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Sydney Towards Tomorrow





                                                     INTRODUCTION     2

                                                     SUSTAINABILITY   3

                                                         PLANNING     5

                            ATTRACTIVE DENSITIES AND LAND USE MIXES   8

                                                          FUNDING     12

                                                      SOCIAL ISSUES   15

                                                      GOVERNANCE      19

October 2009 Version No.1

Critically, however, Sydney’s                     provided a forum for innovative thinkers           It advises and recommends the policy,
infrastructure needs (in particular               from across a wide range of engineering            planning and regulatory reforms required
transport infrastructure to service               and consulting firms to develop a plan             to help protect Sydney’s future growth
both commuters and freight) have not              for Sydney (the Newcastle/Sydney/                  and prosperity. Its strategic focus is on
kept pace with the rate of population             Wollongong conurbation) as the ‘City of            urban planning integration and transport
growth in the Sydney basin area or                Cities.’ The plan integrates sustainability into   infrastructure rather than providing a list of
with the needs and expectations of the            infrastructure planning to provide a robust        infrastructure priorities for Sydney.
community or industry. This trend is              strategy to respond to the challenges,
                                                                                                     The themes targeted in Sydney Towards
not only set to continue, but if we are           which is flexible and adaptable to the
                                                                                                     Tomorrow include:
to prepare adequately for the future,             uncertainty of the future while maintaining
the ACEA Infrastructure Roundtable                Sydney as a vibrant community.                     1. Sustainability;
contends that Sydney should be                                                                       2. Planning;
                                                  Sydney Towards Tomorrow is intended to             3. Attractive densities and
planning now for the infrastructure
                                                  complement other plans such as the NSW                land use mixes;
required for a larger population target.
                                                  Government’s Metropolitan Strategy (2005),
                                                                                                     4. Funding;
Sydney Towards Tomorrow has been                  City of Sydney’s Sustainable 2030 Plan
developed to provide thought leadership,          (2008), Metropolitan Water Plan (2005), and        5. Social issues; and
promote community debate and prompt               a number of local government plans.                6. Governance.
more integrated and thorough planning,                                                               These themes are highly interrelated
                                                  Sydney Towards Tomorrow identifies six key
so that Sydney might live up to the vision                                                           and should be approached in
                                                  areas of priority that will help to address
of being the world’s most liveable city with                                                         an integrated matter.
                                                  Sydney’s future infrastructure requirements.
a population of 10+ million by 2050. It has

                 KEY RECOMMENDATIONS

                     One Plan for Sydney - Focus on quality medium density urban forms within the existing urban footprint and high density
                     around existing transport corridors and nodes. This means an increased focus on urban consolidation and less focus
            1        on fringe development. Live, work, play communities delivered by a structure planning process that brings together all
                     elements of infrastructure in a single spatial strategy.

                     Infrastructure that delivers carbon neutrality to Sydney via both short term sustainability based procurement and longer
            2        term sustainable planning.

            3        Abolish the transport tax base and introduce a user pays system.

                     Consolidate local urban councils from 42 to 11 (in the Sydney Basin) and one regional council for each of Newcastle,
            4        Illawarra and the Central Coast.

                     Reform governance structures so that there is one body responsible for the policy, planning, safety and funding of
            5        transport infrastructure management, development, maintenance and operation across all modes.

                                                                                                                introduction                          1
           SYDNEY - A WORLD CITY

Sydney (including the Central Coast               Australia’s largest city, it is vital that the NSW   Therefore, as Sydney prepares to become
and Blue Mountains) covers an area                Government consider a broad planning                 a city catering for over five million people
of approximately 12,000 square                    policy that at the very least takes account of       in the short term and ten plus million
kilometres and is surrounded by a                 a significant parallel increase in population        people in the longer term, it is vital
wealth of natural resources including             for Sydney.                                          to guarantee that the population has
famous beaches, World Heritage listed                                                                  consistent, first-rate and equal access
                                                  The burden on Sydney’s infrastructure has
national parks and vast hinterlands. It                                                                to housing, employment, education
                                                  weakened its ability to function as a world
has a current population of 4.4 million,                                                               and recreation facilities and services.
                                                  city, threatens its economic competitiveness
which is estimated to grow dramatically
                                                  and jeopardises its liveability. The character       The ACEA Infrastructure Roundtable
in the next 25 years.
                                                  and health of communities is also challenged         believes that all future cities and regions of
Sydney is the economic gateway to                 through the reduced choice and availability          Australia should encompass the following
Australia. The New South Wales economy is         of essential infrastructure such as housing          themes, which have been adopted
larger than that of Hong Kong SAR, Malaysia       and access to goods and services.                    throughout Sydney Towards Tomorrow:
and Singapore and accounts for more than                                                                   A sustainable legacy;
                                                  Without a strong commitment by
one third of Australia’s GDP. Population                                                                   Quality of life;
                                                  government, business, community,
growth has allowed Sydney to expand                                                                        Preservation and respect for the
                                                  public and private investors, as well as
steadily into a diverse multinational city with                                                            natural environment;
                                                  a clear, well-conceived and targeted
a skilled workforce employed in numerous
                                                  strategy to plan, prioritise and deliver the             An urban form that responds to
industries including finance, information
                                                  city’s future urban fabric and associated                multiple sustainable demands;
technology and manufacturing.
                                                  infrastructure, Sydney risks losing its status           Strong local community engagement
As the city grows in stature, international       as a leading, world-class city and will                  and support;
appeal and population, so too does the            reduce the quality of life for the millions of           Connectivity and access; and
pressure on its infrastructure, utilities         people who call greater Sydney home.                     Integrated planning through
and services such as transportation,                                                                       strong leadership.
distribution networks, communication,
energy supply systems, health care and
education. The pressure on Sydney’s
transport corridors, housing and water
supplies has increased to critical levels.
In September 2009, Treasury announced
a revised forecast population for Australia
                                                       SYDNEY TOWARDS TOMORROW
of 35 million people by the year 2049, an                ENVISAGES AN ONGOING
increase of 65% from the existing 22 million
people. Given its predominant position as           COLLABORATIVE APPROACH BETWEEN
                                                     GOVERNMENT, INDUSTRY AND THE
                                                     COMMUNITY, INCLUDING UTILISING
                                                       THE EXPERTISE OF ENGINEERS,
                                                      PLANNERS, ENVIRONMENTAL AND
                                                      SUSTAINABILITY PROFESSIONALS,
                                                    INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS AND LOCAL
                                                     COMMUNITY LEADERS IN DECISION
                                                    MAKING IN THE PLANNING PHASE AND
                                                     ONGOING PROJECT DEVELOPMENT.

2       Sydney Towards Tomorrow

The concept of sustainability was          A report commissioned by the Built
placed on the international political      Environment Meets Parliament (BEMP)
agenda with the publication of ‘Our        partners, which includes the ACEA,
Common Future’ report from the UN          states that there continues to be
World Commission on Environment            ‘broad agreement that reshaping the
and Development (WCED) in 1987.            future development of cities through
This report defined sustainable            better integrated infrastructure and
development as ‘development that           land-use planning arrangements will
meets the needs of the present world       be critical to Australia’s future GDP
without compromising the ability of        and productivity growth as well as
future generations to meet their needs.’   providing improved access to services
Australia followed, adopting the term      for the growing populations of the
‘ecological sustainable development’ in    nation’s cities, enhancing the quality of
1990. (Australian Government, 1992.)       life and conserving the environment.’
                                           (The Allen Consulting Group, 2009.)

Tomorrow                                                                               3
CHALLENGES                                       SOLUTIONS                                        PATHWAYS
Despite these acknowledgements of the            There are two opportunities to incorporate       The ACEA Infrastructure Roundtable
importance of integrating sustainability         sustainability into infrastructure planning:     has identified the following detailed
with infrastructure, limited progress has            Building towards a sustainable               recommendations for actions which
been made. Social and environmental                  vision; planning infrastructure to meet      will provide sustainability outcomes for
criteria are rarely considered equally with          the objectives of a sustainable future       Sydney Towards Tomorrow.
economic criteria in decision making                 and potential variability by prioritising    1. Infrastructure constructed post 2010
for infrastructure, and life cycle costs             solutions that improve the connectivity           is to be carbon neutral and be a net
are rarely used as the basis for options             of communities, account for variability,          exporter of water and energy.
assessment. The failure to incorporate               reduce emissions and minimise energy,        2. Infrastructure decision making must
sustainability into decision making leaves           waste generation and water use.                   consider the full life cycle cost in
significant opportunity for improvement.             Sustainable decision making;                      options assessment.
The emerging evidence of climate change              ensuring any decision made for               3. Infrastructure contract documentation
is convincing, as detailed in the consensus          infrastructure incorporates social,               must include sustainability, greenhouse
report by the Intergovernmental Panel                environmental and economic criteria,              gas emissions and reduction of resource
on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). Climate              which among other benefits may result             use targets.
change poses a significant and immediate             in sustainable procurement decisions,        4. Minimise the expansion of
threat to Australia and the world. Significant       recycled material selection, improved             geographical footprint.
changes combine to pose a serious threat             energy efficiency and consideration of       5. Fully integrated connectivity
to the integrity of infrastructure.                  alternative water supplies.                       between modes of transport
If the predicted changes occur there             These pathways are not incompatible and               (road/rail/sea/air/pedestrian).
will be catastrophic loss of infrastructure      the latter - sustainable decision making,        6. Integrated transport plan must be
along coastlines, including in the               can be implemented immediately on                     developed and directed towards
great Sydney area. These impacts on              current infrastructure projects whilst the            improving access to goods and
infrastructure have the potential to             sustainable vision and subsequent planning            services rather than focus on one
compromise the health, social and                is developed and agreed.                              or more specific mode(s) with an
economic systems of our cities and towns                                                               objective to reduce total trips/trip
                                                 In aiming for a sustainable vision for Sydney
in addition to the ecological systems.                                                                 time, encourage healthier modes
                                                 is critical to get buy in from stakeholders in
                                                                                                       of transport (eg, walking/cycling)
With Australian federal, state and local         the community and industry. This vision
                                                                                                       and optimise resource use.
governments making substantial                   should lead to a robust long term plan for
                                                 Sydney that is layered with a strategic plan     7. Create critical infrastructure corridors
investment in long term infrastructure                                                                 that allow co-location of major linear
it is essential that the decision process        having measurable objectives and actions
                                                 for 50 years, 20 years, 10 years and 5 years.         infrastructure such as water, electricity,
incorporate sustainability and ensure that                                                             gas and communications.
infrastructure is adaptable to potential         The five year plan for Sydney should be
                                                 committed to and funded.                         8. The promotion and use of a recycled
changes in Australia’s regulatory, market and
                                                                                                       water grid in Sydney.
community needs over the full design life -      Acknowledging the uncertainty arising from
often over fifty years.                                                                           9. Develop a plan to upgrade ageing/
                                                 climate change, the plan must endeavour               unsustainable infrastructure.
These challenges are immense, but when           to accommodate the potential physical
                                                                                                  10. Provision of community and recreation
considering Sydney Towards Tomorrow              changes (variability in annual rainfall, sea
                                                                                                       facilities as well as green spaces within
they can be viewed as opportunities.             level, wind and extreme events, soil loss),
                                                                                                       living nodes.
Engineers have a long history of planning        resulting chemical and biological changes
                                                 (species loss and habitat destruction), and      11. Preserve green belt land zones.
and building Australia’s future. By
working towards sustainable decision             legislation (emissions trading scheme,
making and ensuring variability due to           renewable energy target, corporate liability;
                                                 such as for safety) which will all have the
climate change is considered, ACEA is                                                             The sustainability actions identified in
confident the Sydney of the future will          potential to alter planning assumptions.
                                                                                                  Pathways have been prioritised into an
be a liveable and sustainable city.                                                               implementation timeframe split into three
                                                                                                  general time periods:
                                                                                                      immediate (0 - 3 years)
                                                                                                      intermediate (3 - 10 years)
                                                                                                      long term (10 - 50 years).

             CLIMATE CHANGE POSES A                                                               Pathways 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 should be
                                                                                                  immediate goals, as they can be effectively
          SIGNIFICANT AND IMMEDIATE                                                               implemented in the short term. Pathways

            THREAT TO AUSTRALIA AND                                                               7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 are intermediate goals
                                                                                                  as they will require significant planning.
             THE WORLD. SIGNIFICANT                                                               Should these pathways be implemented, it
                                                                                                  is envisaged that 5 will be achievable in the
           CHANGES COMBINE TO POSE                                                                longer term.


4       Sydney Towards Tomorrow

Planning is standard practice in a        Cities are complex and interrelated by
wealthy, modern society. ‘Thinking        their nature. They are the economic
ahead’ brings efficiency and improved     centre of the national economy and are
security, whether it is planning of       the home for a majority of Australians.
an individual’s finances, planning        The efficient function of cities, their
of a country’s healthcare system or       contribution of wealth to the nation,
planning for the future of a city. Good   the preservation of quality of life for
planning provides the potential           their inhabitants and management of
to achieve integrated, sustainable        environmental impacts cannot be left
outcomes more efficiently. It             solely to market forces, nor can it be left
provides a robust framework to            to chance. Robust planning is critical
guide funding, project development        to provide vision, direction and a firm
and delivery over a long period.          basis for the myriad of considerations
                                          affecting a metropolis as large and
                                          complex as Sydney, especially given
                                          the slow-evolving nature of how
                                          these cities develop. Robust planning
                                          must include ample opportunity
                                          for stakeholder involvement.
                                          While there are a multitude of social,
                                          economic and environmental functions
                                          occurring at any time within a modern
                                          city, the common denominator is that
                                          it is happening in the one space. Thus
                                          spatial planning is a powerful means
                                          of understanding and resolving the
                                          effective integration of these activities.
                                          This spatial planning of the city is
                                          referred to here as urban planning.
Tomorrow                                                                                5
The ACEA believes that currently, in             Planning and Governance - Strategic              Sydney Towards Tomorrow, rather than
NSW, there is a strong need for strategic,       planning cannot be viewed in isolation           re-state these actions, proffers two broad
integrated urban planning. Too much              of the mechanisms which regulate                 solutions that will address a large proportion
of the ‘strategic’ planning currently            it. This regulation needs a sensitive            of the range of issues outlined earlier and
happening is considered short-term,              balance between well-conceived                   which are not regularly discussed. These are:
ad hoc and occurring within isolated             and robustly assessed infrastructure                  Strategic, integrated planning through a
sectors rather than as part of an                outcomes and the potential to realise                 structure planning approach
integrated and balanced system.                  projects within the timeframe set by                  Establishing a nexus between strategic
                                                 financial and political imperatives.                  planning and the community (explored
Governance structures (both at the political
and bureaucratic level) often work against       Planning and Funding - There is an                    in Chapter 5 – Social Issues, page 15).
more integrated planning. Within many            intimate interrelationship between planning
parts of the government and the broader
community there is a generally poor level of
                                                 and funding. Although investigation of
                                                 funding mechanisms is beyond the scope
                                                 of this report, it needs to be made clear        The ACEA believes a strategic, integrated
understanding of what strategic planning is
                                                 that the whole concept of funding the            plan would provide a single, robust, first
and what benefits it can deliver.
                                                 vision, value capture and financing of           point of reference for the range of planning
This situation is leading to a range of                                                           processes affecting the urban area.
                                                 infrastructure and development is as much
inefficiencies and lost opportunities that are                                                    Integrated planning would bring together all
                                                 a planning issue as it is a finance issue. Too
less than ideal in the context of a city such                                                     the key elements of the urban system: land
                                                 often, strategic planning is undertaken
as Sydney, including:                                                                             use, transport, utilities, and environment
                                                 without sufficient consideration of the
     Poorly identified needs, visions            overall economic implications and financing      and human (social) considerations.
     and aims;                                   mechanisms. The concept of achieving best        Strategic planning should be undertaken
     Projects and outcomes of lower value        value for money should not be the only           for a horizon appropriate to the rate of
     delivered less efficiently;                 driver of strategic planning, but it should be   evolution of (and investment in) the urban
     Negative impacts on investor                a key consideration.                             system i.e. in the order of 20 to 50 years.
     confidence;                                                                                  While it would be developed with a
     Slowed development, diminished
     quality of development; and                 SOLUTIONS                                        long-term view, it would be reviewed
                                                                                                  (and potentially revised) regularly. It would
     Short term decision making.                 The ACEA believes good planning provides         always constitute the highest order of
                                                 the potential to achieve integrated,             planning for the urban system.
Planning and the Community - Despite             sustainable outcomes more efficiently
a clear understanding of key issues              and provides a robust framework to guide         Strategic integrated planning should be
affecting strategic, integrated planning in      funding, project development and delivery        firmly focussed on understanding the full
NSW, numerous attempts by peak bodies,           over a long period. Spatial planning of          extent, complexity and ‘interrelatedness’ of
professional associations, advocates,            the city (referred to in this report as urban    the urban system in a balanced way and
activists and media have failed to bring         planning) provides a powerful means              at a consistent level of detail, rather than
about a resolution of these issues. It is        of understanding and resolving the               attempting to resolve certain components in
argued that as with many such impasses,          effective integration of social, economic        isolation or to a higher level of detail.
the most effective way to bring about            and environmental functions within the           As a result of its scope and horizon, the plan
landmark change to planning within NSW           complex urban system.                            would need to be based on a vision and
at the political level is through community
                                                 To address the extent of these issues will       baseline assumptions that are sufficiently
(i.e voter) pressure.
                                                 require numerous actions, undertaken             bi-partisan that it spans changes in political
                                                 in a coordinated approach. Many of               leadership. It would enunciate objectives
                                                 these actions are well understood,               that are robust over time, guiding shorter-
                                                 fairly generic in nature and the need            term planning decisions within a framework
                                                 for them is well recognised.                     driven by this long-term horizon.

                           THE ACEA BELIEVES THAT CURRENTLY, IN NSW,
                               THERE IS A STRONG NEED FOR STRATEGIC,
                             INTEGRATED URBAN PLANNING. TOO MUCH
                              OF THE ‘STRATEGIC’ PLANNING CURRENTLY
                               HAPPENING IS CONSIDERED SHORT-TERM,
                             AD HOC AND OCCURRING WITHIN ISOLATED
                                  SECTORS RATHER THAN AS PART OF AN
                                   INTEGRATED AND BALANCED SYSTEM.

6       Sydney Towards Tomorrow

THE STRUCTURE                                   The strength of a structure plan rests in            This nexus between people, their level
PLANNING CONCEPT                                the robustness of the baseline studies that          of service expectations, the associated
– MOVING FORWARD                                inform its development. Although as a                infrastructure requirements and its
Structure Plans provide a proven                document the structure plan often appears            costs needs to be better communicated
tool for driving strategic, integrated          simplistic, this quality of the plan is the result   and addressed in order to instil a
planning processes. The structure               of a clear understanding of its composite            clear understanding of the planning
planning concept is used in numerous            parts. These include investigations of               process required to best achieve
cities (including Sydney). Sydney’s             environment and land capability, transport,          optimal land use and infrastructure
Metropolitan Strategy exhibits several of       utilities, socio-economic issues etc.                outcomes. This is further explored in
the features of a structure plan, but has                                                            Chapter 5 - Social Issues, page 15.
                                                The ACEA argues that should the structure
not achieved all the aims of the process.       planning concept be adopted, there
Even within Sydney’s planning community,        would be a skills gap that could affect
                                                implementation. It would appear that
the term structure plan can refer to a range                                                         As mentioned earlier, the horizon of the
of planning instruments. For this reason, the   in order to successfully develop and                 structure planning process is, by necessity,
concept is defined in broad terms below.        implement structure plans, it would be               long-term. While the plan at any stage
Should the structure planning concept be        necessary to recognise the role of urban             should constitute the ‘standing’ guiding
adopted within NSW, it will be necessary        planners within the process, and educate             document, it should be reviewed and
to develop a more in-depth and carefully        potential stakeholders and users of the plan         updated at regular intervals (say every
considered definition.                          as to how the process works.                         5 years for the broad plan). This iterative
A structure plan is a spatial plan that                                                              process of review and revision is a key
                                                ESTABLISHING A                                       to the relevance and ‘implementability’
provides vision and guidance for the            NEXUS BETWEEN
organisation and management of an urban                                                              of the structure plan but should not be
                                                STRATEGIC PLANNING
area. It does not need to be a statutory                                                             viewed as an opportunity for unwarranted
                                                AND THE COMMUNITY
instrument, but does need to have buy-in                                                             compromise of the intent of the plan.
                                                – OVERCOMING A
from the key stakeholders affecting the         MAJOR BARRIER                                        It is expected that there would be a range
urban structure. A structure plan can be        Strategic planning, whether of the urban             of planning and funding instruments that
developed at a range of scales – from a         structure or of the infrastructure that              are influenced by the Structure Plan. Most
region, to a city, to centres within a city     serves it, is rarely readily understood by           importantly there would be a funded,
or even to neighbourhoods. The level of         the community – the value, the costs, the            publically available, short-term action plan
resolution of the plan reflects its scope       role it plays. The main exception to this            (3 to 5 year timeframe) that focuses on
and the extent of the area it covers.           assertion is in the face of implementation,          implementing the structure plan.
Structure plans can effectively deal with       where communities might rally to oppose a
urban regeneration and renewal as well as       project due to its impacts on them. There is
Greenfield development.                         an acute need for the community to better
                                                understand the need for infrastructure and
                                                how to plan for it, as well as engage in the
                                                process that results in the plan that affects
                                                their community.

                                                                                                                         planning                   7
          densities and
         land use mixes
    The mix and density of land uses are         Density and mix can apply to a range
    fundamental characteristics of different     of employment and workforce and
    cities. Density in each different land       residential uses. Density is usually
    use or mixture of land uses creates          referred to in terms of persons
    opportunities and limitations to the         per square kilometre. Current
    live/work/play choices available to          Australian and global benchmarks
    citizens of that city. Those choices         for the bulk urban densities of
    are currently under pressure from            major cities are summarised in
    influences such as population growth         Table 2. Sydney has, by a significant
    which adds an estimated 1000 persons         margin, the highest urban density
    per week to some of Australia’s              of any Australian city but its density
    major cities; housing shortage/              is well below that of comparable
    affordability, rising fuel costs resulting   European capital cities or other
    in mortgage stress in car-dependent          major southern hemisphere cities.
    outer suburbs; a trend towards
    obesity in suburbs not conducive
    to healthy living; and a decline in
    the quality of the environment.

8                                                    Tomorrow
It is important to distinguish between                     The broad issue is to inform the choices         Gaining acceptance of appropriate and
population density and dwelling density.                   of Government, developers and                    consistent international benchmarks
In many Australian cities the density of                   communities to:                                  to support community debate around
dwellings has been increasing but the                          Establish acceptable densities and           good quality denser living;
number of persons per dwelling or per                          mixes for different parts of Sydney;         Quantifying and analysing efforts to
household has been decreasing. The ACEA                        Assess suitability of existing               date that have been made in denser
recognises this is an ongoing trend that                       infrastructure for an increase               population planning and design; and
needs to be taken into account in urban                        in densities;                                Investigating what can be done to
planning decision making.                                      Research best practice in medium/high        minimise the adverse environmental
Increased density reduces the cost and                         density planning and design;                 impacts and carbon footprint of
increases the efficiency of most forms of                      Ensure infrastructure precedes               the many Australians who make a
infrastructure networks, including water,                      or coincides with higher-density             deliberate choice to live and work in
waste, telecommunications, electricity and                     development;                                 lower density areas.
gas and transport. However, people do not                      Plan for nourishing quality denser       There is a strong linkage between the urban
make their lifestyle choices on the basis of                   suburbs, e.g. incorporate open spaces;   density of a city and lower levels of car
cost and efficiency alone.                                     and                                      dependence for its population. The higher
The current focus on high density, high                        Resolve conflicts between State and      population density of Sydney in comparison
rise housing for urban consolidation in                        local governments on density planning.   to other Australian cities is the main reason
Sydney has been largely driven by the                                                                   for it having much higher levels of public
                                                           Specific challenges that arise include:
desire by government and others for a                                                                   transport use for commuting to work.
                                                              The alignment of planned transport
quick fix to achieve the maximum possible                     routes and the corridors of denser        This is illustrated by Figure 1, which
“density benefit” from the minimum                            population and how this will affect       shows the percentage of people who use
available land area in the shortest                           the success of Sydney’s transport         their car to drive to work, plotted against
time. In the longer term this ignores                         infrastructure strategy;                  population density for the 42 different local
the clear potential adverse community                                                                   government areas of the Sydney region
                                                              The community embracing a denser
and social implications of developing                                                                   (the data for some of the larger Local
                                                              housing model and the effect that this
large concentrations of high rise, high                                                                 Government Areas (LGA)’s is divided into
                                                              will have on private car use, and how
density housing in inner urban areas.                                                                   two or more Statistical Local Areas (SLA).
                                                              this will interface with moderation of
                                                              traffic congestion;
                                                                                                        The development industry in Sydney is well
                                                                                                        set up at the moment to provide two main
                                                                                                        types of new housing: low density detached
FIGURE 1:                                                                                               housing at the urban fringe and more
TRAVEL BY CAR TO WORK % BY DENSITY                                                                      recently, high rise high density housing
                                                                                                        in inner Sydney and regional transport
                                                                                                        nodes. These two housing types represent
             100%                                                                                       a polarisation of the market which ignores
                                                                                                        the growing need for a new middle ground
                                                                                                        type of family housing, primarily three
                  80%                                                                                   bedroom dwellings, in the inner and middle
                                                                                                        ring suburbs of Sydney and also in some
                  70%                                                                                   cases in outer suburban areas.
                  60%                                                                                   An alternative retro “London-style”
   % Using Mode

                                                                                                        model of terrace housing should be
                                                                                                        considered for major urban infill and
                  40%                                                                                   urban renewal sites in Sydney, based on
                                                                                                        conventional terraced housing on lots
                                                                                                        5-6 metres wide by 30 metres deep. This
                  20%                                                                                   type of future development footprint
                                                                                                        will provide attractive density, providing
                                                                                                        some 30 dwellings per hectare in these
                  0%                                                                                    areas, which with 2.7 to 3 persons per
                        0   1000   2000   3000    4000      5000      6000   7000   8000   9000         household, is equivalent to a future
                                             Density (population/sq km)                                 population density of around 8000-
                                                                                                        9000 persons per square kilometre.
                                                                                                        As indicated by the trend line in Figure 1,
                                                                                                        increased densities for the Growth Centres,
                                                                                                        in conjunction with improved access
                                                                                                        facilities and amenities for “Active Transport”
                                                                                                        and public transport systems, plus cost of

                                                                          Attractive densities and land use mixes                                    9
fuel, should reduce the journey to work by       the central CBD area. Also, for optimum          urban density which will help over time to
car travel mode share from approximately         patronage along the route, Metro Stations        stimulate development and increase urban
70 to 80 percent in the “business as usual”      need to be located with a maximum                densities along the parallel corridors.
scenario (generally 1000 persons per square      spacing of 1 to 1.5 kilometres between
                                                                                                  In determining the future target population
kilometre or less), to approximately 65          stations in developed areas.
                                                                                                  densities, regard should be given to
percent with the higher overall density of
                                                 In a scenario where metro lines run directly     international benchmarks, such as the
1800 to 2000 persons per square kilometre.
                                                 underneath major roads, they will effectively    relative London urban benchmark density
In the Inner and Middle ring suburbs of          replace “line haul” surface bus movements        levels of 8000-9000 of persons per square
Sydney, the existing and future potential        along existing corridors. This will indirectly   kilometre for stations within 10 kilometres of
population densities of different areas are      have a flow on public amenity benefit by         the Sydney CBD and 3900-4000 of persons
a critical issue in determining the future       removing several thousand existing bus           per square kilometre for stations within the
economic viability and justification for         movements from the surface streets of the        10-20 kilometre radius ring. These urban
developing any rail network in Sydney.           Sydney CBD and other major road corridors        density transitions should be relative to total
Based on the London example, Metro               in both the morning and afternoon                population growth and amortised over the
Rail is a transport system that is primarily     commuter peak periods. In addition, new          long term, e.g. 20-50 years, but the future
suitable for development within urban areas      transport lines that might run parallel but      planning framework for urban renewal in
in an approximate 20 kilometre radius of         separate from the current areas of highest       these areas needs to be determined now.

                                  TABLE 2:
                                  WORLD URBAN AREAS: POPULATION AND DENSITY 2008

                                      Groupings              City                         Persons                 Population
                                      of Cities              (Year of Data)               (persons per
                                                                                          square kilometre)

                                      Australian             Brisbane (2006)              900                     1,676,000
                                      State                  Hobart (2001)                1000                    126,000
                                      Cities                 Canberra (2006)              1100                    356,000
                                                             Perth (2006)                 1200                    1,256,000
                                                             Adelaide (2006)              1400                    1,040,000
                                                             Melbourne (2006)             1550                    3,372,000
                                                             Sydney (2006)                2050                    3,641,000

                                      Major                  Johannesburg (2001)          2500                    6,000,000
                                      Southern               Durban (2003)                3500                    2,900,000
                                      Cities                 Cape Town (2001)             3950                    2,700,000
                                                             Buenos Aires (2001)          4650                    12,000,000
                                                             Santiago (2002)              6800                    5,390,000

                                      Major                  Milan (2001)                 1750                    4,200,000
                                      European               Rome (2001)                  3200                    2,750,000
                                                             Paris (2005)                 3400                    10,400,000
                                                             Berlin (2001)                3750                    3,675,000
                                                             Manchester (2001)            4000                    2,245,000
                                                             Barcelona (2001)             4850                    3,900,000
                                                             London (2001)                5100                    8,278,000
                                                             Madrid (2001)                5200                    4,900,000
                                                             Athens (2001)                5400                    3,685,000


10      Sydney Towards Tomorrow

Research by the RTA NSW established that
land use mix and density was by seven           PATHWAYS
times the most powerful policy lever to         Urban form influences travel mode and              should prevent most of the long term
reduce road congestion and vehicle-             the more dense our cities are (in terms            problems in some existing old cities.
kilometres-travelled, followed by road          of dwellings per land area) then the
                                                                                                   The development of well connected
pricing policy and car parking policy.          more likely it is that we can afford to
                                                                                                   live/work/play communities can be part
                                                provide high quality, frequent passenger
More research is required as to how this                                                           of this process of renewal of ageing/
                                                transport systems like light rail or heavy
would be applied, and into the combination                                                         unsustainable infrastructure in established
                                                rail. Consideration of utility corridors or
of stopping approval of new land releases                                                          areas of NSW cities. Less than 2 percent
                                                ‘critical infrastructure corridors’ (a term used
on the fringe in the Sydney basin together                                                         of infrastructure is newly built each year
                                                in Queensland) where power, water and
with slower release in the Hunter, Illawarra                                                       and retro-fitting of the existing 98 percent
                                                telecommunications assets are co-located
and Central Coast. This research would look                                                        of buildings and infrastructure is both an
                                                in a single infrastructure corridor makes
at subdivision and multiple land uses, the                                                         urgent need and opportunity.
                                                financial, environmental and sustainability
efficient mix of uses as well as the overall    sense and facilitates density with quality         Sydney is Australia’s world city, in a national
quantum of land.                                open space. This can re-institute and              and international race. Attractive density is
There is room for millions of residents         preserve green belt land zones.                    a competitive advantage in Sydney. People
and workers in the “middle ring” of                                                                are attracted to efficient and exciting dense
                                                Future access to leisure areas should not
Sydney – those suburbs around regional                                                             live-work-play “villages” with easy access to
                                                necessarily be a major issue for higher
cities (Sydney, North Sydney, Parramatta,                                                          parks and beaches.
                                                population densities in Sydney. In addition
Liverpool and Penrith) and major centres        to the many public parks, Sydneysiders
(Bondi Junction, Green Square, Randwick,
Sydney Airport, Port Botany, Sutherland,
                                                also have access to numerous beaches,
                                                foreshore reserves, regional parks, and
                                                                                                   Density and land use are long term issues
Hurstville, Kogarah, Chatswood, Brookvale/      National Parks for recreation. Sydney              that are best addressed by long term
Dee Why, St Leonards, Macquarie Park,           Harbour itself is a major recreation area          planning of land use and infrastructure,
Burwood, Bankstown, Olympic Park, Rhodes,       that typically does not figure in any urban        rather than the largely unproductive
Hornsby, Westmead, Prairiewood, Fairfield,      density calculations. Dense walkable access        argument that surrounds “quick fix”
Cabramatta, Leppington, Campbelltown,           encourages healthy lifestyles, with massive        development actions.
Castle Hill, Norwest, Blacktown, Rouse Hill,    savings in preventable health care costs.
Mt Druitt) all nominated in the Metropolitan                                                       The ACEA believes the best available
Strategy and their transport links.             The perception that higher density living          means would be to regularly update a
                                                is undesirable is counterbalanced by               revitalised Metro Strategy by the new
Overseas experience indicates that high(er)     international examples such as London. The         Planning and Local Government Authority.
density housing can be more attractive if       boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea have            The updates on a regular cycle would
designed and marketed appropriately. Class      the highest urban population density at            provide an opportunity for global expert
and race issues can arise in redensification,   13609 persons per square kilometre in 2001         and wide community input. The Metro
and good design needs to appeal to              and yet is nowadays considered a highly            Strategy should include wider consultation
egalitarian and social fabric values.           desirable place to live. This can also be          mechanisms employed to good effect in
                                                demonstrated by lessons in Transit Oriented        the Melbourne 2030 plan and the 30 Year
                                                Development (TOD) around transport                 Plan for Greater Adelaide.
                                                nodes based on recent North American
                                                examples. Similar patterns are emerging
                                                in the denser and well-connected dense
                                                areas of inner and regional Sydney centres.
                                                There is however a need to ensure that
                                                attractive density does not come at the cost
                                                of quality of life, especially for persons with
                                                a low social economic status. Controls on
                                                the quality and sustainability, the Building
                                                Sustainability Index (BASIX) and open space

                                                           Attractive densities and land use mixes                                              11
     The Sydney metropolitan region             The new reform agenda must
     is experiencing a severe lack              address the failures and limitations
     infrastructure services brought about      of the current infrastructure system
     by continued population growth, poor       openly and honestly. These reforms
     planning, insufficient investment in key   will require sustained government
     projects, inadequate funding sources       commitment and leadership, co-
     and in the case of transport, reliance     ordinated and integrated industry
     on a tax-based financing system.           input and broadly-based community
                                                consultation and engagement.
     The ACEA believes this condition is
     unsustainable and calls for change. In
     particular, we believe that significant
     social, environmental and economic
     benefits are achievable by reforming
     the funding arrangements for Sydney’s
     infrastructure. They include the
     development of new policy, managing
     peak infrastructure demand, setting
     prices based on real costs, raising
     revenue from user pays charging
     and more efficiently allocating
     funds for new infrastructure.


12                                                  Tomorrow
CHALLENGES                                                                                       SOLUTIONS
Today, the most important challenge             There are other issues and concerns which        The ACEA recommends that new user pays
is the decline in network industry              relate to government’s inability to commit       funding objectives must be:
system performance, especially in               to and fund a long term infrastructure plan          Understandable (transparent);
transport and the shortage of funds             for Sydney, including:                               Affordable;
to invest in needed infrastructure.                  Focus on short term election (4 year)           Linked directly to government policy
                                                     planning cycles;                                (for example increasing public transport
Most goods and services in NSW are sold
to consumers at prices determined by                 Funding some projects with limited              mode share across Sydney); and
the interplay of supply and demand. This             economic justification;                         Accepted by community stakeholders.
interplay has supported the development              Narrow interpretation and application
                                                     of consistent project assessments across    The resulting infrastructure plan, its
and modernisation of industries such
                                                     infrastructure sectors;                     method of implementation and any new
as telecommunications and electricity.
                                                                                                 funding methods must also have political
Yet there is a reluctance to embrace the             Limited view of project economic
                                                                                                 acceptance from all sides of government
market-based mechanisms in the case of               benefits;
                                                                                                 and must be sustainable over the long
transport and there is continued reliance on         Treasury policy to avoid debt;
                                                                                                 term. The ACEA presents the following
a tax-based financing system that has little         Treasury’s consolidated revenue policy      objectives as the basis for funding reforms
or nothing to do with the true costs of using        failure to allocate funds to economic       which, when combined into a new funding
or providing transport infrastructure. This          infrastructure;                             framework would redress most of the
is not a sustainable policy. The continued           Inconsistent and narrow application of      limitations identified above:
dependence on fuel taxes not only fails to           user pays principles (applied to energy
align supply and demand properly, it also                                                             To ensure existing infrastructure is used
                                                     and water use but not to transport, and          and maintained effectively;
results in a shortage of investment funds for        full costs of service provision are not
transport infrastructure.                                                                             To enhance the efficiency of public
                                                     always included in the price e.g. water);
                                                                                                      finances regarding building, operating
The NSW Government’s 2009/10 budget                  Lack of equity in pricing (between               and maintaining new infrastructure;
plans did not provide adequately for the             urban and regional and between
                                                                                                      To price fairly according to the full
planning and procurement of key economic             eastern and western Sydney, e.g.
                                                                                                      whole of life costs of infrastructure and
infrastructure projects, especially in the           M4/M5 Cashback Scheme);
                                                                                                      service provision, including congestion,
transport sector mainly because of a lack            No strong linkage or accountability              and price through direct user charges,
of funds. In addition, funding allocated             between agency long term                         instead of indirect taxes;
to Sydney projects from the Federal                  infrastructure plan and Treasury 5 year
                                                                                                      To encourage private finance and
Government (at the recommendation of                 budget plan process;
                                                                                                      greater involvement of Public Private
Infrastructure Australia (IA)) is limited in         Lack of accountability in asset                  Partnerships (PPP) in infrastructure
comparison to the size and importance of             management and government                        provision under new funding and risk
projects in Sydney due to the demands from           agency balance sheet valuations                  sharing models;
other States and the remainder of NSW.               (alternative use and value of lazy
                                                                                                      To allow greater flexibility in the way
The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) which has          assets, e.g. public opposition to
                                                                                                      risks are allocated and managed to
led to reduced private finance for large             the sale of surplus Department of
                                                                                                      alleviate the short to medium term
projects and falling government revenue              Education school sites and under-
                                                                                                      capital market shortfalls; and
has also contributed to the significant              utilised RailCorp land holdings);
                                                                                                      To link investment to high
funding gap between needed projects and              Infrastructure focus on servicing peak
                                                                                                      capacity transport corridors and
government’s ability to implement them.              demand and failure of policy to manage
                                                                                                      high density transport nodes
                                                     peak demand (e.g. journey to work);
                                                                                                      (CityRail and Metro stations).
                                                     Sustainable infrastructure consistent
                                                     with national energy policy;                The ACEA believes the funding shortfall
                                                     Managing the transport effects of           is most noticeable in transport. The plan
                                                     climate change; and                         for transport would borrow the principle
                                                                                                 of user pays from the utilities sector (gas,
                                                     Poor planning, low population density,
                                                                                                 electricity and water), where users are
                                                     peak oil (relevance of oil).
                                                                                                 charged according to how much of the
                                                                                                 service is used, based on a unit charge and
                                                                                                 the costs of provision. This is unlike current
                                                                                                 transport policies under which private
                                                                                                 users are taxed on an access charge (road

         TODAY, THE MOST IMPORTANT                                                               tax, licence fee, vehicle sales tax etc) and
                                                                                                 through a fuel excise tax (based on fuel
          CHALLENGE IS THE DECLINE IN                                                            use at the pump), depending on distance
                                                                                                 travelled and size of vehicle, while public
           NETWORK INDUSTRY SYSTEM                                                               transport users are charged subsidised fares
                                                                                                 which typically do not cover the full costs of
            PERFORMANCE, ESPECIALLY                                                              provision and operation1.

               IN TRANSPORT AND THE                                                              1
                                                                                                     As part of the Henry Tax Review, the Australian

                                                                                                     Treasury has released a wide ranging paper on
                                                                                                     the reform of road and transport taxes. The paper,

                                                                                                     A Conceptual Framework for the Reform of Taxes
                                                                                                     Related to Roads and Transport by La Trobe University
                                                                                                     examines the benefits of taxation and funding reform.

                                                                                                                             funding                  13
The removal of subsidies for public             nodes) policy. Subsidising infrastructure         The new funding framework would require
transport does not necessarily equate to        costs through the capture of land value           a significant change in Treasury policy
an increase in fares, as there are other ways   improvements associated infrastructure            towards hypothecation to transport, political
of accounting for the subsidy. However,         assets should also be promoted.                   understanding and will and community
evaluation of the true cost of transport will                                                     acceptance of road pricing to fund much
faciltate the equitable allocation of user      NEW FUNDING SOLUTIONS                             needed public transport infrastructure. Its
charging methodologies.                         Infrastructure includes water supply,             implementation would lead to a more
                                                sewerage systems, ports, energy/power             sustainable transport sector and the
A key funding solution in transport is
                                                and telecommunications all of which               achievement of the 20 year Sydney Plan.
therefore the derivation of revenue from
                                                have existing pricing regimes to fund new
direct pricing of road use. Such a reform
would also assist in helping to solve
Sydney’s reoccurring road congestion
                                                infrastructure and because of this their long-
                                                term benefit and future should be assured.        PATHWAYS
                                                                                                  Priority should be given to transport
problem as well as allowing government to       Unlike communication, electricity and other       funding and consideration given to a
reduce taxes.                                   utility networks, transport lacks a strong        range of options outlined below and to
                                                funding and sustainable pricing regime.           implementing Integrating Funding shown in
Importantly, efficiencies could also be
realised if Sydney had seamless intermodal      New funding and pricing solution options are      concept form by Figure 2.
transport and ticketing systems.                briefly described which would satisfy social,     Significant short-term benefits could be
                                                environmental and economic objectives             gained from implementing options relating
The long term transport funding goal
                                                including the new funding objectives              to Demand Management, Ownership, Land
would be to implement a new and
                                                indentified above. Further research               Use and Motorways.
sustainable Infrastructure plan for Sydney.
                                                and investigation would be required to
The success of this plan and the new                                                              Demand Management
                                                determine priority according to short term
transport funding regime would depend
                                                and longer term strategy components of an           Extend use of user-pays principles and
on a policy shift towards transport users
                                                infrastructure plan for Sydney.                     introduce to transport sectors;
being charged for their use of transport
infrastructure (based on the full costs of                                                          Introduce prices to recover full costs;
                                                Community debate would be required to
the trip) and on a trip distance (kilometre)    extend the development, acceptance and              Introduce time of day pricing to reduce
travelled basis. Users could then be            staged introduction of a road pricing policy        transport demand in peak hours;
billed monthly transport accounts in the        which Sydney should lead in Australia.              Introduce revised retail hours in Centres
same way we receive gas and electricity         Demand Management-related funding                   to spread traffic demand; and
bills. Any social policy subsidies could be     and policy options would both reduce                Extend clearways programs (road and
identified under such arrangements.             peak demand and defer the need for new              rail), e.g. 15 hour clearways along
                                                peak infrastructure funding2. In the case of        major roads.
SUSTAINABLE                                     transport, their implementation could reduce
INFRASTRUCTURE                                  peak demand by up to 20 percent and defer
FUNDING                                                                                             Review Government Agency assets and
                                                investment by up to 10 years.
Another key principle in funding                                                                    Balance Sheets and identify lazy assets;
infrastructure would be to recognise            Figure 2 shows a conceptual arrangement             Sell lazy assets and hypothecate revenue
the importance of sustainability in             for a new Transport Integrated Funding              to infrastructure;
terms of population and employment              Framework. Its application would deliver            Privatise inefficient State-owned
density with respect to the effective           significant long term benefit in:                   operations to relieve funds for
and efficient use of resources. Priority             Funding public transport (PT);                 infrastructure;
should be given to improvements                      Achieving government’s PT                      Withhold agency funding for new works
which demonstrate the efficiency and                 mode share targets;                            until existing infrastructure is effectively
effectiveness of the investment, such                Delivering a world class Metro system;         used and maintained; and
as those projects supporting freight                 Funding active transport (walk and cycle);     Bring to account future maintenance
transport and developments at transport              and                                            liabilities, and fund through
nodes in keeping with the Department                 Deliver high quality roads including           Integrated funding.
of Planning’s 2006 Metropolitan Strategy             missing links.
of developing a City of Cities (Planning                                                          Land Use Related
                                                                                                     Fund projects in key economic corridors
                                                                                                     serving freight as a priority;
                                                                                                     Fund projects serving high density
                                                                                                     centres and transport nodes as a priority;
               COMMUNITY DEBATE WOULD                                                                Introduce Tax Increment Financing (TIF)
                                                                                                     to regeneration projects and urban
               BE REQUIRED TO EXTEND THE                                                             renewal projects.

                 OF A ROAD PRICING POLICY
                    WHICH SYDNEY SHOULD
                       LEAD IN AUSTRALIA.                                                         2
                                                                                                      See Road Transport Future Directions, NSW RTA 1991.

14      Sydney Towards Tomorrow
          FIGURE 2:

                  Active Transport                                                                               Mode share targets
                     Programs                                                                             (Social, Environment Objectives)
                   (Walk, Cycle)
                  Health Objective

                                                                                                                  Real PT Prices
                                                                                                               (Economy Objective)
                                                Hypothecation                   CityRail,
                                                  Treasury                     Metro & Bus
                                                   Reform                     Improvements

                                                                                                             Reduced subsidy over time
                                                                                                            (Economy, Social Objective)

                                 Car User          Better use of lazy assets/balance sheets
                                 Revenue                  (Effectiveness Objective)
                                                                                                             Higher quality PT Services
                                                                    Tolls                                        (Social Objective)

                                                          Tax Increment Financing
                               Road Pricing
                                 (Network             PPP (Public Private Partnerships)
                              distance based
                                  charges)           Higher levels of Government debt               Less private
                                 (Economy                 to fund infrastructure                  road use/users
                                Objective)                                                         (Environment

        Political Will

                                                 Revised Road                 Higher Quality
                                                   Charges                    Roads/Services
                   Public                                                       (Economy
                 Acceptance                                                     Objective)

Motorways                                      Private Sector Finance/PPP                        Research
   Retain toll beyond life of toll                 Outsource non-core government                    Research costs of infrastructure
   concession and invest revenue to new            agency operations, including                     and services by peak/off-peak
   infrastructure in the corridor;                 maintenance of assets;                           and demonstrate (to community)
   Introduce time of day tolling for better        Move to new PPP model for economic               value for money from investment
   use of assets;                                  infrastructure in which government               including the infrastructure costs
   Introduce Dynamic Pricing on                    shares revenue risk; and                         of infill in established suburbs;
   Motorways (Dynamic Pricing is a                 Delivery of major PPP projects                   Efficiency review of Government
   combination of time of day and                  through a combination of shadow                  Agencies and move to self regulation;
   distance based tolls. Its application           prices, availability payments, private           Review mechanism and benefits for
   would achieve greater use of the                investment and government debt.                  hypothecation and review of sales tax;
   motorway network and improve off-                                                                Prepare Discussion Papers on
                                               Integrated Funding (see Figure 2)
   peak effectiveness.); and                                                                        Road Pricing for community
                                                   Introduce Road Pricing to increase
   Extend Multi Lane Fee Flow (MLFF)                                                                consultation/debate;
                                                   revenue to transport. A key reason
   across motorway network.                                                                         Review Project Assessment Guidelines
                                                   for the success of the London
                                                   Congestion Charge is that revenues               Across Infrastructure and Benefit
SECONDARY OPTIONS                                                                                   Assessment of Infrastructure Investment;
                                                   are used to improve public transport
FOR CONSIDERATION                                                                                   and
Public Transport and                                                                                Investigate new PPP model for delivery
                                                   Introduce Treasury hypothecation
Active Transport Improvements                                                                       of economic infrastructure.
                                                   to infrastructure;
    Implement Integrated Funding
                                                   Increase PFI and PPP and introduce TIF
    and allocate revenues to public
                                                   for delivery of infrastructure (see above);
    transport, see Figure 2; and
                                                   Increase State Treasury debt for              All options would need to be fully
    Implement Integrated Funding to fund
                                                   needed infrastructure; and                    investigated and measurable actions,
    walking and cycling infrastructure at
    transport nodes.                               Use revenue from sale of lazy assets to       benefits and timeframes established within
                                                   fund infrastructure.                          a business case assessment framework.
                                                                                                 However we should not wait for change.
                                                                                                 The ACEA believes that the significant
                                                                                                 amount of work which would need to be
                                                                                                 done to achieve the above is critical for the
                                                                                                 success of future infrastructure development
                                                                                                 and therefore necessary actions must
                                                                                                 be initiated as a matter of urgency.

                                                                                                                         funding             15
     There is a need for better                It also requires that communication and
     understanding and support by the          interaction are based on an integrated,
     community towards infrastructure          well configured and majority supported
     development and investment.               strategic plan that the community can
     This is because there is currently        feel it has had a role in developing.
     a lack of transparency due to a
                                               It is important to note here the link
     perceived “arrogance” and a “head
                                               between urban planning and transport
     office” mentality which leave the
                                               infrastructure, economic outcomes
     community cynical and suspicious.
                                               through increased productivity and
     NSW has lagged behind other states in     social issues such as employment
     recent years with regards to population   opportunities and work/life balance.
     growth, which has resulted in lack of     A key social objective should be to
     opportunities compared to other states    reduce overall commuter time, not
     that have been actively competing         only by improved transport links,
     for business and social investment.       but a strategic focus on what types
     Higher demand for housing has created     of employment will be represented
     affordability issues in NSW which         in the future, what strategies should
     has driven people to other states.        be adopted to ensure these jobs are
     Increasing migration from NSW has         located close to where employees
     lead to a reduction in infrastructure     live (rather than a focus on CBD) and
     development and investment.               what strategies can be implemented
                                               to spread the peak over the day.
     The ACEA believes that increased
     community understanding, trust
     and support must be based on the
     fact that change will only happen
     if attitudes change, that a high
     level political focus is required and
     that all stakeholders agree that the
     community deserves to be involved.

                 social issues

16                                                 Tomorrow
The ACEA believes there is a lack of
community trust in government decision
making and a perceived reluctance by                                THIS NEXUS BETWEEN
government to make unpopular decisions
despite long term benefit. In addition,
                                                                        PEOPLE, THEIR
the community does not always welcome                                 LEVEL OF SERVICE
infrastructure development and investment,
especially as the public (community) is                                 EXPECTATIONS,
impact focused. This is a result of a lack of
communication by the government with
                                                                       THE ASSOCIATED
the community.                                                        INFRASTRUCTURE
There is also no clear link or understanding
between level of service, user pays and the
built infrastructure.                                                   AND ITS COSTS
                                                                     NEEDS TO BE BETTER
Key to planning reform is creating a nexus                          COMMUNICATED AND
between strategic planning and the
community. The success will be dependent
                                                                    ADDRESSED IN ORDER
on a programme of civic engagement and
resulting community buy-in.
                                                                      TO INSTIL A CLEAR
Strategic planning, whether of the urban
structure or of the infrastructure that                               OF THE PLANNING
serves it, is rarely readily understood by
the community i.e. the value, the costs, the                         PROCESS REQUIRED
role it plays. The main exception to this
assertion is in the face of implementation,                            TO BEST ACHIEVE
where communities might rally to oppose a
project due to its impacts on them. There is
                                                                     OPTIMAL LAND USE
an acute need for the community to better                           AND INFRASTRUCTURE
understand the need for infrastructure and
how to plan for it.                                                      OUTCOMES.
This nexus between people, their level
of service expectations, the associated
infrastructure requirements and its
costs needs to be better communicated
and addressed in order to instil a clear
understanding of the planning process           PATHWAYS
required to best achieve optimal land use       The ACEA supports the need for a             stakeholders, such as government, should
and infrastructure outcomes.                    stronger commitment to develop a plan        be prepared to make hard and sometimes
                                                for infrastructure by building community     unpopular decisions on infrastructure
The solutions need to be carefully              trust and understanding of infrastructure    development and investment.
developed in consideration of the specific      planning (transparency).
attributes of the planning process and the                                                   The ACEA advocates a link between
community which it serves.                      There should be a focus on the movement      infrastructure and jobs, e.g. introduce
                                                of people/goods to find the right mode of    integrated public transport fares and to
There are several examples of cities            transport and that infrastructure needs to   educate the wider community (including
undergoing major growth, where the              be dense and frequent where needed.          children) about the long-term benefits of
community has been dissatisfied with                                                         infrastructure development and investment.
the direction being taken by their elected      Better planning will help to determine
officials. To do this they formed a coalition   the level of service needed to support       There must be a strong commitment from
in order to raise awareness of the planning     the community and gain community             government (i.e. NSW Premier) to engage
process within the community and used           buy-in before implementation. This           with the community, as this will be the
this influence to bring about change            can be achieved by engaging with             foundation for any future infrastructure
within the political process and direction.     communities and the private sector to        development and investment.
A well-known example of this is the             communicate and prepare for delivery.
                                                                                             It is recommended that a model for
‘1,000 Friends of Oregon’ group. A similar      The ACEA believes we must collect the        engagement with the community
organisation exists in Sydney (10,000           best minds to form an infrastructure         should be based on the IAP2 Spectrum
Friends of Greater Sydney), although it has     leadership group (Infrastructure Advisory    (International Association for Public
not yet managed to achieve the level of         Council – see Chapter 6 – Governance,        Participation: A Model for Engagement),
influence of the Oregon organisation.           page 19) and develop a partnership           as represented in Figure 3. This can be
                                                model for Sydney’s infrastructure that       used as a base/best practice approach
                                                includes the community. This group           for community engagement which can
                                                along with other key infrastructure          help support the angle that infrastructure

                                                                                                       social issues                  17
creates jobs and contributes to social and          appointed in each region. This should                examples of user pays models that could be
environmental sustainability. The IAP2              include implementation of a Community                reviewed to establish an appropriate model.
Spectrum is useful for determining the              Education Policy, “Campaign” and reporting
                                                                                                         Pathways for civic engagement should be
purpose of engagement and the level of              mechanisms.
                                                                                                         explored via the full range of communication
participation of a defined stakeholder/
                                                    There is a need to integrate social issues into      media, including specifically web based
community, as well as tapping into
                                                    the transport planning process, with the             consultation mechanisms as well as face to
groups already working on similar
                                                    emphasis on reducing the (perceived/real)            face engagement.
projects or agendas, see Figure 3.
                                                    negative impact on communities. North
                                                                                                         To achieve broad communication
The ACEA supports the implementation                West Rail Link is an example of community
                                                                                                         regarding such consultation programmes
of a Community Communication Policy                 dislocation, which should be avoided in
                                                                                                         those conducting them should not
and the creation of responsibility within           future planning. The issues surrounding
                                                                                                         only consider public communication
Infrastructure NSW (discussed in Chapter            modes of transport should be extensively
                                                                                                         pathways, but industry professional and
6 – Governance, page 19) for delivery of            investigated to see what infrastructure
                                                                                                         community associations building on
the Policy (vision for Sydney and NSW).             services and facilities, routes, networks and
                                                                                                         already well established networks to
There should be an onus and accountability          nodes would be most effective and efficient.
                                                                                                         obtain broader input and feedback.
on government to regularly report to
                                                    Issues surrounding user pays should also be
the community on progress achieved in
meeting the overall plan for Sydney and
NSW. There should also be a Regional
                                                    targeted and the adoption of a fair system,
                                                    allocation of costs and hypothecation                TIMEFRAME
                                                    should be promoted and implemented.                  Models for civic engagement should be
Planning Authority Leader for Community
                                                    Other issues to be targeted should                   reviewed and adopted to ensure long term
Communication (sitting under either
                                                    include, intergenerational equity, cost of           strategic planning success. Successful
Infrastructure NSW or the new Department
                                                    homeownership, travel to work costs, and             consultation and communication
of Planning and Local Government)
                                                    travel to educational facilities. There are          programmes (such as that conducted
                                                                                                         for Sustainable Sydney 2030) should be
                                                                                                         expanded to engage a broader spectrum of
                                                                                                         community interests (community groups,
                                                                                                         businesses, individuals etc).


     Inform                   Consult                      Involve                     Collaborate                Empower

     Public                   Public                       Public                      Public                     Public
     Participation            Participation                Participation               Participation              Participation
     Goal:                    Goal:                        Goal:                       Goal:                      Goal:

     To provide the public    To obtain public             To work directly            To partner with            To place final
     with balanced and        feedback on analysis,        with the public             the public in each         decision-making
     objective information    alternatives and/or          throughout the              aspect of the              in the hands of
     to assist them in        decisions.                   process to ensure           decision, including        the public.
     understanding the                                     that public concerns        the development of
     problems, alternatives                                and aspirations             alternatives and the
     and/or solutions.                                     are consistently            identification of the
                                                           understood and              preferred solution.

     Promise to               Promise to                   Promise to                  Promise to                 Promise to
     the Public:              the Public:                  the Public:                 the Public:                the Public:

     We will keep you         We will keep you             We will work with           We will look to you        We will implement
     informed.                informed, listen to          you to ensure that          for direct advice          what you decide.
                              and acknowledge              your concerns and           and innovation in
                              your concerns and            aspirations are             formulating solutions
                              provide feedback             directly reflected          and incorporate
                              on how public input          in the alternatives         your advice and
                              influenced the               developed and               recommendations
                              decision.                    provide feedback            into the decisions to
                                                           on how public input         the maximum extent
                                                           influenced decisions.       possible.

     Example                  Example                      Example                     Example                    Example
     Tools:                   Tools:                       Tools:                      Tools:                     Tools:

        fact sheets              public comment               workshops                   citizen advisory           citizen juries
        web sites                focus groups                 deliberate polling.         committees                 ballots
        open houses.             surveys                                                  census building            delegated
                                 public meetings.                                         participatory              decisions.

18       Sydney Towards Tomorrow
The NSW State Government has                This section of the report therefore
realigned the public sector into a          will address the two key areas
super agency model. This model              of government that are critical
identifies thirteen ‘lead’ agencies to      to the planning, development,
deliver a more integrated service for       delivery and management of
NSW and ensure greater client focus         infrastructure; Planning and Local
and to cut Government red tape.             Government, and Transport and
There is also overall support by a          Infrastructure. It also comments on
Coordinator General for Infrastructure.     the role of the Coordinator General
                                            and the need for an independent
This model is generally supported
                                            board to oversee this role.
by the ACEA provided the formation
of super agencies actually proceeds,        In addition, reform of local government
efficiencies are realised, integration      has proceeded slowly in NSW and
takes place and the private sector          has not kept pace with reforms
is engaged to deliver where it can          successfully delivered in both Victoria
add value or provide more efficient         and Queensland. The ACEA considers
services than Government.                   that the urban conurbation from
                                            Newcastle, through the Central Coast
Reform of the management and
                                            and Sydney to Wollongong be the
delivery of social infrastructure appears
                                            focus for the formation of new more
to be proceeding however, the recent
                                            efficient regional governments to
appointment of Chief Executive
                                            replace current Local Councils.
Officers (CEOs) to lead agencies that
are contained within a cluster such as
Transport and Infrastructure, does not
support the concept of amalgamation,
like with like and the formation of
super agencies. There also appears
to be little reform in the areas of
Planning and Local Government.


Tomorrow                                                                              19
There has been a lack of integration           that can lead the planning function              a body would provide independent
between the current Department of Local        for NSW and partner with industry, the           governance, oversight and the checks and
Government (DLG) and Department of             community and government and, where              balances required in the planning system.
Planning (DoP). There is a disconnect          required, act as a credible independent
                                                                                                Development decisions at regional level
between the planning policies of DoP and       regulatory planning approval body.
                                                                                                should be able to be appealed by the
the management of local government
                                               A Deputy Director General (DG) should            proponents to the Deputy DG of Regulatory
policy by the DLG.
                                               be appointed for regulatory planning             Planning in the first instance, who may enlist
The current DoP has also had its credibility   approvals, a Deputy DG for local                 the support of the independent council for
called into question by the community,         government and regional planning,                advice, before any referral to the Land and
the planning fraternity, the development       a Deputy DG for state planning and               Environment Court.
industry and in some respect government.       a Deputy DG for development and
                                                                                                Credible and achievable long and medium
                                               delivery authorities. The formation of
There are currently thirteen separate                                                           term plans for NSW, the Hunter, Illawarra
                                               the DPLG and the appointment of the
agencies managing the transport portfolio                                                       and greater Sydney will need to be prepared
                                               DG and four Deputies should proceed
in NSW with little integration between the                                                      by the DPLG in consultation with and then
                                               as a high priority, see Figure 4.
modes or with broader government.                                                               accepted by the community as well as
                                               With the formation of regional government,       government, then published and regularly
Funding for local assets and services
                                               regional planning committees will not be         updated to be contemporary. All thirteen
has reached a crisis point in NSW with
                                               required as separate entities. However, it is    state government super agencies and all
some local council’s recently requesting
                                               critical that the state department have a role   regional councils need input into those plans.
greater than 20 percent rate rises just
                                               in regional council planning committees          All the relevant state CEOs need to sign-off
to maintain basic services. The market
                                               and be represented by a voting senior            the content of the plans and commit to the
has lost some confidence in the greater
                                               professional at all meetings.                    delivery of the policies required to achieve
Sydney conurbation and the fragmentation
                                                                                                the outcomes specified.
of local government with inconsistent          The Department should have available an
local planning policies and decisions has      ‘Independent Planning Advisory Council’          Planning for Sydney in particular should
contributed to this position.                  of senior experienced professionals              build on the exemplary Transit Orientated
                                               to provide independent advice to the             Development work of the past in refocusing

                                               Minister and the Department and to               densification along the current and future
                                               review decisions where required. Such            heavy and medium rail networks.
Management, Development and Delivery
Authorities (e.g. Barangaroo Delivery
Authority and the Sydney Harbour
Foreshore Authority) have their place.                              THE ACEA CONSIDERS
However, they must remain fully responsible
to the Director General (DG) of Planning,                             THAT THE URBAN
be a subset of the Planning Department
and not separate agencies and have sunset
                                                                    CONURBATION FROM
clauses in their establishment, such that
they can only continue following a period of
                                                                   NEWCASTLE, THROUGH
review and subsequent formal agreement.                             THE CENTRAL COAST
The current ‘independent’ model has led
to definition of boundaries, ‘turf wars’ and                          AND SYDNEY TO
a separation from the core planning policy
and outcomes the community desires.
                                                                     WOLLONGONG BE
The Department of Local Government (DLG)
                                                                       THE FOCUS FOR
should be abolished and the functions
amalgamated into a new Department of
                                                                      THE FORMATION
Planning and Local Government (DPLG).                                   OF NEW MORE
The ACEA also proposes to abolish the
current urban Local Councils and form
                                                                    EFFICIENT REGIONAL
Regional Local Government. A major plank                             GOVERNMENTS TO
in that proposal is regional planning and
the integration between state and regional                           REPLACE CURRENT
planning. That proposal relies on integrated
state government policy for planning and
                                                                     LOCAL COUNCILS.
local government.
The Department of Planning (DoP)
should also be abolished and
amalgamated into the new DPLG. The
new Department will need to recruit
senior credible planners and managers

20      Sydney Towards Tomorrow
          FIGURE 4:

                  Premier                                                 Minister                                                Minister

                                             Independent                                              Independent
                                               Advisory                                            Planning Advisory
                                                Council                                                  Council

                                                                        Department of                                            Department of
                   Office of the
                                                                         Planning and                                            Transport and
              Co-ordinator General
                                                                       Local Government                                          Infrastructure
              (Infrastructure NSW)
                                                                             (DPLG)                                                   (DTI)
                                            Deputy Director                                            Transport
                                              General for                                            Infrastructure
                                              Regulatory                                             Procurement
                                              Approvals                                               Corporation

                                            Deputy Director                                            Transport
                                            General for Local                                        Infrastructure
                                           Government and                                          Asset Management
                                           Regional Planning                                          Corporation

                                            Deputy Director                                            Transport
                                               for State                                              Operations
                                               Planning                                               Corporation

                                             Deputy Director
                                            for Development
                                              and Delivery

TRANSPORT AND                                                                                        OFFICE OF THE COORDINATOR
INFRASTRUCTURE                                                                                       GENERAL (INFRASTRUCTURE NSW)
The ACEA supports the concept of one               Therefore, in addition to the Department of       This office provides government with the
body that is responsible for the policy,           Transport and Infrastructure there should be:     ability to coordinate across all infrastructure
planning, safety and funding of transport              A Transport Infrastructure Procurement        programs and all agencies. The ACEA
infrastructure management, development,                Corporation that is responsible for the       supports this role reporting directly to the
maintenance and operation across all                   delivery of all transport capital works       Premier with similar legislative support
modes, see Figure 4. A funding and                     over $50M;                                    and powers used for the Nation Building
finance model should be developed                      A Transport Infrastructure Asset              Economic Stimulus Plan.
(see Chapter 4 Funding, page 12) for                   Management Corporation that is                It is recommended that ‘Infrastructure NSW’
the Department of Transport and                        responsible for the management,               be established and have an Independent
Infrastructure (DTI) with all funds then               maintenance and minor improvement,            Advisory Council (similar to Infrastructure
hypothecated to the transport task through             (<$50m) of all transport assets;              Australia) set up to support and advise
published five year rolling programs.                  road, rail, port etc. All current             the Coordinator General and provide
All other bodies that are established as               direct delivery of maintenance and            independent advice to the Premier. This
separate entities should be operational; their         minor improvements should be                  preeminent group of individuals will review
services should be measured, benchmarked               considered for market testing; and            all of the state’s infrastructure programs and
and reported by the DTI and market tested              A Transport Operations Corporation            ensure alignment and provide independent
where appropriate.                                     that is responsible for the running           governance and oversight to the process of
                                                       of all rail, road, port, bus and ferry        developing infrastructure programs.
                                                       services, including operations and
                                                       ticketing, that are owned and/
                                                       or managed by government. All
                                                       services should be prepared and
                                                       considered for market testing.

                                                                                                                       governance                 21
It is recommended that Infrastructure NSW
and its Council focus on four key roles:
      Overall governance of the process;
      Setting performance objectives for
      agencies like the DTI;
      Provide an independent assessment
      and review role for government and
      treasury of all state capital programs;
      Lead delivery and coordination of one
      off special programs such as the Federal                                                               4          3
      Government’s stimulus package for
      Education and Housing.                                                                        5
Over time Infrastructure NSW could take
on a delivery role for major capital works
across government and incorporate
other delivery agencies such as Health
Infrastructure. This would be on the basis
on providing consistency of approach
                                                                      MAP 1
and the development and retention of
procurement knowledge and expertise
within Government.                                      GREATER NEWCASTLE
                                                         REGIONAL COUNCIL                         Lake Macquarie                   1
LOCAL COUNCIL REFORM                                        TO INCLUDE THE
                                                              COUNCILS OF:
The ACEA proposes the formation                                                                      Newcastle                     2
of strong, efficient regional local
governments to manage the greater
urban area, delivering services at a lower                                                         Port Stephens                   3
net cost to the community. This would
require all existing Local Councils to                                                                  Maitland                   4
be abolished and their services in the
identified region being amalgamated
into the new regional governments.
                                                                                                        Cessnock                   5

This proposal would include:
    A Greater Newcastle Regional Council of
    over 500,000 residents with control of all
    the areas of major development in the
    Lower Hunter from Cessnock, Maitland,
    Port Stephens and Newcastle through          Regional local government would enable:        maintain the local focus by electing
    to Lake Macquarie, see Map 1;                   well resourced engineering                  up to 30 Councillors (proportionally)
    A Central Coast Regional Council with           departments with the ability to manage,     to represent their communities.
    over 300,000 residents and control of           develop and maintain council’s assets       Regional local government should have
    the growth areas of Gosford and Wyong,          and drive efficiencies in the delivery of   a strong planning focus with a Regional
    see Map 2;                                      all local services;                         Planning Committee that will include a
    An Illawarra Regional Council with              well resourced planning departments to      senior planning professional from the state
    approximately 300,000 residents and             have stronger links to the state agencies   department and one independent as voting
    control of Wollongong and the growth            and industry; and                           members. Any member will have the ability
    areas of Shellharbour and Kiama,                efficient management of council’s           to refer a decision to the state department
    see Map 3; and                                  social, revenue, and financial functions.   for review.
    A maximum of eleven (11) regional            The ACEA believes that overall there           Regional local government will have local
    councils for Sydney that would include       would be an expected 20 percent                planning committees that will involve ward
    a City of Sydney with at least 500,000       savings in administration costs as a           councillors and council’s own professional
    residents, a City of Northern Sydney that    result of amalgamation. Such savings           staff to deal efficiently with local minor
    would include approximately 500,000          would fund services and much                   development matters. Any member of that
    residents and a City of Parramatta that      needed asset maintenance. Regional             committee can refer/appeal a matter to the
    would include at least 500,000 residents,    local government would allow the               Regional Committee for decision. Regional
    see Map 4 (page 24).                         rationalisation of Council assets and the      councils will review all ‘services’ currently
                                                 release of capital for re-investment in        delivered by council’s own workforce and
                                                 line with community expectations.              look to market test those services. They will
                                                 Regional local government would                also publish a service charter that will be
                                                 also facilitate local representation           measured and reported to the state agency
                                                 and would mean a smaller number of             and the community.
                                                 Councillors than at present, but it should

22      Sydney Towards Tomorrow


                                       THE ACEA BELIEVES
                                       THAT OVERALL
                                       THERE WOULD
       MAP 2
                                       BE AN EXPECTED
                                       20 PERCENT SAVINGS
     COUNCILS OF:                      COSTS AS A RESULT
                      Wyong        2
                                       OF AMALGAMATION.
                                       SUCH SAVINGS
                                       WOULD FUND
                                       SERVICES AND MUCH
                                       NEEDED ASSET
                                       REGIONAL LOCAL


                                       WOULD ALLOW THE
                                       OF COUNCIL ASSETS
                                       AND THE RELEASE
                                       OF CAPITAL FOR
                                       IN LINE WITH
       MAP 3                           EXPECTATIONS.
REGIONAL COUNCIL       Kiama       1
                    Shellharbour   2

                    Wollongong     3

                                             governance   23





                                                     7                1


      MAP 4
     11 REGIONAL
                       City of Sydney, Randwick,
     FOR SYDNEY    Botany Bay, Marrickville, Ashfield,   1
                    Leichhardt, Woollahra, Waverly                            Reform of governance in NSW is overdue
                                                                              and the government’s decision to focus
                        North Sydney, Mosman,                                 on thirteen super agencies is welcomed.
                    Lane Cove, Willoughby, Manly,        2                    However, there will be no reform without
                   Ku-ring-gai, Warringah, Pittwater
                                                                              radical change to the management of
                                                                              government and the use of the private
                        Burwood, Strathfield,                                 sector in support where appropriate.
                    Canada Bay, Ryde, Parramatta,        3
                          Holroyd, Auburn                                     The ACEA recommends that leadership on
                                                                              this issue is required from the Department
                       Bankstown, Canterbury,                                 of Premier and Cabinet in the NSW
                        Rockdale, Hurtsville,            4                    Government as a matter of urgency.

                              Sutherland                 5                    TIMETABLE
                                                                              The ACEA recommends that complete
                                                                              reform of the State Planning, Local
                      Campbelltown & Camden              6
                                                                              Government, Transport and Infrastructure
                                                                              agencies in line with Sydney Towards
                         Liverpool & Fairfield           7                    Tomorrow proceed in 2010 with new
                                                                              plans for NSW published in 2011, in time
                              Blacktown                  8                    for the 2011/12 financial year. It is then
                                                                              proposed that reform/amalgamation
                                                                              of Local Government itself occur in the
                        Penrith & Hawkesbury             9
                                                                              conurbation of Newcastle, Sydney and
                                                                              Wollongong by the end of 2011/12 in
                          The Hills & Hornsby            10                   order to begin the new financial year
                                                                              (2012/13) as Regional Governments.
                            Blue Mountains               11

24   Sydney Towards Tomorrow
                                                                                          The ACEA would like to thank the following
                                                                                          individuals and their respective firms for
                                                                                          their generous contributions to Sydney
                                                                                          Towards Tomorrow;

                                                                                            Tom Pinzone (Chair),
                                                                                            GHD Pty Ltd
ABOUT THE ACEA                               THE ACEA                                       Stephen Barrett,
                                                                                            Golder Associates Pty Ltd
The Association of Consulting Engineers
Australia (ACEA) is an industry body
                                             INFRASTRUCTURE                                 Erin Cini,
representing the business interests of
firms providing engineering, technology
                                             ROUNDTABLE                                     Kellogg Brown & Root Pty Ltd
                                                                                            Roger Collins-Woolcock,
                                             The ACEA Infrastructure Roundtable             Cardno (NSW) Pty Ltd
and management consultancy services.
                                             (the Roundtable) was established               Paul Davis,
There are over 270 firms, from large         in early 2009 to provide a member              Hyder Consulting Pty Ltd
multidisciplinary corporations to small      forum to discuss and exchange
                                                                                            Patrick Fernandez,
niche practices, across a range of           views on the future sustainable
engineering fields represented by the ACEA   development of economic and
                                                                                            Luke Fisher,
with a total of over 45,000 employees.       social infrastructure in Australia.
                                                                                            Kellogg Brown & Root Pty Ltd
The ACEA presents a unified voice for        The Roundtable aims to promote                 Jill Hannaford,
the industry and supports the profession     the sustainable development of                 GHD Pty Ltd
by upholding a professional code of          infrastructure (whether it’s upgraded,         Geoff Hardy,
ethics and enhancing the commercial          expanded or new) which improves                The Peron Group
environment in which firms operate           Australia’s national economic productivity
                                                                                            Colin Heath,
through strong representation and            and international competiveness,
                                                                                            Kellogg Brown & Root Pty Ltd
influential lobbying activities. The ACEA    develops our cities and regions, and
                                                                                            Colin Henson,
also supports members in all aspects of      increases our standards of living.
                                                                                            Arup Pty Ltd
their business including risk management,
                                             The Roundtable seeks to actively               David Kinniburgh,
contractual issues, professional indemnity
                                             engage with all levels of government,          GHD Pty Ltd
insurance, occupational health and
                                             industry and the community and to              Peter Prince,
safety, procurement practices, workplace/
                                             become a trusted advisor and provider          Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd
industrial relations, client relations,
                                             of professional engineering knowledge,
marketing, education, sustainability and                                                    Dan Reeve,
                                             industry leadership and valuable
business development.                                                                       SMEC Australia Pty Ltd
                                             qualified insight towards the future
                                                                                            Ed Rogers,
                                             development of national infrastructure
                                                                                            AECOM Australia Pty Ltd
                                             policy, planning and regulation.
                                                                                            Sebastian Smyth,
                                             The ACEA Infrastructure Roundtable             GHD Pty Ltd
                                             membership encompasses a range of              Ross Speers,
                                             senior consulting engineering industry         Opus International Consultants (PCA) Ltd
                                             leaders who are key members of
                                                                                            David Stuart-Watts ,
                                             national and international professional
                                                                                            Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Ltd
                                             service delivery organisations.
                                                                                            Bruce Tanner,
                                                                                            Arup Pty Ltd
                                                                                            Peter Tonkin,
                                                                                            GHD Pty Ltd
                                                                                            Colin Tull,
                                                                                            Hatch Associates Pty Ltd

                                                                                          Sydney Towards Tomorrow is published
                                                                                          by the ACEA. It represents collective
                                                                                          viewpoints for consideration by
                                                                                          governments and industry stakeholders.
                                                                                          The information contained herein
                                                                                          does not necessarily represent the
                                                                                          views of individual contributors
                                                                                          or their respective firms.
 Level 6, 50 Clarence Street,
Sydney NSW 2000, Australia
      P: 02 9922 4711
      F: 02 9957 2484

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