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					      IDE 621. Principles of Instruction
               and Learning
AH HA! …
Now I get it !                Fall 2004
                        Overview of Cognitive
                        Development Theory –
                         Cognitive Learning

      October 2004   Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
                     Session Objectives

 Today we will review:
 • Antecedents and assumptions of cognitivism
 • Basic components of memory
 • Long-term memory 1: Storage
 • Long-term memory 2: The nature of knowledge
 • Long-term memory 3: Retrieval and forgetting

               Sensory    Processing /
               Inputs       storing

October 2004              Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
                        What is learning?

 • a relatively permanent change in mental
   representations or associations due to experience
 • The building of connections in schema through
   the processes of assimilation and accommodation

               How is this different from Behaviorism?

October 2004                  Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
           What are the major assumptions of
 • Learning is a process of relating new information to
   previously learned information.
 • Learning involves the formation of mental representations
   or associations that are not always reflected in behaviors
 • Inferences about unobservable mental processes can be
   drawn from behavior
 • Cognitive processes (information processing) are the
   focus of study
 • Individuals are actively involved in the learning process,
   e.g., processing, assimilating, accommodating
 • Knowledge is organized and stored in schema (closely
   connected ideas) and / or scripts (schema about events)
 • Some learning processes are unique to human beings, e.g.
               How are these different from Behaviorism?
October 2004                  Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
Antecedents /Assumptions of Cognitivism
Theorists years contributions
                 •Internal mental
T_____ 1930s-50s •I_____ m____ phenomena in explanationschange in b______
 olman                                                      of learning
                 •Learning can occur without r__________,
                                             reinforcement,           behavior
                            •Behavior is puposive … is ___- ______
                            •Learning results in an organized body of information – _______ _____
                                                                                    cognitive maps

G____ 1920s-50s
 estalt                     •Perception is different from reality
                            •Whole is more than the ___ __ __ parts
                                                      sum of its _____
                            •Organisms s_______ and o______ experiences
                                         structure        rganize
                            •Organisms is predisposed to organize experience in particular ways – law of
                              proximity, law of c____,
                              p_______, law of closure law of pragnanz
                            •Learning involves formation of m_____ t_____
                                                              memory traces
                            •Problem solving involves r_________ and i______
                                                        restructuring    insight

 P____ 1920s-60s             •Focus on mental events, logical reasoning and structure of knowledge
                             •Active processors of information
                             •Knowledge - structures that change with development - scheme
                             •Processes through which people interact with the environment are constant
                                a________ -
                                assimilation-modify perception of environment to fit scheme
                                a___________ -
                                accommodation-modify scheme to fit environment
                             •Relate prior knowledge to the material to be learned
                             •People are intrinsically motivated to make sense of the world
                             •Cognitive development occurs in stages, controlled by maturation

Vygotsky 1960s-90s •Complex mental processes begin as social activities, internalize mental activities
                                                      ______ ______,
                Translated •ZPD Zone __ Proximal Development
                                ____ of _______ _____________
                             •Scaffolding – guidance that enables students to engage in activities inside ZPD
 October 2004                            Koszalka & Satterly, 2004

 • Break into teams of 3 to create a ….
         –     Concept map,
         –     Text outline,
         –     Mnemonic, or
         –     Advanced organizer
       that defines learning and related key
       concepts as suggested by cognitive
       learning theory

October 2004                  Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
               Activity Debrief

 • What is learning?
 • What are the assumptions of cognitive
   learning theory?
 • Who are the key theorists in cognitive
   learning theory and what were their
 • What are the key concepts of cognitivism?

October 2004       Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
                     Key concepts: Memory
 • Basic terminology in memory theory
         – Learning versus memory [Acquisition vs. recall]
         – Storage, Encoding, Retrieval
 • Dual store model
         INPUT  sensory register [capacity, form, duration]
           ST MEMORY [attention affected by size, intensity, novelty, incongruity,
           emotion connection, significance of new information]
           WORKING MEMORY [capacity, storage, duration, control processes:
           organization, retrieval, rehearsal]
          LT MEMORY [capacity, storage, duration, control processes: organization,
 • Generalizations [attention is essential, different people may attend
       differently to same stimulus, can only process a limited amount of
       information, memory is selective, limited working memory capacity is not
       necessarily bad]
 • Holding attention [vary topics and style, frequent breaks, ask
       questions, minimize distractions, monitor attention]
October 2004                           Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
          Key Concepts: Long-term memory
 • Basic terminology in long-term memory
         – Selection
         – Rehearsal [associate new with existing info, elaborative, rote
         – Meaningful learning [understanding, comprehending]
         – Internal and External Organization [organization of new body of
           info within itself vs. new info being organized with previously
           learning info]
         – Elaboration [learning between the lines]
         – Visual Imagery
 • Factors affecting LT Memory Storage
         – Activities that occur during learning [write/verbalize/enact, prior
           knowledge, prior misconceptions, expectations]

October 2004                       Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
               How is learning explained?

 •        Memory and memory Structures
         – Encoding vs. learning
         – Schema and scripts
         – Network structures (hierarchical, propositional)
 •        Information Processing Models (IPM)
         – Reception, Expectancy, Retrieval, Selective
             perception, Semantic encoding, Responding,
             Reinforcement, Retrieval, Generalization

               How is this different from Behaviorism?

October 2004                  Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
               An Information Processing Model
                          Executive Control
       O                                                                 R
       R                                                                 E
                  Short                                                  T
                              Working                        Long-term   R
                  Term                                                   I
                              Memory                          Memory     E
                 Memory                                                  V
       T                                                                 L
                     Data Lost

October 2004                     Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
         Explaining learning situations using
 • Individually, write a brief description of
   the learning in this situation using
   cognitive learning theory.
 • You will be asked to share your description
   with the class.
 • Be sure to use ONLY cognitive
   terminology in your description

October 2004           Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
 Learning situation: Making an ice cream sundae
     A new ice cream scooper is shown a picture of the perfect ice
     cream sundae. The master scooper briefly describes the
     characteristics of the sundae (pointing out key elements and
     quality control points), the ingredients (pointing them out on
     the picture and set out for the training) and provides the new
     scooper with an ice cream scoop, bowl, and other necessary
     tools to make the sundae. The master shows the new scooper
     how to hold the scoop and get the perfect scoop of ice cream
     from the box. The new scooper is encouraged to try scooping
     the ice cream. The master scooper provides positive and
     constructive feedback on how the new scooper grips the
     scoop and scoops the ice cream. When the scooper has
     mastered scooping the ice cream and placing it in the bowl
     the master scooper demonstrates (using similar techniques)
     the process of adding the toppings …

October 2004                  Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
      Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
  Learning situation: Writing poetry
      The teacher begins by reading a poem, stopping at the end
      of each line to describe the line’s rhythm, beat, and form.
      The students are prompted to read the line silently, then
      out loud as a class, emphasizing the rhythm, beat, and
      form using intonation, like the teacher. The teacher reads
      the next line, and continues the process until the stanza is
      completed. The teacher then asks the students questions
      about the definition and use of rhythm, beat, and form for
      the stanza. The students respond with definitions of
      rhythm, beat, and form and point out examples of how
      these factors were used in the poem. The teacher then
      gives the students a topic (e.g., tree, dog, dating, etc.) and
      asks them to write a poem using the same rhythm, beat,
      and form as the stanza they just read. When completed,
      the students are asked to recite their poem and the class
      discusses the rhythm, beat, and form … the lesson
      continues with …
October 2004                   Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
                                                       Knowledge base

       Instruction Informed by Cognitivism
 Learning situation: Creating a KB of learning theories
  The facilitator provides students with a definition, list of
  required components, guidelines, grading (criteria) rubrics,
  and examples of knowledge bases. The students review the
  input documents and several examples of knowledge bases.
  The facilitator asks the students to describe and develop a
  key piece of the KB, the learning situation, and submit it for
  review. The facilitator reviews the submissions and provides
  approval with reminders of KB connections or constructive
  feedback to help the student meet the learning situation
  standards. Students are prompted to draft an outline of their
  complete KB component, e.g., content presentation, learning
  situation, observation checklist, and reflection, and seek
  feedback from the facilitator. The facilitator reviews the
  initial outline, asks specific questions about KB features and
  provides feedback (constructive and reinforcing). The
  student applies the feedback and prepares the KB for the next
  submission …
October 2004               Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
               Reflections on this class…

 • How does cognitivism describe learning?
 • What questions do you still have about the
 • How does this learning theory inform the
   design of instruction?
 • How were the classroom activities in this
   session reflective of cognitivism?

October 2004            Koszalka & Satterly, 2004
                Next class…

 • Review assigned readings and websites on
   cognitive-inspired instructional theories
 • If you have not yet started, begin to draft
   the cognitive components of your
   knowledge base

October 2004        Koszalka & Satterly, 2004