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DTU Danmarks Tekniske Universitet plasticizer

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 21

									         Evaluating Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Micropollutants
                                               Quebec City, Canada, 6 October 2009


   Dynamic Transport and Fate Models
                for Micro-pollutants in
Integrated Urban Wastewater Systems
                                         L. Benedetti1, L. Vezzaro2, V. Gevaert1,
                        W. De Keyser1, F. Verdonck1,3, B. De Baets4, I. Nopens1,
                                        P.A. Vanrolleghem5 and P.S. Mikkelsen2

 BIOMATH, Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Ghent University 1
                                           DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark 2
                                                                     EURAS, Ghent, Belgium 3
   KERMIT, Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Ghent University 4
                                                 modelEAU, Université Laval, Quebec, Canada 5




                                                                     EURAS
Outlook

 IUWS modelling
 MP fate processes
 Integration
 Inputs
 Example
                 An                        No of ...
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Substance
                    M a Le H
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                   Tr ic
                     ifl ke
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                             i
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                       PB Ps
                       PeDE
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                              E
                                                                                                                    Number of sources (emission strings) for each MP
                                                                Environmental data is limited and of poor quality
                                                                Data for treatment efficiency is even more sparse
But we have data for inherent properties of MPs

    Chemical IDs; CAS#, EINECS,            Lipid solubility of neutral
     Merck #                                 species (log KOW)
    Molecular formula                      Lipid solubility of ionized
    Physical appearance                     species (log DOW)
    Density (n), g/mL                      Vapour pressure, mm Hg
    Molecular weight (Mw),                 Acid dissociation constant
     g/mole                                  (pKa)
    Melting point (Tm), °C                 Henry’s law constant (Kh),
                                             atmm3/mole
    Boiling point (Tb), °C
                                            Diffusion coefficient, m2/d
    Solubility in water (Sw), mg/L

                                      For database, see www.scorepp.eu
Model types

•   Integrated Urban Water System (IUWS) modelling
     •   Evolution so far:
          individual sub-systems modelling               integrated modelling of
            (drainage, WWTP, rivers, …)               the whole urban water system

     •   Extension 1 (EU project ScorePP)
                                                             micropollutants
                “traditional” pollutants
                                                      (flame retardants, pesticides,
                   (COD, P, N, TSS)
                                                       plastic softeners, PAHs, …)

•   Multimedia Fate and Transport Modelling (MFTM)
     •   Micropollutant modelling in multiple interconnected environmental “media”
     •   Less detailed process knowledge but based on chemical’s inherent properties
     •   Extension 2 (EU project ScorePP)
                                                      Combined MFTM and IUWS
           IUWS model with MPs + MFTM
                                                           model for MPs
                                                                                       5
IUWS model with MPs
                                                                                                  SOURCES


              Boundaries of the
                                       RELEASE                                                    Soil / Groundwater
                urban system

                                                                  WWTP

                      Treatment                     Septic tank                Activated sludge

 Fate models           options
technosphere                                                                                                  Air
                                  Stormwater
                                    BMPs                      on-line sludge
                                                                treatment
                                                                                   biofilters

                                                    Physical-chemical treatment



                                      Lagoon/pond
                                                                                                  Sludge

                                  SURFACE WATER                                                 Sediments

Fate models                                                                                     Water
environment
                                                                                                        Air
 Wrapping MFTM around IUWS models

                                                                               River basin

Release                                                                          Volatilization
                                    Deposition

                                                              Urban releases     Urban
               Atmosphere                                                      catchment
                                                              Sewer systems     (dynamic)

                                                                    Stormwater BMPs
          Agricultural soil                                 WWTP
                                  Runoff
Release




                                                                                   River
                                                 Upstream river    Leaching
                       Leaching
                                                    stretch
                                                                               Groundwater




                                                                                                  7
Dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants

•   Components of the standard IUWS model:
     •   Hydrological catchment runoff and sewer transport model: simplified KOSIM
     •   Activated sludge processes: ASM2d
     •   Settling: 1-D model
     •   River: RWQM1
     •   Stormwater treatment: Universal Stormwater Treatment Model


•   Extensions for organic micropollutants (ScorePP):
     •   Adsorption / desorption                    •   Photolysis
     •   Biodegradation (aerobic / anoxic)          •   Sediment-water exchange
     •   Hydrolysis                                 •   Volatilization
     •   Sedimentation / resuspension



                                                                                     8
MP fate processes




                                                                                                                                       Sludge anaerobic
                                 treatment (water)




                                                                                                                    Sludge thickener
                                                                                     Activated sludge




                                                                                                                                                                          River (sediment)
                                                                  Primary settling




                                                                                                                                                          River (water)
                                    Stormwater



                                                     Stormwater




                                                                                                                                          dewatering
                                                                                                        Secondary
                                                     (sediment)
                                                      treatment
               Unit




                                                                                                                                           digester
                                                                                                         settling




                                                                                                                                            Sludge
                         Sewer




                                                                                           tank
Processes


 Physical processes
    Sedimentation         +            +                              +                                    +            +                                 +
    Resuspension          +                              +                                                                                                                +
     Volatilization       +            +                              +                    +               +            +                 +        +      +
  Physico-chemical
  Sorption-desorption     +            +                 +            +                    +               +            +                 +               +               +
      Hydrolysis          +            +                 +            +                    +               +            +                                 +
      Photolysis                       +                                                   +                                                              +
     Biological
Aerobic biodegradation    +            +                 +            +                    +               +            +                                 +               +
Anoxic biodegradation     +            +                 +            +                    +               +            +                 +               +               +
Multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM)

•   Based on SimpleBox (RIVM, The Netherlands, MS Excel®)

•   Level III / IV Mackay-type model (dynamic)

•   No fugacity (the pollutant’s mass is the main state variable)

•   Automatic estimation of unknown parameters
    (relations based on physical-chemical properties)

•   Implemented media: soil, water, sediment, air

•   Added: simple groundwater compartment




                                                                    10
Modelling and simulation platform

•   Options for IUWS model and MFTM integration
     •   Interfacing different stand-alone models (software, e.g. Open MI)
     •   Implementing both models in the same software


•   WEST® (MOSTforWATER, Belgium)
     •   IUWS model for organic micropollutants already available (ScorePP)
     •   MFTM was implemented in WEST®
           •   Easy interfacing (bidirectional linking) with integrated model
           •   Very flexible (compartments / processes)
                 ( existing hard-coded multimedia model tools)
           •   Steady state and dynamic simulations possible
           •   Also usable as stand-alone multimedia model



                                                                                11
Dynamic input generation to KOSIM



DATABASE
                     Input generation tool


      Yearly loads
                                             Dynamics




                                                   IUWS MODEL
Daily pattern
 Total pattern: [02,03,03]                             Weekly pattern                                            Yearly pattern
  Total parameter set: [[7,20],[0.70,0.70],[[34,35,36],0.30]]

  Daily pattern n° 02:                             Weekly pattern n° 03:                                        Yearly pattern n° 03:
  “Continuous release during                       “Release on every day of the week.                           “Release every week of the year.
  daytime.”                                        Decreased release during the weekend.”                       Decreased release during holidays.”

  Parameters:                                      Parameters:                                                  Parameters:
     StartHour = 7                                    RatioSaturdayWorkday = 0.70                                  HolidayWeeks = 34, 35, 36
     EndHour = 20                                     RatioSundayWorkday = 0.70                                    RatioHolidayNonholiday = 0.30


       1                                                          1                                                 1




       0                                                      0                                                     0
           0           6     12         18   24                       1    2   3       4    5      6   7                31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

                            Hours                                                      Days                                       Weeks




                    1


                   0
                        1           2         3        4              5            6             7
                                                           Days




               1



               0
                   31                   32        33                      34                35             36      37            38           39
                                                                                           Weeks
The UWREM2000
problem area/model
   Simplification of real
    catchment in Copenhagen
   Many years of work behind
    the simplifications (of data
    AND model)
   Used extensively in
    e-Learning course at DTU
    with free simulation tool for
    download (no MP+MFTM)
Layout of the integrated environmental model (IUWS+MFTM)


                                                                                             Air


                                                               Rain



                  Rural                     Urban                           Urban                        Urban
                catchment                catchment A                     catchment B                  catchment C




                                                         Sewer A                         Sewer B                        Sewer C         WWTP




                                                                                                         Overflow C
                                          Overflow A




                                                                          Overflow B
      Water                                                                                                                                                        Water
     upstream          River stretch 1                 River stretch 2                 River stretch 3                River stretch 4          River stretch 5   downstream



     Sediment           Sediment 1                      Sediment 2                      Sediment 3                     Sediment 4               Sediment 5        Sediment



                                                                                             Soil



                                                                                        Groundwater




                                                                                                                                                                         15
Example: micropollutant DEHP

•   Endocrine disruptor, probable effects on (male) fertility

•   Uses:
     •   Plasticizer in manufacturing of PVC articles                  Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

     •   Hydraulic and dielectric fluid

•   Produced and used in large quantities (595.000 tons/year in EU)

•   Properties:
     •   Low vapor pressure
     •   Low water solubility
     •   Degradability: mainly photolysis and aerobic biodegradation




                                                                                           16
      Example: scenario: decoupling stormwater (infiltration pond)

                                 2
            Rain
                               1.5
            [mm/5min]
                                 1

                               0.5

                                 0
                                  10    20   30   40   50              60   70   80   90   100

                                0.1
           River stretch 5
                              0.08
           [µg/L]
                              0.06


                              0.04
                                  10    20   30   40   50              60   70   80   90   100


                               300
        Infiltration pond
            Groundwater        250
              (ug/kg
        soil[µg/L] solids)   0.0165
                               200
                               150
                             0.0164
                               100
                                 50
                             0.0163
                                  0
                                  10
                                   10   20
                                        20   30
                                             30   40
                                                  40   50
                                                       50              60
                                                                       60   70
                                                                            70   80
                                                                                 80   90
                                                                                      90   100
                                                                                           100

                              4.455
           Air
           [ng/m³]             4.45


                              4.445


                               4.44
Combined sewer system            10     20   30   40   50              60   70   80   90   100
Stormwater to infiltration ponds                            time [d]


                                                                                           17
Conclusions & future challenges

•   Coupling a multimedia model to an integrated urban water quality model
     •   Is a (relatively) small effort
     •   Provides boundary conditions to the IUWS model
     •   Allows the IUWS model to provide emission data to the multimedia model
     •   Allows integrated environmental assessment:
           •   holistic view on micropollutant fate and distribution
           •   impact of urban pollution control actions on other environmental compartments

•   Definition and simulation of scenarios
     •   Different MPs
     •   Different control options (end-of-pipe vs. at-source)
     •   Emission control strategies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive




                                                                                        18
Conclusions & future challenges

•   Coupling a multimedia model to an integrated urban water quality model
     •   Is a (relatively) small effort
     •   Provides boundary conditions to the IUWS model
     •   Allows the IUWS model to provide emission data to the multimedia model
     •   Allows integrated environmental assessment:
           •   holistic view on micropollutant fate and distribution
           •   impact of urban pollution control actions on other environmental compartments

•   Definition and simulation of scenarios

•   Calibration and uncertainty analysis
     •   on the inputs (urban sources of micropollutants)
     •   on the IUWS model for micropollutants
     •   on the combined MFTM+IUWS model


                                                                                        19
Conclusions & future challenges

•   Coupling a multimedia model to an integrated urban water quality model
     •   Is a (relatively) small effort
     •   Provides boundary conditions to the IUWS model
     •   Allows the IUWS model to provide emission data to the multimedia model
     •   Allows integrated environmental assessment:
           •   holistic view on micropollutant fate and distribution
           •   impact of urban pollution control actions on other environmental compartments

•   Definition and simulation of scenarios

•   Calibration and uncertainty analysis




                                                                                        20
Source Control Options for
Reducing Emission of Priority
Pollutants from Urban Areas
Project Coordinator: Peter Steen Mikkelsen
DTU Environment, Dept. of Environ. Engineering
Technical University of Denmark
psm@env.dtu.dk

                                                        www.scorepp.eu
Thanks to many other colleagues from:
 Middlesex University, UK
 Gent University, Belgium
 Anjou Recherce, France
 ENVICAT Consulting, Belgium
 University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
 ESTUDIS, Spain
 Environmental Monitoring, Stockholm City, Sweden
 modelEAU, Canada
                                      and to the European Commission:

								
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