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MarineBiome Powered By Docstoc
					  Characteristics of the Marine
• cover 71% of the Earth’s
• Some places of the ocean
  floor are deeper than Mt.
  Everest is high.
• 96.5% of the ocean is pure
• 3.5% is dissolved compounds
  that typically runoff from rivers
  or rainwater.
    Factors Effecting the
 Composition of Marine Waters
• Air
  – The levels of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide
    (CO2) in the water are greatly effected by the air
• Rivers and Runoff from Land
  – add minerals and sediment
• Disasters
  – Hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones weather and
    erode the coastal regions washing sediments into
    the ocean
  – Human activities
       Components of the Marine
• Abiotic (nonliving)
   – Water
   – Sunlight/darkness
   – Minerals
   – Dissolved gases
• Biotic (living)
   – Producers
   – Consumers
   – Decomposers
Levels of Light
 in the Ocean

                                               Aphotic Zone
• Photic zone
  – Light fills the water at
    this level
• Twilight zone
  – Transition zone
    between light and
    absolute darkness
• Aphotic zone
                               (Click image)

  – Depths where no
    sunlight exists
• True or False:
  – Mt. Everest is taller than the ocean is deep.

• Name at least two factors that effect the
  composition of the oceans waters.

• What are the major layers of the ocean
  based upon?
        Obtaining Energy in the
            Marine Biome
• Autotrophs- phytoplankton
  and plants capture energy
  from the sun
• Chemotrophs- some
  Archaebacteria obtain
  energy from the chemicals
  around deep sea vents
• Heterotrophs- consumers
  obtain energy by feeding on
  other living organisms
Producers of the Ocean
• Two types of Producers
  – Photosynthetic
    • Organisms living close enough to the
      surface to obtain energy from the sun
    • Convert carbon dioxide (CO2) into sugars
    • Ex. Phytoplankton, diatoms and kelp

  – Chemosynthetic
    • Organisms living around deep-sea vents
    • Have no light for photosynthesis
    • Convert hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and
      elemental sulfur into organic molecules
    • Ex. Archaebacteria
Photosynthetic vs. Chemosynthetic
Primary Consumers
• Eat the producers -
  – Sea urchins – eat kelp
  – Sea butterflies – feed on
  – Parrot fish – eat algae
Secondary Consumers
• Eat the primary consumers –
  carnivores or omnivores
  – Jelly fish – eat small fish
  – Clown fish – eat small
  – Sea otters – eat sea urchins
• Eat the secondary
  – Polar bears – eat
    seals, walrus, and
    beluga whales
  – Great White sharks –
    eat dolphins, sharks,
    whales, sea lions, sea
    turtles and sea birds
  – Bull sharks – eat
    dolphins, rays, sea
    turtles and sea birds
• Filter Feeders – remove dead
  materials floating in the water
   – Ex. Tube worms and anemones
• Bottom Feeders – break down
  dead materials that has made its
  way to the ocean floor
   – Ex. Sea Cucumbers and Star Fish
     Let’s put this together…
• Based on what you know
  – Draw an example of a food chain in the
    Marine Biome.
  – Give examples of things that would alter your
    food chain.
   Flow of Energy in the Ocean
Sun or Deep Sea Vent


 Primary Consumers

Secondary Consumers

 Tertiary Consumers
Flow of Matter and Energy
      in the Ocean

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