Bridging the Land and Sea Divide by wanghonghx


									  Seabird Conservation Activities in
           North America
Opportunities and Challenges for Management of
                At-Sea Threats

      Migratory Species: Working Together Towards a Vision for 2020,
                             May 16, 2007

                               Jennifer Wheeler,
                 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Birds
                  & Waterbird Conservation for the Americas
    Waterbird Conservation Council
• Waterbird Conservation Council is the steering body for
    the Waterbird Conservation for the Americas initiative
•   Scope is seabirds and other aquatic birds in the Western
    Hemisphere; current membership drawn from nations
    throughout the Americas as well as initiatives such as
    BirdLife International, WHSRN, CMS and Ramsar.
•   Key outcomes of January 2007 meeting:
     –Intensified activities related to seabird conservation, and
     –Creation of a task force to develop a strategy for
     Americas-wide conservation of waterbirds
                           Seabirds 101
„ Definitions, characteristics, and natural history
„ Families:
   „ Diomedeidae (albatrosses)
   „ Procellariidae (petrels, shearwaters, fulmars)
   „ Hydrobatidae (storm-petrels)                   Heiko Bargmann
                                                    Verena Renner
                                                    Martin Gill
                                           Photo by NaomiSpallek

                                           Photo by BobEldridge
                                           Photo by Glen ofPitman
                                                    Ralph U.S.
                                          Photo Courtesy Tepke Fish and Wildlife Service
   „ Phaethontidae (tropicbirds)
   „ Sulidae (boobies and gannets)
   „ Fregatidae (frigatebirds)
   „ Alcidae (auklets, murres, puffins)
   „ Laridae (terns/noddies)
        Global Conservation Status
„ Many are in decline and threatened with extinction

„ Diomedeidae, Procellariidae, and
  Hydrobatidae make-up 45% of
  global seabird species and
  74% of seabird species on IUCN Red List

„ NAWCP Assessments -
  100% “highly imperiled” and
  > 80% of both “highly imperiled
  AND “high concern” species fall
  within these families
                                        Data courtesy of BirdLife International
                Overview of Threats
● impacts of non-native species on breeding grounds
    ●   predation
    ●   competition
    ●   habitat alteration/loss
    ●   disturbance
● fisheries interactions
    ● competition for prey
    ● incidental capture
● pollution (chronic and acute)                         Peter Ryan

    ● oil
    ● biomagnification of contaminants in food web
● plastic debris
    ● ingestion
    ● entanglement
● global climate change

                                                      van Franeker
   By Sea:
Challenges and
Opportunities in
  and Policy
                   Photo by Mike Danzenbaker
     Science: Distribution and
●   ocean is not homogeneous
●   seasonal usage
●   foraging areas
●   linkage with climatic-oceanographic conditions
●   migratory routes                              Cordell Bank

                          Kuletz and Irons 2007
Science: Tracking Ocean Wanderers

         Images Courtesy of: Hatfield Marine
         Science Center, Oregon State          Images courtesy of BirdLife
         University and U.S. Fish & Wildlife
         Service                               International
             Impact of Fisheries
• nature of interactions
      • direct (bycatch; food subsidies)
      • indirect (prey depletion, availability)
• type and location
• population-level impact?                        Spatio-temporal

                                                    activity and
          Science: What’s Needed
• international national coordination of at-sea
• continent-wide seabird monitoring database
• monitoring programs to improve understanding
  of seabird population dynamics and trends
                                     Photo by Peter LaTourrette
• assess the risk of seabird
  interactions in particular
• education and promotion
  designed to increase
  awareness and to stimulate
      Policy: Bycatch & Other Threats
„ Variety of Measures
„ Authorities, Means
  ‟   Migratory Bird Treaties
  ‟   Endangered Species Laws
                                    Short-Tailed Albatross by Yuri Artkuhin
  ‟   Fisheries Management Laws
  ‟   Environmental Statues
  ‟   Protected Areas Legislation
  ‟   International Instruments
        Policy: International
• 1990 UN global driftnet ban and 1995 FAO Code of

• 1999 FAO International Plan of Action – Seabirds
  • National Plans of Action: Assess, mitigate, and plan future
     • Seven nations (and Taiwan) have NPOAs
         • Implementation varies
         • FAO and BLI will soon assist in the
          development of best practices

• 2004 Agreement on the Conservation
  of Albatrosses and Petrels

• Ongoing action within the RFMOs
        Policy: What’s Needed
• Collaborate and coordinate efforts
  internationally, within an overall seabird
  conservation framework
• Address seabird needs and threats through
  education, capacity-building, and partnership as
  well as regulatory or intergovernmental
• Establish an alliance which brings together the
  organizations and instruments in a holistic,
  integrated approach.
                   Thank You

                 Photo Courtesy of Juan Fernandez Island

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