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Detection of Energetic Particles in Pinch Plasma

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Detection of Energetic Particles in Pinch Plasma Powered By Docstoc
					      Detection of Energetic Particles in
                Pinch Plasma
                       P. Kubes, J. Kravarik, D. Klir, P. Barvir,
                               Czech Technical University
 M. Scholz, M. Paduch, K. Tomaszewski, I. Ivanova-Stanik, L. Karpinski, H. Schmidt
                                 IPPLM Warsaw, Poland
M. J. Sadowski, L. Jakubowski, A. Banaszak, E. Skladnik-Sadowska, K. Malinowski, A.
                                      Szydlowski,
              Soltan Institute of Nuclear Studies, Otwock- Swierk, Poland
           V. Korolev, A. Chernenko, Yu. Baksheev, P. Blinov, G.Ustroev,
 M.A.Karakin, E.Yu.Khautiev, V.I.Krauz, A.N.Mokeev, V.V.Myalton, V.V.Vinogradov
                  RRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Nuclear Fusion Institute
                       V.Ya.Nikulin, A.V.Oginov, I.V.Volobuev
                    Lebedev Phisical Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia
                      Contents


•   introduction
•   PF-1000 in IPPLM Warsaw
•   S-300 in KI Moscow
•   PF-3 in KI Moscow
•   conclusions
                            Introduction

     energy ditribution of particles in pinch –
•   Planckian, temperature 40-50 eV
•   hot spots temperature (200 eV-keV) a few %
•   fast electrons, fast ions, hard x-rays ( energy above100 keV), 10-6
    aim of discharges with deuterium – study of:
•   neutron production from D-D reaction (2.45 MeV) - energy
    distribution and isotropy
•   hard x-rays, fast electrons and deuterons emission ( above100 keV),
•   process of generation of high energy particles and radiation
•   thermonuclear / beam-target mechanism of generation
    aim of discharges with fibers and wires –
•   active diagnostics of the plasma at the axis of the pinch
•   dense and cold plasma inside the fiber corona slowing down energy
    transformations and instability development
•   effective sources of intense K-shell of x-rays
•   influence on the neutron yield
        PF-1000 IPPLM Warsaw
•   1.5-2 MA, 5-10 µs, electrodes l = 60 cm, Φ = 30,40 cm
•   load - current sheath (H, D) + Al, CD2 fiber 100 µm
    P                PF-1000 scheme of diagnostics
    F            PIN Diode
                                     X-ray Framing Camera
                                            MCP 1
                                                     PF1000
          Experimental                             Collectors
             Chamber
                Outer
   Optical  Electrode                                     Optical
Streak Camera                                         Framing Camera
               Inner
           Electrode


                                                        Probe dI/dt
         Mica 2D
         Spectrograph
                                         X-ray Framing Camera
                                                MCP 2
                    2 Scintilators Ne102a
                2 Cherenkov detectors
                           and
                    Cherenkov Detector          hard x-rays and neutron scintillators
                                              downstream 7 m
                                              upstream 7 m, 41 m
      3 silver activated counters             side-on 7 m
    PF-1000, D current sheath, correlation of neutrons with X-rays [5]
    visible frames                                                  shots No. 4197 and 4165



        P
        F
        -
   -40 ns
        1            -20 ns           0 ns                              40 ns                     140 ns                     220 ns

        0                                                 12


        0                                                                                                           soft x
        0                                                      8
                                                                                                                    hard x
 neutron yield 1010-1011


                                             arbitrary units
        ,                                                                                                           electron beams -z
 Wupstrem ~ 2.7 MeV (2.8 MeV)                                  4

 decrease of –z electros & increase of                                                                              electron beams r
neutronsD                                                      0                                                    neutrons
 time delay of maximum of neutrons and                                                                              dI/dt
x-rays - 40-60 ns
         c                                                     -4

 correlation of neutrons with dense, cold                       -200     -100    0          100      200      300

         u
and magnetized plasma
                                                                                       ns


         r
         r
         e                                                                      0 ns                       40 ns                  130 ns

         n                                                                                         XUV frames
         t
                               PF-1000 Al wire Φ 120 µm, D2 current sheath [2]




                                                                                         Anode
                                                                            dI/dt
                                                                                                                                               A

                                                                            PIN




                                                                                                                                                   8 cm
arbitrary units




                                                                          soft X




                                                                                          Anode
                                                                          hard X                                                               B

                                                                                                                                                                1 µs
                                                                                o
                                                                   neutrons 180

             1,0   1,1   1,2   1,3   1,4     1,5       1,6   1,7    1,8   1,9     2,0
                                                                                                   5 cm
                                                                                                                                                          visible streak
                                           time [µs]
                                                                                        time integrated obscura
                                     oscillograms                                                    2
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                                                                                                                           C
forming of long-living wire corona
pulse of keV x-rays from the corona surface
Al K-shell lines Te∼150 eV, ne~1026 m-3
neutron yield 1010-1011
wire has not important influence on neutron production
maximum of neutrons ∼ 50 ns after hard x-rays


                                                                                                                                                          Al K-shell lines
                                       PF-1000, 2 MA
          (CD2)n fibre Φ 100 µm, 7 cm length, D current-sheath 400 Pa [4]
                                                                                            with fibre
                            anode                       120 ns                                 a

                                                                          anode
 8 cm




                                                                                  10 cm            soft x-ray
                                                                                                    obscure
             1 µs
                                       5 cm                                                    b

        visible streak              visible frame                                            without fibre

                                                             130 ns
                                                   A           C

                                              110 ns             220 ns




depress of neutron yield (D) 1 order
                                                                 240 ns
depress of soft x-rays
                                                       XUV frames
*effective cooling of the current-sheath
by the deuterium evaporated from the fiber
                                                                                   visible spectrum
Russian Research Center, Kurchatow Institute Moscow
             S-300, 8 moduls , 3 MA, 100 ns
                            S-300 scheme of facility and diagnostics
                                        3 MA, 100 ns

                                                                                                                                                    Schlieren System

                     water           16 water
                     forming lines   switches                                                                                             3                  2   Camera-Obscura
                                                           hard X h
                                                                  +netrons                                                                                            Set
                     37.5 kJx16
                     3MV, 2.4 Ohm                                                                                                                                  Vizual-Frame
                                                                                                                                                                      Camera
                                                  MITL                                                                                          X-ray
   8 gas switches                                 system                                                                      4               Spectrograph         1
                                                      11 chan. XUV                                                                                                            +
water intermediate
storage system                                  triplet         R   i
                                                                    a
                                                                    d
                                                                        4
                                                                        4




                                                                        5
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85 kJx8, 3.5MV                                  transformation                                                                5
                                                water lines
                                                                                                                                                                   8
                                                system
                                                300kJ, 1.3MV Radial
                                                                                                                                          6               7         X-Frame
                                                                                                                              Axial                                 Camera
                                                                                                                            X +neutrons
                                                                                                                       hardPIN Diode
                                                                                                                                                                  8 Modules
                                                                                                                                                    Laser Beam
     Marx
115kJx8, 3.4MV                                      indium- activated counter
   8 oil tanks
                                                                                                                                                   wire          Electrodes
      S-300, RRC KI Moscow, 2 MA
Al, W wire arrays (1x1 cm) + (CD2)n fibre Φ 100 µm
                            S-300, W wire array (30 wires, Φ 7 µm) + (CD2)n fiber Φ 120 µm
                                                   neutron yield 108
                  10
                   8
                   6                                            current
                   4
arbitrary units




                   2
                                               hard x + neutrons                      i0
                                                                                      U
                   0                                                                  180 eV
                                                                                      nd2
                   -2
                   -4
                            voltage         XUV 180 eV
                   -6
                   -8
                  -10
                                                                                                   streak
                        0     100     200      300        400    500      600   700
                                                     ns


                                            waveforms




                             180 ns                             220 ns
                                            shadows                                            0   mylar 5 µm mylar 12 µm
                                                                                                    obscure
                                   S-300, Al wire + (CD2)n fiber, shot 030530-1
                                               neutron yield 4x107
                                   2,5


                                                                                     detector B 7,40 m
                                                                                     detector A 2,75 m
                 arbitrary units   2,0                  2




                                   1,5        1


second X-rays                                                                 neutrons 2.75 m
                                   1,0
                                                             third X-rays
                                                                          A     neutrons 7.45 m
                                   0,5
                                                              3
first X-rays                                                                                 B



                                   -0,1
                                          0       100       200     300        400         500           600
                                                                    ns




        Results: generation of neutrons at implosion of the Al wire onto the CD2 fiber
    S-300, Al, W wire array + (CD2)n fiber - results

neutron yield 108
time delay of maximum of neutrons after hard x-rays 10 ns?
a few sources of hard x and neutrons
anisotropy of neutrons – random direction
hot and cold structures in the pinch
acceleration of fast deuterons in dense plasma axis locality
 surrounded by heavy ions
no evidence of self-generated magnetic Bz field
Russian Research Center, Kurchatow Institute Moscow
                 PF-3, 3 MA, 15-20 µs




                     Anode units
                              PF-3, 3 MA
(CD2)n fibre Φ 100 µm, 7 cm length, Ne, Ar current-sheath 400 Pa



 A                    cathode                             C




                      anode
          1m


               . A: Design of the experimental
  B         chamber of PF-3: 1- loading unit, 2 –
             anode, 3 – insulator, 4 – diagnostic
            ports, N1 and N2 – activation neutron
                          detectors
             B: Design of the anode central part
                        and CD2 fibre
                                                    Design of the target with CD2 fibre
                                                         PF-1000, 2 MA
       (CD2)n fibre Φ 100 µm, 7 cm length, Ne current-sheath 400 Pa

                                 Example of shots without neutron yield

Shot# 18, 3 torr Ne
                                   Laser         SXR filter - Ag (0.5 microns)
                      45
                      40
                      35
                      30
                      25
                      20
                      15
                      10
                      5
                      0
                      -5
                           1.6     1.7     1.8         1.9           2.0   T (µs) 2.1


                             oscillogram: x-rays, laser                                   laser record   x-ray pinhole record
                                                                                                              17 µm Be
Shot# 22, 3 torr Ne




                                                                                        visible frames
                visible streak
                                                               Example of shots with neutron yield


     Shot# 50, 3 torr Ar.                           Ny = 6.5⋅106 ±50%                      Shot# 26, 3 torr Ar                                           Ny = 6⋅106 ±50%

                                                                                     4                                              28
                      Laser synchronization pulse                                                                                                                             Laser synchronization pulse
                                                                                     3                                              21                                        HXR (SPPD) filter - Cu (300 microns)
                      HXR (SPPD) filter - Cu (300 microns)                                                                                                   25
                                                                                     2                                              14
      4                                                                                                                                                      20
                                                                                     1                                              7




                                                                                                                                          dI/dt (a.u.)
                                                                                                                                                             15




                                                                            I (MA)
      3                                                                              0                                              0
                                                                                                                                                             10
                                                                                          -5   0   5   10   15   20   25       30
                                                                                     -1                                    t (µs) -7
                                                                                                                                                              5
      2                                                                              -2                                             -14                       0

                                                                                     -3                                             -21                      -5
      1                                                                                                                                                           1.5   1.7           1.9           2.1          2.3   T (µs) 2.5
                                                                                     -4                                             -28


      0
                                                                                      oscillogram: current,                                                 oscillogram: x-rays, laser
     -1                                                                                current derivative
          1.4   1.6           1.8           2.0          2.2   T (µs) 2.4
                                                                                                                                                                                       laser record
                        oscillogram: x-rays, laser




                                                                                           visible frames

x-ray pinhole record                                laser record                                                 x-ray pinhole record                                                              visible streak
     17 µm Be                                                                                                         17 µm Be
                             Conclusions
                        Experimental results
PF –
        time delay between x-rays and neutrons
        production of neutrons at the Al wire in the axis
        depression of neutrons at the CD2 fiber in the axis
        production of neutrons from CD2 in Ar current sheath
        acceleration of fast particles in non-axis locality
       correlation of neutrons with dense and cold plasma at
            instability development
        important role of self-generated Bz field
        beam-target mechanism of neutron production

Z-pinch –
     production of neutrons from the fiber in the axis
     acceleration of fast deuterons in dense plasma axis locality
          surrounded by plasma of wire array
    time delay of neutrons after x-rays
    presents of cold and hot localities in the pinch
    beam-target mechanism of neutron production
   Table of neutron yield at the different devices (D-D)
device                record shot         load         plan

JET                   1014           gas 1020 m-3
ITER                                 gas 1020 m-3      1016 (2010)
W-7                                  gas 1020 m-3      1012 (2010)
Z-device    (18 MA)   1013           gas 1026 m-3

Angara 5     (3 MA)   1012           gas 1025 m-3

PF-1000 (1.5 MA)      2.1011         gas 1024 m-3

S-300      (1.5 MA)   108      solid (CD2)n 1025 m-3

OMEGA                 2.1011          cryogenic

PALS                                 solid (CD2)n      ? (2005)
Compas                               gas 1020 m-3      ?
Thank you for attention

				
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