layers: 0 to
    2 percent                                              Major Components
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                    Archin and similar soils: 50 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 2 percent: 0 to           Absher and similar soils: 35 percent
    2 percent
                                                           Minor Components
         Major Component Description                       Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Archin
                                                           Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
                                                           Very deep, nonsaline soils: 0 to 2 percent
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               2 percent
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                               2 percent
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                                    Major Component Description
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches
                                                           Archin
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Absher
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Surface layer texture: Clay loam
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Flooding: None
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Flooding: None
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.3 inches
                                                           Absher
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay loam
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Drainage class: Moderately well drained
in this section.
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                    Management                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
  For management information about this map unit,          Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches
75C—Archin-Absher complex,                                    A typical soil description with range in
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
                        Setting
                                                                               Management
Landform:
• Archin—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                   For management information about this map unit,
• Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                 see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    33




175A—Archin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes                    Parchin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Very deep, nonsaline soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent
                        Setting
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                    1 percent
Slope: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
                    Composition
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Major Components                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Archin and similar soils: 85 percent                       Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Minor Components
                                                           Flooding: None
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
Soils that have slopes more than 2 percent: 0 to
    3 percent
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Very deep, nonsaline soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Soils that have darker colored surface layers: 0 to
                                                           in this section.
    2 percent
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent                                            Management
         Major Component Description
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Surface layer texture: Loam                                see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         275D—Archin, gullied-Delpoint complex,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            4 to 15 percent slopes
Flooding: None
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                                                   Setting
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
                                                           Landform:
   A typical soil description with range in                • Archin—Sedimentary plains
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        • Delpoint—Hills
in this section.                                           Position on landform:
                                                           • Archin—Footslopes and toeslopes
                    Management
                                                           • Delpoint—Shoulders and summits
                                                           Slope:
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           • Archin—4 to 8 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           • Delpoint—4 to 15 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
175C—Archin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes                                        Composition
                                                           Major Components
                        Setting
                                                           Archin and similar soils: 45 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                Delpoint and similar soils: 40 percent
Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                           Minor Components
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Very deep nonsaline soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
Archin and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                               2 percent
Minor Components                                           Soils that have slopes less than 4 percent: 0 to
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                       2 percent
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Very deep, silt loam soils: 0 to 2 percent
34                                                                                                      Soil Survey




         Major Component Description                       Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
Archin
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                              Major Component Description
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Archin
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Flooding: None
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 8.2 inches
Delpoint
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Ynot
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None
                                                           Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 7.7 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.
                                                           in this section.
                    Management
                                                                               Management
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


375C—Archin-Ynot complex,                                  Arsite Series
   2 to 8 percent slopes
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                        Setting
                                                           Permeability: Very slow (less than 0.06 inch/hour)
Landform:                                                  Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
• Archin—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                 Parent material: Alluvium or semiconsolidated shale
• Ynot—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                   Slope range: 0 to 25 percent
Slope:                                                     Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Archin—2 to 8 percent
• Ynot—2 to 8 percent                                      Taxonomic Class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, nonacid,
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                    frigid, shallow Aridic Ustorthents
                    Composition                                               Typical Pedon
Major Components                                           Arsite clay, 0 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
Archin and similar soils: 45 percent                       rangeland, 2,100 feet south and 550 feet east of the
Ynot and similar soils: 40 percent                         northwest corner of sec. 9, T. 2 S., R. 58 E.
Minor Components                                           A—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                     sandy clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    moist; strong fine subangular blocky structure
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                      with 1/2-inch thick vesicular crust on surface;
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                     35




   slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly   79C—Arsite clay, 0 to 8 percent slopes
   plastic; common very fine and fine roots; neutral;
   clear wavy boundary.
                                                                                    Setting
Cyz1—2 to 6 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; strong        Landform: Sedimentary plains
   coarse prismatic structure; hard, firm, moderately       Slope: 0 to 8 percent
   sticky, moderately plastic; common very fine and         Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   fine roots; common fine masses and seams of
   gypsum crystals; few very fine seams of other                                Composition
   salts; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Cyz2—6 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)         Major Components
   clay, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;          Arsite and similar soils: 85 percent
   massive; slightly hard, firm, moderately sticky,
                                                            Minor Components
   moderately plastic; common very fine and fine
                                                            Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   roots; 30 percent soft shale fragments; common
                                                            Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   medium masses of gypsum crystals; few fine and
                                                            Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   medium masses and seams of other salts; few
                                                            Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   thin horizontal iron stains and few small masses
   of sulfur; moderately acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                                     Major Component Description
Cr—12 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
   semiconsolidated shale that crushes to clay, very
                                                            Surface layer texture: Clay
   dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist.
                                                            Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
             Range in Characteristics                       Drainage class: Well drained
                                                            Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F
                                                                residuum
Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches
                                                            Native plant cover type: Rangeland
A horizon                                                   Flooding: None
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                        Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist                          Available water capacity: Mainly 1.0 inches
   Chroma: 2 or 3
   Texture: Clay when mixed to 7 inches                        A typical soil description with range in
   Clay content: 15 to 30 percent                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm                in this section.
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
                                                                                Management
Cyz1 horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                          For management information about this map unit,
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist                          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Chroma: 2 or 3
   Texture: Clay or silty clay
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent                           179E—Arsite-Rock outcrop complex,
   Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm                   8 to 25 percent slopes
   Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.3
Cyz2 horizon
                                                                                    Setting
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist                      Landform:
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                           • Arsite—Hills
   Texture: Silty clay or clay                              • Rock outcrop—Hills
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent                           Position on landform:
   Content of rock fragments: 30 to 50 percent soft         • Arsite—Backslopes and footslopes
      shale fragments                                       • Rock outcrop—Summits
   Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm                Slope: 8 to 25 percent
   Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.8                                  Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
36                                                                                                     Soil Survey




                    Composition                               fine granular structure; loose, friable, nonsticky,
                                                              nonplastic; few fine and medium and many very
Major Components
                                                              fine roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Arsite and similar soils: 45 percent
                                                           Bt1—3 to 16 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/3) sandy
Rock outcrop: 40 percent
                                                              clay loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist;
Minor Components                                              moderate medium prismatic structure parting to
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                     moderate medium subangular blocky; hard,
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                     friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 5 percent                     fine roots; common distinct clay films on faces of
                                                              peds and in pores; neutral; clear smooth
         Major Component Description
                                                              boundary.
Arsite                                                     Bt2—16 to 23 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR
Surface layer texture: Clay                                   6/4) sandy clay loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                        moist; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
Drainage class: Well drained                                  moderate medium subangular blocky; hard,
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            very fine, fine, and medium roots; many distinct
Flooding: None                                                clay films on faces of peds and in pores; slightly
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                        alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.0 inches                Btk—23 to 32 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy
                                                              loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium
Rock outcrop                                                  subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, friable,
Definition: Consolidated shale                                nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine roots; few very
                                                              fine and fine pores; few faint clay films on faces of
   A typical soil description with range in                   ped and in pores; few fine seams of lime; slightly
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual smooth
in this section.                                              boundary.
                                                           Bk—32 to 42 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sandy
                    Management
                                                              loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak
                                                              medium subangular blocky structure; slightly
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              hard, friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              roots; common fine masses of lime; strongly
                                                              effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
Assinniboine Series                                           boundary.
                                                           BC—42 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  sandy loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
Drainage class: Well drained                                  massive; loose, friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)               slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, sedimentary
    plains, and hills                                                   Range in Characteristics
Parent material: Alluvium
Slope range: 0 to 15 percent                               Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                      Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
                                                           Depth to the Btk horizon: 10 to 25 inches
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Aridic                  Other features: In areas that are cultivated, a sandy
   Argiborolls                                                 clay loam texture results from mixing the A and
                                                               Bt horizons. Some pedons have a thin strata of
                   Typical Pedon
                                                               loamy sand, loamy fine sand, or sand at depths
Assinniboine sandy clay loam, 2 to 8 percent                   below 40 inches.
slopes, in an area of rangeland, 2,050 feet south and
                                                           A horizon
2,130 feet west of the northeast corner of sec. 21,
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
T. 2 N., R. 57 E.
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
A—0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/3) fine                Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy clay loam
  sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak                   when mixed to 7 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                 37




    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent                   Major Component Description
      pebbles
                                                        Surface layer texture: Sandy clay loam
    Clay content: 5 to 25 percent
                                                        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
    Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
                                                        Drainage class: Well drained
Bt horizons                                             Dominant parent material: Alluvium
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                   Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist             Flooding: None
    Chroma: 2 to 4                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 8.6 inches
    Texture: Sandy clay loam or fine sandy loam
    Clay content: 18 to 30 percent                         A typical soil description with range in
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
       pebbles                                          in this section.
    Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                                            Management
Btk and Bk horizons
    Hue: 2.5Y or 10YR                                     For management information about this map unit,
    Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
    Chroma: 2 to 4
    Texture: Sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
      clay loam                                         74C—Assinniboine sandy clay loam,
    Clay content: 10 to 27 percent                         2 to 8 percent slopes
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
      pebbles
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent                               Setting
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                        Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
BC horizon                                              Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   Hue: 2.5Y or 10YR                                    Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                                            Composition
   Chroma: 2 to 4
   Texture: Stratifications of fine sandy loam, sandy   Major Components
     loam, loamy fine sand, and fine sand               Assinniboine and similar soils: 85 percent
   Clay content: 10 to 27 percent
                                                        Minor Components
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                        Archin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
     pebbles
                                                        Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                        Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                        Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
74A—Assinniboine sandy clay loam,                                Major Component Description
   0 to 2 percent slopes
                                                        Surface layer texture: Sandy clay loam
                                                        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                       Setting
                                                        Drainage class: Well drained
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces             Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Slope: 0 to 2 percent                                   Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches              Flooding: None
                                                        Available water capacity: Mainly 8.6 inches
                   Composition
Major Components                                           A typical soil description with range in
Assinniboine and similar soils: 85 percent              characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                        in this section.
Minor Components
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                                    Management
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                 For management information about this map unit,
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent              see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
38                                                                                                      Soil Survey




174C—Assinniboine-Ynot complex,                            13F—Badland
   2 to 8 percent slopes
                                                                                  Setting
                        Setting
                                                           Landform: Hills
Landform:                                                  Slope: 8 to 70 percent
• Assinniboine—Alluvial fans and stream terraces           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Ynot—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                                              Composition
Slope:
• Assinniboine—2 to 8 percent                              Major Components
• Ynot—2 to 8 percent                                      Badland: 85 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Minor Components
                    Composition                            Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Assinniboine and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 2 percent
Ynot and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 2 percent
Minor Components                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to           Definition: Badlands are barren or nearly barren of
     4 percent                                                 vegetation and have numerous deeply
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to                entrenched, intermittent drainageways. They
     2 percent                                                 were formed by active geologic erosion of soft,
Areas of blowouts: 0 to 1 percent                              multicolored sedimentary beds that are mainly
                                                               sandstone, siltstone, and shale.
         Major Component Description
                                                           Surface layer texture: Unweathered bedrock
Assinniboine                                               Flooding: None
Surface layer texture: Sandy clay loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Bascovy Series
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Flooding: None
                                                           Permeability: Very slow (less than 0.06 inch/hour)
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.6 inches
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                           Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Ynot
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 21 percent
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
                                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                              Leptic Udic Haplusterts
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                                                Typical Pedon
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.7 inches
                                                           Bascovy clay, in an area of Neldore-Bascovy clays,
                                                           4 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of rangeland,
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           1,500 feet north and 800 feet west of the southeast
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           corner of sec. 22, T. 3 S., R. 58 E.
in this section.
                                                           A—0 to 3 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay, dark
                    Management
                                                             grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak medium
  For management information about this map unit,            subangular blocky structure parting to moderate
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.     fine granular; slightly hard, friable, moderately
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                     39




   sticky, moderately plastic; few fine and many very          Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm
   fine roots; few very fine pores; neutral; clear             Reaction: pH 6.1 to 8.4
   smooth boundary.
                                                           Bssy horizon
Bss—3 to 12 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay,
                                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium
                                                              Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   prismatic structure parting to moderate medium
                                                              Chroma: 1 to 3
   and coarse subangular blocky; hard, firm, very
                                                              Texture: Clay or silty clay
   sticky, very plastic; few fine and many very fine
                                                              Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
   roots; common very fine pores; common distinct
                                                              Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
   slickensides; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm
Bssy—12 to 19 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay,
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.1 to 8.4
   brown (10YR 5/3) moist; weak medium and
   coarse subangular blocky structure; very hard,          BC and C horizons
   firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very fine roots;      Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   common very fine pores; common distinct                    Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   slickensides; many very fine and fine masses and           Chroma: 1 or 2
   seams of gypsum crystals; disseminated lime;               Texture: Clay or silty clay
   slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear            Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
   smooth boundary.                                           Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
BC—19 to 26 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay,            Reaction: pH 5.1 to 8.4
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; massive;
   hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;
   few very fine roots; slightly alkaline; gradual         90C—Bascovy clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes
   smooth boundary.
C—26 to 34 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay,                                  Setting
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; massive;
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains
   hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;
                                                           Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Cr—34 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
   semiconsolidated shale that crushes to clay, dark                           Composition
   grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist.
                                                           Major Components
            Range in Characteristics                       Bascovy and similar soils: 85 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                       Minor Components
Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches                   Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soil phases: Warm                                          Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Taxonomic note: Map units 623D, 633D, and 635C             Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
    are taxadjuncts to the Bascovy series in order to      Soils with silt loam surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
    join soils that have an average soil temperature       Soils with calcareous surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
    greater than 47 degrees F.
                                                                    Major Component Description
A horizon
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   Chroma: 1 to 3
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
                                                               residuum
   Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                           Flooding: None
Bss horizon                                                Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                  Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 to 3                                             A typical soil description with range in
   Texture: Clay or silty clay                             characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent                          in this section.
40                                                                                                      Soil Survey




                    Management                             Slope:
                                                           • Bascovy—2 to 8 percent
  For management information about this map unit,          • Ethridge—2 to 8 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                               Composition
90D—Bascovy clay,                                          Major Components
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                  Bascovy and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Ethridge and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           Minor Components
                        Setting
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Landform: Hills                                            Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Slope: 8 to 15 percent                                     Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Abor and similar soils: 0 to 1 percent
                    Composition
                                                                    Major Component Description
Major Components
Bascovy and similar soils: 85 percent                      Bascovy
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
Minor Components
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                               residuum
Soils with silt loam surface layers: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Soils with calcareous surface layers: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           Flooding: None
         Major Component Description                       Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches
Surface layer texture: Clay
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Ethridge
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
    residuum
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Flooding: None
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.
                                                           in this section.
                    Management
                                                                               Management
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


490C—Bascovy-Ethridge complex,                             590C—Bascovy-Marvan complex,
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                      2 to 8 percent slopes

                        Setting                                                    Setting
Landform:                                                  Landform:
• Bascovy—Sedimentary plains                               • Bascovy—Sedimentary plains
• Ethridge—Stream terraces                                 • Marvan—Sedimentary plains
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                     41




Slope:                                                                         Composition
• Bascovy—2 to 8 percent
                                                           Major Components
• Marvan—2 to 8 percent
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 85 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Minor Components
                    Composition
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Major Components                                           Soils with calcareous surface layers: 0 to 4 percent
Bascovy and similar soils: 50 percent                      Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Marvan and similar soils: 35 percent                       Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Soils with silty clay loam surfaces: 0 to 1 percent
Minor Components
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                           Major Component Description
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Abor and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
         Major Component Description                       Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                               residuum
Bascovy
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Clay
                                                           Flooding: None
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
    residuum
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Flooding: None
                                                           in this section.
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches                                    Management

Marvan                                                       For management information about this map unit,
Surface layer texture: Silty clay                          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         633D—Bascovy-Neldore clays, warm,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            6 to 21 percent slopes
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches                                        Setting
                                                           Landform:
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           • Bascovy—Sedimentary plains and hills
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           • Neldore—Sedimentary plains and hills
in this section.
                                                           Position on landform:
                    Management                             • Bascovy—Backslopes and shoulders
                                                           • Neldore—Shoulders and summits
  For management information about this map unit,          Slope:
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   • Bascovy—6 to 21 percent
                                                           • Neldore—6 to 21 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
623D—Bascovy clay, warm,                                                       Composition
   0 to 9 percent slopes
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 50 percent
                        Setting                            Neldore and similar soils: 35 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                     Minor Components
Slope: 0 to 9 percent                                      Abor and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
42                                                                                                        Soil Survey




Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     thick platy structure parting to moderate fine
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                       subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable, slightly
                                                              sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine and fine
         Major Component Description
                                                              roots; few very fine and fine pores; slightly acid;
Bascovy                                                       clear smooth boundary.
Surface layer texture: Clay                                Bt1—7 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium and
Drainage class: Well drained                                  coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, friable,
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale              slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine
    residuum                                                  and fine roots; common very fine tubular pores;
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            common faint clay films on faces of peds and in
Flooding: None                                                pores; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    Bt2—15 to 30 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches                   brown (10YR 4/3) moist; strong fine and medium
                                                              subangular blocky structure; very hard, firm,
Neldore                                                       moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few fine
Surface layer texture: Clay                                   and common very fine roots; common very fine
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                        and fine tubular pores; common faint clay films on
Drainage class: Well drained                                  faces of peds and in pores; neutral; gradual wavy
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale              boundary.
    residuum                                               BC—30 to 34 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            clay loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate
Flooding: None                                                medium subangular blocky structure parting to
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches                   moderate fine subangular blocky; very hard,
                                                              friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few very fine
   A typical soil description with range in                   roots; few very fine pores; neutral; abrupt wavy
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           boundary.
in this section.                                           2C—34 to 60 inches; variegated colored sand; single
                                                              grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; 10 percent
                    Management
                                                              pebbles; neutral.
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.                Range in Characteristics
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Beaverflat Series                                          Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 10 to 16 inches
                                                           Depth to the 2C horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Ap horizon
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour) over
                                                              Value: 4 or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
    rapid (6.0 to 20.0 inches/hour)
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
Landform: Relict stream terraces
                                                              Texture: Loam or sandy loam
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                              Clay content: 10 to 27 percent
Slope range: 0 to 4 percent
                                                              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                 pebbles
                                                              Reaction: pH 5.6 to 6.5
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy over sandy or sandy-
   skeletal mixed Aridic Argiborolls                       Bt horizons
                                                               Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                   Typical Pedon
                                                               Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
Beaverflat loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes, in an area of          Chroma: 2 to 4
cropland, 1,300 feet south and 50 feet west of the             Texture: Loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam
northeast corner of sec. 27, T. 2 N., R. 56 E.                 Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
                                                               Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
Ap—0 to 7 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,                  pebbles
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak              Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                43




BC horizon                                                                Management
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                        For management information about this map unit,
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Chroma: 3 or 4
   Texture: Loam or sandy clay loam
   Clay content: 15 to 27 percent                     130A—Beaverflat sandy loam,
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent            0 to 4 percent slopes
     pebbles
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.3
                                                                              Setting
2C horizon
                                                      Landform: Relict stream terraces
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                      Slope: 0 to 4 percent
   Value: 6 or 7 dry; 5 or 6 moist
                                                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Chroma: 3 or 4
   Texture: Sand or loamy sand                                            Composition
   Clay content: 0 to 5 percent
                                                      Major Components
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent
                                                      Beaverflat and similar soils: 85 percent
      pebbles
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.3                            Minor Components
                                                      Varney and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                      Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
30A—Beaverflat loam,                                  Soils with calcareous surface layers: 0 to 4 percent
   0 to 4 percent slopes                              Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
                                                          2 percent
                                                      Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
                        Setting
                                                          1 percent
Landform: Relict stream terraces
                                                               Major Component Description
Slope: 0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches            Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
                                                      Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                    Composition
                                                      Drainage class: Well drained
Major Components                                      Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Beaverflat and similar soils: 85 percent              Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                      Flooding: None
Minor Components
                                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches
Varney and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                         A typical soil description with range in
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
                                                      characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    4 percent
                                                      in this section.
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
    3 percent                                                             Management
         Major Component Description                    For management information about this map unit,
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Surface layer texture: Loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                          Beenom Series
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                    Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Flooding: None                                        Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches           Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
                                                      Landform: Bedrock-floored plains
   A typical soil description with range in           Parent material: Sandstone and quartzite residuum
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,   Slope range: 1 to 8 percent
in this section.                                      Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
44                                                                                                    Soil Survey




Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed Lithic Argiborolls                Texture: Clay loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
                                                                  clay loam
                    Typical Pedon
                                                                Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
Beenom loam, in an area of Beenom-Parchin                       Content of rock fragments: 0 to 30 percent
complex, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of                     pebbles
rangeland, 1,200 feet north and 500 feet west of                Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
the southeast corner of sec. 10, T. 1 S., R. 61 E.
                                                            Bt2 horizon
A—0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,                 Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak               Value: 4 to 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
   fine granular structure; soft, very friable, slightly        Chroma: 2 or 3
   sticky, nonplastic; many very fine roots; neutral;           Texture: Clay loam, fine sandy loam, or sandy
   clear smooth boundary.                                         clay loam
Bt1—4 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,                 Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
   dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium                 Content of rock fragments: 0 to 30 percent
   and coarse prismatic structure parting to                      pebbles
   moderate fine and medium subangular blocky;                  Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   slightly hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately
   plastic; common very fine and fine roots; many
   faint clay films on faces of peds, continuous            49A—Beenom-Reeder loams,
   distinct clay films in pores; slightly alkaline; clear      1 to 4 percent slopes
   smooth boundary.
Bt2—10 to 16 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly                               Setting
   sandy clay loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist;
                                                            Landform:
   weak medium subangular blocky structure; soft,
   friable, slightly sticky, plastic; common very fine
                                                            • Beenom—Bedrock-floored plains
   and fine roots; few very fine pores; many faint
                                                            • Reeder—Sedimentary plains
                                                            Slope:
   clay films on faces of peds and sandstone
   fragments, many distinct clay films in pores; 30
                                                            • Beenom—1 to 4 percent
   percent sandstone fragments; slightly alkaline;
                                                            • Reeder—1 to 4 percent
                                                            Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   abrupt smooth boundary.
R—16 to 60 inches; hard platy sandstone.                                       Composition
             Range in Characteristics                       Major Components
                                                            Beenom and similar soils: 60 percent
Soil temperature: 41 to 47 degrees F
                                                            Reeder and similar soils: 25 percent
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 8 to 13 inches
Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches                           Minor Components
Other features: Some pedons have a Btk horizon.             Very deep loamy soils: 0 to 5 percent
Taxonomic note: Map unit 49A is a taxadjunct to the         Soils with slopes more than 4 percent: 0 to 5 percent
    Beenom series because of fragmental material to         Deep soils over hard sandstone: 0 to 5 percent
    30 inches.
                                                                     Major Component Description
A horizon
                                                            Beenom
   Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
                                                            Surface layer texture: Loam
   Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
                                                            Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
   Clay content: 10 to 27 percent
                                                            Dominant parent material: Quartzite residuum
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                            Native plant cover type: Rangeland
       pebbles
                                                            Flooding: None
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                            Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
Bt1 horizon
    Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y                               Reeder
    Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2, 3, or 4 moist                 Surface layer texture: Loam
    Chroma: 2 or 3                                          Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    45




Drainage class: Well drained                               Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy              sedimentary beds
    sedimentary beds                                       Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Flooding: None
Flooding: None                                             Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.2 inches                Available water capacity: Mainly 4.0 inches

   A typical soil description with range in                   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                           in this section.
                    Management                                                 Management
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


116C—Beenom-Parchin complex,                               Belltower Series
   2 to 8 percent slopes
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                        Setting
                                                           Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
Landform:                                                  Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
• Beenom—Bedrock-floored plains                            Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
• Parchin—Sedimentary plains                                   sedimentary beds
Slope:                                                     Slope range: 4 to 60 percent
• Beenom—2 to 8 percent                                    Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
• Parchin—2 to 8 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                 Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Mollic
                                                              Eutroboralfs
                    Composition
                                                                              Typical Pedon
Major Components
Beenom and similar soils: 50 percent                       Belltower loam, in an area of Belltower-Dast complex,
Parchin and similar soils: 35 percent                      35 to 60 percent slopes, in an area of forestland,
                                                           1,300 feet north and 2,600 feet east of the southwest
Minor Components
                                                           corner of sec. 24, T. 1 N., R. 57 E.
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 4 percent
Very shallow soils: 0 to 4 percent                         Oi—2 inches to 0; partially decomposed forest litter.
Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent                A—0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Very deep sandy loam soils: 0 to 2 percent                    loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 2/2) moist;
Soils with flaggy sandy loam surfaces: 0 to 2 percent         weak fine subangular blocky structure parting to
                                                              weak fine granular; soft, very friable, nonsticky,
         Major Component Description
                                                              nonplastic; common medium and coarse and
Beenom                                                        many very fine and fine roots; common fine and
Surface layer texture: Loam                                   many very fine tubular pores; slightly acid; clear
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                        smooth boundary.
Drainage class: Well drained                               E—8 to 17 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) fine
Dominant parent material: Sandstone residuum                  sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Flooding: None                                                soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.6 inches                   very fine, fine, medium, and coarse roots; many
                                                              very fine and fine tubular pores; 5 percent soft
Parchin                                                       channers; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Bt—17 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                sandy clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
Drainage class: Well drained                                  moderate medium prismatic structure parting to
46                                                                                                Soil Survey




   strong medium subangular blocky; very hard,              Content of rock fragments: 10 to 60 percent—0 to
   firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few           5 percent hard flagstones; 0 to 5 percent hard
   fine and medium and common very fine roots;                channers; 10 to 50 percent soft flagstones and
   common fine and many very fine tubular pores;              channers
   20 percent soft channers; common faint clay films        Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
   on faces of peds, common distinct clay films in
                                                        Bk horizon
   pores; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
                                                            Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y
Bk—32 to 36 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) loam, light
                                                            Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry
   brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) moist; moderate
                                                            Chroma: 2 to 4
   medium prismatic structure; soft, very friable,
                                                            Texture: Loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, or
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few very fine
                                                              fine sandy loam
   and fine roots; many very fine tubular pores;
                                                            Clay content: 15 to 30 percent
   50 percent soft channers and flagstones; few
                                                            Content of rock fragments: 20 to 80 percent—0 to
   fine and medium masses and seams of lime;
                                                              5 percent hard flagstones; 0 to 5 percent hard
   strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
                                                              channers; 20 to 70 percent soft flagstones and
   gradual wavy boundary.
                                                              channers
Cr—36 to 60 inches; light gray (5Y 7/2)
                                                            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   semiconsolidated loamy sedimentary beds that
                                                            Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   crush to a loam, olive gray (5Y 5/2) moist.
            Range in Characteristics
                                                        144D—Belltower-Reeder-Vebar complex,
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                       4 to 15 percent slopes
Depth to the Bt horizon: 10 to 18 inches
Depth to the Bk horizon: 19 to 35 inches
                                                                               Setting
Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
                                                        Landform:
A horizon
                                                        • Belltower—Sedimentary plains and hills
   Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
                                                        • Reeder—Sedimentary plains and hills
   Chroma: 1 or 2
                                                        • Vebar—Sedimentary plains and hills
   Clay content: 12 to 20 percent
                                                        Slope:
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 30 percent—0 to
                                                        • Belltower—4 to 15 percent
       5 percent hard flagstones; 0 to 5 percent hard
                                                        • Reeder—4 to 15 percent
       channers; 0 to 20 percent soft flagstones and
                                                        • Vebar—4 to 15 percent
       channers
                                                        Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
                                                                           Composition
E horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                    Major Components
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                      Belltower and similar soils: 30 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                       Reeder and similar soils: 30 percent
   Texture: Loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam        Vebar and similar soils: 25 percent
   Clay content: 12 to 18 percent
                                                        Minor Components
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 30 percent—0 to
                                                        Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
       5 percent hard flagstones; 0 to 5 percent hard
                                                        Shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
       channers; 0 to 20 percent soft flagstones and
                                                        Very deep sandy soils: 0 to 3 percent
       channers
                                                        Soils with flaggy and channery surfaces: 0 to
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
                                                            2 percent
Bt horizon                                              Soils with flagstones: 0 to 2 percent
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                 Major Component Description
    Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    Chroma: 2 to 4                                      Belltower
    Texture: Loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam        Surface layer texture: Loam
    Clay content: 20 to 35 percent                      Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    47




Drainage class: Well drained                                                   Composition
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Major Components
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Belltower and similar soils: 30 percent
Native plant cover type: Forestland
                                                           Dast and similar soils: 30 percent
Flooding: None
                                                           Reeder and similar soils: 25 percent
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
                                                           Minor Components
Reeder                                                     Shallow sandy soils: 0 to 4 percent
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 4 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                               Very deep sandy soils: 0 to 3 percent
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                                    Major Component Description
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Forestland                        Belltower
Flooding: None                                             Surface layer texture: Loam
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.2 inches                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Vebar                                                      Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                         sedimentary beds
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Native plant cover type: Forestland
Drainage class: Well drained                               Flooding: None
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Forestland                        Dast
Flooding: None                                             Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.4 inches                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   A typical soil description with range in                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            sedimentary beds
in this section.                                           Native plant cover type: Forestland
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Reeder
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
144E—Belltower-Dast-Reeder complex,                        Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
   15 to 35 percent slopes                                     sedimentary beds
                                                           Native plant cover type: Forestland
                        Setting                            Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.2 inches
Landform:
• Belltower—Hills
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
• Dast—Hills
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
• Reeder—Hills
                                                           in this section.
Slope:
• Belltower—15 to 35 percent                                                   Management
• Dast—15 to 35 percent
• Reeder—15 to 35 percent                                    For management information about this map unit,
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                 see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
48                                                                                                    Soil Survey




144F—Belltower-Dast complex,                               Bickerdyke Series
   35 to 60 percent slopes
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                        Setting
                                                           Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
Landform:                                                  Landform: Sedimentary plains
• Belltower—Hills                                          Parent material: Alluvium
• Dast—Hills                                               Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
Slope:                                                     Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Belltower—35 to 60 percent
• Dast—35 to 60 percent                                    Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Sodic
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                    Haplusterts
                                                                              Typical Pedon
                    Composition
                                                           Bickerdyke clay, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an area of
Major Components                                           rangeland, 2,200 feet north and 1,800 feet west of the
Belltower and similar soils: 45 percent                    southeast corner of sec. 27, T. 5 S., R. 61 E.
Dast and similar soils: 40 percent
                                                           E—0 to 1 inch; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) clay,
Minor Components                                              grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; massive crust;
Shallow sandy soils: 0 to 4 percent                           hard, friable, very sticky, very plastic; many very
Shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent                           fine roots; many very fine pores; moderately
Soils that have slopes less than 35 percent: 0 to             alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
    4 percent                                              Bss—1 to 8 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay,
Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent                   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; moderate
                                                              medium subangular blocky structure; very hard,
         Major Component Description                          very firm, very sticky, very plastic; many very fine
                                                              roots; few fine and many very fine pores; few faint
Belltower                                                     slickensides; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
Surface layer texture: Loam                                   boundary.
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Bssy—8 to 14 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Drainage class: Well drained                                  clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy             medium subangular blocky structure; very hard,
    sedimentary beds                                          very firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very fine
Native plant cover type: Forestland                           roots; common very fine pores; common
Flooding: None                                                intersecting slickensides; common fine nests and
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches                   seams of gypsum crystals; moderately alkaline;
                                                              clear smooth boundary.
Dast                                                       Bssyz—14 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                             6/2) clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Drainage class: Well drained                                  very hard, very firm, very sticky, very plastic; few
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy             very fine roots; common very fine pores; common
    sedimentary beds                                          intersecting slickensides; common fine nests and
Native plant cover type: Forestland                           seams of gypsum crystals; few fine seams and
Flooding: None                                                nests of other salts; strongly alkaline; gradual
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches                   smooth boundary.
                                                           Byz—22 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay,
   A typical soil description with range in                   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; moderate
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           medium subangular blocky structure; very hard,
in this section.                                              very firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very fine
                                                              roots; common very fine pores; common fine
                    Management
                                                              nests and seams of gypsum crystals; few fine
  For management information about this map unit,             seams and nests of other salts; moderately
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      alkaline.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    49




             Range in Characteristics                      87A—Bickerdyke clay,
                                                              0 to 2 percent slopes
Soil temperature: 43 to 47 degrees F
Depth to the Bssy horizon: 6 to 15 inches
                                                                                   Setting
Other features: This soil has 1/2- to 1-inch cracks that
    extend to 20 inches or more and have few to            Landform: Sedimentary plains
    many slickensides. The 1 chromas are                   Slope: 0 to 2 percent
    lithochromic.                                          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
E horizon                                                                      Composition
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                           Major Components
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                           Bickerdyke and similar soils: 85 percent
   Chroma: 1 or 2
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent                          Minor Components
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm                Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                                 Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Bss horizon
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                           Soils with silty clay loam surfaces: 0 to 2 percent
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 or 2                                                   Major Component Description
   Texture: Clay or silty clay
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Bssy horizon                                               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                       Flooding: None
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                     Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Chroma: 1 or 2                                          Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Texture: Clay or silty clay                             Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm                   A typical soil description with range in
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 10 to 15                       characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Gypsum content: 5 to 15 percent                         in this section.
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
                                                                               Management
Bssyz horizon
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 or 2
   Texture: Clay or silty clay                             87C—Bickerdyke clay,
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent                             2 to 8 percent slopes
   Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 15 to 30
                                                                                   Setting
   Gypsum content: 5 to 15 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0                                 Landform: Sedimentary plains
                                                           Slope: 2 to 8 percent
Byz horizon
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                                         Composition
   Chroma: 1 or 2
                                                           Major Components
   Texture: Clay or silty clay
                                                           Bickerdyke and similar soils: 85 percent
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm               Minor Components
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 15 to 30                       Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.4                                 Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
50                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    fine subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable,
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                     nonsticky, nonplastic; many very fine and fine
Soils with silty clay loam surfaces: 0 to 2 percent           roots; few very fine pores; few fine masses of
                                                              lime; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
         Major Component Description
                                                              gradual smooth boundary.
Surface layer texture: Clay                                Cr—16 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  semiconsolidated sandy sedimentary beds that
Drainage class: Well drained                                  crush to loamy sand, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            moist.
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                                       Range in Characteristics
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches
                                                           A horizon
                                                              Hue: 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
in this section.
                                                              Clay content: 5 to 15 percent
                    Management                                Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
  For management information about this map unit,          Bk horizon
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.       Hue: 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
                                                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 to 6 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 to 4
Blacksheep Series                                              Texture: Very fine sandy loam, fine sandy loam,
                                                                 sandy loam, or loamy fine sand
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                               Clay content: 5 to 15 percent
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
                                                               Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4
    hour)
Landform: Hills and sedimentary plains
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy                   55D—Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy
    sedimentary beds                                          loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes
Slope range: 4 to 50 percent
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                                  Setting
Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed (calcareous), frigid,        Landform:
   shallow Aridic Ustorthents                              • Blacksheep—Hills
                                                           • Twilight—Hills
                   Typical Pedon
                                                           Position on landform:
Blacksheep fine sandy loam, in an area of                  • Blacksheep—Shoulders and summits
Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy loams, 8 to 15              • Twilight—Backslopes and footslopes
percent slopes, in an area of rangeland, 2,100 feet        Slope:
south and 1,800 feet west of the northeast corner of       • Blacksheep—8 to 15 percent
sec. 33, T. 6 S., R. 55 E.                                 • Twilight—8 to 15 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
A—0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy
   loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak                             Composition
   fine subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable,
                                                           Major Components
   nonsticky, nonplastic; many very fine and fine
                                                           Blacksheep and similar soils: 45 percent
   roots; few very fine and fine pores; slightly
                                                           Twilight and similar soils: 45 percent
   effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear wavy
   boundary.                                               Minor Components
Bk—4 to 16 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) sandy      Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
   loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak         Busby and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    51




Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 2 percent                                       Composition
Shallow silt loam soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Major Components
Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
                                                           Blacksheep and similar soils: 50 percent
    1 percent
                                                           Twilight and similar soils: 40 percent
Areas of blowouts: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           Minor Components
         Major Component Description
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Blacksheep                                                 Shallow silt loam soils: 0 to 2 percent
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                     Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                               Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 1 percent
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          Soils that have slopes less than 15 percent: 0 to
    sedimentary beds                                           1 percent
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                                    Major Component Description
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.3 inches                Blacksheep
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Twilight                                                   Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Drainage class: Well drained
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
Drainage class: Well drained                                   sedimentary beds
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    sedimentary beds                                       Flooding: None
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Available water capacity: Mainly 2.3 inches
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches                Twilight
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   A typical soil description with range in                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Drainage class: Well drained
in this section.                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                               sedimentary beds
                    Management
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
55E—Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy                         in this section.
   loams, 15 to 45 percent slopes
                                                                               Management

                        Setting                              For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Landform:
• Blacksheep—Hills
• Twilight—Hills                                           155E—Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
Position on landform:                                         complex, 25 to 50 percent slopes
• Blacksheep—Shoulders and summits
• Twilight—Backslopes and footslopes
                                                                                   Setting
Slope:
• Blacksheep—15 to 45 percent                              Landform:
• Twilight—15 to 45 percent                                • Blacksheep—Hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 • Rock outcrop—Hills
52                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Position on landform:                                                          Typical Pedon
• Blacksheep—Backslopes
                                                           Bonfri loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of
• Rock outcrop—Shoulders and summits
                                                           rangeland, 500 feet north and 2,400 feet west of the
Slope: 25 to 50 percent
                                                           southeast corner of sec. 22, T. 3 N., R. 57 E.
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           A—0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark
                    Composition
                                                              grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate coarse
Major Components                                              subangular blocky structure parting to weak fine
Blacksheep and similar soils: 60 percent                      granular; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky,
Rock outcrop: 30 percent                                      slightly plastic; many very fine and fine roots;
                                                              many very fine pores; neutral; clear smooth
Minor Components
                                                              boundary.
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Bt—4 to 18 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) sandy
Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent
                                                              clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Soils that have slopes more than 50 percent: 0 to
                                                              weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
    2 percent
                                                              moderate medium subangular blocky; hard,
Soils that have slopes less than 25 percent: 0 to
                                                              friable, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;
    2 percent
                                                              many very fine and fine roots; few fine and
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                              common very fine pores; many faint clay films on
         Major Component Description                          faces of peds, many distinct clay films in pores;
                                                              neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
Blacksheep
                                                           Bk—18 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
                                                              loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                              coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm,
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                              roots; few very fine pores; common fine masses
    sedimentary beds
                                                              of lime; violently effervescent; moderately
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                              alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Flooding: None
                                                           Cr—30 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) interbedded
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.9 inches
                                                              sandstone and shale that crush to sandy loam,
                                                              light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) moist.
Rock outcrop
Definition: Consolidated sandstone
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Depth to the Bk horizon: 13 to 30 inches
in this section.
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
                    Management
                                                           A horizon
  For management information about this map unit,             Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                              Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
Bonfri Series                                                 Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Bt horizon
Permeability: Moderately slow (0.2 to 0.6 inch/hour)           Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                         Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
Parent material: Interbedded sandstone and shale               Chroma: 2 to 4
Slope range: 2 to 15 percent                                   Texture: Clay loam, silty clay loam, or sandy clay
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                             loam
                                                               Clay content: 27 to 35 percent
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Typic                       Sand content: Greater than 15 percent fine sand
   Eutroboralfs                                                   or coarser
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    53




    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles      91D—Bonfri loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes
    Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
Bk horizon                                                                         Setting
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                           Landform: Hills
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                           Slope: 8 to 15 percent
    Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
    Texture: Clay loam, loam, or sandy clay loam
    Clay content: 20 to 32 percent                                             Composition
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent
                                                           Major Components
      pebbles
                                                           Bonfri and similar soils: 85 percent
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                                Minor Components
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
91C—Bonfri loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes                     Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                        Setting                            Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
                                                                3 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                               Major Component Description
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
                    Composition                            Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Major Components
                                                           Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone
Bonfri and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                               and shale residuum
Minor Components                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Flooding: None
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                       A typical soil description with range in
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to             characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
     3 percent                                             in this section.
         Major Component Description                                           Management
Surface layer texture: Loam                                  For management information about this map unit,
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone
    and shale residuum                                     191C—Bonfri-Cambeth complex,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            2 to 8 percent slopes
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
                                                                                   Setting
   A typical soil description with range in                Landform:
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        • Bonfri—Sedimentary plains
in this section.                                           • Cambeth—Sedimentary plains
                                                           Slope:
                    Management
                                                           • Bonfri—2 to 8 percent
  For management information about this map unit,          • Cambeth—2 to 8 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
54                                                                                                      Soil Survey




                    Composition                            Position on landform:
                                                           • Bonfri—Backslopes and shoulders
Major Components
                                                           • Cabbart—Shoulders and summits
Bonfri and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Slope:
Cambeth and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           • Bonfri—8 to 15 percent
Minor Components                                           • Cabbart—8 to 15 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                                        Composition
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to             Major Components
     1 percent                                             Bonfri and similar soils: 50 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to           Cabbart and similar soils: 35 percent
     1 percent
                                                           Minor Components
         Major Component Description                       Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Deep loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
Bonfri
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                                3 percent
Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone
    and shale residuum
                                                                    Major Component Description
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None
                                                           Bonfri
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Cambeth
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Surface layer texture: Silt loam
                                                           Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                               and shale residuum
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Flooding: None
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.6 inches                Cabbart
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
   A typical soil description with range in                Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Drainage class: Well drained
in this section.                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                               sedimentary beds
                    Management
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
  For management information about this map unit,          Flooding: None
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches


291D—Bonfri-Cabbart loams,                                    A typical soil description with range in
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                  characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
                        Setting
                                                                               Management
Landform:
• Bonfri—Hills                                               For management information about this map unit,
• Cabbart—Hills                                            see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                55




391C—Bonfri-Parchin complex,                                              Management
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                For management information about this map unit,
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                             Broadus Series
• Bonfri—Sedimentary plains
• Parchin—Sedimentary plains                          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Slope:                                                Drainage class: Well drained
• Bonfri—2 to 8 percent                               Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
• Parchin—2 to 8 percent                              Landform: Hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches            Parent material: Colluvium
                                                      Slope range: 8 to 65 percent
                    Composition
                                                      Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
Major Components
Bonfri and similar soils: 45 percent                  Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic
Parchin and similar soils: 40 percent                    Ustochrepts
Minor Components                                                          Typical Pedon
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                      Broadus loam, in an area of Broadus-Ridge-Reeder
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                      complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes, in an area of
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                      forestland, 1,500 feet north and 300 feet east of the
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                      southwest corner of sec. 5, T. 8 S., R. 55 E.
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to      Oi—1 inch to 0; slightly decomposed forest litter.
    2 percent                                         A—0 to 4 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4)
                                                         loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; weak fine
         Major Component Description
                                                         granular structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky,
Bonfri                                                   slightly plastic; many fine roots; many fine tubular
Surface layer texture: Loam                              pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)        Bw—4 to 12 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam,
Drainage class: Well drained                             grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; moderate
Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone          medium prismatic structure parting to strong
    and shale residuum                                   medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                       slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many fine roots; few
Flooding: None                                           fine and many very fine tubular pores; slightly
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches              effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
                                                         boundary.
Parchin                                               Bk1—12 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                   loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)           medium prismatic structure parting to moderate
Drainage class: Well drained                             medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable,
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy        slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and many
    sedimentary beds                                     very fine roots; many fine tubular pores; many
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                       fine masses of lime; violently effervescent; slightly
Flooding: None                                           alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches               Bk2—18 to 34 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.0 inches              silty clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
                                                         weak coarse prismatic structure; slightly hard,
   A typical soil description with range in              friable, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,      common fine and medium roots; many fine
in this section.                                         tubular pores; many medium and coarse masses
56                                                                                                    Soil Survey




   of lime; violently effervescent; moderately           126D—Broadus-Ridge-Reeder complex,
   alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.                       8 to 25 percent slopes
Bk3—34 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silt loam,
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; moderate
                                                                                 Setting
   medium prismatic structure; slightly hard, friable,
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many           Landform:
   medium roots; many fine tubular pores; many           • Broadus—Hills
   medium and coarse masses of lime; violently           • Ridge—Hills
   effervescent; moderately alkaline.                    • Reeder—Hills
                                                         Position on landform:
             Range in Characteristics
                                                         • Broadus—Backslopes
Soil temperature: 41 to 47 degrees F                     • Ridge—Shoulders and summits
Depth to the Bk horizon: 11 to 15 inches                 • Reeder—Footslopes
                                                         Slope:
A horizon
                                                         • Broadus—8 to 25 percent
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                         • Ridge—8 to 25 percent
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                         • Reeder—8 to 25 percent
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                         Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                                             Composition
Bw horizon
                                                         Major Components
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                         Broadus and similar soils: 40 percent
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                         Ridge and similar soils: 30 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                         Reeder and similar soils: 20 percent
   Texture: Loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam
   Clay content: 18 to 35 percent                        Minor Components
   Sand content: 15 to 35 percent fine and medium        Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
     sand                                                Dast and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 7.8                               Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                         Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
Bk1 horizon
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                  Major Component Description
   Value: 6 dry; 5 or 6 moist
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                         Broadus
   Texture: Loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam
                                                         Surface layer texture: Loam
   Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
                                                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Sand content: 15 to 35 percent fine and medium
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
      sand
                                                         Dominant parent material: Colluvium
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                         Native plant cover type: Forestland
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                         Flooding: None
Bk2 and Bk3 horizon                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 10.2 inches
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist                   Ridge
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                        Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
   Texture: Loam, silt loam, clay loam, or silty clay    Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
      loam                                               Drainage class: Well drained
   Clay content: 18 to 35 percent                        Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
   Sand content: 15 to 35 percent fine and medium            sedimentary beds
      sand                                               Native plant cover type: Forestland
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent         Flooding: None
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                               Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    57




Reeder                                                     Flooding: None
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Available water capacity: Mainly 10.2 inches
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Ridge
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy          Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
    sedimentary beds                                       Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Drainage class: Well drained
Flooding: None                                             Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.8 inches                    sedimentary beds
                                                           Native plant cover type: Forestland
   A typical soil description with range in                Flooding: None
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
in this section.
                                                           Rock outcrop
                    Management
                                                           Definition: Consolidated sandstone
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
126F—Broadus-Ridge-Rock outcrop
   complex, 25 to 65 percent slopes                                            Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                        Setting                            see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Landform:
• Broadus—Hills                                            Bullock Series
• Ridge—Hills
• Rock outcrop—Hills                                       Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Position on landform:                                      Drainage class: Well drained
• Broadus—Backslopes                                       Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
• Ridge—Shoulders and summits                              Landform: Sedimentary plains
• Rock outcrop—Summits                                     Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Slope:                                                         sedimentary beds
• Broadus—25 to 65 percent                                 Slope range: 2 to 8 percent
• Ridge—25 to 65 percent                                   Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Borollic
                    Composition
                                                              Natrargids
Major Components
                                                                              Typical Pedon
Broadus and similar soils: 30 percent
Ridge and similar soils: 30 percent                        Bullock clay loam, in an area of Parchin-Bullock
Rock outcrop: 30 percent                                   complex, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                           rangeland, 2,000 feet south and 1,000 feet east of
Minor Components
                                                           the northwest corner of sec. 34, T. 2 N., R. 55 E.
Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Dast and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                     E—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent                    sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                               moist; weak thin platy structure parting to weak
         Major Component Description
                                                               fine granular; soft, very friable, nonsticky,
Broadus                                                        nonplastic; many very fine roots; few very fine
Surface layer texture: Loam                                    and fine pores; slightly alkaline; abrupt smooth
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                   boundary.
Drainage class: Well drained                               Btn1—2 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,
Dominant parent material: Colluvium                            brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium
Native plant cover type: Forestland                            columnar structure parting to moderate medium
58                                                                                                     Soil Survey




    subangular blocky; hard, firm, moderately sticky,           Chroma: 2 to 4
    very plastic; many very fine and fine roots; few            Texture: Clay loam or sandy clay loam
    very fine pores; few faint clay films on faces of           Clay content: 27 to 35 percent
    peds and in pores; moderately alkaline; gradual             Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
    smooth boundary.                                            Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
Btn2—6 to 12 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,                Reaction: pH 7.8 to 9.6
    brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium
                                                            Bkz and Bky horizons
    prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and
                                                               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    medium subangular blocky; hard, firm,
                                                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    moderately sticky, very plastic; few fine and
                                                               Chroma: 1 to 4
    common very fine roots; few very fine pores; few
                                                               Texture: Clay loam, sandy clay loam, or loam
    faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                               Clay content: 25 to 32 percent
    strongly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
Bkz—12 to 25 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
                                                               Sodium adsorption ratio: 20 to 40
    clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                               Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
    weak medium subangular blocky structure;
                                                               Reaction: pH 7.8 to 9.6
    slightly hard, friable, moderately sticky,
    moderately plastic; few very fine and fine roots;
    few very fine pores; few fine nests of salt crystals;
    disseminated lime; few fine threads of lime;            Busby Series
    violently effervescent; strongly alkaline; clear
                                                            Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
    wavy boundary.
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
Bky—25 to 35 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                            Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
    clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                                hour)
    massive; slightly hard, friable, moderately sticky,
                                                            Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
    moderately plastic; few very fine and fine roots;
                                                            Parent material: Alluvium
    few very fine pores; few fine soft masses of
                                                            Slope range: 2 to 15 percent
    gypsum; common medium masses of lime and
                                                            Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
    few fine seams of lime; violently effervescent;
    strongly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                            Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Aridic
Cr—35 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                               Ustochrepts
    semiconsolidated, loamy sedimentary beds that
    crush to silty clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)                         Typical Pedon
    moist.
                                                            Busby fine sandy loam, in an area of Busby-
             Range in Characteristics                       Blacksheep-Twilight fine sandy loams, 8 to 25
                                                            percent slopes, in an area of rangeland, 2,200 feet
Depth to the Bkz horizon: 10 to 15 inches
                                                            south and 2,000 feet west of the northeast corner of
Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
                                                            sec. 32, T. 2 S., R. 56 E.
Other features: A clay loam texture results from
   mixing the E and Btn horizons in areas that are          A—0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine sandy
   cultivated.                                                 loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) moist;
Taxonomic note: Bullock soil is a taxadjunct to the            weak fine granular structure; soft, very friable,
   series. It classifies as Fine-loamy, mixed Typic            nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine and fine
   Natriboralfs. Use and management are similar.               roots; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            Bw—4 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
E horizon
                                                               fine sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                               moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
   Value: 5 to 7 dry; 3 or 4 moist
                                                               soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common
   Chroma: 1 or 2
                                                               very fine and fine roots; few very fine pores;
   Texture: Clay loam when mixed to 7 inches
                                                               slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
   Clay content: 5 to 10 percent
                                                            Bk1—12 to 23 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 7.8
                                                               fine sandy loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
Btn horizons                                                   weak fine and medium subangular blocky
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                          structure; slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky,
    Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                            nonplastic; common very fine and fine roots; few
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   59




   very fine pores; few very fine masses, seams,          70C—Busby fine sandy loam,
   and threads of lime; strongly effervescent;               2 to 8 percent slopes
   moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
Bk2—23 to 46 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                                                  Setting
   fine sandy loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
   weak fine subangular blocky structure; soft, very      Landform: Sedimentary plains
   friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine roots;   Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   few very fine pores; few very fine and medium          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   masses of lime; strongly effervescent; moderately
                                                                              Composition
   alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
C—46 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)         Major Components
   loamy fine sand, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;       Busby and similar soils: 85 percent
   massive; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; moderately
                                                          Minor Components
   alkaline.
                                                          Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
            Range in Characteristics                      Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                          Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                          Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 16 inches
                                                          Soils that have slopes less than 2 percent: 0 to
Soil phases: Gullied
                                                               2 percent
A horizon                                                 Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                           1 percent
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
                                                                   Major Component Description
   Chroma: 2 to 4
   Clay content: 10 to 18 percent                         Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                                Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
Bw horizon
                                                          Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                          Flooding: None
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                          Available water capacity: Mainly 7.5 inches
   Texture: Fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam
   Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
                                                             A typical soil description with range in
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Bk horizons                                               in this section.
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                              Management
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
    Chroma: 2 to 4                                          For management information about this map unit,
    Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam                see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
    Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                               70D—Busby fine sandy loam,
                                                             8 to 15 percent slopes
C horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                                                  Setting
   Value: 6 or 7 dry; 5 or 6 moist
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                         Landform: Hills
   Texture: Fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loamy fine       Slope: 8 to 15 percent
       sand, loamy sand, or fine sand (The loamy fine     Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
       sand, loamy sand, or fine sand textures are
                                                                              Composition
       below depths of 40 inches.)
   Clay content: 3 to 18 percent                          Major Components
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4                                Busby and similar soils: 85 percent
60                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Minor Components                                           Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent               Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                      2 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
     1 percent                                             Busby
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
         Major Component Description
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Drainage class: Well drained
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Drainage class: Well drained                               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Flooding: None
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Available water capacity: Mainly 7.5 inches
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.5 inches                Blacksheep
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   A typical soil description with range in                Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Drainage class: Well drained
in this section.                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                               sedimentary beds
                    Management
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.3 inches
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Twilight
170D—Busby-Blacksheep-Twilight fine                        Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   sandy loams, 8 to 25 percent slopes                     Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                        Setting
                                                               sedimentary beds
Landform:                                                  Native plant cover type: Rangeland
• Busby—Hills                                              Flooding: None
• Blacksheep—Hills                                         Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
• Twilight—Hills
Position on landform:                                         A typical soil description with range in
• Busby—Backslopes and footslopes                          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
• Blacksheep—Shoulders and summits                         in this section.
• Twilight—Backslopes and footslopes
                                                                               Management
Slope:
• Busby—8 to 15 percent                                      For management information about this map unit,
• Blacksheep—8 to 25 percent                               see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
• Twilight—8 to 25 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition                            170E—Busby-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop
                                                              complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes
Major Components
Busby and similar soils: 40 percent
Blacksheep and similar soils: 30 percent                                           Setting
Twilight and similar soils: 15 percent
                                                           Landform:
Minor Components                                           • Busby—Hills
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  • Blacksheep—Hills
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 • Rock outcrop—Hills
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                              61




Position on landform:                                      270E—Busby, gullied-Delpoint-Yawdim
• Busby—Footslopes and toeslopes                              complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes
• Blacksheep—Shoulders and summits
• Rock outcrop—Summits
                                                                                  Setting
Slope:
• Busby—8 to 15 percent                                    Landform:
• Blacksheep—8 to 25 percent                               • Busby—Hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 • Delpoint—Hills
                                                           • Yawdim—Hills
                    Composition
                                                           Position on landform:
Major Components                                           • Busby—Backslopes and footslopes
Busby and similar soils: 40 percent                        • Delpoint—Backslopes
Blacksheep and similar soils: 30 percent                   • Yawdim—Shoulders and summits
Rock outcrop: 20 percent                                   Slope:
                                                           • Busby—8 to 15 percent
Minor Components
                                                           • Delpoint—8 to 25 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           • Yawdim—8 to 25 percent
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent                                             Composition
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           Major Components
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           Busby and similar soils: 35 percent
         Major Component Description                       Delpoint and similar soils: 30 percent
                                                           Yawdim and similar soils: 20 percent
Busby
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Minor Components
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                               Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Flooding: None                                             Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.5 inches                Poorly drained soils: 0 to 1 percent

Blacksheep                                                          Major Component Description
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                     Busby
Drainage class: Well drained                               Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
    sedimentary beds                                       Drainage class: Well drained
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Flooding: None                                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.3 inches                Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 7.5 inches
Rock outcrop
Definition: Consolidated sandstone                         Delpoint
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
   A typical soil description with range in                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Drainage class: Well drained
in this section.                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                               sedimentary beds
                    Management
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
  For management information about this map unit,          Flooding: None
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches
62                                                                                                       Soil Survey




Yawdim                                                           common very fine roots; few very fine pores;
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam                           disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                           moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
Drainage class: Well drained                                  Cr—16 to 60 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4)
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale                 semiconsolidated loamy sedimentary beds that
    residuum                                                     crush to loam, light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                               moist.
Flooding: None
                                                                          Range in Characteristics
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.5 inches
                                                              Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
   A typical soil description with range in                   Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           Soil phases: Stony; the hard rock fragments in the
in this section.                                                  stony and gravelly phases are mainly surficial
                                                                  deposits.
                     Management
                                                              A horizon
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                                 Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                 Value: 3, 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
                                                                 Chroma: 1 to 4
                                                                 Texture: Loam or silt loam
Cabba Series                                                     Clay content: 10 to 27 percent
                                                                 Content of rock fragments: 0 to 60 percent—0 to
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                                     40 percent boulders, stones, or cobbles; 0 to
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                                     30 percent pebbles or channers
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
                                                                 Content of rock fragments, surface cover: 0 to
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                                     0.1 percent stones
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                                 Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
    sedimentary beds
                                                                 Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
Slope range: 4 to 60 percent
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                         Bk and C horizons
                                                                  Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed (calcareous), frigid,               Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, 6, or 7 moist
   shallow Typic Ustorthents                                      Chroma: 1 to 4 or 6
                                                                  Texture: Loam, silt loam, clay loam, or silty clay
                    Typical Pedon
                                                                     loam
Cabba loam, in an area of Reeder-Cabba loams, 4 to                Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
15 percent slopes, in an area of rangeland, 2,000 feet            Content of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent—0 to
north and 1,600 feet east of the southwest corner of                 5 percent cobbles; 0 to 30 percent pebbles or
sec. 4, T. 2 S., R. 61 E.                                            channers
                                                                  Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
A—0 to 3 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
                                                                  Electrical conductivity: 0 to 8 mmhos/cm
   loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) moist; weak fine
                                                                  Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   granular structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky,
   slightly plastic; common fine and many very fine
   roots; disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;           112D—Cabba silt loam,
   slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.                     8 to 15 percent slopes
Bk—3 to 7 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, light
   olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist; weak thick platy
                                                                                     Setting
   structure; soft, friable, slightly sticky, slightly
   plastic; few fine and common very fine roots; few          Landform: Hills
   very fine pores; few fine and medium masses of             Slope: 8 to 15 percent
   lime; violently effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear     Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   wavy boundary.
                                                                                  Composition
C—7 to 16 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) loam, light
   olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist; massive; soft, very          Major Components
   friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and   Cabba and similar soils: 85 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    63




Minor Components                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent                       sedimentary beds
Dast and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent                Flooding: None
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent                      Available water capacity: Mainly 2.7 inches
         Major Component Description
                                                           Rock outcrop
Surface layer texture: Silt loam                           Definition: Consolidated sandstone and shale
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                                  A typical soil description with range in
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    sedimentary beds                                       in this section.
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                                               Management
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.7 inches
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                           312D—Cabba-Dast complex,
                    Management                                8 to 15 percent slopes
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                                                   Setting
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Landform:
                                                           • Cabba—Hills
212E—Cabba-Rock outcrop complex,                           • Dast—Hills
   15 to 45 percent slopes                                 Position on landform:
                                                           • Cabba—Shoulders and summits
                                                           • Dast—Backslopes and footslopes
                        Setting
                                                           Slope:
Landform:                                                  • Cabba—8 to 15 percent
• Cabba—Hills                                              • Dast—8 to 15 percent
• Rock outcrop—Hills                                       Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
Position on landform:
                                                                               Composition
• Cabba—Backslopes
• Rock outcrop—Summits                                     Major Components
Slope: 15 to 45 percent                                    Cabba and similar soils: 50 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                 Dast and similar soils: 35 percent
                    Composition                            Minor Components
                                                           Very shallow sandy soils: 0 to 5 percent
Major Components
                                                           Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 5 percent
Cabba and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Very deep silt loam soils: 0 to 5 percent
Rock outcrop: 35 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Minor Components
Dast and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                     Cabba
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 5 percent                   Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 5 percent                Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
         Major Component Description
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Cabba                                                          sedimentary beds
Surface layer texture: Silt loam                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                     Flooding: None
Drainage class: Well drained                               Available water capacity: Mainly 2.7 inches
64                                                                                                    Soil Survey




Dast                                                                   Range in Characteristics
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          A horizon
    sedimentary beds                                          Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Flooding: None                                                Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches                   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                              Texture: Loam or silt loam
   A typical soil description with range in                   Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
in this section.                                              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
                    Management
                                                           Bk horizon
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                               Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 to 4
Cabbart Series                                                 Texture: Loam or silt loam
                                                               Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                         Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
Drainage class: Well drained                                   Sodium adsorption ratio: 1 to 5
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)                Calcium carbonate equivalent: 10 to 15 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                         Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
    sedimentary beds
Slope range: 2 to 70 percent                               60D—Cabbart silt loam,
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                         4 to 15 percent slopes
Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed (calcareous), frigid,
                                                                                 Setting
   shallow Aridic Ustorthents
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                   Typical Pedon
                                                           Slope: 4 to 15 percent
Cabbart loam, in an area of Cabbart-Rock outcrop-          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Delpoint complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes, in an area
                                                                              Composition
of rangeland, 2,100 feet south and 1,000 feet east of
the northwest corner of sec. 15, T. 4 N., R. 57 E.         Major Components
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 85 percent
A—0 to 3 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
   loam, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist; weak          Minor Components
   medium subangular blocky structure; soft, very          Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very   Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   fine and fine roots; few very fine and fine pores;      Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
   violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear      Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
   smooth boundary.                                        Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
Bk—3 to 12 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) loam, light          1 percent
   olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist; weak coarse
                                                                    Major Component Description
   subangular blocky structure; soft, very friable,
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very fine       Surface layer texture: Silt loam
   roots; few very fine pores; common fine and             Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
   medium masses of lime; violently effervescent;          Drainage class: Well drained
   moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.               Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Cr—12 to 60 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4)                     sedimentary beds
   semiconsolidated, loamy sedimentary beds that           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   crush to silt loam, light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)    Flooding: None
   moist.                                                  Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    65




   A typical soil description with range in                Drainage class: Well drained
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
in this section.                                               sedimentary beds
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                    Management
                                                           Flooding: None
  For management information about this map unit,          Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
160E—Cabbart-Rock outcrop-Delpoint                         in this section.
   complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes
                                                                               Management
                        Setting                              For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Landform:
• Cabbart—Hills
• Rock outcrop—Hills
• Delpoint—Hills                                           160F—Cabbart-Rock outcrop-Yawdim
Position on landform:                                         complex, 15 to 70 percent slopes
• Cabbart—Backslopes and shoulders
• Rock outcrop—Summits
                                                                                   Setting
• Delpoint—Backslopes
Slope:                                                     Landform:
• Cabbart—15 to 50 percent                                 • Cabbart—Hills
• Delpoint—15 to 25 percent                                • Rock outcrop—Hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 • Yawdim—Hills
                                                           Position on landform:
                    Composition
                                                           • Cabbart—Backslopes and shoulders
Major Components                                           • Rock outcrop—Summits
Cabbart and similar soils: 50 percent                      • Yawdim—Backslopes and footslopes
Rock outcrop: 20 percent                                   Slope:
Delpoint and similar soils: 15 percent                     • Cabbart—15 to 70 percent
                                                           • Yawdim—15 to 70 percent
Minor Components
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 5 percent                                       Composition
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Major Components
Poorly drained soils: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 35 percent
         Major Component Description                       Rock outcrop: 25 percent
                                                           Yawdim and similar soils: 25 percent
Cabbart
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Minor Components
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                     Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                               Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy          Soils that have slopes less than 15 percent: 0 to
    sedimentary beds                                           4 percent
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Flooding: None
                                                                    Major Component Description
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
                                                           Cabbart
Rock outcrop                                               Surface layer texture: Loam
Definition: Consolidated sedimentary beds                  Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Delpoint                                                   Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Surface layer texture: Loam                                    sedimentary beds
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
66                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Flooding: None                                                      Major Component Description
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
                                                           Cabbart
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Rock outcrop
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Definition: Consolidated sedimentary beds
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Yawdim
                                                               sedimentary beds
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Flooding: None
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
    residuum
                                                           Cambeth
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Flooding: None
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.5 inches
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                               sedimentary beds
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
in this section.
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management                             Available water capacity: Mainly 5.6 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.

260D—Cabbart-Cambeth silt loams,                                               Management
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                    For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                                  360D—Cabbart-Bascovy complex,
• Cabbart—Hills                                               4 to 15 percent slopes
• Cambeth—Hills
Position on landform:                                                              Setting
• Cabbart—Shoulders and summits
                                                           Landform:
• Cambeth—Backslopes
                                                           • Cabbart—Sedimentary plains and hills
Slope:
                                                           • Bascovy—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Cabbart—8 to 15 percent
                                                           Position on landform:
• Cambeth—8 to 15 percent
                                                           • Cabbart—Shoulders and summits
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           • Bascovy—Backslopes and footslopes
                                                           Slope:
                    Composition
                                                           • Cabbart—4 to 15 percent
Major Components                                           • Bascovy—4 to 15 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 50 percent                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Cambeth and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                                               Composition
Minor Components
                                                           Major Components
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 50 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 35 percent
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                 Minor Components
Soils that have slopes less than 8 percent: 0 to           Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
    2 percent                                              Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   67




Parchin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  A—0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) silt loam, brown
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 2 percent                     (10YR 4/3) moist; weak medium granular
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                     structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky,
                                                              slightly plastic; common very fine and fine roots;
         Major Component Description
                                                              few fine pores; disseminated lime; strongly
Cabbart                                                       effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
Surface layer texture: Silt loam                              boundary.
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                     Bw—4 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Drainage class: Well drained                                  silty clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy             weak medium and coarse subangular blocky
    sedimentary beds                                          structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            moderately plastic; few very fine and fine roots;
Flooding: None                                                few very fine pores; disseminated lime; strongly
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches                   effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
                                                              boundary.
Bascovy                                                    Bk—12 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Surface layer texture: Clay                                   silt loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
Drainage class: Well drained                                  hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale              very fine roots; few very fine pores; many fine
    residuum                                                  masses of lime; strongly effervescent; moderately
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
Flooding: None                                             Cr—32 to 60 inches; white (2.5Y 8/2)
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       semiconsolidated, loamy sedimentary beds that
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches                   crush to silt loam, light gray (2.5Y 7/2) moist.
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
in this section.                                           Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 15 inches
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
                    Management
                                                           Soil phases: Calcareous
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           A horizon
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                              Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
Cambeth Series                                                Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                              Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                Effervescence: None to violently
Drainage class: Well drained                                  Calcium carbonate equivalent: 0 to 10 percent
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)               Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                           Bw horizon
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    sedimentary beds
                                                              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
Slope range: 2 to 25 percent
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                              Texture: Loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam
                                                              Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
Taxonomic Class: Fine-silty, mixed, frigid Aridic
                                                              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 0 to 10 percent
   Ustochrepts
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                   Typical Pedon
                                                           Bk horizon
Cambeth silt loam, in an area of Yamacall-Cambeth              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
complex, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of                  Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
rangeland, 250 feet north and 1,500 feet east of the           Chroma: 2 to 4
southwest corner of sec. 33, T. 8 S., R. 61 E.                 Texture: Loam, silt loam, or silty clay loam
68                                                                                                 Soil Survey




     Clay content: 18 to 35 percent                      A typical soil description with range in
     Calcium carbonate equivalent: 10 to 20 percent   characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
     Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0                          in this section.
                                                                          Management
160D—Cambeth-Yamacall complex,                          For management information about this map unit,
   8 to 15 percent slopes                             see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.

                       Setting
                                                      260C—Cambeth-Cabbart silt loams,
Landform:                                                2 to 8 percent slopes
• Cambeth—Hills
• Yamacall—Hills
                                                                              Setting
Position on landform:
• Cambeth—Shoulders and summits                       Landform:
• Yamacall—Backslopes and footslopes                  • Cambeth—Sedimentary plains
Slope:                                                • Cabbart—Sedimentary plains
• Cambeth—8 to 15 percent                             Position on landform: Backslopes and footslopes
• Yamacall—8 to 15 percent                            Slope:
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches            • Cambeth—2 to 8 percent
                                                      • Cabbart—2 to 8 percent
                   Composition
                                                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Major Components
                                                                          Composition
Cambeth and similar soils: 55 percent
Yamacall and similar soils: 30 percent                Major Components
                                                      Cambeth and similar soils: 60 percent
Minor Components
                                                      Cabbart and similar soils: 25 percent
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent             Minor Components
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to        Archin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
    3 percent                                         Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 2 percent              Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to     Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
    2 percent                                         Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
                                                           2 percent
          Major Component Description
                                                               Major Component Description
Cambeth
Surface layer texture: Silt loam                      Cambeth
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)        Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Drainage class: Well drained                          Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy     Drainage class: Well drained
    sedimentary beds                                  Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                        sedimentary beds
Flooding: None                                        Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.6 inches           Flooding: None
                                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 5.6 inches
Yamacall
Surface layer texture: Silt loam                      Cabbart
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)          Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Drainage class: Well drained                          Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                    Drainage class: Well drained
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                    Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Flooding: None                                            sedimentary beds
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    69




Flooding: None                                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches                Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.5 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Cabbart
in this section.                                           Surface layer texture: Silt loam
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                    Management
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
  For management information about this map unit,          Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.       sedimentary beds
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
260E—Cambeth-Cabbart-Yawdim                                Available water capacity: Mainly 2.6 inches
   complex, 15 to 25 percent slopes
                                                           Yawdim
                        Setting                            Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Landform:
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
• Cambeth—Hills
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
• Cabbart—Hills
                                                               residuum
• Yawdim—Hills
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Position on landform:
                                                           Flooding: None
• Cambeth—Backslopes and footslopes
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.5 inches
• Cabbart—Shoulders and summits
• Yawdim—Shoulders and summits
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Slope:
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
• Cambeth—15 to 25 percent
                                                           in this section.
• Cabbart—15 to 25 percent
• Yawdim—15 to 25 percent                                                      Management
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                    Composition                            see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Major Components
Cambeth and similar soils: 40 percent                      Carfall Series
Cabbart and similar soils: 30 percent
Yawdim and similar soils: 15 percent                       Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Minor Components
                                                           Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Parent material: Alluvium
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Slope range: 2 to 15 percent
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Soils that have slopes more than 25 percent: 0 to
    2 percent
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Pachic
Soils that have slopes less than 15 percent: 0 to
                                                              Argiborolls
    1 percent
                                                                              Typical Pedon
         Major Component Description
                                                           Carfall fine sandy loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes, in an
Cambeth
                                                           area of rangeland, 2,500 feet north and 1,600 feet
Surface layer texture: Silt loam
                                                           east of the southwest corner of sec. 1, T. 5 N.,
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           R. 55 E.
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy          A—0 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
    sedimentary beds                                         sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist;
70                                                                                                    Soil Survey




   moderate medium granular structure; soft, very        14C—Carfall loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes
   friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; many very fine
   roots; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                                 Setting
Bt1—9 to 15 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy clay
   loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; strong             Landform: Sedimentary plains
   coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate        Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   medium subangular blocky; very hard, firm,            Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   slightly sticky, moderately plastic; many very fine
                                                                             Composition
   roots; few fine pores; many faint clay films on
   faces of peds and in pores; neutral; gradual          Major Components
   smooth boundary.                                      Carfall and similar soils: 85 percent
Bt2—15 to 20 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy clay
                                                         Minor Components
   loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak coarse
                                                         Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   prismatic structure parting to moderate medium
                                                         Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable, slightly
                                                         Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   sticky, slightly plastic; many very fine roots; few
                                                         Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent
   fine pores; many faint clay films on faces of peds
                                                         Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
   and in pores; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                             2 percent
BC—20 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   sandy loam, grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;                    Major Component Description
   weak coarse subangular blocky structure; soft,
                                                         Surface layer texture: Loam
   very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine
                                                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   roots; few very fine pores; neutral, gradual wavy
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
   boundary.
                                                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
C—30 to 60 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4)
                                                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   sandy loam, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist;
                                                         Flooding: None
   massive; soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
                                                         Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches
   few very fine roots; neutral.
            Range in Characteristics                        A typical soil description with range in
                                                         characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                         in this section.
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 17 to 35 inches
                                                                             Management
A horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                       For management information about this map unit,
   Value: 4 or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist                       see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Chroma: 2 or 3
   Texture: Loam or fine sandy loam
   Clay content: 10 to 25 percent                        114C—Carfall-Assinniboine complex,
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3                                  2 to 8 percent slopes
Bt horizons
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                                            Setting
    Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                         Landform:
    Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                         • Carfall—Sedimentary plains
    Texture: Sandy clay loam, clay loam, or loam
                                                         • Assinniboine—Sedimentary plains
    Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
                                                         Slope:
    Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
                                                         • Carfall—2 to 8 percent
BC and C horizons                                        • Assinniboine—2 to 8 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                     Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                                             Composition
   Chroma: 2 to 4
   Texture: Sandy loam or loamy sand                     Major Components
   Clay content: 10 to 20 percent                        Carfall and similar soils: 55 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3                               Assinniboine and similar soils: 30 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                     71




Minor Components                                           Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                     4 percent
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                    Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to                3 percent
    5 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
         Major Component Description
                                                           Carfall
Carfall                                                    Surface layer texture: Loam
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Drainage class: Well drained
Drainage class: Well drained                               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Flooding: None
Flooding: None                                             Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches
                                                           Assinniboine
Assinniboine                                               Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Drainage class: Well drained
Drainage class: Well drained                               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Flooding: None
Flooding: None                                             Available water capacity: Mainly 8.5 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.5 inches
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
   A typical soil description with range in                characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        in this section.
in this section.
                                                                               Management
                    Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
  For management information about this map unit,          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.

                                                           214C—Carfall fine sandy loam,
114D—Carfall-Assinniboine complex,                            2 to 8 percent slopes
   8 to 15 percent slopes
                                                                                   Setting
                        Setting
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains
Landform:                                                  Slope: 2 to 8 percent
• Carfall—Hills                                            Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Assinniboine—Hills
                                                                               Composition
Slope:
• Carfall—8 to 15 percent                                  Major Components
• Assinniboine—8 to 15 percent                             Carfall and similar soils: 85 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Minor Components
                    Composition                            Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Carfall with loam surfaces: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Carfall and similar soils: 55 percent
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Assinniboine and similar soils: 30 percent
                                                           Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
Minor Components                                               2 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                 Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                        2 percent
72                                                                                                     Soil Survey




         Major Component Description                       Chinook Series
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                               hour)
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Flooding: None
                                                           Parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.8 inches
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 15 percent
                                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed Aridic
in this section.
                                                              Haploborolls
                    Management
                                                                              Typical Pedon
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Chinook sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an
                                                           area of rangeland, 1,500 feet north and 1,600 feet
                                                           east of the southwest corner of sec. 29, T. 3 S.,
214D—Carfall fine sandy loam,                              R. 62 E.
   8 to 15 percent slopes
                                                           A—0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
                        Setting                               loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
                                                              weak medium subangular blocky structure
Landform: Hills
                                                              parting to weak fine granular; slightly hard, very
Slope: 8 to 15 percent
                                                              friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                              and fine roots; few very fine and fine pores;
                    Composition                               neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Bw1—5 to 13 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
Major Components
                                                              sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Carfall and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                              moist; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to
Minor Components                                              moderate coarse subangular blocky; slightly hard,
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    fine and fine roots; few very fine and fine pores;
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                       neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            Bw2—13 to 24 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
    3 percent                                                 sandy loam; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to             weak coarse prismatic structure parting to weak
    3 percent                                                 fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard,
                                                              very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very
         Major Component Description
                                                              fine roots; few very fine pores; slightly alkaline;
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                        clear smooth boundary.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Bk1—24 to 35 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Drainage class: Well drained                                  sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            hard, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very
Flooding: None                                                fine and fine roots; few very fine pores; few fine
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.8 inches                   masses of lime; strongly effervescent; slightly
   A typical soil description with range in                   alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Bk2—35 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
in this section.                                              sandy loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
                                                              weak coarse subangular blocky structure; slightly
                    Management
                                                              hard, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common
  For management information about this map unit,             fine masses of lime; violently effervescent; slightly
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      alkaline.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                            73




            Range in Characteristics                                   Composition
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F               Major Components
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 15 inches   Chinook and similar soils: 85 percent
Depth to the Bk horizon: 12 to 35 inches
                                                   Minor Components
A horizon                                          Assinniboine and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                               Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Value: 2 or 3 moist                             Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                  Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Clay content: 5 to 18 percent                   Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 2 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent      Soils that have slopes more than 2 percent: 0 to
       pebbles                                         1 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                            Major Component Description
Bw horizons
                                                   Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                   Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                   Drainage class: Well drained
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                   Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam
                                                   Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
                                                   Flooding: None
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                   Available water capacity: Mainly 8.1 inches
     pebbles
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                      A typical soil description with range in
Bk1 horizon                                        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                          in this section.
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                                       Management
   Chroma: 2 to 4
   Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam            For management information about this map unit,
   Clay content: 5 to 15 percent                   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
      pebbles
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 12 percent   83C—Chinook sandy loam,
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                            2 to 8 percent slopes
Bk2 horizon
                                                                           Setting
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist         Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                  Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Clay content: 5 to 15 percent
                                                                       Composition
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
      pebbles                                      Major Components
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent   Chinook and similar soils: 85 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
                                                   Minor Components
                                                   Assinniboine and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                   Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
83A—Chinook sandy loam,                            Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   0 to 2 percent slopes                           Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                   Archin and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                   Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 1 percent
                      Setting
                                                            Major Component Description
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope: 0 to 2 percent                              Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
74                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Drainage class: Well drained                               183C—Chinook-Assinniboine complex,
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            2 to 8 percent slopes
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.1 inches                                        Setting
                                                           Landform:
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           • Chinook—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           • Assinniboine—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
in this section.
                                                           Position on landform:
                    Management                             • Chinook—Backslopes and footslopes
                                                           • Assinniboine—Backslopes and footslopes
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Slope:
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           • Chinook—2 to 8 percent
                                                           • Assinniboine—2 to 8 percent
83D—Chinook sandy loam,                                    Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                                      Composition
                                                           Major Components
                        Setting
                                                           Chinook and similar soils: 45 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                Assinniboine and similar soils: 40 percent
Slope: 8 to 15 percent
                                                           Minor Components
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
Chinook and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent
Minor Components                                           Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                        1 percent
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Chinook
Areas of blowouts: 0 to 2 percent                          Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
     1 percent                                             Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
         Major Component Description
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                          Flooding: None
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Available water capacity: Mainly 8.1 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Assinniboine
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Surface layer texture: Sandy clay loam
Flooding: None                                             Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.1 inches                Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   A typical soil description with range in                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Flooding: None
in this section.                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 8.6 inches
                    Management
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
  For management information about this map unit,          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   in this section.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    75




                    Management                                                 Management
  For management information about this map unit,            For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


283C—Chinook-Archin complex,                               Cohagen Series
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                        Setting                            Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
                                                               hour)
Landform:
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
• Chinook—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           Parent material: Soft sandstone bedrock
• Archin—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           Slope range: 4 to 15 percent
Slope:
                                                           Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
• Chinook—2 to 8 percent
• Archin—2 to 8 percent
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed (calcareous), frigid,
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                              shallow Typic Ustorthents
                    Composition
                                                                              Typical Pedon
Major Components
                                                           Cohagen fine sandy loam, in an area of Parshall-
Chinook and similar soils: 45 percent
                                                           Cohagen fine sandy loams, 4 to 15 percent slopes,
Archin and similar soils: 40 percent
                                                           in an area of rangeland, 2,000 feet south and
Minor Components                                           2,300 feet east of the northwest corner of sec. 29,
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    T. 2 N., R. 62 E.
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           A—0 to 3 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam,
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak coarse
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              subangular blocky structure; slightly hard, very
Soils with slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine and many
         Major Component Description                          very fine roots; few very fine pores; slightly
                                                              alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary.
Chinook
                                                           C—3 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) fine
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
                                                              sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                              moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                              many very fine roots; 30 percent soft sandstone
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                              fragments; disseminated lime; violently
Flooding: None
                                                              effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear wavy
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.1 inches
                                                              boundary.
                                                           Cr—12 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) soft
Archin
                                                              sandstone bedrock that crushes to fine sandy
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
                                                              loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                                            Range in Characteristics
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                             A horizon
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                        Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches                   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                              Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
   A typical soil description with range in                   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent soft
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,               sandstone fragments
in this section.                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
76                                                                                                      Soil Survey




C horizon                                                    moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                         structure; hard, very firm, sticky and plastic;
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist                       common very fine roots; common very fine
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                            tubular pores; common fine masses of lime;
   Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam                    violently effervescent; strongly alkaline; gradual
   Clay content: 10 to 18 percent                            wavy boundary.
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 50 percent soft        Bky—30 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
       sandstone fragments                                   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 1 to 5 percent              moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                                   structure; hard, very firm, sticky and plastic; few
                                                             very fine roots; few very fine pores; many fine
                                                             nests and seams of gypsum crystals; many fine
Creed Series                                                 and medium masses of lime; strongly
                                                             effervescent; strongly alkaline.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                                           Range in Characteristics
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces               Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Parent material: Alluvium                                 Depth to the Bkn horizon: 16 to 20 inches
Slope range: 0 to 8 percent                               Depth to the Bky horizon: 25 to 30 inches
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                     Soil phase: Warm
                                                          Taxonomic note: Map unit 602C is a taxadjunct to
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Typic                 the Creed series in order to join soils that have
   Natriboralfs                                               an average soil temperature greater than
                                                              47 degrees F.
                   Typical Pedon
                                                          A horizon
Creed loam, in an area of Creed-Absher complex,
                                                             Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of rangeland,
                                                             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
1,000 feet south and 1,700 feet west of the northeast
                                                             Chroma: 2 or 3
corner of sec. 8, T. 3 N., R. 56 E.
                                                             Clay content: 20 to 27 percent
A—0 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, brown           Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
   (10YR 4/3) moist; strong thin platy structure                 pebbles
   parting to strong very fine and fine granular; soft,      Reaction: pH 6.1 to 8.4
   very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic; few fine
                                                          E horizon
   and many very fine roots; common very fine and
                                                             Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   fine pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                             Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, 6, or 7 moist
E—5 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                             Chroma: 2 or 3
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
                                                             Clay content: 20 to 27 percent
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure
                                                             Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
   parting to moderate thin platy; slightly hard, very
                                                                 pebbles
   friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic; few fine and
                                                             Reaction: pH 6.1 to 8.4
   many very fine roots; few fine and many very fine
   pores; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.                Btn horizon
Btn—8 to 17 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)            Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;            Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
   moderate medium and coarse columnar structure              Chroma: 2 or 3
   parting to moderate medium subangular blocky;              Texture: Clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or silty
   very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; common            clay
   very fine roots; many very fine tubular pores;             Clay content: 35 to 55 percent
   many distinct clay films on faces of peds,                 Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
   continuous prominent clay films in pores; slightly            pebbles
   alkaline; clear smooth boundary.                           Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
Bkn—17 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Sodium adsorption ratio: 8 to 20
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)             Reaction: pH 6.6 to 9.0
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                              77




Bkn horizon                                          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                            Flooding: None
   Value: 4, 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist        Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                    Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Texture: Silty clay loam, clay loam, sandy clay   Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches
      loam, loam, or clay
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent           A typical soil description with range in
      pebbles                                        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Clay content: 27 to 45 percent                    in this section.
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                                         Management
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
                                                       For management information about this map unit,
   Gypsum content: 0 to 2 percent
                                                     see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
Bky horizon
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                            54C—Creed loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                                            Setting
   Texture: Loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, or
                                                     Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
      silty clay loam
                                                     Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   Clay content: 25 to 35 percent
                                                     Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent                            Composition
      pebbles
                                                     Major Components
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
                                                     Creed and similar soils: 85 percent
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 25
   Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent                    Minor Components
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0                           Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                     Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                     Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
54A—Creed loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes                Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent
                                                     Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
                       Setting                           1 percent
                                                     Soils that have slopes less than 2 percent: 0 to
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                         1 percent
Slope: 0 to 2 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                    Major Component Description
                    Composition                      Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                     Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Major Components
                                                     Drainage class: Well drained
Creed and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                     Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Minor Components                                     Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent             Flooding: None
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent            Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to       Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
    3 percent                                        Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent                     A typical soil description with range in
                                                     characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
         Major Component Description
                                                     in this section.
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                                         Management
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                           For management information about this map unit,
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
78                                                                                                 Soil Survey




154C—Creed-Absher complex,                                                Management
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                For management information about this map unit,
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:
• Creed—Alluvial fans and stream terraces             254C—Creed-Gerdrum complex,
• Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces               2 to 8 percent slopes
Position on landform:
• Creed—Microhighs
                                                                              Setting
• Absher—Microlows
Slope:                                                Landform:
• Creed—2 to 8 percent                                • Creed—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Absher—2 to 8 percent                               • Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches            Position on landform:
                                                      • Creed—Microhighs
                    Composition
                                                      • Gerdrum—Microlows
Major Components                                      Slope:
Creed and similar soils: 55 percent                   • Creed—2 to 8 percent
Absher and similar soils: 30 percent                  • Gerdrum—2 to 8 percent
                                                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Minor Components
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                                 Composition
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                      Major Components
Very deep nonsaline soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                      Creed and similar soils: 45 percent
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
                                                      Gerdrum and similar soils: 40 percent
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
    1 percent                                         Minor Components
                                                      Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                      Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Creed                                                 Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Surface layer texture: Loam                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                               Major Component Description
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                    Creed
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                    Surface layer texture: Loam
Flooding: None                                        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                Drainage class: Well drained
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                      Flooding: None
Absher                                                Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Surface layer texture: Clay                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)          Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                    Gerdrum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                    Surface layer texture: Clay loam
Flooding: None                                        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                Drainage class: Well drained
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                      Flooding: None
   A typical soil description with range in           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,   Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
in this section.                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                         79




   A typical soil description with range in                Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
in this section.                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
                    Management
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
  For management information about this map unit,          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   in this section.
                                                                                 Management
602C—Creed-Gerdrum complex, warm,                            For management information about this map unit,
   2 to 6 percent slopes                                   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


                        Setting
                                                           Daglum Series
Landform:
• Creed—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
• Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                Drainage class: Well drained
Position on landform:                                      Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
• Creed—Microhighs                                         Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Gerdrum—Microlows                                        Parent material: Alluvium
Slope:                                                     Slope range: 0 to 4 percent
• Creed—2 to 6 percent                                     Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Gerdrum—2 to 6 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Vertic
                                                              Natriborolls
                    Composition
Major Components                                                                Typical Pedon
Creed and similar soils: 45 percent
Gerdrum and similar soils: 40 percent                      Daglum loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                           rangeland, 2,600 feet south and 800 feet west of the
Minor Components
                                                           northeast corner of sec. 11, T. 4 S., R. 60 E.
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                   A—0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent                            fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
                                                               slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;
         Major Component Description
                                                               few fine and many very fine roots; few fine and
Creed                                                          common very fine pores; slightly acid; clear
Surface layer texture: Loam                                    smooth boundary.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               E—6 to 9 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
Drainage class: Well drained                                   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                             thin platy structure parting to moderate fine and
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                             medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, very
Flooding: None                                                 friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                         many very fine roots; few very fine and fine pores;
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                        neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches                Btn1—9 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay, dark
                                                               grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate
Gerdrum                                                        medium and coarse columnar structure parting to
Surface layer texture: Clay loam                               strong fine and medium subangular blocky;
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                   extremely hard, very firm, very sticky, very plastic;
Drainage class: Well drained                                   common very fine roots; few very fine and fine
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                             pores; continuous distinct clay films on faces of
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                             peds, continuous prominent clay films in pores;
Flooding: None                                                 moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
80                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Btn2—13 to 21 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay,              Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
    brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium                    Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
    subangular blocky structure; very hard, very firm,         Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
    very sticky, very plastic; common very fine roots;
    few very fine pores; common distinct clay films on
    faces of peds, continuous distinct clay films in       45B—Daglum loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes
    pores; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
    boundary.                                                                      Setting
Bky—21 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                           Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
    silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)
                                                           Slope: 0 to 4 percent
    moist; moderate coarse subangular blocky
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
    structure; very hard, firm, very sticky, moderately
    plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine pores;                         Composition
    common fine seams and nests of gypsum
                                                           Major Components
    crystals; common fine masses of lime; violently
                                                           Daglum and similar soils: 85 percent
    effervescent; strongly alkaline.
                                                           Minor Components
             Range in Characteristics                      Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                           Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 15 inches
                                                           Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
Taxonomic note: Daglum soil, as used in Carter
                                                               2 percent
    County, is a taxadjunct to the series. It classifies
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 4 percent: 0 to
    as Fine, montmorillonitic Aridic Natriborolls. Use
                                                               2 percent
    and management is similar.
                                                           Somewhat poorly drained soils: 0 to 2 percent
A horizon
                                                                    Major Component Description
   Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
   Clay content: 18 to 26 percent                          Surface layer texture: Loam
   Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.3                                 Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
E horizon
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Value: 4, 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                           Flooding: None
   Chroma: 1 or 2
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Clay content: 18 to 26 percent
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.3
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
Btn horizons
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                         A typical soil description with range in
    Value: 3, 4, 5, or 6 dry; 2, 3, 4, or 5 moist          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    Chroma: 2 or 3                                         in this section.
    Texture: Clay, silty clay, silty clay loam, or clay
                                                                               Management
       loam
    Clay content: 35 to 60 percent                           For management information about this map unit,
    Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm               see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
    Sodium adsorption ratio: 10 to 20
    Reaction: pH 6.1 to 9.0
                                                           Dast Series
Bky horizon
   Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y                                         Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, 5, or 6 moist              Drainage class: Well drained
   Chroma: 1 to 4                                          Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
   Texture: Clay loam, silty clay, silty clay loam, or         hour)
      clay                                                 Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
   Clay content: 35 to 60 percent                          Parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent               sedimentary beds
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                 81




Slope range: 4 to 60 percent                                  Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                           pebbles
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed frigid Typic
                                                          Bk horizon
   Ustochrepts
                                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                   Typical Pedon                              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
Dast sandy loam, in an area of Dast-Ridge-Rock
                                                              Texture: Fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam
outcrop complex, 35 to 60 percent slopes, in an area
                                                              Clay content: 2 to 18 percent
of forestland, 200 feet south and 1,400 feet east of
                                                              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
the northwest corner of sec. 17, T. 3 S., R. 62 E.
                                                                pebbles
Oi—1 inch to 0; slightly decomposed forest litter.            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
A—0 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)               Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
   moist; weak fine granular structure; soft, very
   friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; many very fine         125F—Dast-Ridge-Rock outcrop complex,
   roots; slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.          35 to 60 percent slopes
Bw—5 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;                              Setting
   weak coarse prismatic structure; soft, very friable,
                                                          Landform:
   nonsticky, nonplastic; many very fine roots; few
                                                          • Dast—Hills
   very fine pores; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy
                                                          • Ridge—Hills
   boundary.
                                                          • Rock outcrop—Hills
Bk—13 to 28 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sandy
                                                          Position on landform:
   loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak
                                                          • Dast—Backslopes
   coarse prismatic structure; soft, very friable,
                                                          • Ridge—Summits
   nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine roots;
                                                          • Rock outcrop—Shoulders and summits
   few fine pores; 30 percent soft channers; few fine
                                                          Slope:
   masses of lime; violently effervescent; moderately
                                                          • Dast—35 to 60 percent
   alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                          • Ridge—35 to 60 percent
Cr—28 to 60 inches; white (2.5Y 8/2)
                                                          Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   semiconsolidated, sandy sedimentary beds that
   crush to fine sandy loam; light gray (2.5Y 7/2)                           Composition
   moist.
                                                          Major Components
            Range in Characteristics                      Dast and similar soils: 30 percent
                                                          Ridge and similar soils: 30 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                          Rock outcrop: 25 percent
Depth to the Bk horizon: 13 to 24 inches
Depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 inches                         Minor Components
                                                          Moderately deep loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
A horizon
                                                          Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                              4 percent
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                          Soils that have slopes less than 35 percent: 0 to
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                              4 percent
   Clay content: 2 to 18 percent
                                                          Soils with flagstones: 0 to 3 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
       pebbles                                                     Major Component Description
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                          Dast
Bw horizon                                                Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                 Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                        Drainage class: Well drained
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                         Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
   Texture: Fine sandy loam, sandy loam, or loam              sedimentary beds
   Clay content: 2 to 18 percent                          Native plant cover type: Forestland
82                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Flooding: None                                                      Major Component Description
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches
                                                           Dast
                                                           Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Ridge
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               sedimentary beds
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                           Native plant cover type: Forestland
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Flooding: None
Native plant cover type: Forestland
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
                                                           Vebar
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Rock outcrop
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Definition: Consolidated sandstone
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                               sedimentary beds
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Native plant cover type: Forestland
in this section.
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management                             Available water capacity: Mainly 3.4 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.

225E—Dast-Vebar complex,                                                       Management
   15 to 35 percent slopes                                   For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                                  225F—Dast-Vebar complex,
• Dast—Hills                                                  35 to 60 percent slopes
• Vebar—Hills
Slope:                                                                             Setting
• Dast—15 to 35 percent
                                                           Landform:
• Vebar—15 to 35 percent
                                                           • Dast—Hills
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                           • Vebar—Hills
                                                           Slope:
                    Composition
                                                           • Dast—35 to 60 percent
Major Components                                           • Vebar—35 to 50 percent
Dast and similar soils: 50 percent                         Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
Vebar and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                                               Composition
Minor Components
                                                           Major Components
Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Dast and similar soils: 50 percent
Noncalcareous soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Vebar and similar soils: 35 percent
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent
Sandy textured soils: 0 to 3 percent                       Minor Components
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to             Shallow sandy soils: 0 to 4 percent
    1 percent                                              Shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    83




Noncalcareous soils: 0 to 3 percent                                            Composition
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Major Components
Soils that have slopes less than 35 percent: 0 to
                                                           Dast and similar soils: 35 percent
    2 percent
                                                           Cabba and similar soils: 30 percent
         Major Component Description                       Mowbray and similar soils: 20 percent
Dast                                                       Minor Components
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                          Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Drainage class: Well drained                                   3 percent
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          Soils that have slopes less than 15 percent: 0 to
    sedimentary beds                                           3 percent
Native plant cover type: Forestland                        Soils that have slopes more than 35 percent: 0 to
Flooding: None                                                 3 percent
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches                Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Vebar
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Dast
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Drainage class: Well drained                               Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy          Drainage class: Well drained
    sedimentary beds                                       Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
Native plant cover type: Forestland                            sedimentary beds
Flooding: None                                             Native plant cover type: Forestland
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.4 inches                Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Cabba
in this section.                                           Surface layer texture: Very stony loam
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                    Management
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                               sedimentary beds
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
325E—Dast-Cabba-Mowbray complex,                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
   15 to 35 percent slopes
                                                           Mowbray
                                                           Surface layer texture: Very channery loam
                        Setting
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Landform:                                                  Drainage class: Well drained
• Dast—Hills                                               Dominant parent material: Colluvium
• Cabba—Hills                                              Native plant cover type: Forestland
• Mowbray—Hills                                            Flooding: None
Slope:                                                     Available water capacity: Mainly 4.4 inches
• Dast—15 to 35 percent, north aspect
• Cabba—15 to 35 percent, south aspect                        A typical soil description with range in
• Mowbray—15 to 35 percent, north aspect                   characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                 in this section.
84                                                                                                     Soil Survey




                    Management                             Other features: In areas that are cultivated, slight to
                                                              strong effervescence may result from mixing the
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              A and Bw horizons.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           A horizon
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Delpoint Series                                               Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                              Clay content: 20 to 27 percent
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy                   Bw horizon
    sedimentary beds                                          Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Slope range: 2 to 25 percent                                  Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                         Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                              Texture: Loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed, frigid Aridic             Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
   Ustochrepts                                                Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                                pebbles
                   Typical Pedon
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
Delpoint loam, in an area of Delpoint-Cabbart
                                                           Bk horizon
complex, 8 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
rangeland, 1,700 feet south and 900 feet west of
                                                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
the northeast corner of sec. 16, T. 6 S., R. 59 E.
                                                               Chroma: 2 to 4
A—0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,                Texture: Loam, sandy loam, clay loam, or silty
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate                 clay loam
   fine and medium granular structure; slightly hard,          Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
   friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very       Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
   fine and fine roots; many very fine pores; slightly           pebbles
   alkaline; clear wavy boundary.                              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Bw—5 to 19 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)              Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; weak
   medium prismatic structure parting to moderate
   fine and medium subangular blocky; hard, friable,       71C—Delpoint loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes
   slightly sticky, moderately plastic; many very fine
   and fine roots; many very fine pores;                                          Setting
   disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains
   moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
                                                           Slope: 2 to 8 percent
Bk—19 to 29 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate fine
   subangular blocky structure; hard, friable,                                 Composition
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; common
                                                           Major Components
   very fine and fine roots; few fine and common
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 85 percent
   very fine pores; common fine and medium
   masses of lime; violently effervescent; moderately      Minor Components
   alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.                      Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Cr—29 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3)             Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   semiconsolidated, loamy sedimentary beds that           Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   crush to loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3) moist.             Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Archin and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
             Range in Characteristics
                                                                    Major Component Description
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 20 inches                   Surface layer texture: Loam
Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches                   Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    85




Drainage class: Well drained                               Flooding: None
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy          Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Cabbart
Flooding: None                                             Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches                Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   A typical soil description with range in                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            sedimentary beds
in this section.                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
171C—Delpoint-Cabbart complex,                                                 Management
   2 to 8 percent slopes
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                                  171D—Delpoint-Cabbart complex,
• Delpoint—Sedimentary plains                                 8 to 15 percent slopes
• Cabbart—Sedimentary plains
Position on landform:
                                                                                   Setting
• Delpoint—Backslopes
• Cabbart—Shoulders and summits                            Landform:
Slope:                                                     • Delpoint—Hills
• Delpoint—2 to 8 percent                                  • Cabbart—Hills
• Cabbart—2 to 8 percent                                   Position on landform:
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 • Delpoint—Backslopes
                                                           • Cabbart—Shoulders and summits
                    Composition
                                                           Slope:
Major Components                                           • Delpoint—8 to 15 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 60 percent                     • Cabbart—8 to 15 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 30 percent                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Minor Components                                                               Composition
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Major Components
Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 50 percent
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 35 percent
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 1 percent                   Minor Components
Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to           Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
    1 percent                                              Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                           Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
Delpoint                                                   Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
Surface layer texture: Loam                                    3 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                                    Major Component Description
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy          Delpoint
    sedimentary beds                                       Surface layer texture: Loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
86                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Drainage class: Well drained                                        Major Component Description
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Delpoint
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Flooding: None
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                               sedimentary beds
Cabbart
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Silt loam
                                                           Flooding: None
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.7 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Yamacall
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Flooding: None
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Flooding: None
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches
in this section.
                    Management                                A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           in this section.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                               Management
271D—Delpoint-Yamacall loams,                                For management information about this map unit,
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                  see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


                        Setting                            DA—Denied access
Landform:
• Delpoint—Hills                                                               Composition
• Yamacall—Hills
                                                           Major Components
Position on landform:
                                                           Denied access: 100 percent
• Delpoint—Backslopes and shoulders
• Yamacall—Footslopes and toeslopes                                 Major Component Description
Slope:
                                                           Definition: Areas where soil mapping access was
• Delpoint—8 to 15 percent
                                                               denied by the landowner
• Yamacall—8 to 15 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition                            Eapa Series
Major Components
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Delpoint and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Yamacall and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
Minor Components                                           Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Parent material: Alluvium
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Slope range: 0 to 15 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 3 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to          Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Aridic
    1 percent                                                 Argiborolls
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                         87




                     Typical Pedon                                  Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                                    Texture: Loam or clay loam
Eapa loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                                    Clay content: 24 to 34 percent
cropland, 300 feet north and 300 feet east of the
                                                                    Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
southwest corner of sec. 16, T. 3 S., R. 61 E.
                                                                Bk horizon
Ap—0 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
                                                                    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
                                                                    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
                                                                    Chroma: 1 to 4
   slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;
                                                                    Texture: Loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam
   many very fine roots; common very fine pores;
                                                                    Clay content: 18 to 30 percent
   neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                                    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Bt1—8 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,
                                                                    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium
   prismatic structure parting to strong fine and
   medium subangular blocky; very hard, friable,
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few fine              84A—Eapa loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
   and many very fine roots; many very fine pores;
   common faint clay films on faces of peds and in                                      Setting
   pores; neutral; gradual wavy boundary.
                                                                Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Bt2—13 to 24 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay
                                                                Slope: 0 to 2 percent
   loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium
                                                                Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   prismatic structure parting to strong medium
   subangular blocky; extremely hard, firm, very                                    Composition
   sticky, very plastic; common very fine roots; few
                                                                Major Components
   very fine pores; common faint clay films on faces
                                                                Eapa and similar soils: 85 percent
   of peds and in pores; slightly alkaline; gradual
   wavy boundary.                                               Minor Components
Bk—24 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3)                  Ethridge and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium                Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   subangular blocky structure; hard, friable, very             Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
   sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few             3 percent
   very fine tubular pores; many fine and medium                Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   masses of lime; strongly effervescent; moderately            Soils that have slopes more than 2 percent: 0 to
   alkaline.                                                        2 percent
                                                                Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent
              Range in Characteristics
                                                                         Major Component Description
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
Depth to the Bk horizon: 15 to 30 inches                        Surface layer texture: Loam
Soil phases: Warm                                               Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Taxonomic note: Map unit 603C is a taxadjunct to the            Drainage class: Well drained
    Eapa series because the average soil                        Dominant parent material: Alluvium
    temperature is greater than 47 degrees F.                   Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                                Flooding: None
Ap horizon
                                                                Available water capacity: Mainly 11.1 inches
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 4 or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
                                                                   A typical soil description with range in
   Chroma: 1 or 2
                                                                characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Clay content: 20 to 30 percent
                                                                in this section.
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
                                                                                    Management
Bt horizons
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                             For management information about this map unit,
    Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist                         see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
88                                                                                                      Soil Survey




84C—Eapa loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes                       Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Soils that have slopes less than 8 percent: 0 to
                                                               3 percent
                        Setting
                                                                    Major Component Description
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                      Surface layer texture: Loam
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                    Composition
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Major Components                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Eapa and similar soils: 85 percent                         Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 11.1 inches
Minor Components
Ethridge and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           in this section.
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
    3 percent                                                                  Management
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
         Major Component Description                       see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Surface layer texture: Loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               167C—Eapa-Yamacall loams,
Drainage class: Well drained                                  2 to 8 percent slopes
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                                                   Setting
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 11.1 inches               Landform:
                                                           • Eapa—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   A typical soil description with range in                • Yamacall—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Slope:
in this section.                                           • Eapa—2 to 8 percent
                                                           • Yamacall—2 to 8 percent
                    Management
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                                               Composition
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Eapa and similar soils: 45 percent
84D—Eapa loam, 8 to 15 percent slopes                      Yamacall and similar soils: 40 percent
                                                           Minor Components
                        Setting                            Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Slope: 8 to 15 percent
                                                           Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
                    Composition                                1 percent
Major Components                                                    Major Component Description
Eapa and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Eapa
Minor Components                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Kremlin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Drainage class: Well drained
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            Dominant parent material: Alluvium
    3 percent                                              Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    89




Flooding: None                                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 11.1 inches               Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 11.1 inches
Yamacall
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Archin
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Surface layer texture: Loam
Drainage class: Well drained                               Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Drainage class: Well drained
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Flooding: None                                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches                Flooding: None
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   A typical soil description with range in                Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Available water capacity: Mainly 7.0 inches
in this section.
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
                    Management
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
  For management information about this map unit,          in this section.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                               Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
184C—Eapa-Archin loams,                                    see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   2 to 8 percent slopes

                        Setting                            603C—Eapa loam, warm,
Landform:                                                     1 to 6 percent slopes
• Eapa—Alluvial fans
• Archin—Alluvial fans
                                                                                   Setting
Slope:
• Eapa—2 to 8 percent                                      Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Archin—2 to 8 percent                                    Slope: 1 to 6 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition                                                Composition
Major Components                                           Major Components
Eapa and similar soils: 45 percent                         Eapa and similar soils: 85 percent
Archin and similar soils: 40 percent
                                                           Minor Components
Minor Components                                           Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                    Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to             Soils that have slopes more than 6 percent: 0 to
    3 percent                                                  3 percent
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                 Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
Soils that have slopes less than 2 percent: 0 to
                                                                    Major Component Description
    2 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
         Major Component Description
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Eapa                                                       Drainage class: Well drained
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Drainage class: Well drained                               Flooding: None
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Available water capacity: Mainly 11.1 inches
90                                                                                                      Soil Survey




   A typical soil description with range in                    moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few very
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            fine pores; common fine masses of lime; strongly
in this section.                                               effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
                                                               boundary.
                    Management
                                                            Bky—29 to 60 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)
                                                               clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 4/4) moist; weak
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                               coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                               moderately sticky, slightly plastic; few very fine
                                                               roots; few very fine pores; few very fine masses,
Ethridge Series                                                common threads and seams of lime; few fine
                                                               seams of gypsum; violently effervescent; strongly
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                   alkaline.
Drainage class: Well drained
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)                               Range in Characteristics
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                            Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 14 inches
Slope range: 0 to 15 percent
                                                            Taxonomic note: Map unit 626C is a taxadjunct to
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                the Ethridge series in order to join soils that
                                                                have an average soil temperature greater than
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Aridic
                                                                47 degrees F.
   Argiborolls
                                                            A horizon
                   Typical Pedon
                                                               Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Ethridge loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of            Value: 2 or 3 moist
rangeland, 2,300 feet south and 2,500 feet east of             Chroma: 2 or 3
the northwest corner of sec. 24, T. 6 S., R. 55 E.             Texture: Loam or silty clay loam
                                                               Clay content: 20 to 35 percent
A—0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
                                                               Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak
                                                               Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
   medium subangular blocky structure parting to
   moderate medium granular; slightly hard, friable,        Bt horizons
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and coarse       Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   and common very fine roots; many very fine                   Value: 3 or 4 moist
   pores; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary.                   Chroma: 2 to 4
Bt1—6 to 14 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay,              Texture: Clay, silty clay, clay loam, or silty clay
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; moderate                   loam
   medium subangular blocky structure parting to                Clay content: 35 to 45 percent
   moderate fine angular blocky; hard, firm,                    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; common                Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
   very fine and fine roots; common very fine pores;
                                                            Bk horizon
   continuous distinct clay films on faces of peds,
                                                                Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   continuous prominent clay films in pores; neutral;
                                                                Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   clear wavy boundary.
                                                                Chroma: 2 to 4
Bt2—14 to 24 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) clay,
                                                                Texture: Silty clay loam, loam, or clay loam
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; moderate
                                                                Clay content: 25 to 40 percent
   medium prismatic structure parting to moderate
                                                                Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   fine subangular blocky; very hard, firm, very
                                                                Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   sticky, moderately plastic; common very fine
                                                                Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   roots; few very fine pores; common faint clay films
   on faces of peds, common distinct clay films in          Bky horizon
   pores; neutral; clear wavy boundary.                        Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Bk—24 to 29 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)             Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;                  Chroma: 2 to 4
   moderate fine and medium subangular blocky                  Texture: Clay loam, silt loam, loam, or silty clay
   structure; hard, firm, moderately sticky,                      loam
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    91




    Clay content: 25 to 40 percent                                             Composition
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
                                                           Major Components
    Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm
                                                           Ethridge and similar soils: 85 percent
    Sodium adsorption ratio: 1 to 5
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent          Minor Components
    Gypsum content: 1 to 3 percent                         Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                                Marias and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Soils with silty clay loam surfaces: 0 to 3 percent
66C—Ethridge silty clay loam,                              Soils that have slopes more than 2 percent: 0 to
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                       1 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
                        Setting                            Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                    Composition                            Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 9.8 inches
Major Components
Ethridge and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Minor Components                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     in this section.
Archin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                                               Management
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                   For management information about this map unit,
Soils that have darker colored surface layers: 0 to        see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
    2 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                           85C—Ethridge loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                                                   Setting
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Slope: 2 to 8 percent
Flooding: None                                             Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches
                                                                               Composition
   A typical soil description with range in                Major Components
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Ethridge and similar soils: 85 percent
in this section.
                                                           Minor Components
                    Management                             Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Marias and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Soils with silty clay loam surfaces: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
85A—Ethridge loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes                       3 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
                        Setting
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Slope: 0 to 2 percent                                      Drainage class: Well drained
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Dominant parent material: Alluvium
92                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Drainage class: Well drained
Flooding: None                                             Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.8 inches                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
   A typical soil description with range in                Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
in this section.                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
                    Management
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
  For management information about this map unit,          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   in this section.
                                                                               Management
185A—Ethridge-Daglum complex,                                For management information about this map unit,
   0 to 4 percent slopes                                   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


                        Setting
                                                           626C—Ethridge silty clay loam, warm,
Landform:                                                     2 to 8 percent slopes
• Ethridge—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Daglum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                                                   Setting
Slope:
• Ethridge—0 to 4 percent                                  Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Daglum—0 to 4 percent                                    Slope: 2 to 8 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition                                                Composition
Major Components                                           Major Components
Ethridge and similar soils: 50 percent                     Ethridge and similar soils: 85 percent
Daglum and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           Minor Components
Minor Components                                           Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                     Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Archin and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
    2 percent                                                  2 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 4 percent: 0 to
                                                                    Major Component Description
    2 percent
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent                        Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
         Major Component Description
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Ethridge                                                   Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Flooding: None
Drainage class: Well drained                               Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            A typical soil description with range in
Flooding: None                                             characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.8 inches                in this section.
                                                                               Management
Daglum
Surface layer texture: Loam                                  For management information about this map unit,
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                      93




Gerdrum Series                                                    few very fine pores; common fine nests and
                                                                  seams of gypsum crystals; few fine seams and
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                      threads of other salts; many fine masses of lime;
Drainage class: Well drained                                      strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline; gradual
Permeability: Very slow (less than 0.06 inch/hour)                wavy boundary.
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                    Bknyz2—38 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR
Parent material: Alluvium                                         6/2) clay, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist;
Slope range: 0 to 9 percent                                       massive; hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; few
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                             very fine roots; common fine nests and seams of
                                                                  gypsum crystals; few fine seams and threads of
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Typic                     other salts; many fine masses of lime; strongly
   Natriboralfs                                                   effervescent; strongly alkaline.
                    Typical Pedon                                          Range in Characteristics
Gerdrum clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
of rangeland, 1,800 feet north and 1,000 feet east of          Depth to the Btkn horizon: 10 to 24 inches
the southwest corner of sec. 12, T. 3 N., R. 55 E.             Soil phases: Warm
                                                               Taxonomic note: Map units 602C, 611B, and 611D
A—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                                   are taxadjuncts to the Gerdrum series in order to
    loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
                                                                   join soils that have an average soil temperature
    moderate medium granular structure; soft, very
                                                                   greater than 47 degrees F.
    friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and
    many very fine roots; slightly alkaline; clear             A horizon
    smooth boundary.                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
E—2 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)                   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;                    Chroma: 2 or 3
    strong thin platy structure parting to strong fine            Texture: Clay loam when mixed to 7 inches
    granular; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky,            Clay content: 10 to 25 percent
    slightly plastic; few fine and many very fine roots;          Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
    common very fine and fine pores; slightly                         pebbles
    alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.                             Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
Btn—4 to 14 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay,
                                                               E horizon
    dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; strong
                                                                  Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    medium columnar structure parting to strong
                                                                  Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
    medium and coarse subangular blocky; extremely
                                                                  Chroma: 2 or 3
    hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine and
                                                                  Clay content: 10 to 25 percent
    many very fine roots; few fine and common very
                                                                  Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
    fine pores; continuous distinct clay films on faces
                                                                      pebbles
    of peds and in pores; strongly alkaline; clear
                                                                  Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
    smooth boundary.
Btkn—14 to 26 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)           Btn horizon
    clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;                     Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    moderate medium prismatic structure parting to                 Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    strong medium subangular blocky; slightly hard,                Chroma: 2 to 4
    firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few               Texture: Clay, silty clay, or silty clay loam
    fine and common very fine roots; few very fine                 Clay content: 35 to 55 percent
    and fine pores; many faint clay films on faces of              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent
    peds, many distinct clay films in pores; few fine                 pebbles
    masses of lime; strongly effervescent; strongly                Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
    alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.                               Sodium adsorption ratio: 10 to 20; pedons with
Bknyz1—26 to 38 inches; light brownish gray (10YR                     sodium adsorption ratio of less than 13 have
    6/2) clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;                   more exchangeable magnesium plus sodium
    weak coarse subangular blocky structure; hard,                    than calcium plus exchange acidity at pH 8.2.
    firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very fine roots;          Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
94                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Btkn horizon                                              Dominant parent material: Alluvium
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist               Flooding: None
    Chroma: 2 or 3                                        Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
    Texture: Clay, silty clay, silty clay loam, or clay   Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
       loam                                               Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
    Clay content: 30 to 50 percent
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent               A typical soil description with range in
       pebbles                                            characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent         in this section.
    Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
                                                                              Management
    Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
    Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0                                 For management information about this map unit,
                                                          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Bknyz horizons
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   Value: 4, 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                         65C—Gerdrum clay loam,
   Textures: Clay loam, sandy clay loam, clay, or            2 to 8 percent slopes
      silty clay
   Clay content: 10 to 50 percent                                                 Setting
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent
                                                          Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
      pebbles
                                                          Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20                                          Composition
   Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
                                                          Major Components
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
                                                          Gerdrum and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                          Minor Components
65A—Gerdrum clay loam,                                    Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   0 to 2 percent slopes                                  Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                          Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                          Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                        Setting                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                        Major Component Description
Slope: 0 to 2 percent
                                                          Surface layer texture: Clay loam
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                     Composition                          Drainage class: Well drained
                                                          Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Major Components
                                                          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Gerdrum and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                          Flooding: None
Minor Components                                          Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                     A typical soil description with range in
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent                       characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                          in this section.
          Major Component Description
                                                                              Management
Surface layer texture: Clay loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                For management information about this map unit,
Drainage class: Well drained                              see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                               95




165A—Gerdrum-Absher complex,                                              Management
   0 to 2 percent slopes                                For management information about this map unit,
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                             165C—Gerdrum-Absher complex,
• Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces              2 to 8 percent slopes
• Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Position on landform:                                                         Setting
• Gerdrum—Microhighs
                                                      Landform:
• Absher—Microlows
                                                      • Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope:
                                                      • Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Gerdrum—0 to 2 percent
                                                      Position on landform:
• Absher—0 to 2 percent
                                                      • Gerdrum—Microhighs
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                      • Absher—Microlows
                    Composition                       Slope:
                                                      • Gerdrum—2 to 8 percent
Major Components
                                                      • Absher—2 to 8 percent
Gerdrum and similar soils: 60 percent
                                                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Absher and similar soils: 30 percent
                                                                          Composition
Minor Components
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent            Major Components
Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent               Gerdrum and similar soils: 60 percent
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent              Absher and similar soils: 30 percent
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                      Minor Components
                                                      Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                      Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Gerdrum                                               Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Surface layer texture: Clay loam                      Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                               Major Component Description
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                    Gerdrum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                    Surface layer texture: Clay loam
Flooding: None                                        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                Drainage class: Well drained
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                      Flooding: None
Absher                                                Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Surface layer texture: Clay                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)          Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                    Absher
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                    Surface layer texture: Clay
Flooding: None                                        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                      Flooding: None
   A typical soil description with range in           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,   Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
in this section.                                      Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches
96                                                                                                      Soil Survey




   A typical soil description with range in                Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
in this section.                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches
                    Management
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
  For management information about this map unit,          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   in this section.
                                                                               Management
611B—Gerdrum-Absher complex, warm,                           For management information about this map unit,
   0 to 3 percent slopes                                   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


                        Setting
                                                           611D—Gerdrum-Absher complex, warm,
Landform:                                                     3 to 9 percent slopes
• Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                                                   Setting
Position on landform:
• Gerdrum—Microhighs                                       Landform:
• Absher—Microlows                                         • Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope:                                                     • Absher—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Gerdrum—0 to 3 percent                                   Position on landform:
• Absher—0 to 3 percent                                    • Gerdrum—Microhighs
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 • Absher—Microlows
                                                           Slope:
                    Composition
                                                           • Gerdrum—3 to 9 percent
Major Components                                           • Absher—3 to 9 percent
Gerdrum and similar soils: 60 percent                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Absher and similar soils: 30 percent
                                                                               Composition
Minor Components
                                                           Major Components
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Gerdrum and similar soils: 60 percent
Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Absher and similar soils: 30 percent
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                   Minor Components
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                           Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Gerdrum                                                    Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Surface layer texture: Clay loam                           Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                                    Major Component Description
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Gerdrum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Surface layer texture: Clay loam
Flooding: None                                             Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Drainage class: Well drained
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
Absher                                                     Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Surface layer texture: Clay                                Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Absher
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Surface layer texture: Clay
Flooding: None                                             Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                 97




Drainage class: Moderately well drained                       nonplastic; few very fine and fine roots; few thin
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            strata of loamy sand; disseminated lime; strongly
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy
Flooding: None                                                boundary.
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     C3—36 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       stratified fine sandy loam and loamy fine sand,
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches                   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; massive;
                                                              soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
   A typical soil description with range in                   disseminated lime; strongly effervescent; slightly
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           alkaline.
in this section.
                                                                       Range in Characteristics
                    Management
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
  For management information about this map unit,          Soil phases: Saline
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           A horizon
                                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                              Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
Glendive Series                                               Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                              Clay content: 5 to 15 percent
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm; saline
Drainage class: Well drained or moderately well
                                                                  phase: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
    drained
                                                              Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 5; saline phase:
Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
                                                                  13 to 70
    hour)
                                                              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 0 to 5 percent
Landform: Flood plains
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 9.0
Parent material: Alluvium
Slope range: 0 to 4 percent                                C1 and C2 horizons
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                         Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed                          Chroma: 2 to 4
   (calcareous), frigid Aridic Ustifluvents                   Texture: Loam, silt loam, sandy loam, or fine
                                                                 sandy loam
                   Typical Pedon
                                                              Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
Glendive sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an             Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
area of rangeland, 1,850 feet south and 100 feet west            pebbles
of the northeast corner of sec. 36, T. 3 S., R. 61 E.         Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline
                                                                 phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
A—0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy
                                                              Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 5; saline phase:
   loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
                                                                 13 to 70
   weak thin platy structure parting to weak fine
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   granular; soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
   common very fine roots; few fine and common             C3 horizon
   very fine pores; slightly alkaline; gradual smooth         Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   boundary.                                                  Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
C1—4 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)             Chroma: 2 to 4
   fine sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)             Texture: Sandy loam or fine sandy loam
   moist; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;               consisting of thin layers of loam, sandy loam,
   soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine           silt loam, loamy sand, loamy fine sand, and
   and common very fine roots; few very fine and                 occasionally clay loam
   fine pores; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy                Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
   boundary.                                                  Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
C2—18 to 36 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)               pebbles
   fine sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)             Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline
   moist; massive; soft, very friable, nonsticky,                phase: 8 to 32 mmhos/cm
98                                                                                                      Soil Survey




     Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 5; saline phase:        Minor Components
       13 to 70                                            Havre and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
     Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                               Ryell and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Hanly and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 2 percent
61A—Glendive sandy loam,                                   Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 2 percent
   0 to 2 percent slopes                                            Major Component Description
                                                           Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
                        Setting
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Landform: Flood plains                                     Drainage class: Moderately well drained
Slope: 0 to 2 percent                                      Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: Rare
                    Composition
                                                           Water table: Apparent
Major Components                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Glendive and similar soils: 85 percent                     Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.7 inches
Minor Components
Havre and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Hanly and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Ryell and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           in this section.
Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 2 percent
Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 1 percent                            Management
          Major Component Description                        For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Hanly Series
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Flooding: Rare                                             Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.8 inches                Permeability: Rapid (6.0 to 20.0 inches/hour)
                                                           Landform: Flood plains
   A typical soil description with range in                Parent material: Alluvium
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Slope range: 0 to 4 percent
in this section.                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Management
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Sandy, mixed, frigid Aridic
  For management information about this map unit,             Ustifluvents
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                              Typical Pedon
                                                           Hanly fine sandy loam, in an area of Hanly-Ryell fine
161B—Glendive sandy loam, saline,                          sandy loams, 0 to 4 percent slopes, in an area of
   0 to 4 percent slopes                                   cropland, 2,400 feet north and 1,000 feet west of the
                                                           southeast corner of sec. 5, T. 2 N., R. 58 E.
                        Setting
                                                           Ap—0 to 6 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) fine
Landform: Flood plains                                        sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Slope: 0 to 4 percent                                         weak medium granular structure; soft, very
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                    friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common fine and
                                                              many very fine roots; slightly alkaline; abrupt
                    Composition
                                                              smooth boundary.
Major Components                                           C1—6 to 15 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine
Glendive and similar soils: 85 percent                        sandy loam consisting of thin strata of sandy
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                  99




   loam and loamy sand, dark grayish brown (2.5Y                             Composition
   4/2) moist; weak medium subangular blocky
                                                         Major Components
   structure parting to weak fine granular; soft, very
                                                         Hanly and similar soils: 50 percent
   friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine
                                                         Ryell and similar soils: 35 percent
   roots; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
   boundary.                                             Minor Components
C2—15 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)       Havre and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent
   loamy sand consisting of thin strata of loamy fine    Glendive and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent
   sand and sand, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)          Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 3 percent
   moist; single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic;    Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 2 percent
   few very fine roots; disseminated lime; slightly
                                                                  Major Component Description
   effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
   boundary.                                             Hanly
C3—30 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) loamy sand     Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   consisting of thin strata of loamy fine sand and      Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   sand, light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) moist; single    Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained
   grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; disseminated     Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   lime; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline.     Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                         Flooding: Rare
            Range in Characteristics
                                                         Available water capacity: Mainly 5.9 inches
Ap horizon
                                                         Ryell
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                         Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
   Clay content: 10 to 20 percent
                                                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent—0 to
                                                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
      5 percent cobbles; 0 to 10 percent pebbles
                                                         Flooding: Rare
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                         Available water capacity: Mainly 5.7 inches
C horizons
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                   A typical soil description with range in
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist               characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                        in this section.
   Clay content: 5 to 10 percent
                                                                             Management
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent
       pebbles below 40 inches                             For management information about this map unit,
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 1 to 5 percent          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4

                                                         Haploborolls
7B—Hanly-Ryell fine sandy loams,
  0 to 4 percent slopes                                  Depth class: Deep (40 to 60 inches) to very deep
                                                             (more than 60 inches)
                                                         Drainage class: Well drained
                      Setting
                                                         Permeability: Moderately slow (0.2 to 0.6 inch/hour)
Landform:                                                    to moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/hour)
• Hanly—Flood plains                                     Landform: Hills (slump area)
• Ryell—Flood plains                                     Parent material: Alluvium and colluvium
Slope:                                                   Slope range: 15 to 45 percent
• Hanly—0 to 4 percent                                   Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Ryell—0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches               Taxonomic Class: Aridic Haploborolls
100                                                                                                    Soil Survey




                  Typical Pedon                          Bk horizon
                                                             Clay content: 5 to 35 percent
Haploborolls, in an area of Ustochrepts-Haploborolls
                                                             Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
complex, slump, 15 to 45 percent slopes, in an area
                                                             Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
of rangeland, 950 feet north and 50 feet east of the
southwest corner of sec. 8, T. 4 S., R. 60 E.            C horizon
                                                            Clay content: 5 to 35 percent
A—0 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) channery fine
                                                            Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
   moist; weak fine subangular blocky structure; soft,
   very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; many very fine   Harlake Series
   and fine roots; few very fine pores; 20 percent
   channers; slightly alkaline; clear smooth             Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   boundary.                                             Drainage class: Well drained or moderately well
Bw—6 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) channery fine            drained
   sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak         Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
   fine subangular blocky structure; slightly hard,      Landform: Flood plains
   very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic; common     Parent material: Alluvium
   fine and many very fine roots; few very fine pores;   Slope range: 0 to 3 percent
   30 percent channers; disseminated lime; slightly      Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
   boundary.                                             Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic
Bk—13 to 25 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine              (calcareous), frigid Aridic Ustifluvents
   sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate
                                                                            Typical Pedon
   medium subangular blocky structure; slightly
   hard, very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic;      Harlake silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an
   common very fine and fine roots; few very fine        area of rangeland, 1,100 feet north and 650 feet east
   pores; 10 percent channers; 60 percent soft           of the southwest corner of sec. 19, T. 5 S., R. 55 E.
   coarse fragments; few fine and medium masses
                                                         A—0 to 10 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay
   and seams of lime; violently effervescent;
                                                            loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
   moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
                                                            moderate medium subangular blocky structure
C—25 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine
                                                            parting to moderate fine and medium granular;
   sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                            hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; common very
   moist; weak coarse subangular blocky structure;
                                                            fine roots; few very fine pores; moderately
   slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
                                                            alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
   40 percent soft coarse fragments; disseminated
                                                         C1—10 to 27 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   lime; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline.
                                                            silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                            moist; strong medium subangular blocky
            Range in Characteristics
                                                            structure parting to moderate fine and medium
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches            granular; hard, very firm, very sticky, very plastic;
Rock fragments in the control section: 0 to 35 percent      common very fine roots; few very fine pores;
    channers or flagstones                                  disseminated lime; slightly effervescent;
Soft coarse fragments in the control section: 0 to          moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
    80 percent                                           C2—27 to 40 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Depth to calcium carbonate: 0 to 35 inches                  silty clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
Other features: Rock fragments occur in the upper           massive; hard, very firm, very sticky, moderately
    portion of the profile; soft coarse fragments           plastic; few very fine roots; few thin strata of clay
    commonly increase with depth.                           loam; disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
                                                            moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
A horizon
                                                         C3—40 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
                                                            silty clay, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                            massive; hard, very firm, very sticky, moderately
Bw horizon                                                  plastic; few very fine roots; few thin strata of clay
   Clay content: 5 to 18 percent                            loam; disseminated lime; slightly effervescent;
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8                                  moderately alkaline.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                     101




             Range in Characteristics                       57A—Harlake silty clay, saline,
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                           0 to 2 percent slopes
Soil phases: Saline or warm
Taxonomic note: Map units 606B and 608B are                                         Setting
    taxadjuncts to the Harlake series in order to join
                                                            Landform: Flood plains
    soils that have an average soil temperature
                                                            Slope: 0 to 2 percent
    greater than 47 degrees F.
                                                            Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
A horizon
                                                                                Composition
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                      Major Components
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                           Harlake and similar soils: 85 percent
   Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
                                                            Minor Components
   Clay content: 27 to 55 percent
                                                            Havre and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline
                                                            Nonsaline soils: 0 to 5 percent
       phase: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
                                                            Soils with silty clay loam surfaces: 0 to 3 percent
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 8
                                                            Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 2 percent
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 1 to 5 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4                                           Major Component Description
C1 horizon                                                  Surface layer texture: Silty clay
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                   Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Value: 4, 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist                   Drainage class: Moderately well drained
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Texture: Clay; silty clay, or silty clay loam            Native plant cover type: Rangeland
      consisting of stratified layers of clay, silt loam,   Flooding: Rare
      silty clay loam, and silty clay                       Water table: Apparent
   Clay content: 35 to 60 percent                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline         Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
      phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm                               Available water capacity: Mainly 6.8 inches
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 4 to 10; saline phase:
      13 to 30                                                 A typical soil description with range in
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 2 to 10 percent            characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                                  in this section.
C2 and C3 horizons                                                              Management
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                              For management information about this map unit,
   Value: 4, 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                            see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Chroma: 2 or 3
   Texture: Clay; silty clay, or silty clay loam
      consisting of stratified layers of clay, silt loam,
      silty clay loam, and silty clay                       157A—Harlake silty clay loam,
   Clay content: 35 to 60 percent                              0 to 2 percent slopes
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline
      phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
                                                                                    Setting
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 4 to 10; saline phase:
      13 to 30                                              Landform: Flood plains
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 2 to 10 percent            Slope: 0 to 2 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                                  Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
102                                                                                                     Soil Survey




                    Composition                            Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Major Components
                                                           Flooding: Rare
Harlake and similar soils: 90 percent
                                                           Water table: Apparent
Minor Components                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Havre and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Moderately saline soils: 0 to 3 percent                    Available water capacity: Mainly 7.0 inches
Moderately sodic soils: 0 to 2 percent
Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 1 percent           A typical soil description with range in
Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 1 percent            characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
         Major Component Description
                                                                               Management
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                 For management information about this map unit,
Drainage class: Well drained                               see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: Rare                                             608B—Harlake clay, warm,
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.6 inches                   0 to 3 percent slopes

   A typical soil description with range in                                        Setting
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Landform: Flood plains
in this section.
                                                           Slope: 0 to 3 percent
                    Management                             Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
  For management information about this map unit,                              Composition
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Harlake and similar soils: 85 percent
606B—Harlake silty clay loam, warm,                        Minor Components
   saline, 0 to 3 percent slopes                           Havre and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent
                                                           Moderately saline soils: 0 to 3 percent
                        Setting                            Moderately sodic soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 2 percent
Landform: Flood plains
                                                           Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 2 percent
Slope: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                          Major Component Description
                    Composition                            Surface layer texture: Clay
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Major Components
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Harlake and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Minor Components                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Havre and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                    Flooding: Rare
Nonsaline soils: 0 to 4 percent                            Available water capacity: Mainly 9.6 inches
Soils that are noncalcareous throughout: 0 to
    3 percent                                                 A typical soil description with range in
Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 3 percent            characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
         Major Component Description
                                                                               Management
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                 For management information about this map unit,
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                    see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                        103




Havre Series                                                    C1 horizon
                                                                   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                       Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
Drainage class: Well drained or moderately well                    Chroma: 2 or 3
    drained                                                        Texture: Loam, silt loam, or clay loam that consist
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)                       of strata of silt loam, fine sandy loam, silty clay
Landform: Flood plains                                                loam, and clay loam
Parent material: Alluvium                                          Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
Slope range: 0 to 4 percent                                        Calcium carbonate equivalent: 1 to 10 percent
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                              Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline
                                                                      phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed (calcareous),                   Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 4; saline phase:
   frigid Aridic Ustifluvents                                         13 to 30
                                                                   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
                     Typical Pedon
                                                                C2 horizon
Havre loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                                   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
cropland, 2,150 feet south and 750 feet west of
                                                                   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
the northeast corner of sec. 9, T. 5 S., R. 62 E.
                                                                   Chroma: 2 or 3
Ap—0 to 5 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark                      Texture: Loam, silt loam, or clay loam that consist
   grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak very fine                     of strata of silt loam, fine sandy loam, silty clay
   and fine granular structure; soft, very friable,                   loam, and clay loam
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine             Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
   and fine roots; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.                Calcium carbonate equivalent: 1 to 10 percent
C1—5 to 25 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay                Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm; saline
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;                         phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   massive; hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly               Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 4; saline phase:
   plastic; common very fine and fine roots; common                   13 to 30
   very fine and fine pores; disseminated lime;                    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear
   smooth boundary.
C2—25 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam,                 56A—Havre loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; massive;
   slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;
   few very fine roots; few very fine pores; few thin                                   Setting
   strata of fine sandy loam, loam, and clay loam;
   disseminated lime; slightly effervescent;                    Landform: Flood plains
   moderately alkaline.                                         Slope: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
              Range in Characteristics
Soil temperature: 40 to 47 degrees F                                                Composition
Soil phases: Saline
                                                                Major Components
Ap horizon
                                                                Havre and similar soils: 85 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                              Minor Components
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                               Harlake and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Clay content: 15 to 27 percent                               Glendive and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 0 to 5 percent                 Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm; saline                 3 percent
      phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm                                   Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 2 percent
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 4                              Moderately saline soils: 0 to 1 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 9.0                                      Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 1 percent
104                                                                                                     Soil Survey




         Major Component Description                                           Management
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: Rare                                             256A—Havre-Harlake complex,
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches                   0 to 2 percent slopes

   A typical soil description with range in
                                                                                   Setting
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                           Landform:
                                                           • Havre—Flood plains
                    Management
                                                           • Harlake—Flood plains
  For management information about this map unit,          Slope:
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   • Havre—0 to 2 percent
                                                           • Harlake—0 to 2 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
156A—Havre loam, saline,
   0 to 2 percent slopes                                                       Composition
                                                           Major Components
                        Setting
                                                           Havre and similar soils: 50 percent
Landform: Flood plains                                     Harlake and similar soils: 40 percent
Slope: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Minor Components
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Glendive and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Very deep silt loam soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Moderately saline soils: 0 to 2 percent
Major Components
                                                           Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 2 percent
Havre and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 1 percent
Minor Components
Harlake and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                           Major Component Description
Glendive and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Nonsaline soils: 0 to 2 percent                            Havre
Areas of channels with steep slopes: 0 to 2 percent        Surface layer texture: Loam
Soils that are noncalcareous throughout: 0 to              Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
    2 percent                                              Drainage class: Well drained
Poorly drained and ponded soils: 0 to 1 percent            Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
         Major Component Description
                                                           Flooding: Rare
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Moderately well drained                    Harlake
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Flooding: Rare                                             Drainage class: Well drained
Water table: Apparent                                      Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    Flooding: Rare
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.6 inches                Available water capacity: Mainly 9.6 inches

   A typical soil description with range in                   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                           in this section.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                      105




                    Management                                soft shale fragments; 25 percent hard shale
                                                              channers; very strongly acid; clear wavy
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              boundary.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           C3—21 to 28 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                              silty clay, grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
                                                              massive; hard, friable, moderately sticky,
Julin Series                                                  moderately plastic; few very fine roots; 45 percent
                                                              soft shale fragments; 20 percent hard shale
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                              channers; very strongly acid; clear wavy
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              boundary.
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
                                                           Cr—28 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Landform: Hills and sedimentary plains
                                                              semiconsolidated shale, dark grayish brown
Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                              (10YR 4/2) moist; sulphur coats on some shale
Slope range: 6 to 25 percent
                                                              fragments.
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, acid, frigid
                                                           Soil temperature: 44 to 47 degrees F
   Aridic Ustorthents
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
                   Typical Pedon                           Taxonomic note: Map unit 634E is a taxadjunct to
                                                               the Julin series in order to join soils that have
Julin silty clay loam, in an area of Volborg-Julin-Rock
                                                               an average soil temperature greater than
outcrop complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes, in an area
                                                               47 degrees F.
of rangeland, 2,500 feet north and 200 feet west of
the southeast corner of sec. 31, T. 9 S., R. 59 E.         A horizons
                                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
A1—0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                              Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                              Chroma: 1 to 3
   moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
                                                              Clay content: 35 to 40 percent
   structure parting to moderate fine granular;
                                                              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent shale
   slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, moderately
                                                                  fragments—0 to 25 percent soft shale; 0 to
   plastic; many very fine and fine roots; few very
                                                                  10 percent hard shale
   fine and fine pores; 10 percent soft shale
                                                              Reaction: pH 3.6 to 5.5
   fragments, very strongly acid; clear smooth
   boundary.                                               C horizons
A2—3 to 7 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
   moist; moderate medium subangular blocky                   Chroma: 1 to 3
   structure parting to moderate fine granular;               Texture: Silty clay or clay
   slightly hard, friable, moderately sticky,                 Clay content: 40 to 55 percent
   moderately plastic; common very fine and fine              Content of rock fragments: 30 to 85 percent shale
   roots; few very fine pores; 5 percent soft shale               fragments—25 to 60 percent soft shale; 5 to
   fragments; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary.               25 percent hard shale
C1—7 to 15 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)             Reaction: pH 3.6 to 5.5
   silty clay, grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
                                                           Cr horizon
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure
                                                               Material: Semiconsolidated shale
   parting to moderate fine and medium granular;
                                                               Reaction: pH 3.6 to 5.5
   slightly hard, friable, moderately sticky,
   moderately plastic; few fine and common
   very fine roots; few very fine and fine pores;          Kirby Series
   25 percent soft shale fragments; 5 percent hard
   shale channers; very strongly acid; clear smooth        Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   boundary.                                               Drainage class: Excessively drained
C2—15 to 21 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty            Permeability: Rapid (6.0 to 20.0 inches/hour)
   clay, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; hard,            Landform: Hills
   friable, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few     Parent material: Colluvium and residuum from scorio
   very fine roots; few very fine pores; 35 percent            (baked shale and sandstone)
106                                                                                                 Soil Survey




Slope range: 8 to 60 percent                                  Chroma: 3, 4, or 6
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                         Texture: Loam or sandy loam
                                                              Clay content: 8 to 22 percent
Taxonomic Class: Loamy-skeletal over fragmental,              Content of rock fragments: 40 to 90 percent—5 to
   mixed (calcareous), frigid Aridic Ustorthents                20 percent flagstones and cobbles; 35 to
                                                                70 percent channers
                    Typical Pedon
                                                              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Kirby channery loam, in an area of Kirby-Cabbart              Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4
complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                          2C horizon
rangeland, 50 feet north and 2,250 feet west of
                                                             Features: This horizon consists of highly fractured
the southeast corner of sec. 21, T. 1 N., R. 62 E.
                                                                and displaced scorio. The coloring of this
A—0 to 6 inches; reddish brown (5YR 5/3) channery               material ranges from reddish gray (10R 6/1)
   loam, reddish brown (5YR 4/4) moist; weak fine               through yellowish red (5YR 4/6). Rock
   granular structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky,           fragments of stones, flagstones, and channers
   nonplastic; common very fine and fine roots;                 make up 90 to 95 percent of this horizon.
   30 percent channers; disseminated lime; strongly
   effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear wavy
   boundary.                                              176D—Kirby-Cabbart complex,
Bk—6 to 11 inches; light reddish brown (5YR 6/4)             8 to 25 percent slopes
   extremely channery loam, yellowish red (5YR
   4/6) moist; massive; soft, very friable, nonsticky,                          Setting
   nonplastic; common very fine and fine roots
                                                          Landform:
   matted between channers; 70 percent channers
                                                          • Kirby—Hills
   and 5 percent flagstones; common fine masses
                                                          • Cabbart—Hills
   of lime; common distinct lime coats on rock
                                                          Position on landform:
   fragments; disseminated lime; violently
                                                          • Kirby—Shoulders and summits
   effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
                                                          • Cabbart—Backslopes and shoulders
   boundary.
                                                          Slope:
2C—11 to 60 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) hard,
                                                          • Kirby—8 to 25 percent
   shattered and fractured scorio, reddish brown
                                                          • Cabbart—8 to 25 percent
   (5YR 4/4) moist; few fine roots in fractures;
                                                          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   common thin lime coats on lower surfaces of rock
   fragments in the upper few inches.                                        Composition
             Range in Characteristics                     Major Components
                                                          Kirby and similar soils: 50 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                          Cabbart and similar soils: 35 percent
Depth to fragmental material: 11 to 20 inches
Other features: The rock fragments in the Kirby soil      Minor Components
    are called scorio. Scorio is defined as the product   Bonfri and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
    resulting from the baking of shale and sandstone      Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
    bedrock that was adjacent to burning coal beds.       Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                          Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 2 percent
A horizon
                                                          Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 2 percent
   Hue: 5YR or 7.5YR
                                                          Soils that have slopes more than 25 percent: 0 to
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                              2 percent
   Chroma: 3, 4, or 6
   Clay content: 10 to 22 percent                                  Major Component Description
   Content of rock fragments: 15 to 70 percent—0 to
                                                          Kirby
       5 percent flagstones; 15 to 65 percent
                                                          Surface layer texture: Channery loam
       channers
                                                          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                          Drainage class: Excessively drained
Bk horizon                                                Dominant parent material: Material weathered from
    Hue: 2.5YR, 5YR, or 7.5YR                                 baked sandstone and shale
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    107




Flooding: None                                                      Major Component Description
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.3 inches
                                                           Kirby
                                                           Surface layer texture: Channery loam
Cabbart
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Surface layer texture: Silt loam
                                                           Drainage class: Excessively drained
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Dominant parent material: Material weathered from
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               baked sandstone and shale
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Flooding: None
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 1.3 inches
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
                                                           Blacksheep
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
in this section.
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                    Management                                 sedimentary beds
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Flooding: None
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.3 inches

276F—Kirby-Blacksheep-Rock outcrop                         Rock outcrop
   complex, 25 to 60 percent slopes                        Definition: Mainly consolidated baked shale and
                                                               sandstone
                        Setting
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Landform:                                                  characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
• Kirby—Hills                                              in this section.
• Blacksheep—Hills
• Rock outcrop—Hills                                                           Management
Position on landform:
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
• Kirby—Shoulders and summits
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
• Blacksheep—Backslopes and shoulders
Slope:
• Kirby—25 to 60 percent
• Blacksheep—25 to 50 percent                              Kobase Series
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                    Composition                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
Major Components
                                                           Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Kirby and similar soils: 40 percent
                                                           Parent material: Alluvium
Blacksheep and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
Rock outcrop: 15 percent
                                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Minor Components
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                  Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Aridic
Twilight and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                    Ustochrepts
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                              Typical Pedon
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Soils with stony surface layers: 0 to 1 percent            Kobase silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an
Soils that have slopes less than 25 percent: 0 to          area of rangeland, 500 feet north and 300 feet west
     1 percent                                             of the southeast corner of sec. 26, T. 4 S., R. 56 E.
108                                                                                                    Soil Survey




A—0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay          Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak            Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   medium subangular blocky structure parting to
                                                          Bk horizon
   moderate very fine and fine granular; very hard,
                                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   friable, very sticky, moderately plastic; few
                                                              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   medium and common very fine and fine roots;
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
   few very fine, fine, and medium pores; neutral;
                                                              Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
   clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Clay content: 35 to 45 percent
Bw—5 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   silty clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
                                                              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to
                                                              Sodium adsorption ratio: 5 to 10
   strong medium subangular blocky; very hard,
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
   firm, very sticky, very plastic; common very fine
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   and fine roots; few fine and common very fine
   pores; disseminated lime; slightly effervescent;       Bky horizon
   moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Bk—12 to 29 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   silty clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak          Chroma: 1 to 4
   medium and coarse subangular blocky structure;            Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
   extremely hard, firm, moderately sticky, very             Clay content: 35 to 45 percent
   plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine and fine      Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   pores; common fine masses of lime; violently              Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   effervescent; strongly alkaline; gradual wavy             Sodium adsorption ratio: 8 to 13
   boundary.                                                 Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
Bky—29 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)          Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
   clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;                Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   massive; extremely hard, firm, moderately sticky,
   very plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine
   pores; common fine nests of gypsum crystals;           78A—Kobase silty clay loam,
   common fine masses of lime; strongly                      0 to 2 percent slopes
   effervescent; moderately alkaline.
                                                                                  Setting
            Range in Characteristics
                                                          Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                          Slope: 0 to 2 percent
Depth to the Bk horizon: 12 to 17 inches
                                                          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Depth to the Bky horizon: 25 to 40 inches
                                                                              Composition
A horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                      Major Components
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                        Kobase and similar soils: 85 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                          Minor Components
   Clay content: 27 to 40 percent
                                                          Marias and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
                                                          Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
                                                          Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                          Soils with silt loam surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
Bw horizon                                                Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to 3
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                     percent
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                                   Major Component Description
   Chroma: 1 to 4
   Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay          Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
   Clay content: 35 to 45 percent                         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles      Drainage class: Well drained
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent          Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    109




Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
Flooding: None                                             Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches                Parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
   A typical soil description with range in                Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                           Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Aridic
                                                              Haploborolls
                    Management
  For management information about this map unit,                              Typical Pedon
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Kremlin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                           cropland, 1,450 feet north and 1,400 feet east of the
78C—Kobase silty clay loam,                                southwest corner of sec. 9, T. 7 S., R. 55 E.
   2 to 8 percent slopes
                                                           Ap1—0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
                                                              very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak
                        Setting
                                                              fine subangular blocky structure parting to
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                   moderate fine and medium granular; soft, very
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                         friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few medium
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                    and many very fine and fine roots; few very fine
                                                              and fine pores; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
                    Composition
                                                           Ap2—4 to 8 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
Major Components                                              very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
Kobase and similar soils: 85 percent                          moderate thick platy structure parting to
                                                              moderate fine subangular blocky; hard, friable,
Minor Components
                                                              slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few medium and
Marias and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              many very fine and fine roots; few very fine pores;
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Bw—8 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark
Soils with silt loam surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak medium prismatic
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to 3
                                                              structure parting to moderate fine and medium
    percent
                                                              subangular blocky; hard, friable, slightly sticky,
         Major Component Description                          slightly plastic; few fine and common very fine
                                                              roots; few very fine pores; neutral; clear wavy
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                              boundary.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Bk1—13 to 32 inches; gray (10YR 6/2) loam, grayish
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              brown (10YR 5/2) moist; weak fine and medium
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                              subangular blocky structure; hard, very friable,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                              slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few very fine roots;
Flooding: None
                                                              few very fine pores; few fine and medium masses
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.7 inches
                                                              of lime; violently effervescent; moderately
                                                              alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Bk2—32 to 60 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                              loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; slightly
in this section.
                                                              hard, very friable, moderately sticky, moderately
                    Management                                plastic; common fine masses of lime and few
                                                              medium masses of lime; violently effervescent;
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              moderately alkaline.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
Kremlin Series
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 15 inches
Drainage class: Well drained                               Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 24 inches
110                                                                                                  Soil Survey




Ap1 horizon                                             72A—Kremlin loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 2 or 3 moist
                                                                                Setting
   Chroma: 2 or 3
   Clay content: 18 to 27 percent                       Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles    Slope: 0 to 2 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8                              Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Ap2 horizon
                                                                            Composition
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Value: 4 or 5 dry; 3 or 4 moist
                                                        Major Components
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                        Kremlin and similar soils: 85 percent
   Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles    Minor Components
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8                              Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                        Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Bw horizon
                                                        Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                        Busby and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 to 5 moist
                                                        Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 2 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                        Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
   Texture: Loam, silt loam, clay loam, or sandy clay
                                                            2 percent
     loam
   Clay content: 18 to 30 percent
                                                                 Major Component Description
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                        Surface layer texture: Loam
Bk1 horizon                                             Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                    Drainage class: Well drained
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist              Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                       Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Texture: Loam, silt loam, clay loam, or sandy clay   Flooding: None
      loam                                              Available water capacity: Mainly 10.8 inches
   Clay content: 18 to 30 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles       A typical soil description with range in
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm             in this section.
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                                            Management
Bk2 horizon
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                 For management information about this map unit,
   Value: 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist              see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Chroma: 2 to 4
   Texture: Loam, silt loam, clay loam, or sandy clay
      loam consisting of thin layers of different       72C—Kremlin loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes
      textures
   Clay content: 18 to 30 percent
                                                                                Setting
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 12 percent        Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm             Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                              Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    111




                    Composition                            Very deep clayey soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Soils with slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to 2 percent
Major Components
Kremlin and similar soils: 85 percent                               Major Component Description
Minor Components                                           Kremlin
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                     Surface layer texture: Loam
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Drainage class: Well drained
Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 2 percent         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                    Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            Flooding: None
    2 percent                                              Available water capacity: Mainly 10.8 inches
         Major Component Description
                                                           Cabbart
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Surface layer texture: Silt loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                             sedimentary beds
Flooding: None                                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 10.8 inches               Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           A typical soil description with range in
in this section.                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
                    Management
                                                                               Management
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.     For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.

172C—Kremlin-Cabbart complex,
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Marias Series
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                        Setting
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Landform:                                                  Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)
• Kremlin—Alluvial fans                                    Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Cabbart—Sedimentary plains                               Parent material: Alluvium
Slope:                                                     Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
• Kremlin—2 to 8 percent                                   Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Cabbart—2 to 8 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid
                                                              Chromic Udic Haplusterts
                    Composition
                                                                              Typical Pedon
Major Components
Kremlin and similar soils: 50 percent                      Marias silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an
Cabbart and similar soils: 35 percent                      area of rangeland, 1,900 feet north and 350 feet east
                                                           of the southwest corner of sec. 2, T. 8 S., R. 60 E.
Minor Components
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  A—0 to 4 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent                     strong very fine granular structure; soft, friable,
Moderately saline soils: 0 to 2 percent                      moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many very
112                                                                                                    Soil Survey




   fine and fine roots; slightly alkaline; clear smooth       Texture: Clay or silty clay
   boundary.                                                  Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
Bss1—4 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
   silty clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;           Sodium adsorption ratio: 1 to 4
   strong fine and medium subangular blocky                   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
   structure; very hard, firm, moderately sticky, very        Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   plastic; many very fine and fine roots; few very
                                                          Bssy horizon
   fine pores; few slickensides; disseminated lime;
                                                             Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual
                                                             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
   smooth boundary.
                                                             Chroma: 1 to 3
Bss2—10 to 23 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                             Texture: Clay or silty clay
   silty clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                             Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
   strong fine and medium subangular blocky
                                                             Gypsum content: 1 to 6 percent
   structure; very hard, firm, moderately sticky, very
                                                             Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
   plastic; common very fine roots; few very fine
                                                             Sodium adsorption ratio: 4 to 13
   pores; few slickensides; disseminated lime;
                                                             Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
   slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual
                                                             Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   smooth boundary.
Bssy—23 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   silty clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;       94A—Marias silty clay loam,
   massive; very hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic;      0 to 2 percent slopes
   few very fine roots; common distinct slickensides;
   common fine and medium nests and seams of
                                                                                  Setting
   gypsum crystals; moderately alkaline.
                                                          Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
             Range in Characteristics
                                                          Slope: 0 to 2 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Depth to the Bssy horizon: 20 to 45 inches
                                                                              Composition
Linear extensibility: .06 to .10 in the upper 30 inches
    of soil; 1/4- to 2-inch wide cracks to a depth of     Major Components
    20 inches                                             Marias and similar soils: 85 percent
A horizon                                                 Minor Components
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                 Ethridge and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist                Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Chroma: 1 to 3                                         Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Clay content: 27 to 40 percent                         Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm                   3 percent
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 1 to 4
                                                                   Major Component Description
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                          Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Bss1 horizon
                                                          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                          Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Texture: Clay or silty clay
                                                          Flooding: None
   Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
                                                          Available water capacity: Mainly 8.6 inches
   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 1 to 4
                                                             A typical soil description with range in
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
                                                          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4
                                                          in this section.
Bss2 horizon
                                                                              Management
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                          For management information about this map unit,
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                         see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                 113




94C—Marias silty clay loam,                                                   Typical Pedon
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Marmarth loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                           rangeland, 600 feet north and 2,500 feet west of the
                        Setting                            southeast corner of sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 62 E.
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                A—0 to 4 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam,
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                         very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; weak
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                    very fine subangular blocky structure parting to
                                                              moderate fine and medium granular; soft, very
                    Composition
                                                              friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic; common very
Major Components                                              fine and fine roots; few fine and common very fine
Marias and similar soils: 85 percent                          pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Bt—4 to 13 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark
Minor Components
                                                              brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium
Ethridge and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                              prismatic structure parting to strong fine and
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                              medium subangular blocky; hard, firm, slightly
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                              sticky, moderately plastic; few fine and common
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
                                                              very fine roots; few fine and common very fine
    3 percent
                                                              tubular pores; continuous distinct clay films on
         Major Component Description                          faces of peds, continuous prominent clay films in
                                                              pores; neutral; clear wavy boundary.
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Bk1—13 to 18 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                              loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate medium
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              prismatic structure parting to moderate medium
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                              subangular blocky; slightly hard, firm, slightly
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                              sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few
Flooding: None
                                                              very fine pores; common fine masses of lime;
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.6 inches
                                                              slightly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear
                                                              smooth boundary.
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Bk2—18 to 27 inches; light olive gray (5Y 6/2) loam,
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                              olive gray (5Y 4/2) moist; weak medium
in this section.
                                                              subangular blocky structure; soft, friable,
                    Management                                nonsticky, slightly plastic; few very fine roots;
                                                              many very fine and fine masses of lime; strongly
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear smooth
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              boundary.
                                                           Cr—27 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (5Y 6/2)
Marmarth Series                                               semiconsolidated, loamy sedimentary beds that
                                                              crush to a sandy loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4)
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                moist.
Drainage class: Well drained
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)                        Range in Characteristics
Landform: Sedimentary plains
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy                   Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
    sedimentary beds                                       Depth to the Bk horizon: 12 to 24 inches
Slope range: 2 to 8 percent                                Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                      Taxonomic note: Map unit 629C is a taxadjunct to
                                                               the Marmarth series in order to join soils that
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Aridic                      have an average soil temperature greater than
   Argiborolls                                                 47 degrees F.
114                                                                                              Soil Survey




A horizon                                              A typical soil description with range in
   Value: 3, 4, or 5 moist                          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                   in this section.
   Clay content: 20 to 27 percent
                                                                        Management
   Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
                                                      For management information about this map unit,
Bt horizon
                                                    see appropriate sections in Part II of this pub
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    Value: 3, 4, 5, or 6 moist
    Chroma: 2 to 4                                  629C—Marmarth loam, warm,
    Texture: Loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam       2 to 8 percent slopes
    Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
    Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
                                                                            Setting
Bk horizons
                                                    Landform: Sedimentary plains
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                    Slope: 2 to 8 percent
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                    Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
    Chroma: 2 to 4
    Texture: Loam, fine sandy loam, or clay loam                        Composition
    Clay content: 15 to 30 percent
                                                    Major Components
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                    Marmarth and similar soils: 85 percent
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                    Minor Components
                                                    Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
81C—Marmarth loam,                                  Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   2 to 8 percent slopes                            Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                    Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                    Moderately saline soils: 0 to 2 percent
                       Setting
                                                             Major Component Description
Landform: Sedimentary plains
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                               Surface layer texture: Loam
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches          Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                    Drainage class: Well drained
                   Composition
                                                    Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
Major Components                                        sedimentary beds
Marmarth and similar soils: 85 percent              Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                    Flooding: None
Minor Components
                                                    Available water capacity: Mainly 4.6 inches
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                       A typical soil description with range in
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                    characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Moderately saline soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                    in this section.
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                        Management
         Major Component Description
                                                      For management information about this map unit,
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                    see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy   Marvan Series
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Flooding: None                                      Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.5 inches         Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                115




Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and             Other features: When dry, this soil has 1/4- to 1-inch
    sedimentary plains                                       cracks that extend to a depth of about 20 inches.
Parent material: Alluvium                                    Slickensides range from few to common in all
Slope range: 0 to 8 percent                                  horizons except the surface.
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                     Taxonomic note: Map units 613B, 614C, and 635C
                                                             are taxadjuncts to the Marvan series in order to
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Sodic        join soils that have an average soil temperature
   Haplusterts                                               greater than 47 degrees F.
                   Typical Pedon
                                                          Ap horizon
Marvan silty clay, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an area of      Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y
cropland, 1,000 feet north and 2,500 feet west of the        Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
southeast corner of sec. 1, T. 2 S., R. 58 E.                Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                             Texture: Clay or silty clay
Ap—0 to 7 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty
                                                             Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
   clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; strong fine
                                                             Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
   and medium subangular blocky structure; hard,
                                                             Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 4
   firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many
                                                             Calcium carbonate equivalent: 1 to 5 percent
   very fine and fine roots; few very fine and fine
                                                             Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   pores; disseminated lime; slightly effervescent;
   slightly alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.            Bss horizon
Bss—7 to 18 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y
   clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate            Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   medium prismatic structure; very hard, firm,              Chroma: 2 to 4
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many very          Texture: Clay or silty clay
   fine and fine roots; few very fine pores; few             Clay content: 45 to 60 percent
   slickensides; disseminated lime; slightly                 Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm
   effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth         Sodium adsorption ratio: 4 to 13
   boundary.                                                 Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
Bssy—18 to 32 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)         Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; strong
                                                          Bssy horizon
   fine and medium subangular blocky structure;
                                                             Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y
   extremely hard, very firm, moderately sticky, very
                                                             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   plastic; few fine and common very fine roots; few
                                                             Chroma: 2 to 4
   very fine pores; few slickensides; common fine
                                                             Texture: Clay or silty clay
   nests and seams of gypsum crystals;
                                                             Clay content: 45 to 60 percent
   disseminated lime; slightly effervescent;
                                                             Gypsum content: 1 to 3 percent
   moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
                                                             Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
Bssyz—32 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y
                                                             Sodium adsorption ratio: 4 to 13
   6/2) clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                             Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
   massive; very hard, very firm, moderately sticky,
                                                             Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
   very plastic; few very fine roots; few distinct
   slickensides; common fine and medium nests             Bssyz horizon
   and seams of gypsum crystals; few fine seams of           Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y
   other salts; disseminated lime; slightly                  Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   effervescent; moderately alkaline.                        Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                             Texture: Clay or silty clay
             Range in Characteristics
                                                             Clay content: 45 to 60 percent
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                         Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
Depth to the Bssy horizon: 10 to 24 inches                   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
Soil phases: Warm                                            Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 38
116                                                                                                     Soil Survey




      Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent        Minor Components
      Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0                              Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Teigen and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
89A—Marvan silty clay,                                     Vanda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
   0 to 2 percent slopes                                   Absher and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent
                        Setting
                                                                    Major Component Description
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                    Composition                            Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Major Components
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Marvan and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Flooding: None
Minor Components                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 6.8 inches
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Teigen and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                      A typical soil description with range in
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Vanda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    in this section.
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                               Management
           Major Component Description
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Surface layer texture: Silty clay
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         613B—Marvan-Vanda clays, warm,
Flooding: None                                                0 to 3 percent slopes
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches
                                                                                   Setting
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Landform:
in this section.                                           • Marvan—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           • Vanda—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                    Management
                                                           Slope:
  For management information about this map unit,          • Marvan—0 to 3 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   • Vanda—0 to 3 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
89C—Marvan silty clay,                                                         Composition
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Major Components
                                                           Marvan and similar soils: 45 percent
                        Setting                            Vanda and similar soils: 40 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                Minor Components
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                      Very deep nonsaline soils: 0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components                                           Soils that have slopes more than 3 percent: 0 to
Marvan and similar soils: 85 percent                           2 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    117




         Major Component Description                       Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
Marvan
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches
Surface layer texture: Clay
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           in this section.
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                                                 Management
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Vanda
Surface layer texture: Clay
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               635C—Marvan-Bascovy clays, warm,
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            0 to 6 percent slopes
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                                                     Setting
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                           Landform:
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           • Marvan—Alluvial fans
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.0 inches
                                                           • Bascovy—Sedimentary plains
                                                           Slope:
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           • Marvan—0 to 6 percent
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           • Bascovy—0 to 6 percent
in this section.
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Management
                                                                               Composition
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Major Components
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Marvan and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 35 percent
614C—Marvan clay, warm,                                    Minor Components
   0 to 6 percent slopes                                   Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                        Setting                            Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 6 percent: 0 to
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                               3 percent
Slope: 0 to 6 percent
                                                           Marias and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                    Major Component Description
                    Composition
                                                           Marvan
Major Components
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
Marvan and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Minor Components                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                 Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    Flooding: None
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Bascovy
         Major Component Description
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
Surface layer texture: Clay                                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Drainage class: Well drained
Drainage class: Well drained                               Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                             residuum
118                                                                                                       Soil Survey




Native plant cover type: Rangeland                               channers, 10 percent flagstones, and 5 percent
Flooding: None                                                   cobbles; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       Bw—2 to 11 inches; olive (5Y 5/3) very channery
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches                      loam, olive (5Y 4/3) moist; moderate coarse
                                                                 subangular blocky structure parting to moderate
   A typical soil description with range in                      fine granular; hard, very friable, slightly sticky,
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,              slightly plastic; few coarse and many very fine,
in this section.                                                 fine, and medium roots; common fine and many
                                                                 very fine pores; 20 percent channers, 15 percent
                     Management
                                                                 flagstones, and 10 percent cobbles; neutral; clear
                                                                 smooth boundary.
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              Bk—11 to 22 inches; olive (5Y 5/3) very flaggy loam,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                 dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak fine
                                                                 granular structure; slightly hard, very friable,
M-W—Miscellaneous water                                          slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few coarse and
                                                                 common very fine and fine roots; common very
                                                                 fine pores; 20 percent flagstones, 15 percent
                     Composition
                                                                 cobbles, and 15 percent channers; 40 percent
Major Components                                                 soft channers; many distinct lime coats on coarse
Miscellaneous Water: 100 percent                                 fragments; violently effervescent; slightly alkaline;
                                                                 gradual wavy boundary.
          Major Component Description
                                                              BC—22 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) very
Definition: Open water in areas such as sewage                   flaggy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
    lagoons, industrial waste pits, and fish hatcheries          weak very thin platy structure; soft, very friable,
                                                                 slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine, medium,
                                                                 and coarse roots; few very fine pores; 30 percent
Mowbray Series                                                   flagstones, 10 percent cobbles, 10 percent
                                                                 channers, and 20 percent soft channers;
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                                 disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                                 moderately alkaline.
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
Landform: Hills
                                                                           Range in Characteristics
Parent material: Colluvium
Slope range: 15 to 60 percent                                 Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                         Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 20 inches
                                                              A horizon
Taxonomic Class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, frigid
                                                                 Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   Typic Ustochrepts
                                                                 Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 2, 3, or 4 moist
                    Typical Pedon                                Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                                 Clay content: 15 to 25 percent
Mowbray very channery loam, in an area of
                                                                 Content of rock fragments: 35 to 60 percent—5 to
Mowbray-Cabba-Vebar complex, 35 to 60 percent
                                                                     10 percent cobbles; 10 to 20 percent
slopes, in an area of forestland, 2,150 feet north and               flagstones; 20 to 35 percent channers
1,400 feet east of the southwest corner of sec. 5,               Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
T. 3 S., R. 62 E.
                                                              Bw horizon
Oi—2 inches to 0; undecomposed and slightly                      Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   decomposed forest litter.                                     Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
A—0 to 2 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) very              Chroma: 2 or 3
   channery loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y                  Texture: Loam or sandy loam
   3/2) moist; moderate medium subangular blocky                 Clay content: 15 to 27 percent
   structure; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky,      Content of rock fragments: 30 to 65 percent—0 to
   slightly plastic; many very fine and fine roots; few            10 percent cobbles; 15 to 25 percent
   fine and many very fine pores; 20 percent                       flagstones; 20 to 45 percent channers
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                119




    Soft fragments: 0 to 20 percent                    Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
    Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8                                3 percent
                                                       Soils that have slopes more than 60 percent: 0 to
Bk horizon
                                                           2 percent
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
    Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                                Major Component Description
    Chroma: 2 or 3
    Texture: Loam or sandy loam
                                                       Mowbray
    Clay content: 15 to 27 percent
                                                       Surface layer texture: Very channery loam
    Content of rock fragments: 40 to 80 percent—0 to
                                                       Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
      15 percent cobbles; 15 to 25 percent
                                                       Drainage class: Well drained
      flagstones; 15 to 45 percent channers
                                                       Dominant parent material: Colluvium
    Soft fragments: 10 to 40 percent
                                                       Native plant cover type: Forestland
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
                                                       Flooding: None
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                       Available water capacity: Mainly 4.4 inches
BC horizon
   Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y                                     Cabba
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                     Surface layer texture: Very stony loam
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                      Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
   Clay content: 15 to 27 percent                      Drainage class: Well drained
   Content of rock fragments: 35 to 65 percent—0 to    Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
     10 percent cobbles; 25 to 35 percent                  sedimentary beds
     flagstones; 10 to 25 percent channers             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Soft coarse fragments: 10 to 40 percent             Flooding: None
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 0 to 15 percent       Available water capacity: Mainly 2.2 inches
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                       Vebar
                                                       Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
152F—Mowbray-Cabba-Vebar complex,                      Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
   35 to 60 percent slopes                             Drainage class: Well drained
                                                       Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                           sedimentary beds
                       Setting                         Native plant cover type: Forestland
                                                       Flooding: None
Landform:
                                                       Available water capacity: Mainly 3.4 inches
• Mowbray—Hills
• Cabba—Hills
                                                          A typical soil description with range in
• Vebar—Hills
                                                       characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Slope:
                                                       in this section.
• Mowbray—35 to 60 percent
• Cabba—35 to 60 percent                                                   Management
• Vebar—35 to 50 percent
                                                         For management information about this map unit,
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                       see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                   Composition
Major Components                                       Moyerson Series
Mowbray and similar soils: 35 percent
                                                       Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Cabba and similar soils: 25 percent
                                                       Drainage class: Well drained
Vebar and similar soils: 25 percent
                                                       Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
Minor Components                                       Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
Dast and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                 Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent                  Slope range: 4 to 50 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent               Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
120                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Taxonomic Class: Clayey, montmorillonitic                       Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
   (calcareous), frigid, shallow Ustic Torriorthents            Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                   Typical Pedon                            C1 horizon
                                                               Hue: 5Y, 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
Moyerson silty clay loam, in an area of Rock outcrop-
                                                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, 5, or 6 moist
Moyerson complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes, in an
                                                               Chroma: 1 to 4
area of rangeland, 1,200 feet north and 1,400 feet
                                                               Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
west of the southeast corner of sec. 27, T. 6 S.,
                                                               Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
R. 58 E.
                                                               Sodium adsorption ratio: 5 to 13
                                                               Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
A—0 to 4 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay
                                                               Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate fine
   subangular blocky structure parting to strong fine       C2 horizon
   granular; hard, friable, moderately sticky, slightly        Hue: 5Y, 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
   plastic; many very fine and fine roots; few fine            Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, 5, or 6 moist
   and common very fine pores; disseminated lime;              Chroma: 1 to 4
   strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline; gradual           Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
   wavy boundary.                                              Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
C1—4 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)               Sodium adsorption ratio: 5 to 13
   silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist;            Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   weak medium prismatic structure parting to
   strong very fine subangular blocky; hard, friable,
   moderately sticky, slightly plastic; common very         77D—Moyerson silty clay loam,
   fine roots; few very fine and fine tubular pores;           4 to 15 percent slopes
   few fine masses, nests, and seams of gypsum
   crystals; few fine seams and nests of other salts
                                                                                    Setting
   crystals; disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
   slightly alkaline; clear smooth boundary.                Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
C2—8 to 14 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)           Slope: 4 to 15 percent
   silty clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;         Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   massive; hard, firm, moderately sticky,
                                                                                Composition
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots;
   disseminated lime; slightly effervescent; slightly       Major Components
   alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.                         Moyerson and similar soils: 85 percent
Cr—14 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                            Minor Components
   semiconsolidated shale that crushes to silty clay
                                                            Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent
   loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist.
                                                            Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                            Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
             Range in Characteristics
                                                            Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches                             Major Component Description
Soil phases: Saline or warm
                                                            Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Taxonomic note: The Moyerson soil is a taxadjunct to
                                                            Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
    the series. It classifies as Clayey, montmorillonitic
                                                            Drainage class: Well drained
    (calcareous), frigid, shallow Aridic Ustorthents.
                                                            Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
    Use and management are similar. Map unit 605E
                                                                residuum
    is a taxadjunct to the Moyerson series in order to
                                                            Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    join soils that have an average soil temperature
                                                            Flooding: None
    greater than 47 degrees F.
                                                            Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
A horizon                                                   Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
   Hue: 5Y, 2.5Y, 10YR, or 7.5YR
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, 5, or 6 moist                  A typical soil description with range in
   Chroma: 1 to 4                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Clay content: 30 to 40 percent                           in this section.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    121




                    Management                                A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           in this section.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                               Management
277D—Moyerson-Orinoco silty clay                             For management information about this map unit,
   loams, 4 to 15 percent slopes                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


                        Setting                            477E—Moyerson silty clay loam,
Landform:                                                     15 to 35 percent slopes
• Moyerson—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Orinoco—Hills                                                                    Setting
Position on landform:
                                                           Landform: Hills
• Moyerson—Shoulders and summits
                                                           Slope: 15 to 35 percent
• Orinoco—Backslopes and footslopes
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Slope:
• Moyerson—4 to 15 percent                                                     Composition
• Orinoco—4 to 15 percent
                                                           Major Components
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Moyerson and similar soils: 85 percent
                    Composition
                                                           Minor Components
Major Components                                           Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent
Moyerson and similar soils: 50 percent                     Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Orinoco and similar soils: 40 percent                      Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Minor Components
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent                           Major Component Description
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Vanda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
         Major Component Description                       Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                               residuum
Moyerson
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Flooding: None
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
    residuum
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Flooding: None
                                                           in this section.
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches                                    Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Orinoco
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               605E—Moyerson, warm-Rock outcrop
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale              complex, 9 to 45 percent slopes
    residuum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                                                   Setting
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Landform:
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    • Moyerson—Hills
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches                • Rock outcrop—Hills
122                                                                                                   Soil Survey




Slope: 9 to 45 percent                                     rangeland, 250 feet south and 485 feet west of the
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 northeast corner of sec. 26, T. 9 S., R. 58 E.
                    Composition                            A—0 to 2 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay, dark
                                                              grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak medium
Major Components
                                                              platy structure parting to strong fine granular;
Moyerson and similar soils: 55 percent
                                                              hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine and
Rock outcrop: 30 percent
                                                              many very fine roots; few very fine and fine pores;
Minor Components                                              neutral; clear smooth boundary.
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent                  C1—2 to 6 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay,
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     medium subangular blocky structure; hard, firm,
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                      very sticky, very plastic; few fine and common
                                                              very fine roots; few very fine pores; slightly
         Major Component Description
                                                              alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.
Moyerson                                                   C2—6 to 12 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) clay,
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam                        dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) moist; massive;
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                        hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very fine
Drainage class: Well drained                                  roots; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale           Cr—12 to 60 inches; dark gray (10YR 4/1)
    residuum                                                  semiconsolidated shale, very dark gray (10YR
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            3/1) moist.
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                                 Range in Characteristics
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Rock outcrop                                               Depth to the Cr horizon: 10 to 20 inches
Definition: Consolidated shale                             Taxonomic note: Map units 625E and 633D are
                                                               taxadjuncts to the Neldore series in order to join
   A typical soil description with range in                    soils that have an average soil temperature
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            greater than 47 degrees F.
in this section.
                                                           A horizon
                    Management                                Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                              Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              Chroma: 1 or 2
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              Clay content: 40 to 50 percent
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
Neldore Series                                                Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.8
                                                           C1 horizon
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
                                                              Chroma: 1 or 2; 4 or 6 for stains of shale
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                              Texture: Clay or silty clay
Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                              Clay content: 40 to 50 percent
Slope range: 3 to 45 percent
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                              Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.8
Taxonomic Class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, nonacid,        C2 horizon
   frigid, shallow Aridic Ustorthents                         Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                              Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                   Typical Pedon
                                                              Chroma: 1 to 4
Neldore clay, in an area of Neldore-Rock outcrop              Texture: Clay or silty clay
complex, 15 to 45 percent slopes, in an area of               Clay content: 40 to 60 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    123




    Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm               58E—Neldore-Rock outcrop complex,
    Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.8                                   15 to 45 percent slopes
Cr horizon
    Features: The shale fragments are extremely                                    Setting
       hard or very hard when dry and extremely firm
                                                           Landform:
       or very firm when moist.
                                                           • Neldore—Hills
    Reaction: pH 5.1 to 7.3
                                                           • Rock outcrop—Hills
                                                           Slope: 15 to 45 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
58D—Neldore-Rock outcrop complex,
   4 to 15 percent slopes                                                      Composition
                                                           Major Components
                        Setting                            Neldore and similar soils: 45 percent
                                                           Rock outcrop: 40 percent
Landform:
• Neldore—Sedimentary plains and hills                     Minor Components
• Rock outcrop—Hills                                       Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Slope: 4 to 15 percent                                     Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                    Composition
                                                           Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Major Components
                                                                    Major Component Description
Neldore and similar soils: 50 percent
Rock outcrop: 35 percent                                   Neldore
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
Minor Components
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                               residuum
Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Flooding: None
         Major Component Description                       Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
Neldore
                                                           Rock outcrop
Surface layer texture: Clay
                                                           Definition: Consolidated shale
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    residuum
                                                           in this section.
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                                                 Management
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Rock outcrop
Definition: Consolidated shale
                                                           158D—Neldore clay,
   A typical soil description with range in                   4 to 15 percent slopes
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.
                                                                                   Setting
                    Management
                                                           Landform: Hills
  For management information about this map unit,          Slope: 15 to 35 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
124                                                                                                     Soil Survey




                    Composition                                     Major Component Description
Major Components                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
Neldore and similar soils: 85 percent                      Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Minor Components
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                               residuum
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Flooding: None
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Soils that have slopes more than 35 percent: 0 to
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
    1 percent
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
         Major Component Description                       in this section.
Surface layer texture: Clay                                                    Management
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
    residuum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                             258D—Neldore-Volborg clays,
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches                   4 to 15 percent slopes

   A typical soil description with range in                                        Setting
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Landform:
in this section.
                                                           • Neldore—Sedimentary plains and hills
                    Management                             • Volborg—Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                           Slope:
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           • Neldore—4 to 15 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           • Volborg—4 to 15 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
158E—Neldore clay,                                                             Composition
   15 to 35 percent slopes
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 50 percent
                        Setting
                                                           Volborg and similar soils: 35 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                           Minor Components
Slope: 4 to 15 percent
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Areas of blowouts: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Neldore and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Minor Components
Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Neldore
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Surface layer texture: Clay
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                   Drainage class: Well drained
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                    Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to              residuum
    1 percent                                              Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    125




Flooding: None                                             Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                               residuum
Volborg                                                    Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Clay                                Flooding: None
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                     Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale           Bascovy
    residuum                                               Surface layer texture: Clay
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Flooding: None                                             Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.9 inches                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                               residuum
   A typical soil description with range in                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Flooding: None
in this section.                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches
                    Management
  For management information about this map unit,             A typical soil description with range in
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.

358D—Neldore-Bascovy clays,                                                    Management
   4 to 15 percent slopes                                    For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                                  625E—Neldore clay, warm,
• Neldore—Sedimentary plains and hills                        3 to 25 percent slopes
• Bascovy—Sedimentary plains and hills
Position on landform:
                                                                                   Setting
• Neldore—Shoulders and summits
• Bascovy—Backslopes and shoulders                         Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
Slope:                                                     Slope: 3 to 25 percent
• Neldore—4 to 15 percent                                  Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
• Bascovy—4 to 15 percent
                                                                               Composition
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Major Components
                    Composition
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 85 percent
Major Components
                                                           Minor Components
Neldore and similar soils: 45 percent
                                                           Volborg and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Bascovy and similar soils: 40 percent
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Minor Components                                           Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                   Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent                      Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Soils that have slopes more than 25 percent: 0 to
Bickerdyke and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                   1 percent
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay
         Major Component Description
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Neldore                                                    Drainage class: Well drained
Surface layer texture: Clay                                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                         residuum
126                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Native plant cover type: Rangeland                             coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm,
Flooding: None                                                 moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few very
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches                    fine roots; few very fine pores; few fine masses
                                                               and seams of lime; violently effervescent; strongly
   A typical soil description with range in                    alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,         Bk2—25 to 35 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/3) sandy clay
in this section.                                               loam, olive (5Y 5/3) moist; strong coarse
                                                               prismatic structure; hard, friable, moderately
                    Management
                                                               sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine roots;
  For management information about this map unit,              common very fine pores; few fine masses and
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.       seams of lime; violently effervescent; strongly
                                                               alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                            BC—35 to 60 inches; pale olive (5Y 6/4) sandy clay
Noonan Series                                                  loam, olive (5Y 5/4) moist; moderate medium
                                                               subangular blocky structure; hard, friable,
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                               moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few very
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               fine roots; few very fine pores; disseminated lime;
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
                                                               violently effervescent; strongly alkaline.
Landform: Alluvial fans
Parent material: Alluvium                                               Range in Characteristics
Slope range: 4 to 15 percent
                                                            Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                            Depth to the Bk horizon: 13 to 30 inches
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Aridic                   A horizons
   Natriborolls                                                Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 or 3
                   Typical Pedon
                                                               Clay content: 15 to 27 percent
Noonan loam, in an area of Shambo-Noonan loams,                Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
4 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of rangeland,
                                                            Btn horizon
1,800 feet south and 2,500 feet west of the northeast
                                                                Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
corner of sec. 10, T. 3 S., R. 62 S.
                                                                Value: 3, 4, 5, or 6 dry; 2, 3, or 4 moist
A1—0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)                 Chroma: 2 to 4
   loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;              Clay content: 27 to 35 percent
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure;                 Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly       Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
   plastic; many very fine and fine roots; few fine             Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   and common very fine pores; neutral; clear wavy
                                                            Bk horizons
   boundary.
                                                                Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
A2—8 to 11 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine
                                                                Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                                Chroma: 2 to 4
   moist; moderate thick platy structure; slightly
                                                                Texture: Loam, clay loam, or sandy clay loam
   hard, very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic;
                                                                Clay content: 20 to 30 percent
   common very fine roots; few fine and common
                                                                Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   very fine pores; slightly alkaline; abrupt wavy
                                                                Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
   boundary.
                                                                Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Btn—11 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,
                                                                Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; strong coarse
   columnar structure; very hard, firm, moderately          BC horizon
   sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few        Hue: 2.5Y or 5Y
   very fine pores; common faint clay films on faces           Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   of peds and in pores; strongly alkaline; clear wavy         Chroma: 2 to 4
   boundary.                                                   Clay content: 20 to 30 percent
Bk1—16 to 25 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)              Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
   clay loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) moist; strong             Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                             127




    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent       Cr—32 to 60 inches; gray (10YR 5/1)
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                                semiconsolidated shale, dark gray (10YR 4/1)
                                                           moist.

Orinoco Series                                                      Range in Characteristics
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                        Soil temperature: 41 to 47 degrees F
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                        Depth to the Bky horizon: 6 to 10 inches
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
                                                        Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                        Taxonomic note: Map unit 631D is a taxadjunct to
Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                            the Orinoco series in order to join soils that
Slope range: 2 to 15 percent
                                                            have an average soil temperature greater than
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                            47 degrees F.
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic
                                                        A horizon
   (calcareous), frigid Aridic Ustorthents
                                                           Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                   Typical Pedon                           Clay content: 30 to 40 percent
                                                           Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
Orinoco silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an
                                                           Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
area of rangeland, 2,200 feet north and 1,850 feet
east of the southwest corner of sec. 9, T. 9 S.,        Bw horizon
R. 61 E.                                                   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                           Texture: Silty clay loam or silty clay
A—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) silty
                                                           Clay content: 35 to 45 percent
   clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                           Electrical conductivity: 4 to 8 mmhos/cm
   moderate fine granular structure; soft, friable,
                                                           Sodium adsorption ratio: 5 to 15
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; common
                                                           Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4
   very fine roots; disseminated lime; strongly
   effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth        Bky horizons
   boundary.                                               Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Bw—2 to 9 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay      Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;              Chroma: 1 or 2
   moderate medium prismatic structure parting to          Texture: Silty clay loam, clay, or silty clay
   strong fine and medium subangular blocky; hard,         Clay content: 35 to 45 percent
   firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;            Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
   common very fine roots; common fine pores;              Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;               Sodium adsorption ratio: 15 to 30
   moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.             Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Bky1—9 to 22 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)        Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)          Reaction: pH 7.9 to 8.4
   moist; moderate medium prismatic structure
                                                        Cr horizon
   parting to moderate medium and coarse
                                                            Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   subangular blocky; hard, firm, moderately sticky,
                                                            Sodium adsorption ratio: 15 to 30
   moderately plastic; common very fine roots;
                                                            Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
   common very fine pores; common very fine nests
   and seams of gypsum crystals; many fine
   masses of lime; strongly effervescent; moderately
   alkaline; clear smooth boundary.                     53C—Orinoco silty clay loam,
Bky2—22 to 32 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty       2 to 8 percent slopes
   clay, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
   massive; hard, firm, moderately sticky,
                                                                              Setting
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; common
   very fine pores; many fine gypsum crystals; few      Landform: Sedimentary plains
   fine masses of lime; slightly effervescent;          Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   moderately alkaline; gradual smooth boundary.        Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
128                                                                                                     Soil Survey




                    Composition                            Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Orinoco and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent
Minor Components
                                                                    Major Component Description
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 5 percent                   Orinoco
Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                  Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
         Major Component Description
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam                         residuum
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Drainage class: Well drained                               Flooding: None
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
    residuum                                               Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Yawdim
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches                Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   A typical soil description with range in                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            residuum
in this section.                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.5 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
153D—Orinoco-Yawdim silty clay loams,
   4 to 15 percent slopes                                                      Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                        Setting                            see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Landform:
• Orinoco—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Yawdim—Sedimentary plains and hills                      253D—Orinoco-Weingart complex,
Position on landform:                                         4 to 15 percent slopes
• Orinoco—Backslopes
• Yawdim—Summits                                                                   Setting
Slope:
                                                           Landform:
• Orinoco—4 to 15 percent
                                                           • Orinoco—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Yawdim—4 to 15 percent
                                                           • Weingart—Sedimentary plains and hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Slope:
                    Composition                            • Orinoco—4 to 15 percent
                                                           • Weingart—4 to 15 percent
Major Components
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Orinoco and similar soils: 50 percent
Yawdim and similar soils: 35 percent                                           Composition
Minor Components                                           Major Components
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Orinoco and similar soils: 45 percent
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Weingart and similar soils: 40 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    129




Minor Components                                           Slope:
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  • Orinoco—4 to 15 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  • Yawdim—4 to 15 percent
Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                                               Composition
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent                        Major Components
                                                           Orinoco and similar soils: 50 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                           Yawdim and similar soils: 35 percent
Orinoco
                                                           Minor Components
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                           Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
    residuum
                                                           Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                              Major Component Description
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Orinoco
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Weingart
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Surface layer texture: Silty clay
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                               residuum
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                           Flooding: None
    residuum
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Yawdim
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
in this section.
                                                               residuum
                    Management                             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.5 inches
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
631D—Orinoco-Yawdim silty clay loams,                      in this section.
   warm, 4 to 15 percent slopes
                                                                               Management
                        Setting                              For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Landform:
• Orinoco—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Yawdim—Sedimentary plains and hills                      Parchin Series
Position on landform:
• Orinoco—Backslopes                                       Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
• Yawdim—Summits                                           Drainage class: Well drained
130                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)                      crush to sandy clay loam, brown (10YR 4/3)
Landform: Sedimentary plains                                    moist.
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                                         Range in Characteristics
    sedimentary beds
Slope range: 2 to 8 percent                                 Depth to the Bk horizon: 13 to 25 inches
Annual precipitation: 12 to 17 inches                       Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
                                                            Other features: Fine threads of gypsum or other salts
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Borollic                    are present in the lower part of the Btn horizon in
   Natrargids                                                  some pedons. Pedons with sodium adsorption
                                                               ratios of less than 13 have more exchangeable
                   Typical Pedon                               magnesium plus sodium than calcium plus
                                                               exchangeable acidity at pH 8.2. Some pedons
Parchin fine sandy loam, in an area of Parchin fine            contain few or common threads and nests of
sandy loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of               gypsum and other salts.
rangeland, 500 feet south and 40 feet west of the           Taxonomic note: The Parchin soil is a taxadjunct to
northeast corner of sec. 11, T. 5 S., R. 62 E.                 the series. It classifies as Fine-loamy, mixed Typic
                                                               Natriboralfs. Map units 116C and 231D are
A—0 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam,             taxadjuncts to the Parchin series. These soils
    dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak fine             receive more precipitation than is normal for the
    granular structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky,         series, but this does not affect the use and
    nonplastic; many very fine roots; neutral; abrupt          management.
    smooth boundary.
                                                            A horizon
E—6 to 11 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) fine sandy
                                                               Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak
                                                               Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
    medium subangular blocky structure; soft, very
                                                               Chroma: 2 or 3
    friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine
                                                               Clay content: 10 to 20 percent
    roots; few very fine and fine pores; neutral; abrupt
                                                               Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.3
    smooth boundary.
Btn—11 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy clay            E horizon
    loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate coarse              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    columnar structure parting to strong fine and              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
    medium subangular blocky; very hard, firm,                 Chroma: 2 or 3
    slightly sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine         Clay content: 10 to 20 percent
    and fine roots; few fine and common very fine              Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.3
    pores; many distinct clay films on faces of peds
                                                            Btn horizon
    and in pores; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy
                                                                Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
    boundary.
                                                                Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
Btkn—17 to 22 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam,
                                                                Chroma: 2 or 3
    dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate coarse
                                                                Texture: Clay loam, sandy clay loam, or loam
    prismatic structure parting to strong medium
                                                                Clay content: 25 to 34 percent
    subangular blocky; very hard, very firm, sticky
                                                                Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
    and plastic; few very fine and fine roots; few very
                                                                Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
    fine and fine pores; few faint clay films on faces of
                                                                Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
    peds and common distinct clay films in pores;
    many fine and medium masses of lime;                    Btkn and Bk horizons
    moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.                 Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Bk—22 to 28 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay                  Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 to 5 moist
    loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; massive, very                 Chroma: 2 or 3
    hard, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many           Texture: Clay loam, sandy clay loam, or loam
    fine and medium masses of lime; strongly                    Clay content: 20 to 30 percent
    effervescent; strongly alkaline; clear smooth               Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
    boundary.                                                   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 20
Cr—28 to 60 inches; brown (10YR 5/3)                            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
    semiconsolidated loamy sedimentary beds that                Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    131




21C—Parchin fine sandy loam,                                                   Composition
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Major Components
                                                           Parchin and similar soils: 50 percent
                        Setting                            Bullock and similar soils: 35 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains                               Minor Components
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                      Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition
                                                           Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Major Components                                               3 percent
Parchin and similar soils: 85 percent                      Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
                                                               2 percent
Minor Components
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                           Major Component Description
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Parchin
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
         Major Component Description                       Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                               sedimentary beds
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Flooding: None
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.0 inches
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Bullock
Flooding: None
                                                           Surface layer texture: Clay loam
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                               sedimentary beds
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
in this section.
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management                             Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
121C—Parchin-Bullock complex,                              characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   in this section.
                                                                               Management
                        Setting
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Landform:                                                  see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
• Parchin—Sedimentary plains
• Bullock—Sedimentary plains
Slope:                                                     Parshall Series
• Parchin—2 to 8 percent
• Bullock—2 to 8 percent                                   Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Drainage class: Well drained
132                                                                                                      Soil Survey




Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/             nonsticky, slightly plastic; few very fine roots; few
    hour)                                                      very fine pores; few fine seams and masses of
Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and                  lime; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline.
    drainageways
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
Parent material: Alluvium
Slope range: 0 to 15 percent                               Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                      Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 17 to 40 inches
                                                           Depth to the Bk horizon: 24 to 60 inches
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed Pachic                Other features: Some pedons do not have buried
   Haploborolls                                                horizons (Ab or Bkb horizons).
                   Typical Pedon                           A horizons
                                                              Value: 2, 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
Parshall fine sandy loam, in an area of Parshall-
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
Cohagen fine sandy loams, 4 to 15 percent slopes, in
                                                              Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam
an area of rangeland, 1,400 feet south and 300 feet
                                                              Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
west of the northeast corner of sec. 17, T. 4 S.,
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.3
R. 60 E.
                                                           Bw horizon
A1—0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   fine sandy loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2)
                                                              Value: 3, 4, 5, or 6 dry; 2, 3, 4, or 5 moist
   moist; weak thin platy structure; soft, very friable,
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
   nonsticky, slightly plastic; many very fine and fine
                                                              Texture: Fine sandy loam, sandy loam, loam, or
   roots; few very fine pores; neutral; abrupt smooth
                                                                loamy fine sand
   boundary.
                                                              Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
A2—3 to 7 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) fine sandy
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
   loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
   moderate fine subangular blocky structure; soft,        Bk horizon
   very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic; common           Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   fine and many very fine roots; few very fine and            Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   fine pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                 Chroma: 2 to 4
Bw—7 to 32 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy                 Texture: Fine sandy loam, loamy fine sand, or
   loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;               loamy sand
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure;                Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
   soft, very friable, nonsticky, slightly plastic; few        Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
   very fine and common fine roots; few very fine              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   pores; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                           Ab and Bkb horizons
Bk—32 to 42 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
                                                              Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
   fine sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                              Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   moist; moderate coarse subangular blocky
   structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky, slightly
   plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine pores;      36A—Parshall sandy loam,
   few fine masses of lime; strongly effervescent;            0 to 4 percent slopes
   moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.
Ab—42 to 47 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                                                   Setting
   fine sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y
   3/2) moist; moderate coarse subangular blocky           Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and
   structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky, slightly          drainageways
   plastic; few very fine roots; few very fine pores;      Slope: 0 to 4 percent
   disseminated lime, strongly effervescent;               Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                               Composition
Bkb—47 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) fine sandy
   loam, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; weak          Major Components
   medium platy structure; soft, very friable,             Parshall and similar soils: 85 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    133




Minor Components                                           Flooding: None
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
Assinniboine and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    A typical soil description with range in
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            in this section.
    2 percent
                                                                               Management
         Major Component Description
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         136D—Parshall-Cohagen fine sandy
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            loams, 4 to 15 percent slopes
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
                                                                                   Setting
   A typical soil description with range in                Landform:
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        • Parshall—Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and
in this section.                                               drainageways
                                                           • Cohagen—Sedimentary plains and hills
                    Management
                                                           Slope:
  For management information about this map unit,          • Parshall—4 to 15 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   • Cohagen—4 to 15 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                                               Composition
36D—Parshall fine sandy loam,
   4 to 15 percent slopes                                  Major Components
                                                           Parshall and similar soils: 50 percent
                                                           Cohagen and similar soils: 35 percent
                        Setting
                                                           Minor Components
Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
    drainageways
                                                           Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Slope: 4 to 15 percent
                                                           Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                           Shallow soils with channers: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Soils with flagstones: 0 to 2 percent
Major Components                                                    Major Component Description
Parshall and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Parshall
Minor Components                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Assinniboine and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent             Drainage class: Well drained
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Marmarth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to            Flooding: None
    2 percent                                              Available water capacity: Mainly 7.9 inches
         Major Component Description
                                                           Cohagen
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Dominant parent material: Sandstone residuum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
134                                                                                                         Soil Survey




Flooding: None                                                     loose, nonsticky, nonplastic; 10 percent pebbles;
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.3 inches                        neutral.
                                                                            Range in Characteristics
   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
in this section.                                               Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 10 inches
                                                               Depth to the 2C horizon: 10 to 20 inches
                     Management
                                                               A horizon
  For management information about this map unit,                 Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.          Value: 4 or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
                                                                  Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                                  Clay content: 8 to 14 percent
Prego Series                                                      Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                                      pebbles
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                                  Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
Drainage class: Well drained
Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/             Bt horizons
    hour)                                                          Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
Landform: Relict stream terraces                                   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
Parent material: Alluvium                                          Chroma: 2 to 4
Slope range: 2 to 15 percent                                       Texture: Sandy loam or fine sandy loam
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                              Clay content: 14 to 18
                                                                   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed Aridic                           pebbles
   Argiborolls                                                     Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
                    Typical Pedon                              2C horizon
                                                                  Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Prego sandy loam, 2 to 15 percent slopes, in an area
                                                                  Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
of rangeland, 1,300 feet south and 1,400 feet west of
                                                                  Chroma: 3 or 4
the northeast corner of sec. 7, T. 1 N., R. 57 E.
                                                                  Texture: Sand or loamy sand
A—0 to 5 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) sandy                   Clay content: 1 to 8 percent
   loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;                Content of rock fragments: 5 to 35 percent
   weak fine granular structure; soft, very friable,                 pebbles
   nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine and many very fine             Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
   roots; slightly acid; clear smooth boundary.
Bt1—5 to 10 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam,
   dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; weak coarse                    48D—Prego sandy loam,
   subangular blocky structure parting to moderate                2 to 15 percent slopes
   fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard,
   friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many very                              Setting
   fine roots; few distinct clay bridges between
                                                               Landform: Relict stream terraces
   mineral grains; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                               Slope: 2 to 15 percent
Bt2—10 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4)
                                                               Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   sandy loam, dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4)
   moist; moderate medium subangular blocky                                        Composition
   structure parting to moderate fine subangular
                                                               Major Components
   blocky; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly
                                                               Prego and similar soils: 85 percent
   plastic; few very fine roots; few faint clay films on
   faces of peds and clay bridges between mineral              Minor Components
   grains; neutral; abrupt smooth boundary.                    Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
2C—16 to 60 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)               Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   sand; olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) moist; single grain;           Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    135




Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 2 percent            Bt—8 to 19 inches; light brownish gray, (10YR 6/2)
Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to                   clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
    2 percent                                                    strong medium and coarse prismatic structure
Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to                parting to strong fine and medium subangular
    2 percent                                                    blocky; hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately
                                                                 plastic; few medium and common very fine and
          Major Component Description
                                                                 fine roots; common very fine and fine pores; few
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                                faint clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                     15 percent soft coarse fragments; slightly
Drainage class: Well drained                                     alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            Bk—19 to 31 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) loam,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                               grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate fine
Flooding: None                                                   and medium subangular blocky structure; hard,
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.5 inches                      friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common
                                                                 very fine and fine roots; common very fine pores;
   A typical soil description with range in                      20 percent soft coarse fragments; common fine
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,              seams and masses of lime; violently effervescent;
in this section.                                                 moderately alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
                                                              Cr—31 to 60 inches; white (2.5Y 8/0)
                     Management
                                                                 semiconsolidated loamy sedimentary beds that
  For management information about this map unit,                crush to a loam, light gray (2.5Y 7/2) moist.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                          Range in Characteristics
Reeder Series                                                 Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
                                                              Depth to the Bk horizon: 11 to 26 inches
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              A horizon
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
                                                                 Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                                 Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                                 Chroma: 2 or 3
    sedimentary beds
                                                                 Clay content: 15 to 27 percent
Slope range: 1 to 35 percent
                                                                 Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.3
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                              Bt horizon
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Typic                          Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
   Argiborolls                                                    Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
                                                                  Chroma: 2 to 4
                    Typical Pedon
                                                                  Texture: Loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam
Reeder loam, in an area of Belltower-Reeder-Vebar                 Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
complex, 4 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of                    Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
forestland, 1,700 feet north and 2,200 feet west of the
                                                              Bk horizon
southeast corner of sec. 34, T. 2 S., R. 61 E.
                                                                  Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Oi—1 inch to 0; slightly decomposed forest litter.                Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
A—0 to 8 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)                    Chroma: 2 to 4
   loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist;                        Texture: Loam, silt loam, silty clay loam, clay
   moderate fine and medium subangular blocky                       loam, or sandy clay loam
   structure; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky,       Clay content: 15 to 30 percent
   slightly plastic; few medium and common very                   Content of soft rock fragments: 35 to 60 percent
   fine and fine roots; common very fine pores;                   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   neutral; clear smooth boundary.                                Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
136                                                                                                     Soil Survey




42C—Reeder loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes                                         Composition
                                                           Major Components
                        Setting                            Reeder and similar soils: 55 percent
                                                           Cabba and similar soils: 30 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains
Slope: 2 to 8 percent                                      Minor Components
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                 Dast and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Very deep loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
                    Composition
                                                           Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components                                           Moderately saline soils: 0 to 2 percent
Reeder and similar soils: 85 percent                       Soils that have slopes less than 4 percent: 0 to
                                                               2 percent
Minor Components
Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                             Major Component Description
Very deep loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Reeder
Moderately saline soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
    2 percent
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
         Major Component Description                           sedimentary beds
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Flooding: None
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.2 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Cabba
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Flooding: None
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.2 inches
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                               sedimentary beds
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Flooding: None
in this section.
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.6 inches
                    Management
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           in this section.
                                                                               Management
142D—Reeder-Cabba loams,                                     For management information about this map unit,
   4 to 15 percent slopes                                  see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.

                        Setting
                                                           242D—Reeder-Dast complex,
Landform:                                                     4 to 15 percent slopes
• Reeder—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Cabba—Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                                                   Setting
Position on landform:
• Reeder—Backslopes and footslopes                         Landform:
• Cabba—Shoulders and summits                              • Reeder—Sedimentary plains and hills
Slope:                                                     • Dast—Sedimentary plains and hills
• Reeder—4 to 15 percent                                   Position on landform:
• Cabba—4 to 15 percent                                    • Reeder—Backslopes and shoulders
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches                 • Dast—Shoulders and summits
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   137




Slope:                                                     Parent material: Hard sandstone
• Reeder—4 to 15 percent                                   Slope range: 2 to 45 percent
• Dast—4 to 15 percent                                     Annual precipitation: 12 to 17 inches
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed
                    Composition
                                                              (calcareous), frigid Lithic Ustic Torriorthents
Major Components
                                                                              Typical Pedon
Reeder and similar soils: 45 percent
Dast and similar soils: 40 percent                         Rentsac sandy loam, in an area of Rentsac-Twilight-
                                                           Rock outcrop complex, 15 to 45 percent slopes, in an
Minor Components
                                                           area of rangeland, 1,600 feet south and 1,500 feet
Very deep loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           west of the northeast corner of sec. 2, T. 1 S., R. 61 E.
Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Moderately deep clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent               A—0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam,
Soils that have slopes less than 4 percent: 0 to              brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate fine granular
    3 percent                                                 structure; soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
                                                              common very fine and fine roots; disseminated
         Major Component Description
                                                              lime; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear
Reeder                                                        smooth boundary.
Surface layer texture: Loam                                Bk—4 to 16 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) very channery
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                sandy loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak
Drainage class: Well drained                                  medium subangular blocky structure; soft, very
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy             friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine roots;
    sedimentary beds                                          few very fine pores; 55 percent channers;
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            common fine and medium masses of lime;
Flooding: None                                                common faint lime coats on undersides of
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.2 inches                   channers; violently effervescent; moderately
                                                              alkaline.
Dast                                                       R—16 to 60 inches; hard sandstone.
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                          Range in Characteristics
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                           Depth to the R horizon: 10 to 20 inches
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Forestland                        A horizon
Flooding: None                                                Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
Available water capacity: Mainly 3.6 inches                   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
   A typical soil description with range in                   Clay content: 7 to 18 percent
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
in this section.                                                  channers
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                    Management
                                                           Bk horizon
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                               Hue: 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 to 4
Rentsac Series                                                 Texture: Loam, sandy loam, or fine sandy loam
                                                               Clay content: 7 to 18 percent
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                         Content of rock fragments: 35 to 70 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                                     pebbles, channers, and flagstones
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)                Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Landform: Bedrock-floored plains and hills                     Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
138                                                                                                Soil Survey




99F—Rentsac-Twilight-Rock outcrop                                         Management
   complex, 15 to 45 percent slopes                     For management information about this map unit,
                                                      see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                             Ridge Series
• Rentsac—Hills
• Twilight—Hills                                      Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
• Rock outcrop—Hills                                  Drainage class: Well drained
Slope:                                                Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
• Rentsac—15 to 45 percent                                hour)
• Twilight—15 to 45 percent                           Landform: Hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches            Parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                          sedimentary beds
                    Composition
                                                      Slope range: 8 to 65 percent
Major Components                                      Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
Rentsac and similar soils: 35 percent
Twilight and similar soils: 30 percent                Taxonomic Class: Loamy, mixed, frigid, shallow
Rock outcrop: 20 percent                                 Typic Ustochrepts
Minor Components                                                         Typical Pedon
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                      Ridge sandy loam, in an area of Broadus-Ridge-
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                      Reeder complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes, in an area of
Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                      forestland, 2,500 feet north and 1,500 feet west of the
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                      southeast corner of sec. 18, T. 8 S., R. 55 E.
         Major Component Description
                                                      Oi—1/2 inch to 0; slightly decomposed forest litter.
Rentsac                                               A—0 to 2 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy loam, dark
Surface layer texture: Sandy loam                        grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak fine
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                   granular structure; loose, very friable, nonsticky,
Drainage class: Well drained                             nonplastic; many fine roots; many very fine and
Dominant parent material: Sandstone residuum             fine pores; disseminated lime; slightly
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                       effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
Flooding: None                                           boundary.
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.4 inches           Bw1—2 to 6 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy
                                                         loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak
Twilight                                                 medium subangular blocky structure; soft, friable,
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                   nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine roots; few fine
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)           and many very fine pores; disseminated lime;
Drainage class: Well drained                             strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy        smooth boundary.
    sedimentary beds                                  Bw2—6 to 12 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) sandy
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                       loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate
Flooding: None                                           medium subangular blocky structure; soft, friable,
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches              nonsticky, nonplastic; many fine roots; few fine
                                                         and common very fine pores; disseminated lime;
Rock outcrop                                             strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear
Definition: Hard sandstone                               smooth boundary.
                                                      Bk—12 to 16 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) sandy
   A typical soil description with range in              loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; massive;
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,      soft, friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common fine
in this section.                                         roots; few very fine masses and threads of lime;
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                 139




   violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear            Major Component Description
   smooth boundary.
                                                        Definition: Hard calcareous sandstone
Cr—16 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2)
   semiconsolidated, sandy sedimentary beds that
   crush to loamy sand, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)        177E—Rock outcrop-Moyerson complex,
   moist; common fine roots in cracks; disseminated        15 to 50 percent slopes
   lime; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline.
                                                                                Setting
             Range in Characteristics
                                                        Landform:
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                    • Rock outcrop—Hills
Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 16 inches                • Moyerson—Hills
Depth to the Cr horizon: 12 to 20 inches                Slope:
                                                        • Moyerson—15 to 50 percent
A horizon
                                                        Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                                           Composition
   Clay content: 5 to 20 percent
                                                        Major Components
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 7.8
                                                        Rock outcrop: 55 percent
Bw horizons                                             Moyerson and similar soils: 30 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                        Minor Components
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                        Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                        Strongly saline soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Texture: Sandy loam or loam
                                                        Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Clay content: 5 to 20 percent
                                                        Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                                 Major Component Description
Bk horizon
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                              Rock outcrop
    Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist                 Definition: Consolidated sandstone and shale
    Chroma: 2 to 4
    Texture: Sandy loam or loam                         Moyerson
    Clay content: 5 to 20 percent                       Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent       Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                             Drainage class: Well drained
                                                        Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Cr horizon
                                                            residuum
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                        Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                        Flooding: None
                                                        Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
13E—Rock outcrop                                        Available water capacity: Mainly 1.8 inches

                        Setting                            A typical soil description with range in
                                                        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Landform: Escarpments
                                                        in this section.
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                            Management
                    Composition
Major Components                                          For management information about this map unit,
Rock outcrop: 85 percent                                see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Minor Components
Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent            Ryell Series
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Very shallow loamy soils: 0 to 4 percent                Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent               Drainage class: Well drained
140                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour) above         Chroma: 2 or 3
    the 2C3 horizon; rapid (6.0 to 20.0 inches/hour) in       Clay content: 10 to 20 percent
    the 2C3 horizon                                           Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
Landform: Flood plains                                        Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
Parent material: Alluvium
                                                          C1 and C2 horizons
Slope range: 0 to 4 percent
                                                             Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                             Chroma: 2 to 4
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy over sandy or
                                                             Texture: Very fine sandy loam, loamy very fine
   sandy skeletal, mixed (calcareous), frigid Aridic
                                                                sand, or loam
   Ustifluvents
                                                             Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
                   Typical Pedon                             Content of rock fragments: 0 to 5 percent pebbles
                                                             Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
Ryell fine sandy loam, in an area of Hanly-Ryell fine
                                                             Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
sandy loams, 0 to 4 percent slopes, in an area of
rangeland, 1,600 feet south and 300 feet west of the      2C3 horizon
northeast corner of sec. 26, T. 1 N., R. 60 E.               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
A—0 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) fine
                                                             Chroma: 2 or 3
   sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                             Texture: Sand or loamy sand
   weak coarse subangular blocky structure; soft,
                                                             Clay content: 0 to 10 percent
   very friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;
                                                             Content of rock fragments: 35 to 70 percent—0 to
   common fine and many very fine roots; few very
                                                                15 percent cobbles; 35 to 55 percent pebbles
   fine and fine pores; slightly alkaline; clear smooth
                                                             Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   boundary.
                                                             Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
C1—10 to 21 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) loam,
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; weak coarse
   subangular blocky structure; loose, very friable,      Shambo Series
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common very fine
   and fine roots; few very fine pores; 5 percent         Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   pebbles; few thin strata of sandy loam;                Drainage class: Well drained
   disseminated lime; strongly effervescent; slightly     Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
   alkaline; clear smooth boundary.                       Landform: Alluvial fans, sedimentary plains, and hills
C2—21 to 31 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) loam,        Parent material: Alluvium
   dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist; massive;          Slope range: 4 to 15 percent
   soft, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very    Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   fine roots; few very fine pores; 5 percent pebbles;
   few thin strata of sandy loam; disseminated lime;      Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Typic
   strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear           Haploborolls
   smooth boundary.
                                                                              Typical Pedon
2C3—31 to 60 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2)
   stratified very gravelly loamy sand and very           Shambo loam, in an area of Shambo-Mowbray-
   gravelly sand, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)           Parchin complex, 4 to 25 percent slopes, in an area
   moist; single grain; loose, nonsticky, nonplastic;     of rangeland, 2,300 feet south and 2,300 feet east of
   few very fine roots; 40 percent pebbles and            the northwest corner of sec. 9, T. 3 S., R. 62 E.
   10 percent cobbles; disseminated lime; slightly
                                                          A—0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
   effervescent; slightly alkaline.
                                                             loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
            Range in Characteristics                         moderate fine subangular blocky structure;
                                                             slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly
Soil temperature: 40 to 47 degrees F
                                                             plastic; many very fine and fine roots; common
Depth to the 2C3 horizon: 18 to 36 inches
                                                             very fine pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
A horizon                                                 Bw1—5 to 14 inches; dark brown (10YR 4/3) loam,
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                         very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                           moderate coarse subangular blocky structure;
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                         141




   slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;   131C—Shambo-Noonan loams,
   common very fine and fine roots; few fine and                   4 to 15 percent slopes
   common very fine pores; neutral; clear smooth
   boundary.
                                                                                        Setting
Bw2—14 to 23 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4)
   loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) moist; moderate                 Landform:
   coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, friable,           • Shambo—Alluvial fans
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and              • Noonan—Alluvial fans
   common very fine roots; common very fine pores               Slope:
   and few fine pores; neutral; clear smooth                    • Shambo—4 to 15 percent
   boundary.                                                    • Noonan—4 to 15 percent
Bw3—23 to 30 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y                Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
   6/4) loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) moist; moderate
                                                                                    Composition
   coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm,
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few very fine and         Major Components
   fine roots; few very fine and fine pores; slightly           Shambo and similar soils: 45 percent
   alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.                             Noonan and similar soils: 40 percent
Bk—30 to 60 inches; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) clay
                                                                Minor Components
   loam, light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) moist; weak
                                                                Deep moderately saline soils: 0 to 4 percent
   coarse subangular blocky structure; hard, firm,
                                                                Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few very fine roots;
                                                                Shallow cobbly soils: 0 to 4 percent
   few very fine pores; common fine masses and
                                                                Shallow bouldery soils: 0 to 3 percent
   seams of lime; strongly effervescent; moderately
   alkaline.                                                             Major Component Description
                                                                Shambo
              Range in Characteristics
                                                                Surface layer texture: Loam
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches                Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Depth to the Bk horizon: 14 to 30 inches                        Drainage class: Well drained
                                                                Dominant parent material: Alluvium
A horizon
                                                                Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
                                                                Flooding: None
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                                Available water capacity: Mainly 10.9 inches
   Clay content: 10 to 27 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                                Noonan
Bw horizons                                                     Surface layer texture: Loam
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                            Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist                          Drainage class: Well drained
   Chroma: 2 to 4                                               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Texture: Loam, silt loam, or clay loam                       Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Clay content: 18 to 35 percent                               Flooding: None
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4                                      Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                                Available water capacity: Mainly 9.2 inches
Bk horizon
    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                   A typical soil description with range in
    Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                                characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
    Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                                in this section.
    Texture: Loam, clay loam, silty clay loam, or silt
      loam
                                                                                    Management
    Clay content: 18 to 35 percent
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 10 to 15 percent                For management information about this map unit,
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                                     see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
142                                                                                              Soil Survey




231D—Shambo-Mowbray-Parchin                         Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   complex, 4 to 25 percent slopes                  Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches

                                                       A typical soil description with range in
                       Setting
                                                    characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Landform:                                           in this section.
• Shambo—Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                                        Management
• Mowbray—Hills
• Parchin—Sedimentary plains                          For management information about this map unit,
Slope:                                              see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
• Shambo—4 to 15 percent
• Mowbray—15 to 25 percent
• Parchin—4 to 8 percent                            Tanna Series
Mean annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                    Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                   Composition
                                                    Drainage class: Well drained
Major Components                                    Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
Shambo and similar soils: 40 percent                Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
Mowbray and similar soils: 25 percent               Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Parchin and similar soils: 20 percent               Slope range: 2 to 15 percent
                                                    Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Minor Components
Cabba and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                    Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Aridic
Reeder and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                       Argiborolls
Vebar and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Very shallow sandy soils: 0 to 2 percent                               Typical Pedon
Areas of slickspots: 0 to 2 percent
                                                    Tanna silty clay loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an
         Major Component Description                area of rangeland, 500 feet north and 500 feet west
                                                    of the southeast corner of sec. 20, T. 9 S., R. 61 E.
Shambo
Surface layer texture: Loam                         A1—0 to 2 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)           silty clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR
Drainage class: Well drained                           3/2) moist; moderate fine granular structure; soft,
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                     friable, slightly sticky, plastic; many very fine and
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                     fine roots; slightly alkaline; abrupt smooth
Flooding: None                                         boundary.
Available water capacity: Mainly 10.9 inches        A2—2 to 7 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                       silty clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR
Mowbray                                                3/2) moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
Surface layer texture: Very channery loam              structure; hard, friable, moderately sticky,
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)           moderately plastic; many very fine and fine roots;
Drainage class: Well drained                           many very fine pores; slightly alkaline; clear
Dominant parent material: Colluvium                    smooth boundary.
Native plant cover type: Forestland                 Bt—7 to 19 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
Flooding: None                                         clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.4 inches            moderate coarse prismatic structure parting to
                                                       strong medium subangular blocky; very hard,
Parchin                                                firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                 fine and many very fine roots; common very fine
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)         pores; many distinct clay films on faces of peds
Drainage class: Well drained                           and in pores; slightly alkaline; gradual smooth
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy      boundary.
    sedimentary beds                                Bk—19 to 27 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) clay,
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                     brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; hard, friable,
Flooding: None                                         moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few very
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   143




   fine roots; few very fine pores; many medium and       64C—Tanna silty clay loam,
   common fine masses of lime; strongly                      2 to 8 percent slopes
   effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual smooth
   boundary.
                                                                                  Setting
Cr—27 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
   semiconsolidated shale that crushes to clay            Landform: Sedimentary plains
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist.             Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
             Range in Characteristics
                                                                              Composition
Soil temperature: 40 to 47 degrees F
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 12 inches          Major Components
Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 20 inches                  Tanna and similar soils: 85 percent
Depth to bedrock: 20 to 40 inches
                                                          Minor Components
A horizons                                                Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                      Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Value: 2 or 3 moist                                    Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                         Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   Clay content: 27 to 35 percent                         Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent—0 to        Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
       5 percent cobbles; 0 to 5 percent channers             1 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
                                                                   Major Component Description
Bt horizon
                                                          Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                          Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
    Value: 3 or 4 moist
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
    Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                          Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, shale
    Texture: Clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or silty
                                                              residuum
       clay
                                                          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
                                                          Flooding: None
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent—0 to
                                                          Available water capacity: Mainly 4.4 inches
       5 percent cobbles; 0 to 5 percent channers
    Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
                                                             A typical soil description with range in
    Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Bk horizon                                                in this section.
    Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                                              Management
    Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
    Chroma: 2 or 3                                          For management information about this map unit,
    Texture: Clay loam, silty clay loam, or clay          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
    Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
    Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent—0 to
       5 percent cobbles; 0 to 5 percent channers         164C—Tanna-Ethridge silty clay loams,
    Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm                 2 to 8 percent slopes
    Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
    Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4                                                       Setting
Cr horizon                                                Landform:
    Material: Semiconsolidated shale with thin layers     • Tanna—Sedimentary plains
       of hard sandstone that are rippable                • Ethridge—Alluvial fans
144                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Slope:                                                     Slope:
• Tanna—2 to 8 percent                                     • Tanna—8 to 15 percent
• Ethridge—2 to 8 percent                                  • Ethridge—8 to 15 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition                                                Composition
Major Components                                           Major Components
Tanna and similar soils: 50 percent                        Tanna and similar soils: 55 percent
Ethridge and similar soils: 35 percent                     Ethridge and similar soils: 30 percent
Minor Components                                           Minor Components
Eapa and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                     Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                 Soils with sandy loam surface layers: 0 to 3 percent
Soils with sandy loam surface layers: 0 to 2 percent       Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
Soils that have slopes less than 2 percent: 0 to               2 percent
    2 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
         Major Component Description
                                                           Tanna
Tanna                                                      Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam                     Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Drainage class: Well drained
Drainage class: Well drained                               Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale               residuum
    residuum                                               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Flooding: None
Flooding: None                                             Available water capacity: Mainly 4.4 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.4 inches
                                                           Ethridge
Ethridge                                                   Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam                     Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Drainage class: Well drained
Drainage class: Well drained                               Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Flooding: None
Flooding: None                                             Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
   A typical soil description with range in                characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        in this section.
in this section.
                                                                               Management
                    Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
  For management information about this map unit,          see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.

                                                           Teigen Series
164D—Tanna-Ethridge silty clay loams,
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)
                        Setting
                                                           Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Landform:                                                  Parent material: Alluvium
• Tanna—Hills                                              Slope range: 0 to 15 percent
• Ethridge—Alluvial fans                                   Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                               145




Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, frigid Aridic   Bw horizons
   Ustochrepts                                              Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                            Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
                  Typical Pedon
                                                            Chroma: 1 or 2
Teigen silty clay loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes, in an        Texture: Clay loam, silty clay loam, or silty clay
area of rangeland, 1,340 feet north and 240 feet east       Clay content: 35 to 55 percent
of the southwest corner of sec. 24, T. 9 S., R. 58 E.       Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent shale
                                                              fragments—0 to 5 percent soft shale; 0 to
A—0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) silty
                                                              5 percent hard shale
   clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                            Reaction: pH 4.5 to 6.5
   moist; moderate thick platy structure; slightly
   hard, firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;    BC and C horizons
   few very fine and fine roots; few very fine pores;       Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   moderately acid; clear smooth boundary.                  Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
Bw1—3 to 15 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)          Chroma: 1 or 2
   clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)            Texture: Loam, silt loam, clay loam, silty clay
   moist; strong medium subangular blocky                     loam, or silty clay
   structure; hard, firm, moderately sticky,                Clay content: 35 to 55 percent
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; common          Content of rock fragments: 5 to 15 percent shale
   very fine pores; moderately acid; gradual smooth           fragments—5 to 10 percent soft shale; 0 to
   boundary.                                                  5 percent hard shale
Bw2—15 to 24 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty         Reaction: pH 4.5 to 6.5
   clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
   moist; moderate fine and medium subangular
   blocky structure; hard, firm, moderately sticky,      95A—Teigen silty clay loam,
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few very        0 to 4 percent slopes
   fine pores; 5 percent soft shale channers;
   moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.
BC—24 to 28 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) clay                               Setting
   loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist;
                                                         Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   massive; slightly hard, friable, moderately sticky,
                                                         Slope: 0 to 4 percent
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few very
                                                         Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   fine pores; 5 percent pebbles and 10 percent soft
   shale channers; slightly acid; gradual wavy
                                                                            Composition
   boundary.
C—28 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) silty
                                                         Major Components
   clay loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
                                                         Teigen and similar soils: 85 percent
   moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, moderately
   sticky, moderately plastic; 5 percent soft shale      Minor Components
   channers; moderately acid.                            Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                         Creed and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
            Range in Characteristics
                                                         Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soil temperature: 41 to 47 degrees F                     Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soil phases: Gullied                                     Soils that have slopes more than 4 percent: 0 to
                                                             2 percent
A horizon
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                  Major Component Description
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
   Chroma: 1 or 2                                        Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
   Texture: Silty clay loam or clay loam                 Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Clay content: 30 to 40 percent                        Drainage class: Well drained
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent shale      Dominant parent material: Alluvium
       fragments—0 to 5 percent soft shale; 0 to         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
       5 percent hard shale                              Flooding: None
   Reaction: pH 4.5 to 6.0                               Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches
146                                                                                                     Soil Survey




   A typical soil description with range in                Parent material: Alluvium
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        Slope range: 4 to 45 percent
in this section.                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Management
                                                           Taxonomic Class: Loamy-skeletal, mixed Aridic
                                                              Calciborolls
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                               Typical Pedon
                                                           Tricart clay loam, 4 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of
95D—Teigen clay loam, gullied,                             rangeland, 2,500 feet north and 500 feet east of the
   4 to 15 percent slopes                                  southwest corner of sec. 11, T. 5 S., R. 59 E.
                                                           A1—0 to 1 inch; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) loam, very
                        Setting                               dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) moist; moderate
                                                              fine and medium granular structure; soft, very
Landform: Alluvial fans
                                                              friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; common fine
Slope: 4 to 15 percent
                                                              and many very fine roots; common very fine
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                              pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                    Composition                            A2—1 to 6 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark
                                                              brown (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate medium
Major Components
                                                              prismatic structure parting to weak fine and
Teigen and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                              medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, friable,
Minor Components                                              slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                       common very fine roots; few very fine pores;
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                     5 percent pebbles; slightly alkaline; clear wavy
Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 4 percent          boundary.
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Bk1—6 to 13 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                              clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
         Major Component Description
                                                              weak medium prismatic structure parting to weak
Surface layer texture: Clay loam                              fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard,
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  friable, slightly sticky, moderately plastic; common
Drainage class: Well drained                                  very fine roots; few very fine pores; 10 percent
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            pebbles; common fine and medium masses of
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            lime; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline;
Flooding: None                                                gradual wavy boundary.
Available water capacity: Mainly 9.9 inches                2Bk2—13 to 25 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) very
                                                              gravelly loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist;
   A typical soil description with range in                   weak medium subangular blocky structure; soft,
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very
in this section.                                              fine roots; few very fine pores; 40 percent
                                                              pebbles; common distinct lime coats on surfaces
                    Management
                                                              of pebbles; many fine and medium masses of
  For management information about this map unit,             lime; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      gradual wavy boundary.
                                                           2Bk3—25 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) very
                                                              gravelly loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist;
Tricart Series                                                weak fine subangular blocky structure; soft, very
                                                              friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  roots; 55 percent pebbles; common distinct lime
Drainage class: Well drained                                  coats on surfaces of pebbles; many fine and
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)               medium masses of lime; violently effervescent;
Landform: Relict stream terraces                              moderately alkaline.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                             147




            Range in Characteristics                                    Composition
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F                Major Components
Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 10 inches    Tricart and similar soils: 85 percent
A1 horizon                                          Minor Components
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                   Soils with gravelly surfaces: 0 to 4 percent
   Texture: Loam or clay loam when mixed to         Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
      7 inches                                      Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
   Clay content: 15 to 35 percent                       2 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent       Soils that have slopes more than 15 percent: 0 to
      pebbles                                           2 percent
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                             Major Component Description
A2 horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                                                    Surface layer texture: Clay loam
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                    Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   Texture: Loam or clay loam
                                                    Drainage class: Well drained
   Clay content: 15 to 35 percent
                                                    Dominant parent material: Alluvium
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 35 percent
                                                    Native plant cover type: Rangeland
      pebbles
                                                    Flooding: None
   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
                                                    Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
Bk1 horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                   A typical soil description with range in
   Value: 6 or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist              characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                   in this section.
   Texture: Sandy loam, loam, or clay loam
                                                                        Management
   Clay content: 15 to 35 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 10 to 35 percent        For management information about this map unit,
      pebbles                                       see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 10 to 30 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
2Bk horizons                                        23E—Tricart gravelly loam,
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                   15 to 45 percent slopes
   Value: 6 or 7 dry; 5 or 6 moist
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                                            Setting
   Texture: Loam or sandy loam
   Clay content: 5 to 15 percent                    Landform: Relict stream terraces
   Content of rock fragments: 35 to 60 percent      Slope: 15 to 45 percent
      pebbles                                       Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 15 to 30 percent
                                                                        Composition
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
                                                    Major Components
                                                    Tricart and similar soils: 85 percent
23D—Tricart clay loam,
   4 to 15 percent slopes                           Minor Components
                                                    Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                    Soils with very gravelly surfaces: 0 to 4 percent
                      Setting
                                                    Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Landform: Relict stream terraces                        4 percent
Slope: 4 to 15 percent                              Soils that have slopes less than 15 percent: 0 to
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches              3 percent
148                                                                                                   Soil Survey




         Major Component Description                       Bw2—12 to 18 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) fine
                                                              sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
Surface layer texture: Gravelly loam
                                                              weak coarse prismatic structure parting to weak
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                              medium subangular blocky; slightly hard, very
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                              friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common very fine
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                              roots; few very fine pores; slightly alkaline; clear
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                              wavy boundary.
Flooding: None
                                                           Bk—18 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.3 inches
                                                              fine sandy loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
                                                              weak coarse prismatic structure; soft, very friable,
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                              nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine roots; few very
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                              fine pores; few fine and medium masses of lime;
in this section.
                                                              strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
                    Management                                gradual wavy boundary.
                                                           Cr—30 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                              semiconsolidated, sandy sedimentary beds that
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                              crush to fine sandy loam, grayish brown (2.5Y
                                                              5/2) moist.

Twilight Series                                                        Range in Characteristics
                                                           Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 20 inches
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/         A horizon
    hour)                                                     Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                        Value: 4 or 5 dry; 3 or 4 moist
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy                      Chroma: 2 or 3
    sedimentary beds                                          Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
Slope range: 2 to 45 percent                                  Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Bw horizons
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Aridic
                                                              Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Ustochrepts
                                                              Chroma: 2 to 4
                                                              Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam
                   Typical Pedon
                                                              Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
Twilight fine sandy loam, in an area of Blacksheep-
Twilight fine sandy loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, in      Bk horizon
an area of rangeland, 1,000 feet north and 2,700 feet          Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
east of the southwest corner of sec. 18, T. 2 S.,              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
R. 56 E.                                                       Chroma: 1 to 4
                                                               Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam
A—0 to 3 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) fine
                                                               Clay content: 5 to 18 percent
   sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2)
                                                               Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 10 percent
   moist; weak fine granular structure; slightly hard,
                                                               Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few medium
   and common very fine roots; neutral; clear
   smooth boundary.                                        69C—Twilight fine sandy loam,
Bw1—3 to 12 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) fine         2 to 8 percent slopes
   sandy loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
   weak coarse prismatic structure parting to weak
                                                                                  Setting
   fine and medium subangular blocky; slightly hard,
   very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few fine and       Landform: Sedimentary plains
   common very fine roots; few very fine and fine          Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   pores; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    149




                    Composition                            Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                               sedimentary beds
Major Components
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Twilight and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Flooding: None
Minor Components                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
Bonfri and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                       A typical soil description with range in
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                 in this section.
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                                               Management
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
         Major Component Description
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               269C—Twilight-Bonfri complex,
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy             2 to 8 percent slopes
    sedimentary beds
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                                                     Setting
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
                                                           Landform:
                                                           • Twilight—Sedimentary plains
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           • Bonfri—Sedimentary plains
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Position on landform:
in this section.
                                                           • Twilight—Shoulders and summits
                    Management                             • Bonfri—Backslopes and shoulders
                                                           Slope:
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           • Twilight—2 to 8 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           • Bonfri—2 to 8 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
69D—Twilight fine sandy loam,                                                  Composition
   8 to 15 percent slopes
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Twilight and similar soils: 55 percent
                        Setting
                                                           Bonfri and similar soils: 30 percent
Landform: Hills
                                                           Minor Components
Slope: 8 to 15 percent
                                                           Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Major Components
                                                           Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Twilight and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Minor Components
                                                                    Major Component Description
Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    Twilight
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
         Major Component Description
                                                               sedimentary beds
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Flooding: None
Drainage class: Well drained                               Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
150                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Bonfri                                                     Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
Surface layer texture: Loam                                    sedimentary beds
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Drainage class: Well drained                               Flooding: None
Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone            Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
    and shale residuum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Bonfri
Flooding: None                                             Surface layer texture: Loam
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   A typical soil description with range in                Dominant parent material: Interbedded sandstone
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            and shale residuum
in this section.                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 5.1 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
269D—Twilight-Bonfri complex,
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                                      Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
                        Setting                            see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
Landform:
• Twilight—Hills                                           369C—Twilight-Delpoint complex,
• Bonfri—Hills                                                2 to 8 percent slopes
Position on landform:
• Twilight—Shoulders and summits
                                                                                   Setting
• Bonfri—Backslopes and shoulders
Slope:                                                     Landform:
• Twilight—8 to 15 percent                                 • Twilight—Sedimentary plains
• Bonfri—8 to 15 percent                                   • Delpoint—Sedimentary plains
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Position on landform:
                                                           • Twilight—Shoulders and summits
                    Composition
                                                           • Delpoint—Backslopes and shoulders
Major Components                                           Slope:
Twilight and similar soils: 55 percent                     • Twilight—2 to 8 percent
Bonfri and similar soils: 30 percent                       • Delpoint—2 to 8 percent
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Minor Components
Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                                   Composition
Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Major Components
Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Twilight and similar soils: 50 percent
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 35 percent
Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Chinook and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent                  Minor Components
                                                           Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                           Bonfri and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Twilight                                                   Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam                     Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)             Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Drainage class: Well drained                                   2 percent
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    151




         Major Component Description                       Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Cambeth and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Twilight
                                                           Soils with darker colored surface layers: 0 to
Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
                                                               2 percent
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                                        Major Component Description
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                           Twilight
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Surface layer texture: Fine sandy loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Flooding: None
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                               sedimentary beds
Delpoint
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Surface layer texture: Loam
                                                           Flooding: None
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                           Cabbart
    sedimentary beds
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Flooding: None
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.5 inches
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
                                                               sedimentary beds
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Flooding: None
in this section.
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 2.9 inches
                    Management
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           in this section.
                                                                               Management
369D—Twilight-Cabbart complex,
   8 to 15 percent slopes                                    For management information about this map unit,
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                        Setting
Landform:                                                  Ustochrepts
• Twilight—Hills
• Cabbart—Hills                                            Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Position on landform:                                      Drainage class: Well drained
• Twilight—Backslopes and footslopes                       Permeability: Moderately slow (0.2 to 0.6 inch/hour)
• Cabbart—Shoulders and summits                                to moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/hour)
Slope:                                                     Landform: Hills (slump area)
• Twilight—8 to 15 percent                                 Parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
• Cabbart—8 to 15 percent                                      sedimentary beds
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Slope range: 15 to 45 percent
                                                           Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition
Major Components                                           Taxonomic Class: Aridic Ustochrepts
Twilight and similar soils: 50 percent
Cabbart and similar soils: 35 percent                                         Typical Pedon
Minor Components                                           Ustochrepts, in an area of Ustochrepts-Haploborolls
Blacksheep and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent               complex, slump, 15 to 45 percent slopes, in an area
Busby and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                    of rangeland, 2,500 feet north and 500 feet west of
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 the southeast corner of sec. 7, T. 4 S., R. 60 E.
152                                                                                                        Soil Survey




A—0 to 5 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) loam, brown            Bw horizon
   (10YR 4/3) moist; weak fine subangular blocky                 Clay content: 12 to 27 percent
   structure; soft, very friable, slightly sticky, slightly      Content of rock fragments: 10 to 35 percent—
   plastic; few medium and common very fine and                     10 to 35 percent channers; 0 to 5 percent
   fine roots; disseminated lime; slightly                          flagstones
   effervescent; slightly alkaline; abrupt smooth                Electrical conductivity: 2 to 16 mmhos/cm
   boundary.                                                     Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 30
Bw—5 to 12 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)                Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   channery loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
                                                              Bk horizons
   moist; strong medium subangular blocky
                                                                  Clay content: 12 to 35 percent
   structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky,
                                                                  Content of rock fragments: 35 to 60 percent—
   slightly plastic; few medium and many very fine
                                                                     35 to 60 percent channers; 0 to 10 percent
   and fine roots; few fine and many very fine pores;
                                                                     flagstones
   15 percent channers and 5 percent flagstones;
                                                                  Electrical conductivity: 2 to 16 mmhos/cm
   disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
                                                                  Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 30
   moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                                  Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
Bk1—12 to 20 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y
                                                                  Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0
   6/4) very channery loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4)
   moist; moderate coarse subangular blocky
   structure; slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky,        17E—Ustochrepts-Haploborolls complex,
   slightly plastic; few medium and many very fine               slump, 15 to 45 percent slopes
   roots; common fine and many very fine pores;
   30 percent channers and 5 percent flagstones;
                                                                                     Setting
   few fine masses and seams of lime; violently
   effervescent; strongly alkaline; clear smooth              Landform:
   boundary.                                                  • Ustochrepts—Hills
Bk2—20 to 37 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y              • Haploborolls—Hills
   6/4) very channery loam, olive brown (2.5Y 4/4)            Slope:
   moist; massive; slightly hard, friable, slightly           • Ustochrepts—15 to 45 percent
   sticky, slightly plastic; few medium and common            • Haploborolls—15 to 45 percent
   very fine and fine roots; 35 percent channers and          Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   5 percent flagstones; few fine masses of lime;
                                                                                 Composition
   violently effervescent; strongly alkaline; clear
   wavy boundary.                                             Major Components
Cr—37 to 60 inches; semiconsolidated, loamy                   Ustochrepts and similar soils: 45 percent
   sedimentary beds.                                          Haploborolls and similar soils: 40 percent
             Range in Characteristics                         Minor Components
                                                              Yawdim and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Content of soft coarse fragments in the control
                                                              Areas of rock outcrop: 0 to 3 percent
   section: 0 to 80 percent
                                                              Areas of gullied land: 0 to 3 percent
Content of rock fragments in the control section: 35 to
                                                              Areas with ponderosa pines: 0 to 3 percent
   60 percent channers or flagstones
                                                              Soils that have slopes less than 15 percent: 0 to
Depth to calcium carbonate: 0 to 10 inches
                                                                  1 percent
Other features: Soft coarse fragments increase with
                                                              Very poorly drained soils: 0 to 1 percent
   depth.
                                                                       Major Component Description
A horizon
   Clay content: 12 to 27 percent                             Ustochrepts
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent                 Surface layer texture: Loam
       flagstones and channers                                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
   Electrical conductivity: 2 to 16 mmhos/cm                  Drainage class: Well drained
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 30                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated, loamy
   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 9.0                                        sedimentary beds
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                  153




Native plant cover type: Rangeland                          By1—8 to 24 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Flooding: None                                                 silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist;
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                         moderate fine and medium subangular blocky
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                        structure; hard, friable, very sticky, moderately
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.1 inches                    plastic; few very fine and fine roots; common very
                                                               fine pores; common fine nests and seams of
Haploborolls                                                   gypsum crystals; slightly alkaline; gradual wavy
Surface layer texture: Channery fine sandy loam                boundary.
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                By2—24 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Drainage class: Well drained                                   silty clay loam, dark gray (10YR 4/1) moist;
Dominant parent material: Alluvium or colluvium                moderate fine and medium subangular blocky
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                             structure; hard, firm, very sticky, moderately
Flooding: None                                                 plastic; few very fine and fine roots; common very
Available water capacity: Mainly 8.9 inches                    fine pores; few fine seams and nests of gypsum
                                                               crystals; slightly alkaline.
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                            Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                            Depth to the By horizon: 6 to 15 inches
                    Management
                                                            E and Bw horizons
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                               Clay content: 35 to 40 percent
Vaeda Series                                                   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                                                                  pebbles
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                               Electrical conductivity: 2 to 4 mmhos/cm
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                               Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 5
Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)
                                                               Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.8
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Parent material: Alluvium                                   By1 horizon
Slope range: 0 to 4 percent                                    Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                          Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 or 3
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid,              Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
   frigid Aridic Ustochrepts                                   Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
                                                               Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
                   Typical Pedon
                                                                  pebbles
Vaeda silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an            Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
area of rangeland, 2,400 feet south and 1,900 feet             Sodium adsorption ratio: 10 to 20
east of the northwest corner of sec. 8, T. 9 S., R. 61 E.      Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
                                                               Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
E—0 to 2 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) silty clay loam,
  dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; moderate             By2 horizon
  thin platy structure; soft, very friable, very sticky,       Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
  moderately plastic; few very fine and fine roots;            Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
  common very fine and fine pores; neutral; gradual            Chroma: 1 to 3
  wavy boundary.                                               Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
Bw—2 to 8 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)               Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
  silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)               Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
  moist; moderate fine and medium subangular                      pebbles
  blocky structure; hard, friable, very sticky,                Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
  moderately plastic; few very fine and fine roots;            Sodium adsorption ratio: 10 to 20
  common very fine pores; neutral; clear smooth                Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
  boundary.                                                    Reaction: pH 6.1 to 8.4
154                                                                                                     Soil Survey




96A—Vaeda silty clay loam,                                                     Composition
   0 to 2 percent slopes                                   Major Components
                                                           Vaeda and similar soils: 70 percent
                        Setting                            Creed and similar soils: 20 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces                Minor Components
Slope: 0 to 2 percent                                      Bickerdyke and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Vanda and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                    Composition
                                                           Soils that have slopes more than 4 percent: 0 to
Major Components                                               2 percent
Vaeda and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                                    Major Component Description
Minor Components
                                                           Vaeda
Vanda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Bickerdyke and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Soils that have slopes more than 2 percent: 0 to
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    2 percent
                                                           Flooding: None
         Major Component Description                       Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Creed
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
                                                           Surface layer texture: Loam
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Flooding: None
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches
                                                           Flooding: None
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 6.7 inches
in this section.
                    Management                                A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           in this section.
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                                               Management
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
196C—Vaeda-Creed complex,                                  see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   0 to 4 percent slopes

                        Setting                            Vanda Series
Landform:                                                  Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
• Vaeda—Alluvial fans                                      Drainage class: Well drained
• Creed—Alluvial fans                                      Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)
Slope:                                                     Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
• Vaeda—0 to 4 percent                                     Parent material: Alluvium
• Creed—0 to 4 percent                                     Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   155




Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic                       Clay content: 35 to 60 percent
   (calcareous), frigid Aridic Ustorthents                    Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent with total gypsum
                                                                 less than 150
                    Typical Pedon
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
Vanda silty clay loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, in an           Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
area of rangeland, 1,200 feet south and 600 feet east         Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent
of the northwest corner of sec. 2, T. 8 S., R. 60 E.          Reaction: pH 7.8 to 9.6
A—0 to 3 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) silty clay loam,
   grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist; moderate fine          97A—Vanda silty clay loam,
   granular structure; slightly hard, friable,               0 to 2 percent slopes
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; common
   very fine and fine roots; disseminated lime;
                                                                                  Setting
   strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear
   smooth boundary.                                       Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Byz1—3 to 17 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)       Slope: 0 to 2 percent
   silty clay loam, dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2)         Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   moist; massive; hard, firm, moderately sticky,
                                                                              Composition
   moderately plastic; common very fine and fine
   roots; common very fine pores; common seams            Major Components
   and nests of gypsum crystals; few fine seams           Vanda and similar soils: 85 percent
   and nests of other salts; disseminated lime;
                                                          Minor Components
   strongly effervescent; strongly alkaline; clear
                                                          Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   smooth boundary.
                                                          Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Byz2—17 to 60 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
                                                          Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   silty clay loam, grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) moist;
                                                          Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
   massive; very hard, firm, moderately sticky,
   moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few very               Major Component Description
   fine pores; few fine seams and nests of gypsum
                                                          Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
   crystals; few fine seams of other salts;
                                                          Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
   disseminated lime; strongly effervescent;
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
   moderately alkaline.
                                                          Dominant parent material: Alluvium
             Range in Characteristics                     Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                          Flooding: None
Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                          Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Soil phases: Warm
                                                          Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Taxonomic note: Map unit 613B is a taxadjunct to
                                                          Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches
    the Vanda series in order to join soils that have
    an average soil temperature greater than
                                                             A typical soil description with range in
    47 degrees F.
                                                          characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
A horizon                                                 in this section.
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                                              Management
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 to 3                                           For management information about this map unit,
   Texture: Clay or silty clay loam                       see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Clay content: 30 to 60 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 20 to 30                      197A—Vanda-Marvan complex,
   Reaction: pH 7.8 to 9.6                                   0 to 2 percent slopes
Byz horizons
                                                                                  Setting
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                        Landform:
   Chroma: 2 or 3                                         • Vanda—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   Texture: Clay, silty clay, or silty clay loam          • Marvan—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
156                                                                                                     Soil Survey




Slope:                                                     Slope:
• Vanda—0 to 2 percent                                     • Vanda—2 to 8 percent
• Marvan—0 to 2 percent                                    • Marvan—2 to 8 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                    Composition                                                Composition
Major Components                                           Major Components
Vanda and similar soils: 45 percent                        Vanda and similar soils: 45 percent
Marvan and similar soils: 40 percent                       Marvan and similar soils: 40 percent
Minor Components                                           Minor Components
Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                   Absher and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                    Vaeda and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                   Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
         Major Component Description                                Major Component Description
Vanda                                                      Vanda
Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam                     Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                             Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                    Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches                Available water capacity: Mainly 6.1 inches

Marvan                                                     Marvan
Surface layer texture: Silty clay                          Surface layer texture: Silty clay
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained                               Drainage class: Well drained
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                         Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                         Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                             Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches                Available water capacity: Mainly 6.9 inches

   A typical soil description with range in                   A typical soil description with range in
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                           in this section.
                    Management                                                 Management
  For management information about this map unit,            For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.


197C—Vanda-Marvan complex,                                 Varney Series
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)
                        Setting
                                                           Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Landform:                                                  Parent material: Alluvium
• Vanda—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                  Slope range: 0 to 8 percent
• Marvan—Alluvial fans and stream terraces                 Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                      157




Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed Aridic                           coats on rock fragments; common fine masses of
   Argiborolls                                                      lime; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline.
                     Typical Pedon
                                                                            Range in Characteristics
Varney loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                                Soil temperature: 40 to 47 degrees F
rangeland, 1,200 feet south and 400 feet west of the
                                                                Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
northeast corner of sec. 4, T. 2 S., R. 57 E.
                                                                Depth to the Bk horizon: 9 to 20 inches
A—0 to 4 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) loam, dark brown
                                                                A horizon
   (10YR 3/3) moist; moderate fine and medium
                                                                   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   granular structure; slightly hard, very friable,
                                                                   Value: 4 or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
   slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and
                                                                   Chroma: 2 or 3
   medium and many very fine roots; neutral; clear
                                                                   Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
   smooth boundary.
                                                                   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
Bt1—4 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) clay loam, dark
                                                                       pebbles
   brown (10YR 3/3) moist; strong medium
                                                                   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   subangular blocky structure; hard, very friable,
                                                                   Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.3
   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; few fine
   and common very fine roots; many very fine                   Bt horizons
   pores; common faint clay films on faces of peds                  Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   and in pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.                    Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
Bt2—9 to 17 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) sandy clay                     Chroma: 2 to 4
   loam, brown (10YR 4/3) moist; weak coarse                        Texture: Clay loam or sandy clay loam
   prismatic structure parting to moderate medium                   Clay content: 27 to 35 percent
   subangular blocky; hard, friable, moderately                     Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent
   sticky, slightly plastic; few fine and common very                  pebbles
   fine roots; few fine and many very fine pores;                   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   common faint clay films on faces of peds,                        Reaction: pH 6.6 to 7.8
   common distinct clay films in pores; slightly
                                                                Bk1 horizon
   alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
                                                                   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Bk1—17 to 28 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly
                                                                   Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, 6, or 7 moist
   clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/3) moist;
                                                                   Chroma: 2 to 4
   moderate fine and medium subangular blocky
                                                                   Texture: Sandy loam, loam, clay loam, or sandy
   structure; hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly
                                                                      clay loam
   plastic; few very fine roots; common very fine
                                                                   Clay content: 10 to 30 percent
   pores; 15 percent pebbles; many fine masses of
                                                                   Content of rock fragments: 5 to 35 percent—0 to
   lime; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline;
                                                                      5 percent cobbles; 5 to 30 percent pebbles
   gradual wavy boundary.
                                                                   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 15 to 30 percent
Bk2—28 to 36 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) gravelly
                                                                   Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   sandy loam, yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) moist;
                                                                   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure;
   slightly hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic;   Bk2 and Bk3 horizons
   few very fine roots; 25 percent pebbles; common                 Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   distinct lime coats on undersides of rock                       Value: 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, 6, or 7 moist
   fragments; common fine masses of lime; violently                Chroma: 3 or 4
   effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy                 Texture: Sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam
   boundary.                                                       Clay content: 10 to 30 percent
Bk3—36 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3)                    Content of rock fragments: 5 to 35 percent—0 to
   gravelly sandy loam, pale brown (10YR 6/3)                         5 percent cobbles; 5 to 30 percent pebbles
   moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure;                 Calcium carbonate equivalent: 15 to 30 percent
   soft, friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few very fine             Electrical conductivity: 0 to 2 mmhos/cm
   roots; 30 percent pebbles; common distinct lime                 Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
158                                                                                                     Soil Survey




22A—Varney loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes                     Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to
                                                               2 percent
                                                           Soils with cobbly surface layers: 0 to 1 percent
                        Setting
                                                                    Major Component Description
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
Slope: 0 to 2 percent                                      Surface layer texture: Loam
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                 Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
                    Composition
                                                           Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Major Components                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Varney and similar soils: 85 percent                       Flooding: None
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 7.6 inches
Minor Components
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
Soils with very gravelly substratums: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           in this section.
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soils with lighter colored surface layers: 0 to                                Management
    2 percent
                                                             For management information about this map unit,
Soils with cobbly surface layers: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
         Major Component Description
Surface layer texture: Loam
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)               122C—Varney-Gerdrum complex,
Drainage class: Well drained                                  2 to 8 percent slopes
Dominant parent material: Alluvium
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                                                 Setting
Flooding: None
                                                           Landform:
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.6 inches
                                                           • Varney—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           • Gerdrum—Alluvial fans and stream terraces
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                           Position on landform:
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           • Varney—Backslopes and footslopes
in this section.
                                                           • Gerdrum—Microlows
                    Management                             Slope:
                                                           • Varney—2 to 8 percent
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           • Gerdrum—2 to 8 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                               Composition
22C—Varney loam, 2 to 8 percent slopes
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Varney and similar soils: 50 percent
                        Setting
                                                           Gerdrum and similar soils: 35 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans and stream terraces
                                                           Minor Components
Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                           Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Soils with very gravelly substratums: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Major Components
                                                           Soils with gravelly surface layers: 0 to 2 percent
Varney and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent
Minor Components
                                                                    Major Component Description
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Soils with very gravelly substratums: 0 to 3 percent       Varney
Yamacall and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Surface layer texture: Loam
Delpoint and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                 Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                     159




Drainage class: Well drained                               Bw—6 to 15 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            sandy loam, very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2)
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            moist; moderate medium subangular blocky
Flooding: None                                                structure; slightly hard, very friable, slightly sticky,
Available water capacity: Mainly 7.6 inches                   slightly plastic; common very fine, fine, medium,
                                                              and coarse roots; few very fine pores; slightly
Gerdrum                                                       acid; clear wavy boundary.
Surface layer texture: Clay loam                           Bk1—15 to 21 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                  sandy loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2)
Drainage class: Well drained                                  moist; weak medium subangular blocky structure;
Dominant parent material: Alluvium                            slightly hard, very friable, nonsticky, nonplastic;
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                            few very fine roots; few very fine pores; few fine
Flooding: None                                                masses and threads of lime; 5 percent soft
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                        channers; strongly effervescent; moderately
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.
Available water capacity: Mainly 5.8 inches                Bk2—21 to 31 inches; white (2.5Y 8/2) sandy loam,
                                                              light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) moist; massive;
   A typical soil description with range in                   slightly hard, friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; few
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           very fine roots; common fine masses of lime and
in this section.                                              few medium masses of lime; 25 percent soft
                                                              channers; violently effervescent; moderately
                    Management
                                                              alkaline; clear wavy boundary.
  For management information about this map unit,          Cr—31 to 60 inches; white (2.5Y 8/2)
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      semiconsolidated, sandy sedimentary beds that
                                                              crush to very fine sandy loam, light gray (2.5Y
                                                              7/2) moist.
Vebar Series
                                                                        Range in Characteristics
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Drainage class: Well drained
                                                           Thickness of the mollic epipedon: 7 to 16 inches
Permeability: Moderately rapid (2.0 to 6.0 inches/
                                                           Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 16 inches
    hour)
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills
Parent material: Semiconsolidated, sandy
                                                           A horizon
    sedimentary beds
                                                              Value: 3, 4, or 5 dry; 2 or 3 moist
Slope range: 4 to 50 percent
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
Annual precipitation: 15 to 17 inches
                                                              Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
                                                              Reaction: pH 6.1 to 7.8
Taxonomic Class: Coarse-loamy, mixed Typic
   Haploborolls                                            Bw horizon
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
                   Typical Pedon
                                                              Value: 4, 5, or 6 dry; 3 or 4 moist
Vebar fine sandy loam, in an area of Belltower-               Chroma: 2 to 4
Reeder-Vebar complex, 4 to 15 percent slopes, in an           Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam
area of forestland, 500 feet south and 2,000 feet east        Clay content: 10 to 18 percent
of the northwest corner of sec. 4, T. 3 S., R. 61 E.          Reaction: pH 6.1 to 8.4
Oi—1 inch to 0; slightly decomposed forest litter.         Bk horizons
A—0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine            Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   sandy loam, very dark brown (10YR 2/2) moist;               Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   weak fine subangular blocky structure; soft, very           Chroma: 2 to 4
   friable, nonsticky, nonplastic; common fine,                Texture: Fine sandy loam or sandy loam
   medium, and coarse and many very fine roots;                Clay content: 7 to 15 percent
   few very fine pores; slightly acid; clear smooth            Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   boundary.                                                   Reaction: pH 7.4 to 8.4
160                                                                                                   Soil Survey




Volborg Series                                                Texture: Silty clay or clay
                                                              Clay content: 40 to 50 percent
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                        Electrical conductivity: 0 to 4 mmhos/cm
Drainage class: Well drained                                  Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 5; saline phase: 5 to
Permeability: Slow (0.06 to 0.2 inch/hour)                       13
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                        Reaction: pH 4.5 to 6.5
Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                          C horizons
Slope range: 2 to 60 percent
                                                             Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                             Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                             Chroma: 1 to 3
Taxonomic Class: Clayey, montmorillonitic, acid,
                                                             Texture: Silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay
   frigid, shallow Aridic Ustorthents
                                                             Clay content: 35 to 50 percent
                   Typical Pedon                             Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm; saline
                                                                 phase: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
Volborg clay, in an area of Neldore-Volborg clays, 4 to
                                                             Sodium adsorption ratio: 0 to 13
15 percent slopes, in an area of rangeland, 2,000 feet
                                                             Reaction: pH 3.6 to 5.5
north and 2,700 feet east of the southwest corner of
sec. 3, T. 6 S., R. 59 E.                                 Cr horizon
                                                              Material: Semiconsolidated shale
A—0 to 3 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) clay,
                                                              Electrical conductivity: 8 to 16 mmhos/cm
   dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak
                                                              Reaction: pH 3.6 to 5.5
   coarse granular structure; very hard, friable, very
   sticky, very plastic; few fine and common very fine
   roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary.          98C—Volborg clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes
C1—3 to 10 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   silty clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;
                                                                                  Setting
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure
   parting to moderate fine granular; very hard,          Landform: Sedimentary plains
   friable, very sticky, very plastic; few fine and       Slope: 2 to 8 percent
   common very fine roots; few very fine pores; very      Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                                              Composition
C2—10 to 16 inches; light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2)
   silty clay, grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) moist;            Major Components
   moderate medium subangular blocky structure            Volborg and similar soils: 85 percent
   parting to moderate medium granular; extremely
                                                          Minor Components
   hard, firm, very sticky, very plastic; few very fine
                                                          Julin and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
   roots; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.
                                                          Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
Cr—16 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/0)
                                                          Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent
   semiconsolidated shale, gray (2.5Y 5/0) moist.
                                                          Moderately saline soils: 0 to 3 percent
            Range in Characteristics
                                                                   Major Component Description
Soil temperature: 41 to 47 degrees F
                                                          Surface layer texture: Clay
Depth to bedrock: 10 to 20 inches; saline phase: 10 to
                                                          Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
    14 inches
                                                          Drainage class: Well drained
Soil phases: Saline or warm
                                                          Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Taxonomic note: Map unit 634E is a taxadjunct to
                                                              residuum
    the Volborg series in order to join soils that have
                                                          Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    an average soil temperature greater than
                                                          Flooding: None
    47 degrees F.
                                                          Available water capacity: Mainly 1.9 inches
A horizon
   Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y                                         A typical soil description with range in
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist                        characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Chroma: 1 to 3                                         in this section.
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                    161




                    Management                             Slope:
                                                           • Volborg—8 to 25 percent
  For management information about this map unit,
                                                           • Julin—8 to 25 percent
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches

198D—Volborg silty clay, saline,                                               Composition
   4 to 15 percent slopes
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Volborg and similar soils: 40 percent
                        Setting
                                                           Julin and similar soils: 35 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                     Rock outcrop: 15 percent
Slope: 4 to 15 percent
                                                           Minor Components
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Teigen and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                    Composition                            Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Major Components
                                                           Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Volborg and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 1 percent
Minor Components
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent                           Major Component Description
Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 4 percent
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent                  Volborg
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Surface layer texture: Clay
                                                           Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
         Major Component Description
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Surface layer texture: Silty clay                          Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                         residuum
Drainage class: Well drained                               Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale           Flooding: None
    residuum                                               Available water capacity: Mainly 1.9 inches
Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Flooding: None                                             Julin
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                     Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.4 inches                Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   A typical soil description with range in                Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,            residuum
in this section.                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
                                                           Flooding: None
                    Management
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches
  For management information about this map unit,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.   Rock outcrop
                                                           Definition: Consolidated acid shale
298E—Volborg-Julin-Rock outcrop
   complex, 8 to 25 percent slopes                            A typical soil description with range in
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
                                                           in this section.
                        Setting
Landform:                                                                      Management
• Volborg—Hills
• Julin—Hills                                                For management information about this map unit,
• Rock outcrop—Hills                                       see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
162                                                                                                 Soil Survey




398E—Volborg-Volborg, saline-Rock                                          Management
   outcrop complex, 8 to 45 percent                      For management information about this map unit,
   slopes                                              see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.

                        Setting
Landform:                                              634E—Volborg-Julin complex, warm,
• Volborg—Hills                                           6 to 60 percent slopes
• Volborg—Hills
• Rock outcrop—Hills
                                                                               Setting
Slope:
• Volborg—8 to 45 percent                              Landform:
• Volborg—8 to 45 percent                              • Volborg—Sedimentary plains and hills
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches             • Julin—Sedimentary plains and hills
                                                       Slope:
                    Composition
                                                       • Volborg—6 to 60 percent
Major Components                                       • Julin—6 to 25 percent
Volborg and similar soils: 30 percent                  Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
Volborg and similar soils: 25 percent
Rock outcrop: 20 percent                                                   Composition
Minor Components
                                                       Major Components
Orinoco and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                       Volborg and similar soils: 50 percent
Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 4 percent
                                                       Julin and similar soils: 35 percent
Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 4 percent
Soils that are calcareous throughout: 0 to 3 percent   Minor Components
                                                       Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
         Major Component Description
                                                       Marvan and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Volborg                                                Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
Surface layer texture: Clay                            Areas of shale outcroppings: 0 to 3 percent
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                 Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Drainage class: Well drained                           Soils that have slopes less than 6 percent: 0 to
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale           1 percent
    residuum
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                              Major Component Description
Flooding: None
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.9 inches            Volborg
                                                       Surface layer texture: Clay
Volborg                                                Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)
Surface layer texture: Silty clay                      Drainage class: Well drained
Depth class: Shallow (10 to 20 inches)                 Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Drainage class: Well drained                               residuum
Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale       Native plant cover type: Rangeland
    residuum                                           Flooding: None
Native plant cover type: Rangeland                     Available water capacity: Mainly 1.9 inches
Flooding: None
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                 Julin
Available water capacity: Mainly 1.4 inches            Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
                                                       Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Rock outcrop                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Definition: Consolidated acid shale                    Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                           residuum
   A typical soil description with range in            Native plant cover type: Rangeland
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,    Flooding: None
in this section.                                       Available water capacity: Mainly 3.8 inches
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                  163




   A typical soil description with range in                   moderately sticky, moderately plastic; common
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,           very fine roots; common fine masses of lime;
in this section.                                              strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; clear
                                                              smooth boundary.
                    Management
                                                           Bnyz—22 to 30 inches; light brownish gray (10YR
  For management information about this map unit,             6/2) silty clay loam, grayish brown (10YR 5/2)
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.      moist; moderate fine and medium subangular
                                                              blocky structure; slightly hard, firm, moderately
                                                              sticky, moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few
W—Water                                                       very fine pores; many fine and medium nests and
                                                              seams of gypsum crystals and other salts;
                    Composition                               moderately alkaline, clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Byz—30 to 36 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty
Major Components
                                                              clay loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; massive;
Water: 100 percent
                                                              slightly hard, friable, moderately sticky,
         Major Component Description                          moderately plastic; few very fine roots; few very
                                                              fine pores; 55 percent soft shale fragments and
Definition: Areas of open water
                                                              5 percent channers; few fine nests and seams of
                                                              gypsum and other salts; moderately alkaline;
Weingart Series                                               clear smooth boundary.
                                                           Cr—36 to 60 inches; very pale brown (10YR 7/3)
Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)                semiconsolidated shale, grayish brown (10YR
Drainage class: Well drained                                  5/3) moist.
Permeability: Very slow (<0.06 inch/hour)
Landform: Sedimentary plains and hills                                  Range in Characteristics
Parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
                                                           Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
Slope range: 0 to 15 percent
                                                           Depth to the Bkn horizon: 10 to 16 inches
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                           Depth to the Bnyz horizon: 16 to 24 inches
                                                           Depth to the Cr horizon: 20 to 40 inches
Taxonomic Class: Fine, montmorillonitic Typic
                                                           Soil phases: Warm
   Natriboralfs
                                                           Other features: Some pedons are calcareous above
                   Typical Pedon                               10 inches. When the sodium adsorption ratio is
                                                               less than 13, there is more exchangeable
Weingart silty clay, 2 to 8 percent slopes, in an area
                                                               magnesium plus sodium then calcium plus
of rangeland, 1,200 feet south and 1,200 feet west of
                                                               exchange acidity.
the northeast corner of sec. 17, T. 8 S., R. 62 E.
                                                           Taxonomic note: Map unit 620C is a taxadjunct to
E—0 to 2 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) clay           the Weingart series in order to join soils that have
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist;                  an average soil temperature greater than
   moderate thin platy structure; slightly hard,               47 degrees F.
   friable, moderately sticky, moderately plastic;
                                                           E horizon
   many very fine roots; few fine and common very
                                                              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   fine pores; neutral; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 3, 4, 5, or 6 moist
Btn—2 to 12 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty clay,
                                                              Chroma: 2 or 3
   brown (10YR 4/3) moist; moderate medium and
                                                              Texture: Clay, clay loam, or silty clay when mixed
   coarse columnar structure parting to strong fine
                                                                  to 7 inches
   and medium subangular blocky; extremely hard,
                                                              Clay content: 27 to 40 percent
   firm, moderately sticky, moderately plastic; many
                                                              Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent—0 to
   very fine roots; few very fine pores; many distinct
                                                                  10 percent stones and cobbles; 0 to 5 percent
   clay films on faces of peds and in pores;
                                                                  hard shale; 0 to 5 percent soft shale
   moderately alkaline; clear smooth boundary.
                                                              Reaction: pH 5.6 to 7.8
Bkn—12 to 22 inches; pale brown (10YR 6/3) silty
   clay loam, brown (10YR 5/3) moist; moderate             Btn horizon
   medium prismatic structure parting to moderate              Hue: 10YR or 2.5Y
   fine and medium subangular blocky; hard, firm,              Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
164                                                                                                     Soil Survey




      Chroma: 2 to 4                                       Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
      Texture: Clay, silty clay, or sandy clay             Soils that have slopes more than 8 percent: 0 to
      Clay content: 40 to 60 percent                           3 percent
      Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent—0 to      Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
         5 percent hard shale; 0 to 5 percent soft shale   Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent
      Electrical conductivity: 2 to 8 mmhos/cm
                                                                    Major Component Description
      Sodium adsorption ratio: 10 to 30
      Reaction: pH 6.6 to 9.0                              Surface layer texture: Silty clay
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Bkn horizon
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
   Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4 or 5 moist
                                                               residuum
   Chroma: 2 or 3
                                                           Native plant cover type: Rangeland
   Texture: Clay loam, silty clay, clay, sandy clay, or
                                                           Flooding: None
      silty clay loam
                                                           Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches
   Clay content: 35 to 55 percent
                                                           Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 10 percent—0 to
                                                           Available water capacity: Mainly 4.2 inches
      5 percent hard shale; 0 to 5 percent soft shale
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
                                                              A typical soil description with range in
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
                                                           characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
   Gypsum content: 0 to 1 percent
                                                           in this section.
   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 5 to 15 percent
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0                                                     Management
Bnyz and Byz horizons                                        For management information about this map unit,
   Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y                                  see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.
   Value: 5 or 6 dry; 4 or 5 moist
   Chroma: 1 to 4
   Texture: Clay, silty clay, clay loam, or silty clay     620C—Weingart silty clay loam, warm,
      loam                                                    0 to 6 percent slopes
   Clay content: 35 to 55 percent
   Content of rock fragments: 0 to 75 percent—0 to                                 Setting
      30 percent hard shale, 0 to 55 percent soft
                                                           Landform: Sedimentary plains
      shale
                                                           Slope: 0 to 6 percent
   Electrical conductivity: 4 to 16 mmhos/cm
                                                           Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
   Sodium adsorption ratio: 13 to 30
   Gypsum content: 1 to 5 percent                                              Composition
   Reaction: pH 7.9 to 9.0
                                                           Major Components
                                                           Weingart and similar soils: 85 percent
15C—Weingart silty clay,                                   Minor Components
   2 to 8 percent slopes                                   Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Kobase and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                         Setting                           Cabbart and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent
                                                           Very shallow clayey soils: 0 to 3 percent
Landform: Sedimentary plains
                                                           Neldore and similar soils: 0 to 2 percent
Slope: 2 to 8 percent
                                                           Areas of slickspots: 0 to 1 percent
Mean annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches
                                                                    Major Component Description
                     Composition
                                                           Surface layer texture: Silty clay loam
Major Components
                                                           Depth class: Moderately deep (20 to 40 inches)
Weingart and similar soils: 85 percent
                                                           Drainage class: Well drained
Minor Components                                           Dominant parent material: Semiconsolidated shale
Gerdrum and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                      residuum
Bascovy and similar soils: 0 to 3 percent                  Native plant cover type: Rangeland
Carter County, Montana—Part I                                                                                   165




Flooding: None                                              BC—31 to 60 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loam,
Salt affected: Saline within 30 inches                        grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; massive; slightly
Sodium affected: Sodic within 30 inches                       hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; few
Available water capacity: Mainly 4.3 inches                   very fine roots; disseminated lime; strongly
                                                              effervescent; moderately alkaline.
   A typical soil description with range in
                                                                         Range in Characteristics
characteristics is included, in alphabetical order,
in this section.                                            Soil temperature: 42 to 47 degrees F
                                                            Depth to the Bk horizon: 10 to 20 inches
                    Management
                                                            Other features: In some pedons, the material below
  For management information about this map unit,               40 inches consists of a strata of loam, silt loam,
see appropriate sections in Part II of this publication.        clay loam, and loamy sand.
                                                            A horizon
Yamacall Series                                                Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                                                               Value: 5 or 6 dry; 3, 4, or 5 moist
Depth class: Very deep (more than 60 inches)                   Chroma: 2 to 4
Drainage class: Well drained                                   Texture: Loam or silt loam
Permeability: Moderate (0.6 to 2.0 inches/hour)                Clay content: 18 to 27 percent
Landform: Alluvial fans, stream terraces, and hills            Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent—0 to
Parent material: Alluvium                                          5 percent cobbles, 0 to 10 percent pebbles
Slope range: 0 to 25 percent                                   Calcium carbonate equivalent: 0 to 5 percent
Annual precipitation: 12 to 15 inches                          Effervescence: None to strongly
                                                               Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
Taxonomic Class: Fine-loamy, mixed, frigid Aridic
                                                            Bw horizon
   Ustochrepts
                                                               Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
                   Typical Pedon                               Value: 5, 6, or 7 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
                                                               Chroma: 2 to 4
Yamacall loam, in an area of Delpoint-Yamacall
                                                               Texture: Loam, clay loam, or silt loam
loams, 8 to 15 percent slopes, in an area of
                                                               Clay content: 18 to 30 percent
rangeland, 1,000 feet south and 1,800 feet west of
                                                               Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent—0 to
the northeast corner of sec. 28, T. 4 S., R. 55 E.
                                                                 5 percent cobbles, 0 to 10 percent pebbles
A—0 to 5 inches; light brownish gray (10YR 6/2)                Reaction: pH 6.6 to 8.4
   loam, dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) moist; weak
                                                            Bk horizon
   medium subangular blocky structure; slightly
                                                                Hue: 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y
   hard, friable, slightly sticky, slightly plastic; many
                                                                Value: 5, 6, 7, or 8 dry; 4, 5, or 6 moist
   very fine roots; few very fine pores; neutral;
                                                                Chroma: 2 to 4
   abrupt smooth boundary.
                                                                Texture: Loam, clay loam, or silt loam
Bw—5 to 15 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) loam,
                                                                Clay content: 18 to 30 percent
   grayish brown (10YR 5/2) moist; weak medium
                                                                Content of rock fragments: 0 to 15 percent—0 to
   prismatic structure parting to moderate medium