christine by xiangpeng

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									Gestural Beats: The Rhythm
        Hypothesis

       Evelyn McClave
                       Gestures
- Iconics. These gestures refer to a very direct formal
  relationship between the gesture and meaning. Example:
  making the shape of a ball when talking about a ball.

- Metaphorics. The gesture presents an image of an
  abstraction, a "concrete metaphor for a concept“.

- Deictics. Pointing, which can reference a specific object or
  event, but often reference more a "location" in gesture-
  space where a specific idea or concept resides.
                  Beats
• The hand moving in rhythmic relationship
 to speech.
 Beats were thought to accent or emphasize
 portions of cooccurring speech.
                     Beats
• Beats visually mark a   • Beats are rhythmically
 vocal rhythm evident      patterned by
 in speech                 themselves
Speech is primary and    this pattern is not
                           dependent on speech
 the gestural rhythm is    but meshes with
 more or less identical    speech at specific
 to the vocal rhythm       places to push the
                           speech rhythm
                           forward
       Identifying Tone Units
• Pause

a)    but they´re all (pause) big
     _.      . .             °_
b)Ya know fat like ya know uh (pause) hairy
     . . ° . . . .                     °_
       Identifying Tone Units
• Pitch movement

and it said now judge what you would do in
 . .. . ° . .                     . ..
this case as a lawyer (pause)
 . . . . ° .____
       Identifying Tone Units
• anacrusis:
 unstressed syllables at the beginning of an
 intonation group which are often spoken
 much faster than unstressed syllables later
 in the segment
 indicates the start of a new tone unit
       Identifying Tone Units
• Lengthening of a syllable
often used to determine the end of a tone
 unit
       Identifying Tone Units
• change in register
signals a new tone unit
                   Gestural Rhythm
.        we           were #1              of-        #2       .




27.04.03,04.05.06.07,08.09.10.11,12,13.14.15,16.17.18.19,20 .
          TU        TD           NC     TU     TD        NC




-fer- ing
          .
              her
                         .
                         #3 the
                                                 .
                                            sing- #4 -gle
                                                                   .




                                                                           .

21.22.23.24,25,26.27.28.29,5.00.01.02.03,04.05.06.07,08.09 .
TU         NC      TD             TU       TD              . .




    . .       .                 .            .             .           .
                      Summary
1. Beats occur on both stressed and unstressed syllables
     and during pauses
2.   Beats are often organized in rhythmic patterns
3.   If a beat coincides with the tone-unit nucleus, the
     downbeat rather than the upbeat will cooccur
4.   When a beat cooccurs with a stressed monosyllabic word
     other than the tone-unit nucleus, either the upbeat or the
     downbeat may coincide with the word.
5.   When a beat cooccurs with a multisyllabic word, a
     downbeat usually cooccurs with the syllable carrying
     primary stress

								
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