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					 State of Delaware Energy Assurance Plan (SEAP) 2010




Motor Fuel Emergency Contacts
     American Automobile Association                     Association of Oil Pipe Lines
     1000 AAA Drive                                      1101 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Ste. 604
     Heathrow, FL 32746                                  Washington, D.C. 20005
     (407) 444-7000 Fax: (407) 444-7614                  (202) 408-7970/Fax: (202) 408-7983
     Delaware Energy Office                              Delaware Emergency Management Agency (DEMA)
     146 South Governors Ave., Dover, DE 19904           165 Brick Store Landing Road
     (302) 739-1530                                      Smyrna, DE 19977
     http://www.delaware-energy.com                      302-659-DEMA (3362) or 1-877-SAY DEMA
                                                         FAX 302-659-6853 http://www.state.de.us/dema/

     Delaware Petroleum Council                          Delaware Department of Agriculture
     Gary Paterson, Executive Director                   Weights and Measures Division (Gasoline Station Fuel
     109 South State Street                              Measurements)
     Dover, DE 19901-7317                                Administrator, Steve Connors (302) 698-4601
     (302) 734-7455                                      2320 South DuPont Highway
                                                         Dover, DE 19901
                                                         http://www.state.de.us/deptagri
     Mid-Atlantic Petroleum Distributors Association     National Petroleum Council
     Contact: Peter Horrigan                             1625 K Street, NW Ste 600
     1517 Ritchie Highway, Suite 206, Arnold, MD 21012   Washington, D.C. 20006
     Phone: 410-349-0808 Fax: 410-349-8510 E-mail:       (202) 393-6100/Fax: (202) 331-8539
     petegwyn@aol.com                                    www.npc.org
     National Petroleum & Refiners Association           Petroleum Marketers Assoc. of America (PMAA)
     1899 L Street, NW Ste 1000                          Dan Gilligan, CAE
     Washington, D.C. 20036                              1901 N Fort Myer Drive, Suite 1200
     (202) 457-0480/Fax: (202) 457-0486                  Arlington, VA 22209-1604
     www.npradc.org                                      Office: (703) 351-8000 FAX: (703) 351-9160
                                                         dgilligan@pmaa.org
     Petroleum Transportation & Storage Assoc. (PTSA)    Delaware Energy Emergency Contact List
     Mark S. Morgan, ESQ
     4200 Wisconsin Ave NW, Suite 106                    http://www.delaware.gov/
     Washington, DC 20016
     Office: (202) 364-6767 FAX: (202) 966-4560
     ptsa@erols.com



AAA                                                       Washington, D.C. 20006
1000 AAA Drive                                            (202) 393-6100/Fax: (202) 331-8539
Heathrow, FL 32746                                        www.npc.org
(407) 444-7000/Fax: (407) 444-7614
                                                          National Petroleum & Refiners Association
American Gas Association                                  1899 L Street, NW Ste 1000
400 North Capital St., NW                                 Washington, D.C. 20036
Washington, D.C. 20001                                    (202) 457-0480/Fax: (202) 457-0486
(202) 824-7000/Fax: (202) 824-7115                        www.npradc.org
www.aga.org
                                                          Petroleum      Marketers     Association     of   America
Association of Oil Pipe Lines                             (PMAA)
1101 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Ste. 604
Washington, D.C. 20005                                    1901 N Fort Myer Drive, Suite 1200
(202) 408-7970/Fax: (202) 408-7983                        Arlington, VA 22209-1604
                                                          Office: (703) 351-8000
Independent Liquid Terminals Association                  FAX: (703) 351-9160
1133 15th St. N.W., Ste. 650                              dgilligan@pmaa.org
Washington, D.C. 20009
(202) 857-4722/Fax: (202) 446-4166                        Petroleum Transportation & Storage Association
www.ilta.org                                              (PTSA)
                                                          4200 Wisconsin Ave NW, Suite 106
National Petroleum Council                                Washington, DC 20016
1625 K Street, NW Ste 600                                 Office: (202) 364-6767


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FAX: (202) 966-4560
ptsa@erols.com

Williams Gas Pipeline
Williams Gas Pipeline
3800 Frederica Street
Owensboro, Kentucky 42301
(270) 926-8686

24-hour Gas Control
(800) 626-1948

Department of Agriculture
Measurement Standards Section

To find out if you or someone you know is eligible for
no-cost weatherization services, call toll-free 1-888-
HEATLINE (1-888-432-8546). Your local service
agency can answer questions about the program and
assist with the application process.




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GLOSSARY                                                      include flue-gas particulate collectors, flue-gas
                                                              desulfurization units and nitrogen oxide control devices.
                                                              Alternative fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation
 Active solar: As an energy source, energy                    applications, include the following:
from the sun collected and stored using                             methanol
mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-
                                                                    denatured ethanol, and other alcohols
laden fluids or air between solar collectors
and a building.                                                     fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by
                                                                     volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other
Actual peak reduction: The actual reduction in annual
                                                                     alcohols with gasoline or other fuels -- natural gas
peak load (measured in kilowatts) achieved by
customers that participate in a utility demand-side                 liquefied petroleum gas (propane)
management (DSM) program. It reflects the changes in                hydrogen
the demand for electricity resulting from a utility DSM             coal-derived liquid fuels
program that is in effect at the same time the utility              fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological
experiences its annual peak load, as opposed to the                  materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel)
installed peak load reduction capability (i.e., potential
                                                                    electricity (including electricity from solar energy.)
peak reduction). It should account for the regular
cycling of energy efficient units during the period of        "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is
annual peak load.                                             substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial
                                                              energy security benefits and substantial environmental
Adjustable speed drives: Drives that save energy by
                                                              benefits." The term "alternative fuel" does not include
ensuring the motor's speed is properly matched to the
                                                              alcohol or other blended portions of primarily petroleum-
load placed on the motor. Terms used to describe this
                                                              based fuels used as oxygenates or extenders, i.e.
category include polyphase motors, motor oversizing,
                                                              MTBE, ETBE, other ethers, and the 10-percent ethanol
and motor rewinding.
                                                              portion of gasohol.
Adjusted electricity: A measurement of electricity that
                                                              Alternative-fuel vehicle (AFV): A vehicle designed to
includes the approximate amount of energy used to
                                                              operate on an alternative fuel (e.g., compressed natural
generate electricity. To approximate the adjusted
                                                              gas, methane blend, electricity). The vehicle could be
amount of electricity, the site-value of the electricity is
                                                              either a dedicated vehicle designed to operate
multiplied by a factor of 3. This conversion factor of 3 is
                                                              exclusively on alternative fuel or a nondedicated vehicle
a rough approximation of the Btu value of raw fuels
                                                              designed to operate on alternative fuel and/or a
used to generate electricity in a steam-generation
                                                              traditional fuel.
power plant.
                                                              Alternative fuel vehicle converter: An organization
Air conditioning: Cooling and dehumidifying the air in
                                                              (including companies, government agencies and
an enclosed space by use of a refrigeration unit
                                                              utilities), or individual that performs conversions
powered by electricity or natural gas. Note: Fans,
                                                              involving alternative fuel vehicles. An AFV converter
blowers, and evaporative cooling systems ("swamp
                                                              can convert (1) conventionally fueled vehicles to AFVs,
coolers") that are not connected to a refrigeration unit
                                                              (2) AFVs to conventionally fueled vehicles, or (3) AFVs
are excluded.
                                                              to use another alternative fuel.
Air conditioning intensity: The ratio of air-conditioning
                                                              Anthracite: The highest rank of coal; used primarily for
consumption or expenditures to square footage of
                                                              residential and commercial space heating. It is a hard,
cooled floor space and cooling degree-days (base 65
                                                              brittle, and black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard
degrees F). This intensity provides a way of comparing
                                                              coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and
different types of housing units and households by
                                                              a low percentage of volatile matter. The moisture
controlling for differences in housing unit size and
                                                              content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than
weather conditions. The square footage of cooled floor
                                                              15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from
space is equal to the product of the total square footage
                                                              22 to 28 million Btu per ton on a moist, mineral-matter-
times the ratio of the number of rooms that could be
                                                              free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal
cooled to the total number of rooms. If the entire
                                                              consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu
housing unit is cooled, the cooled floor-space is the
                                                              per ton, on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both
same as the total floor-space. The ratio is calculated on
                                                              inherent moisture and mineral matter). Note: Since the
a weighted, aggregate basis according to this formula:
                                                              1980's, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used
Air-Conditioning     Intensity     =    Btu     for     Air
                                                              for steam electric power generation. This fuel typically
Conditioning/(Cooled Square Feet * Cooling Degree-
                                                              has a heat content of 15 million Btu per ton or less.
Days)
                                                              Aviation gasoline (finished): A complex mixture of
Air pollution abatement equipment: Equipment used
                                                              relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small
to reduce or eliminate airborne pollutants, including
                                                              quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable
particulate matter (dust, smoke, fly, ash, dirt, etc.),
                                                              for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel
sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide,
                                                              specifications are provided in ASTM Specification D
hydrocarbons, odors, and other pollutants. Examples of
                                                              910 and Military Specification MIL-G-5572. Note: Data
air pollution abatement structures and equipment


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on blending components are not counted in data on            Base load plant: A plant, usually housing high-
finished aviation gasoline.                                  efficiency steam-electric units, which is normally
Aviation gasoline blending components: Naphthas              operated to take all or part of the minimum load of a
that will be used for blending or compounding into           system, and which consequently produces electricity at
finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline,     an essentially constant rate and runs continuously.
alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene).          These units are operated to maximize system
Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and          mechanical and thermal efficiency and minimize system
pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other              operating costs.
hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.                      Base period: The period of time for which data used as
Backup fuel: In a central heat pump system, the fuel         the base of an index number, or other ratio, have been
used in the furnace that takes over the space heating        collected. This period is frequently one of a year but it
when the outdoor temperature drops below that which          may be as short as one day or as long as the average
is feasible to operate a heat pump.                          of a group of years. The length of the base period is
Backup Generator: A generator that is used only for          governed by the nature of the material under review,
test purposes, or in the event of an emergency, such as      the purpose for which the index number (or ratio) is
a shortage of power needed to meet customer load             being compiled, and the desire to use a period as free
requirements.                                                as possible from abnormal influences in order to avoid
                                                             bias.
Backup power: Electric energy supplied by a utility to
replace power and energy lost during an unscheduled          Base rate: A fixed kilowatthour charge for electricity
equipment outage.                                            consumed that is independent of other charges and/or
                                                             adjustments.
Barrel: A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons.
                                                             Baseboard heater: As a type of heating equipment, a
Barrels per Calendar day: The amount of input that a
                                                             system in which either electric resistance coils or finned
distillation facility can process under usual operating      tubes carrying steam or hot water are mounted behind
conditions. The amount is expressed in terms of              shallow panels along baseboards. Baseboards rely on
capacity during a 24-hour period and reduces the             passive convection to distribute heated air in the space.
maximum processing capability of all units at the facility   Electric baseboards are an example of an "Individual
under continuous operation (see Barrels per Stream           Space Heater." (Also see Individual Space Heater.)
Day below) to account for the following limitations that
may delay, interrupt, or slow down production.               bbl: The abbreviation for barrel(s).
1. The capability of downstream processing units to          bbl/d: The abbreviation for barrel(s) per day.
absorb the output of crude oil processing facilities of a    bbl/sd: The abbreviation for barrel(s) per stream day
given refinery. No reduction is necessary for                bcf: The abbreviation for billion cubic feet.
intermediate streams that are distributed to other than      Benzene (C6H6): An aromatic hydrocarbon present in
downstream facilities as part of a refinery's normal         small proportion in some crude oils and made
operation;                                                   commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming
2. The types and grades of inputs to be processed;           of naphthenes in petroleum naphtha. Also made from
3. The types and grades of products expected to be           coal in the manufacture of coke. Used as a solvent in
manufactured;                                                the manufacture of detergents, synthetic fibers,
4. The environmental constraints associated with             petrochemicals, and as a component of high-octane
refinery operations;                                         gasoline.
5. The reduction of capacity for scheduled downtime          Bi-fuel vehicle: A motor vehicle that operates on two
due to such conditions as routine inspection,                different fuels, but not on a mixture of the fuels. Each
maintenance, repairs, and turnaround; and                    fuel is stored in a separate tank.
6. The reduction of capacity for unscheduled downtime        Biodiesel: Any liquid biofuel suitable as a diesel fuel
due to such conditions as mechanical problems,               substitute or diesel fuel additive or extender. Biodiesel
repairs, and slowdowns.                                      fuels are typically made from oils such as soybeans,
                                                             rapeseed, or sunflowers, or from animal tallow.
Barrels per Stream day: The maximum number of
                                                             Biodiesel can also be made from hydrocarbons derived
barrels of input that a distillation facility can process    from agricultural products such as rice hulls.
within a 24-hour period when running at full capacity
under optimal crude and product slate conditions with        Biofuels: Liquid fuels and blending components
no allowance for downtime.                                   produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used
                                                             primarily for transportation.
Base load: The minimum amount of electric power
delivered or required over a given period of time at a       Biomass: Organic nonfossil material of biological origin
steady rate.                                                 constituting a renewable energy source.
Base load capacity: The generating equipment                 Biomass gas: A medium Btu gas containing methane
normally operated to serve loads on an around-the-           and carbon dioxide, resulting from the action of
clock basis.                                                 microorganisms on organic materials such as a landfill.
                                                             Bitumen: A naturally occurring viscous mixture, mainly
                                                             of hydrocarbons heavier than pentane, that may contain

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sulphur compounds and that, in its natural occurring             Fuel Oil No.2              138,690 Btu/gallon
viscous state, is not recoverable at a commercial rate
                                                                 LPG (Propane)              91,330 Btu/gallon
through a well.
                                                                 Wood                       20 million Btu/cord
Bituminous coal: A dense coal, usually black,
sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of          Btu per cubic foot: The total heating value, expressed
bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-      in Btu, produced by the combustion, at constant
electric power generation, with substantial quantities          pressure, of the amount of the gas that would occupy a
also used for heat and power applications in                    volume of 1 cubic foot at a temperature of 60 degrees F
manufacturing and to make coke. Bituminous coal is the          if saturated with water vapor and under a pressure
most abundant coal in active U.S. mining regions. Its           equivalent to that of 30 inches of mercury at 32 degrees
moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. The           F and under standard gravitational force (980.665 cm.
heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 21 to 30            per sec. squared) with air of the same temperature and
million Btu per ton on a moist, mineral-matter-free             pressure as the gas, when the products of combustion
basis. The heat content of bituminous coal consumed in          are cooled to the initial temperature of gas and air when
the United States averages 24 million Btu per ton, on           the water formed by combustion is condensed to the
the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent           liquid state. (Sometimes called gross heating value or
moisture and mineral matter).                                   total heating value.)
Blending components: See Motor gasoline blending                BTX: The acronym for the commercial petroleum
components.                                                     aromatics--benzene, toluene, and xylene. See
Blending plant: A facility that has no refining capability      individual categories for definitions
but is either capable of producing finished motor               Bunker fuels: Fuel supplied to ships and aircraft, both
gasoline through mechanical blending or blends                  domestic and foreign, consisting primarily of residual
oxygenates with motor gasoline.                                 and distillate fuel oil for ships and kerosene-based jet
Bonded petroleum imports: Petroleum imported and                fuel for aircraft. The term "international bunker fuels" is
entered into Customs bonded storage. These imports              used to denote the consumption of fuel for international
are not included in the import statistics until they are: (1)   transport activities. Note: For the purposes of
withdrawn from storage free of duty for use as fuel for         greenhouse gas emissions inventories, data on
vessels and aircraft engaged in international trade; or         emissions from combustion of international bunker fuels
(2) withdrawn from storage with duty paid for domestic          are subtracted from national emissions totals.
use.                                                            Historically, bunker fuels have meant only ship fuel.
Borderline customer: A customer located in the                  Captive refinery MTBE plants: MTBE (methyl tertiary
service area of one utility, but supplied by a neighboring      butyl ether) production facilities primarily located within
utility through an arrangement between the utilities.           refineries. These integrated refinery units produce
Bottled gas: See Liquefied petroleum gases.                     MTBE from Fluid Cat Cracker isobutylene with
Bottled gas, LPG, or propane: Any fuel gas supplied             production dedicated to internal gasoline blending
to a building in liquid form, such as liquefied petroleum       requirements.
gas, propane, or butane. It is usually delivered by tank        Captive refinery oxygenate plants: Oxygenate
truck and stored near the building in a tank or cylinder        production facilities located within or adjacent to a
until used.                                                     refinery complex.
Branded product: A refined petroleum product sold by            CO control period ("seasons"): The portion of the
a refiner with the understanding that the purchaser has         year in which a CO nonattainment area is prone to high
the right to resell the product under a trademark, trade        ambient levels of carbon monoxide. This portion of the
name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or              year is to be specified by the Environmental Protection
names owned by such refiner.                                    Agency but is to be not less than 4 months in length.
British thermal unit: The quantity of heat required to          Coal: A readily combustible black or brownish-black
raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1           rock whose composition, including inherent moisture,
degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water             consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more
has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees              than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material. It
Fahrenheit).                                                    is formed from plant remains that have been
Btu: The abbreviation for British thermal unit(s).              compacted, hardened, chemically altered, and
Btu conversion factors: Btu conversion factors for site         metamorphosed by heat and pressure over geologic
energy are as follows:                                          time.
                                                                Coal analysis: Determines the composition and
                                                                properties of coal so it can be ranked and used most
 Electricity                3,412 Btu/kilowatthour
                                                                effectively.
 Natural Gas                1,031 Btu/cubic foot                ·                Proximate analysis determines, on an
 Fuel Oil No.1              135,000 Btu/gallon                  as-received basis, the moisture content, volatile matter
 Kerosene                   135,000 Btu/gallon                  (gases released when coal is heated), fixed carbon
                                                                (solid fuel left after the volatile matter is driven off), and


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ash (impurities consisting of silica, iron, alumina, and     Coal chemicals: Coal chemicals are obtained from the
other incombustible matter). The moisture content            gases and vapor recovered from the manufacturing of
affects the ease with which coal can be handled and          coke. Generally, crude tar, ammonia, crude light oil, and
burned. The amount of volatile matter and fixed carbon       gas are the basic products recovered. They are refined
provides guidelines for determining the intensity of the     or processed to yield a variety of chemical materials.
heat produced. Ash increases the weight of coal, adds        Coal coke: See Coke(coal) below.
to the cost of handling, and can cause problems such         Coal consumption: The quantity of coal burned for the
as clinkering and slagging in boilers and furnaces.          generation of electric power (in short tons), including
Ultimate analysis determines the amount of carbon,           fuel used for maintenance of standby service.
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Heating value is     Coal delivered: Coal which has been delivered from
determined in terms of Btu, both on an as received           the coal supplier to any site belonging to the electric
basis (including moisture) and on a dry basis.               power company.
   Agglomerating refers to coal that softens when            Coal exports: Amount of U.S. coal shipped to foreign
   heated and forms a hard gray coke; this coal is called    destinations, as reported in the U.S. Department of
   caking coal. Not all caking coals are coking coals.       Commerce, Bureau of Census, "Monthly Report EM
   The agglomerating value is used to differentiate          545."
   between coal ranks and also is a guide to determine
   how a particular coal reacts in a furnace.                Coal face: This is the exposed area from which coal is
                                                             extracted.
   Agglutinating refers to the binding qualities of a
                                                             Coal financial reporting regions: A geographic
   coal. The agglutinating value is an indication of how
   well a coke made from a particular coal will perform in   classification of areas with coal resources which is used
   a blast furnace. It is also called a caking index.        for financial reporting of coal statistics.
   Other tests include the determination of the ash            Eastern Region. Consists of the Appalachian Coal
   softening temperature, the ash fusion temperature           Basin. The following comprise the Eastern Region:
   (the temperature at which the ash forms clinkers or         Alabama, eastern Kentucky, Georgia, Maryland,
   slag), the free swelling index (a guide to a coal's         Mississippi, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee,
   coking characteristics), the Gray King test (which          North Carolina, and West Virginia.
   determines the suitability of coal for making coke),        Midwest Region. Consists of the Illinois and
   and the Hardgrove grindability index (a measure of          Michigan Coal Basins. The following comprise the
   the ease with which coal can be pulverized). In a           Midwest Region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and
   petrographic analysis, thin sections of coal or highly      western Kentucky.
   polished blocks of coal are studied with a microscope       Western Region. Consists of the Northern Rocky,
   to determine the physical composition, both for             Southern Rocky, West Coast Coal Basins and
   scientific purposes and for estimating the rank and         Western Interior. The following comprise the Western
   coking potential.                                           Region: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Coal bed: A bed or stratum of coal. Also called a coal         Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri,
seam.                                                          Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma,
Coal bed degasification: This refers to the removal of         Oregon, Texas, South Dakota, Utah, Washington,
methane or coal bed gas from a coal mine before or             and Wyoming.
during mining.                                               Coal fines: Coal with a maximum particle size usually
Coal bed methane: Methane is generated during coal           less than one-sixteenth inch and rarely above one-
                                                             eighth inch.
formation and is contained in the coal microstructure.
Typical recovery entails pumping water out of the coal       Coal gas: Substitute natural gas produced synthetically
to allow the gas to escape. Methane is the principal         by the chemical reduction of coal at a coal gasification
component of natural gas. Coal bed methane can be            facility.
added to natural gas pipelines without any special           Coal gasification: The process of converting coal into
treatment.                                                   gas. The basic process involves crushing coal to a
Coal briquets: Anthracite, bituminous, and lignite           powder, which is then heated in the presence of steam
briquets comprise the secondary solid fuels                  and oxygen to produce a gas. The gas is then refined to
manufactured from coal by a process in which the coal        reduce sulfur and other impurities. The gas can be used
is partly dried, warmed to expel excess moisture, and        as a fuel or processed further and concentrated into
then compressed into briquets, usually without the use       chemical or liquid fuel.
of a binding substance. In the reduction of briquets to      Coal grade: This classification refers to coal quality and
coal equivalent, different conversion factors are applied    use.
according to their origin from hard coal, peat, brown        Briquettes are made from compressed coal dust, with
coal, or lignite.                                            or without a binding agent such as asphalt.
Coal carbonized: The amount of coal decomposed into          Cleaned coal or prepared coal has been processed to
solid coke and gaseous products byheating in a coke          reduce the amount of impurities present and improve
oven in a limited air supply or in the absence of air.       the burning characteristics.


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·               Compliance coal is a coal, or a blend of       ·               Western Region. Consists of Alaska,
coal, that meets sulfur dioxide emission standards for         Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North
air quality without the need for flue-gas desulfurization.     Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.
·                Culm and silt are waste materials from        Note: Some States discontinue producing coal as
preparation plants. In the anthracite region, culm             reserves are depleted or as production becomes
consists of coarse rock fragments containing as much           uneconomic.
as 30 percent small-sized coal. Silt is a mixture of very      Coal producing districts: A classification of coal fields
fine coal particles (approximately 40 percent) and rock        defined in the Bituminous Coal Act of 1937. The
dust that has settled out from waste water from the            districts were originally established to aid in formulating
plants. The terms culm and silt are sometimes used             minimum prices of bituminous and subbituminous coal
interchangeably and are sometimes called refuse. Culm          and lignite. Because much statistical information was
and silt have a heat value ranging from 8 to 17 million        compiled in terms of these districts, their use for
Btu per ton.                                                   statistical purposes has continued since the
·                Low-sulfur coal generally contains 1          abandonment of that legislation in 1943. District 24 was
percent or less sulfur by weight. For air quality              added for the anthracite-producing district in
standards, "low sulfur coal" contains 0.6 pounds or less       Pennslyvania.
sulfur per million Btu, which is equivalent to 1.2 pounds      Coal production: The sum of sales, mine
of sulfur dioxide per million Btu.                             consumption, issues to miners, and issues to coke,
·                 Metallurgical coal (or coking coal)          briquetting, and other ancillary plants at mines.
meets the requirements for making coke. It must have a         Production data include quantities extracted from
low ash and sulfur content and form a coke that is             surface and underground mines, and normally exclude
capable of supporting the charge of iron ore and               wastes removed at mines or associated reparation
limestone in a blast furnace. A blend of two or more           plants.
bituminous coals is usually required to make coke.             Coal rank: The classification of coals according to their
·                Pulverized coal is a coal that has been       degree of progressive alteration from lignite to
crushed to a fine dust in a grinding mil l. It is blown into   anthracite. In the United States, the standard ranks of
the combustion zone of a furnace and burns very                coal include lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous
rapidly and efficiently.                                       coal, and anthracite and are based on fixed carbon,
·                Slack coal usually refers to bituminous       volatile matter, heating value, and agglomerating (or
coal one-half inch or smaller in size.                         caking) properties.
·               Steam coal refers to coal used in boilers      Coal sampling: The collection and proper storage and
to generate steam to produce electricity or for other          handling of a relatively small quantity of coal for
purposes.                                                      laboratory analysis. Sampling may be done for a wide
·               Stoker coal refers to coal that has been       range of purposes, such as: coal resource exploration
crushed to specific sizes (but not powdered) for burning       and assessment, characterization of the reserves or
on a grate in automatic firing equipment.                      production of a mine, to characterize the results of coal
                                                               cleaning processes, to monitor coal shipments or
Coal imports: Amount of foreign coal shipped to the
                                                               receipts for adherence to coal quality contract
United States, as reported in the U.S. Department of           specifications, or to subject a coal to specific
Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "Monthly Report IM             combustion or reactivity tests related to the customer's
145."                                                          intended use. During pre-development phases, such as
Coal liquefaction: A chemical process that converts            exploration and resource assessment, sampling
coal into clean-burning liquid hydrocarbons, such as           typically is from natural outcrops, test pits, old or
synthetic crude oil and methanol.                              existing mines in the region, drill cuttings, or drilled
Coal mining productivity: Coal mining productivity is          cores. Characterization of a mine's reserves or
calculated by dividing total coal production by the total      production may use sample collection in the mine,
direct labor hours worked by all mine employees.               representative cuts from coal conveyors or from
Coal preparation: The process of sizing and cleaning           handling and loading equipment, or directly from
coal to meet market specifications by removing                 stockpiles or shipments (coal rail cars or barges).
impurities such as rock, sulfur, etc. It may include           Contract specifications rely on sampling from the
crushing, screening, or mechanical cleaning.                   production flow at the mining or coal handling facility or
Coal-producing regions:                                        at the loadout, or from the incoming shipments at the
                                                               receiver's facility. In all cases, the value of a sample
·                  Appalachian Region. Consists of
                                                               taken depends on its being representative of the coal
Alabama, Georgia, Eastern Kentucky, Maryland, North
                                                               under consideration, which in turn requires that
Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and
                                                               appropriate sampling procedures be carefully followed.
West Virginia.
                                                               For      coal    resource     and    estimated      reserve
·               Interior Region (with Gulf Coast). Consists    characterization, appropriate types of samples include:
of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana,       Face channel or channel sample: a sample taken at
Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Texas, and
                                                               the exposed coal in a mine by cutting away any loose or
Western Kentucky.

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weathered coal then collecting on a clean surface a           coal zone are assigned to the same geologic member
sample of the coal seam by chopping out a channel of          or formation.
uniform width and depth; a face channel or face sample        Code of Federal Regulations: A compilation of the
is taken at or near the working face, the most freshly        general and permanent rules of the executive
exposed coal where actual removal and loading of              departments and agencies of the Federal Government
mined coal is taking place. Any partings greater than         as published in the Federal Register. The code is
3/8 inch and/or mineral concretions greater than 1/2          divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject
inch thick and 2 inches in maximum diameter are               to Federal regulation. Title 18 contains the FERC
normally discarded from a channel sample so as better         regulations.
to represent coal that has been mined, crushed, and           Cofiring: The process of burning natural gas in
screened to remove at least gross non-coal materials.         conjunction with another fuel to reduce air pollutants.
Column sample: a channel or drill core sample taken           Cogeneration: The production of electrical energy and
to represent the entire geologic coalbed; it includes all     another form of useful energy (such as heat or steam)
partings and impurities that may exist in the coalbed.        through the sequential use of energy.
Bench sample: a face or channel sample taken of just          Cogeneration system: A system using a common
that contiguous portion of a coalbed that is considered       energy source to produce both electricity and steam for
practical to mine, also known as a "bench;" For               other uses, resulting in increased fuel efficiency.
example, bench samples may be taken of minable coal
                                                              Cogenerator: A generating facility that produces
where impure coal that makes up part of the geologic
coalbed is likely to be left in the mine, or where thick      electricity and another form of useful thermal energy
partings split the coal into two or more distinct minable     (such as heat or steam), used for industrial,
seams, or where extremely thick coalbeds cannot be            commercial, heating, or cooling purposes. To receive
recovered by normal mining equipment, so that the coal        status as a qualifying facility (QF) under the Public
is mined in multiple passes, or benches, usually defined      Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the facility
along natural bedding planes.                                 must produce electric energy and "another form of
                                                              useful thermal energy through the sequential use of
Composite sample: a recombined coalbed sample                 energy" and meet certain ownership, operating, and
produced by averaging together thickness-weighted             efficiency criteria established by the Federal Energy
coal analyses from partial samples of the coalbed, such       Regulatory Commission (FERC). (See the Code of
as from one or more bench samples, from one or more           Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 292.)
mine exposures or outcrops where the entire bed could
                                                              Coincidental demand: The sum of two or more
not be accessed in one sample, or from multiple drill
cores that were required to retrieve all local sections of    demands that occur in the same time interval.
a coal seam.                                                  Coincidental peak load: The sum of two or more peak
Coal stocks: Coal quantities that are held in storage for     loads that occur in the same time interval.
future use and disposition. Note: When coal data are          Coke (coal): A solid carbonaceous residue derived
collected for a particular reporting period (month,           from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal from which the
quarter, or year), coal stocks are commonly measured          volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven
as of the last day of this period.                            at temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit
Coal sulfur: Coal sulfur occurs in three forms: organic,      so that the fixed carbon and residual ash are fused
sulfate, and pyritic. Organic sulfur is an integral part of   together. Coke is used as a fuel and as a reducing
the coal matrix and cannot be removed by conventional         agent in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace. Coke from
physical separation. Sulfate sulfur is usually negligible.    coal is grey, hard, and porous and has a heating value
Pyritic sulfur occurs as the minerals pyrite and              of 24.8 million Btu per ton.
marcasite; larger sizes generally can be removed by           Coke (petroleum): A residue high in carbon content
cleaning the coal.                                            and low in hydrogen that is the final product of thermal
Coal Synfuel: Coal-based solid fuel that has been             decomposition in the condensation process in cracking.
processed by a coal synfuel plant; and coal-based fuels       This product is reported as marketable coke or catalyst
such as briquettes, pellets, or extrusions, which are         coke. The conversion is 5 barrels (of 42 U.S. gallons
formed from fresh or recycled coal and binding                each) per short ton. Coke from petroleum has a heating
materials.                                                    value of 6.024 million Btu per barrel.
Coal type: The classification is based on physical            Coke breeze: The term refers to the fine sizes of coke,
characteristics or microscopic constituents. Examples of      usually less than one-half inch, that are recovered from
coal types are banded coal, bright coal, cannel coal,         coke plants. It is commonly used for sintering iron ore.
and splint coal. The term is also used to classify coal       Coke button: A button-shaped piece of coke resulting
according to heat and sulfur content. See Coal grade          from standard laboratory tests that indicates the coking
above.                                                        or free-swelling characteristics of a coal; expressed in
Coal zone: A series of laterally extensive and (or)           numbers and compared with a standard.
lenticular coal beds and associated strata that arbitrarily   Coke oven gas: The mixture of permanent gases
can be viewed as a unit. Generally, the coal beds in a        produced by the carbonization of coal in a coke oven at
                                                              temperatures in excess of 1,000 degrees Celsius.


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Coke plants: Plants where coal is carbonized for the         the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also
manufacture of coke in slot or beehive ovens.                include:
Coking: Thermal refining processes used to produce           1.              Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist
fuel gas, gasoline blendstocks, distillates, and             in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but
petroleum coke from the heavier products of                  are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered
atomspheric and vacuum distillation. Includes:               from oil well (casinghead) gas in lease separators and
·                Delayed Coking. A process by which          are subsequently commingled with the crude stream
heavier crude oil fractions can be thermally                 without being separately measured. Lease condensate
decomposed under conditions of elevated temperatures         recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or
and pressure to produce a mixture of lighter oils and        field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude
petroleum coke. The light oils can be processed further      stream is also included;
in other refinery units to meet product specifications.      2.                Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons
The coke can be used either as a fuel or in other            produced with the oil, such as sulfur and various
applications such as the manufacturing of steel              metals;
oraluminum.                                                  3.               Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons
·                Flexicoking. A thermal cracking process     produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil
which converts heavy hydrocarbons such as crude oil,         shale.
tar sands bitumen, and distillation residues into light      Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are
hydrocarbons. Feedstocks can be any pumpable                 excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of
hydrocarbons including those containing high                 petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline,
concentrations of sulfur and metals.                         diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane,
·               Fluid Coking. A thermal cracking process     propane, and butane; and many other products used for
utilizing the fluidized-solids technique to remove carbon    their energy or chemical content.
(coke) for continuous conversion of heavy, low-grade         Crude oil acquisitions (unfinished oil acquisitions):
oils into lighter products.                                  The volume of crude oil either
Compact fluorescent bulbs: These are also known as           ·              acquired by the respondent for processing
"screw-in fluorescent replacements for incandescent" or      for his own account in accordance with accounting
"screw-ins." Compact fluorescent bulbs combine the           procedures generally accepted and consistently and
efficiency of fluorescent lighting with the convenience of   historically applied by the refiner concerned, or
a standard incandescent bulb. There are many styles of       ·               in the case of a processing agreement,
compact fluorescent, including exit light fixtures and       delivered to another refinery for processing for the
floodlights (lamps containing reflectors). Many screw        respondent's own account.
into a standard light socket, and most produce a similar
color of light as a standard incandescent bulb. Compact      Crude oil that has not been added by a refiner to
fluorescent bulbs come with ballasts that are electronic     inventory and that is thereafter sold or otherwise
(lightweight, instant, no-flicker starting, and 10 to 15%    disposed of without processing for the account of that
more efficient) or magnetic (much heavier and slower         refiner shall be deducted from its crude oil purchases at
starting). Other types of compact fluorescent bulbs          the time when the related cost is deducted from refinery
include adaptive circulation and PL and SL lamps and         inventory in accordance with accounting procedures
ballasts. Compact fluorescent bulbs are designed for         generally applied by the refiner concerned.
residential uses; they are also used in table lamps, wall    Crude oil processed by the respondent for the account
sconces, and hall and ceiling fixtures of hotels, motels,    of another is not a crude oil acquisition.
hospitals, and other types of commercial buildings with      Crude oil f.o.b. price: The crude oil price actually
residential-type applications.                               charged at the oil producing country's port of loading.
Cooling degree-days: A measure of how warm a                 Includes deductions for any rebates and discounts or
location is over a period of time relative to a base         additions of premiums, where applicable. It is the actual
temperature, most commonly specified as 65 degrees           price paid with no adjustment for credit terms.
Fahrenheit. The measure is computed for each day by          Crude oil input: The total crude oil put into processing
subtracting the base temperature (65 degrees) from the       units at refineries.
average of the day's high and low temperatures, with         Crude oil landed cost: The price of crude oil at the
negative values set equal to zero. Each day's cooling        port of discharge, including charges associated with
degree-days are summed to create a cooling degree-           purchasing, transporting, and insuring a cargo from the
day measure for a specified reference period. Cooling        purchase point to the port of discharge. The cost does
degree-days are used in energy analysis as an indicator      not include charges incurred at the discharge port (e.g.,
of air conditioning energy requirements or use.              import tariffs or fees, wharfage charges, and
Crude oil: A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in          demurrage).
liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and           Crude oil less lease condensate: A mixture of
remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing         hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural
through surface separating facilities. Depending upon        underground reservoirs and remains liquid at
                                                             atmospheric pressure after passing through surface


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separating facilities. Such hydrocarbons as lease             interstate pipelines are not included as reserves, but
condensate and natural gasoline recovered as liquids          may constitute part or all of a company's gas supply.
from natural gas wells in lease or field separation           Deliverability: Represents the number of future years
facilities and later mixed into the crude stream are          during which a pipeline company can meet its annual
excluded. Depending upon the characteristics of the           requirements for its presently certificated delivery
crude stream, crude oil may also include:                     capacity from presently committed sources of supply.
1.              Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist      The availability of gas from these sources of supply
in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but        shall be governed by the physical capabilities of these
are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered      sources to deliver gas by the terms of existing gas-
from oil well (casinghead) gas in lease separators and        purchase contracts, and by limitations imposed by State
are subsequently commingled with the crude stream             or Federal regulatory agencies.
without being separately measured;                            Delivered cost: The cost of fuel, including the invoice
2.               Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons             price of fuel, transportation charges, taxes,
produced with the oil, such as sulfur and various             commissions, insurance, and expenses associated with
metals.                                                       leased or owned equipment used to transport the fuel.
Crude oil losses: Represents the volume of crude oil          Delivered energy: The amount of energy delivered to
reported by petroleum refineries as being lost in their       the site (building); no adjustment is made for the fuels
operations. These losses are due to spills,                   consumed to produce electricity or district sources. This
contamination, fires, etc., as opposed to refining            is also referred to as net energy.
processing losses.                                            Delivered (gas): The physical transfer of natural,
Crude oil production: The volume of crude oil                 synthetic, and/or supplemental gas from facilities
produced from oil reservoirs during given periods of          operated by the responding company to facilities
time. The amount of such production for a given period        operated by others or to consumers.
is measured as volumes delivered from lease storage           Deliveries (electric): Energy generated by one system
tanks (i.e., the point of custody transfer) to pipelines,     and delivered to another system through one or more
trucks, or other media for transport to refineries or         transmission lines.
terminals with adjustments for (1) net differences            Demand: See Energy demand.
between opening and closing lease inventories, and (2)
basic sediment and water (BS&W).                              Demonstrated reserve base (coal): A collective term
                                                              for the sum of coal in both measured and indicated
Crude oil qualities: Refers to two properties of crude        resource categories of reliability, representing 100
oil, the sulfur content, and API gravity, which affect        percent of the in-place coal in those categories as of a
processing complexity and product characteristics.            certain date. Includes beds of bituminuous coal and
Crude oil refinery input: The total crude oil put into        anthracite 28 or more inches thick and beds of
processing units at refineries.                               subbituminuous coal 60 or more inches thick that can
Crude oil stocks: Stocks of crude oil and lease               occur at depths of up to 1,000 feet. Includes beds of
condensate held at refineries, in pipelines, at pipeline      lignite 60 or more inches thick that can be surface
terminals, and on leases.                                     mined. Includes also thinner and/or deeper beds that
Crude oil used directly: Crude oil consumed as fuel           presently are being mined or for which there is evidence
by crude oil pipelines and on crude oil leases.               that they could be mined commercially at a given time.
Crude oil, refinery receipts: Receipts of domestic and        Represents that portion of the identified coal resource
foreign crude oil at a refinery. Includes all crude oil in    from which reserves are calculated.
transit except crude oil in transit by pipeline. Foreign      Demonstrated resources: Same qualifications as
crude oil is reported as a receipt only after entry through   identified resources, but include measured and
customs. Crude oil of foreign origin held in bonded           indicated degrees of geologic assurance and excludes
storage is excluded.                                          the inferred.
Dealer tank wagon (DTW) sales: Wholesale sales of             Diesel-electric plant: A generating station that uses
gasoline priced on a delivered basis to a retail outlet.      diesel engines to drive its electric generators.
Dedicated reserves: The volume of recoverable,                Diesel fuel: A fuel composed of distillates obtained in
salable gas reserves committed to, controlled by, or          petroleum refining operation or blends of such distillates
possessed by the reporting pipeline company and used          with residual oil used in motor vehicles. The boiling
for acts and services for which both the seller and the       point and specific gravity are higher for diesel fuels than
company have received certificate authorization from          for gasoline.
the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).              Diesel fuel system: Diesel engines are internal
Reserves include both company-owned reserves                  combustion engines that burn diesel oil rather than
(including owned gas in underground storage), reserves        gasoline. Injectors are used to spray droplets of diesel
under contract from independent producers, and short-         oil into the combustion chambers, at or near the top of
term and emergency supplies from the intrastate               the compression stroke. Ignition follows due to the very
market. Gas volumes under contract from other                 high temperature of the compressed intake air, or to the
                                                              use of "glow plugs," which retain heat from previous


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ignitions (spark plugs are not used). Diesel engines are                   commercial/industrial burner units. See No. 2
generally more fuel-efficient than gasoline engines but                    Distillate above.
must be stronger and heavier because of high                    No. 4 Fuel: A distillate fuel oil made by blending
compression ratios                                              distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil stocks. It conforms
Distillate fuel oil: A general classification for one of the    with ASTM Specification D 396 or Federal Specification
petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation       VV-F-815C and is used extensively in industrial plants
operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils.             and in commercial burner installations that are not
Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel           equipped with preheating facilities. It also includes No.
are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in         4 diesel fuel used for low- and medium-speed diesel
trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines,         engines and conforms to ASTM Specification D 975.
such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural          No. 4 Diesel Fuel and No. 4 Fuel Oil: See No. 4 Fuel
machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4            above.
fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and              Dual fuel vehicle (1): A motor vehicle that is capable of
electric power generation.                                      operating on an alternative fuel and on gasoline or
No. 1 Distillate: A light petroleum distillate that can be      diesel fuel. These vehicles have at least two separate
used as either a diesel fuel (see No. 1 Diesel Fuel) or a       fuel systems which inject each fuel simultaneously into
fuel oil. See No. 1 Fuel Oil.                                   the engine combustion chamber.
·              No. 1 Diesel Fuel: A light distillate fuel oil   Dual fuel vehicle (2): A motor vehicle that is capable of
that has distillation temperatures of 550 degrees               operating on an alternative fuel and on gasoline or
Fahrenheit at the 90-percent point and meets the                diesel fuel. This term is meant to represent all such
specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It is       vehicles whether they operate on the alternative fuel
used in high-speed diesel engines, such as those in city        and gasoline/diesel simultaneously (e.g., flexible-fuel
buses and similar vehicles. See No. 1 Distillate above.         vehicles) or can be switched to operate on
·              No. 1 Fuel Oil: A light distillate fuel oil      gasoline/diesel or an alternative fuel (e.g., bi-fuel
that has distillation temperatures of 400 degrees               vehicles).
Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and 550             Dual-fired unit: A generating unit that can produce
degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-percent point and meets            electricity using two or more input fuels. In some of
the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396.         these units, only the primary fuel can be used
It is used primarily as fuel for portable outdoor stoves        continuously; the alternate fuel(s) can be used only as a
and portable outdoor heaters. See No. 1 Distillate              start-up fuel or in emergencies.
above.                                                          EIA: The Energy Information Administration. An
No. 2 Distillate: A petroleum distillate that can be used       independent agency within the U.S. Department of
as either a diesel fuel (see No. 2 Diesel Fuel definition       Energy that develops surveys, collects energy data, and
below) or a fuel oil. See No. 2 Fuel oil below.                 analyzes and models energy issues. The Agency must
        No. 2 Diesel Fuel: A fuel that has distillation        meet the requests of Congress, other elements within
         temperatures of 500 degrees Fahrenheit at the          the Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory
         10-percent recovery point and 640 degrees              Commission, the Executive Branch, its own
         Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point            independent needs, and assist the general public, or
         and meets the specifications defined in ASTM           other interest groups, without taking a policy position.
         Specification D 975. It is used in high-speed          See        more       information      about       EIA      at
         diesel engines, such as those in railroad              http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/aboutEIA/aboutus.htm
         locomotives, trucks, and automobiles. See No.          Electric generation: See Gross generation and Net
         2 Distillate above.                                    generation.
        Low Sulfur No. 2 Diesel Fuel: No. 2 diesel             Electric generation industry: Stationary and mobile
         fuel that has a sulfur level no higher than 0.05       generating units that are connected to the electric
         percent by weight. It is used primarily in motor       power grid and can generate electricity. The electric
         vehicle diesel engines for on-highway use.             generation industry includes the “electric power sector”
                                                                (utility generators and independent power producers)
        High Sulfur No. 2 Diesel Fuel: No. 2 diesel
                                                                and industrial and commercial power generators,
         fuel that has a sulfur level above 0.05 percent
                                                                including combined-heat-and-power producers, but
         by weight.
                                                                excludes units at single-family dwellings.
        No. 2 Fuel oil (Heating Oil): A distillate fuel oil    Electric generator: A facility that produces only
         that has distillation temperatures of 400              electricity, commonly expressed in kilowatthours (kWh)
         degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery          or megawatthours (MWh). Electric generators include
         point and 640 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90-            electric utilities and independent power producers.
         percent recovery point and meets the
                                                                Electric hybrid vehicle: An electric vehicle that either
         specifications defined in ASTM Specification D
         396. It is used in atomizing type burners for          (1) operates solely on electricity, but contains an
         domestic heating or for moderate capacity              internal combustion motor that generates additional
                                                                electricity (series hybrid); or (2) contains an electric


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system and an internal combustion system and is                Emergency backup generation: The use of electric
capable of operating on either system (parallel hybrid).       generators only during interruptions of normal power
Electric industry reregulation: The design and                 supply.
implementation of regulatory practices to be applied to        Emergency energy: Electric energy provided for a
the remaining traditional utilities after the electric power   limited duration, intended only for use during
industry has been restructured. Reregulation applies to        emergency conditions.
those entities that continue to exhibit characteristics of a   Energy reserves: Estimated quantities of energy
natural monopoly. Reregulation could employ the same           sources that are demonstrated to exist with reasonable
or different regulatory practices as those used before         certainty on the basis of geologic and engineering data
restructuring.                                                 (proved reserves) or that can reasonably be expected
Electric industry restructuring: The process of                to exist on the basis of geologic evidence that supports
replacing a monopolistic system of electric utility            projections from proved reserves (probable/indicated
suppliers with competing sellers, allowing individual          reserves). Knowledge of the location, quantity, and
retail customers to choose their supplier but still receive    grade of probable/indicated reserves is generally
delivery over the power lines of the local utility. It         incomplete or much less certain than it is for proved
includes the reconfiguration of vertically-integrated          energy reserves. Note: This term is equivalent to
electric utilities.                                            "Demonstrated Reserves" as defined in the
Electric motor vehicle: A motor vehicle powered by an          resource/reserve classification contained in the U.S.
electric motor that draws current from rechargeable            Geological Survey Circular 831, 1980. Demonstrated
storage batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaic arrays, or         reserves include measured and indicated reserves but
other sources of electric current.                             exclude inferred reserves.
Electric power: The rate at which electric energy is           Energy service provider: An energy entity that
transferred. Electric power is measured by capacity and        provides service to a retail or end-use customer.
is commonly expressed in megawatts (MW).                       Energy source: Any substance or natural phenomenon
Electric power grid: A system of synchronized power            that can be consumed or transformed to supply heat or
providers and consumers connected by transmission              power. Examples include petroleum, coal, natural gas,
and distribution lines and operated by one or more             nuclear, biomass, electricity, wind, sunlight, geothermal,
control centers. In the continental United States, the         water movement, and hydrogen in fuel cells.
electric power grid consists of three systems: the             Energy supply: Energy made available for future
Eastern Interconnect, the Western Interconnect, and            disposition. Supply can be considered and measured
the Texas Interconnect. In Alaska and Hawaii, several          from the point of view of the energy provider or the
systems encompass areas smaller than the State (e.g.,          receiver.
the interconnect serving Anchorage, Fairbanks, and the         Energy supplier: Fuel companies supplying electricity,
Kenai Peninsula; individual islands).                          natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, or LPG (liquefied
Electric power plant: A station containing prime               petroleum gas) to the household.
movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for       Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC):
converting mechanical, chemical, and/or fission energy         The Federal agency with jurisdiction over interstate
into electric energy.                                          electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, hydroelectric
Electric power sector: An energy-consuming sector              licensing, natural gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas
that consists of electricity only and combined heat and        pipeline certification. FERC is an independent
power(CHP) plants whose primary business is to sell            regulatory agency within the Department of Energy and
electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public--i.e.,     is the successor to the Federal Power Commission.
North American Industry Classification System 22               Federal Power Act: Enacted in 1920, and amended in
plants. See also Combined heat and power (CHP)                 1935, the Act consists of three parts. The first part
plant and Electricity only plant.                              incorporated the Federal Water Power Act administered
Electric power system: An individual electric power            by the former Federal Power Commission, whose
entity--a company; an electric cooperative; a public           activities were confined almost entirely to licensing non-
electric supply corporation as the Tennesse Valley             Federal hydroelectric projects. Parts II and III were
Authority; a similar Federal department or agency such         added with the passage of the Public Utility Act. These
as the Bonneville Power Administration; the Bureau of          parts extended the Act's jurisdiction to include
Reclamation or the Corps of Engineers; a municipally           regulating the interstate transmission of electrical
owned electric department offering service to the public;      energy and rates for its sale as wholesale in interstate
or an electric public utility district (a "PUD"); also a       commerce.       The     Federal      Energy      Regulatory
jointly owned electric supply project such as the              Commission is now charged with the administration of
Keystone.                                                      this law.
Emergency: The failure of an electric power system to          Federal Power Commission (FPC): The predecessor
generate or deliver electric power as normally intended,       agency of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
resulting in the cutoff or curtailment of service.             The Federal Power Commission was created by an Act
                                                               of Congress under the Federal Water Power Act on


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June 10, 1920. It was charged originally with regulating      designed for them. A newer type of fluorescent lamp,
the electric power and natural gas industries. It was         the compact fluorescent lamp, takes up much less
abolished on September 30, 1977, when the                     room, comes in many differently-shaped configurations,
Department of Energy was created. Its functions were          and is designed to be used in some fixtures originally
divided between the Department of Energy and the              intended to house incandescent lamps.
Federal     Energy     Regulatory      Commission,      an    Fluorescent light bulbs: These are usually long,
independent regulatory agency.                                narrow, white tubes made of glass coated on the inside
Federal region: In a Presidential directive issued in         with fluorescent material, which is connected to a fixture
1969, various Federal agencies (among them the                at both ends of the light bulb; some are circular tubes.
currently designated Department of Health and Human           The light bulb produces light by passing electricity
Services, the Department of Labor, the Office of              through mercury vapor, which causes the fluorescent
Economic Opportunity, and the Small Business                  coating to glow or fluoresce.
Administration) were instructed to adopt a uniform field      Fluorescent lighting other than compact fluorescent
system of 10 geographic regions with common                   bulbs: In fluorescent lamps, energy is converted to light
boundaries and headquarters cities. The action was            by using an electric charge to "excite" gaseous atoms
taken to correct the evolution of fragmented Federal          within a fluorescent tube. Common types are "cool
field organization structures that each agency or             white," "warm white," etc. Special energy efficient
component created independently, usually with little          fluorescent lights have been developed that produce
reference to other agencies' arrangements. Most               the same amount of light while consuming less energy.
Federal domestic agencies or their components have            Note: for definition of compact fluorescent bulbs, go
completed realignments and relocations to conform to          to
the Standard Federal Administration Regions (SFARs).          http://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/glossary_c.htm#compa
Finished leaded gasoline: Contains more than 0.05             ct_bulbs.
gram of lead per gallon or more than 0.005 gram of            Fossil fuel: An energy source formed in the earths
phosphorus per gallon. Premium and regular grades             crust from decayed organic material. The common
are included, depending on the octane rating. Includes        fossil fuels are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
leaded gasohol. Blendstock is excluded until blending         Fossil-fuel electric generation: Electric generation in
has been completed. Alcohol that is to be used in the         which the prime mover is a turbine rotated by high-
blending of gasohol is also excluded.                         pressure steam produced in a boiler by heat from
Finished motor gasoline: See motor gasoline                   burning fossil fuels.
(finished).                                                   Fossil fuel plant: A plant using coal, petroleum, or gas
Fleet vehicle: Any motor vehicle a company owns or            as its source of energy.
leases that is in the normal operations of a company.         Fossil fuel steam-electric power plant: An electricity
Vehicles which are used in the normal operation of a          generation plant in which the prime mover is a turbine
company, but are owned by company employees are               rotated by high-pressure steam produced in a boiler by
not fleet vehicles. If a company provides services in         heat from burning fossil fuels.
addition to providing natural gas, only those vehicles
                                                              Fuel: Any material substance that can be consumed to
that are used by the natural gas provider portion of a
company should be counted as fleet vehicles. Vehicles         supply heat or power. Included are petroleum, coal, and
that are considered "off-road" (e.g., farm or construction    natural gas (the fossil fuels), and other consumable
vehicles) or demonstration vehicles are not to be             materials, such as uranium, biomass, and hydrogen.
counted as fleet vehicles. Fleet vehicles include             Fuel cell: A device capable of generating an electrical
gasoline/diesel powered vehicles and alternative-fuel         current by converting the chemical energy of a fuel
vehicles.                                                     (e.g., hydrogen) directly into electrical energy. Fuel cells
Flexible fuel vehicle: A vehicle that can operate on          differ from conventional electrical cells in that the active
(1) alternative fuels (such as M85 or E85)                    materials such as fuel and oxygen are not contained
(2)       100-percent        petroleum-based         fuels    within the cell but are supplied from outside. It does not
(3) any mixture of an alternative fuel (or fuels) and a       contain an intermediate heat cycle, as do most other
petroleum-based                                       fuel.   electrical generation techniques.
Flexible fuel vehicles have a single fuel system to           Fuel cycle: The entire set of sequential processes or
handle alternative and petroleum-based fuels. Flexible        stages involved in the utilization of fuel, including
fuel vehicle and variable fuel vehicle are synonymous         extraction,     transformation,     transportation,     and
terms.                                                        combustion. Emissions generally occur at each stage of
Fluorescent lamp: A glass enclosure in which light is         the fuel cycle.
produced when electricity is passed through mercury           Fuel efficiency: See Miles per gallon.
vapor inside the enclosure. The electricity creates a         Fuel emergencies: An emergency that exists when
radiation discharge that strikes a coating on the inside      supplies of fuels or hydroelectric storage for generation
surface of the enclosure, causing the coating to glow.        are at a level or estimated to be at a level that would
Note: Traditional fluorescent lamps are usually straight      threaten the reliability or adequacy of bulk electric
or circular white glass tubes used in fixtures specially


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power supply. The following factors should be taken            Gas to liquids (GTL): A process that combines the
into account to determine that a fuel emergency exists:        carbon and hydrogen elements in natural gas
      1.      Fuel stock or hydroelectric project water        molecules to make synthetic liquid petroleum products,
           storage levels are 50 percent or less of normal     such as diesel fuel.
           for that particular time of the year and a          Gas turbine plant: A plant in which the prime mover is
           continued downward trend in fuel stock or           a gas turbine. A gas turbine consists typically of an
           hydroelectric project water storage level is        axial-flow air compressor and one or more combustion
           estimated; or                                       chambers where liquid or gaseous fuel is burned and
      2.       Unscheduled dispatch or emergency               the hot gases are passed to the turbine and where the
           generation is causing an abnormal use of a          hot gases expand drive the generator and are then
           particular fuel type, such that the future supply   used to run the compressor.
           of stocks of that fuel could reach a level that     Gas well: A well completed for production of natural
           threatens the reliability or adequacy of bulk       gas from one or more gas zones or reservoirs. Such
           electric power supply.                              wells contain no completions for the production of crude
Fuel ethanol (C2H5OH): An anhydrous denatured                  oil.
aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as            Gas well productivity: Derived annually by dividing
described in Oxygenates definition.                            gross natural gas withdrawals from gas wells by the
Fuel injection: A fuel delivery system whereby                 number of producing gas wells on December 31 and
gasoline is pumped to one or more fuel injectors under         then dividing the quotient by the number of days in the
high pressure. The fuel injectors are valves that, at the      year.
appropriate times, open to allow fuel to be sprayed or         Gasification: A method for converting coal, petroleum,
atomized into a throttle bore or into the intake manifold      biomass, wastes, or other carbon-containing materials
ports. The fuel injectors are usually solenoid operated        into a gas that can be burned to generate power or
valves under the control of the vehicle's on-board             processed into chemicals and fuels.
computer (thus the term "electronic fuel injection"). The      Gasohol: A blend of finished motor gasoline containing
fuel efficiency of fuel injection systems is less              alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at
temperature-dependent than carburetor systems. Diesel          a concentration between 5.7 percent and 10 percent by
engines always use injectors.                                  volume. Also see Oxygenates.
Fuel oil: A liquid petroleum product less volatile than        Gasoline: See Motor gasoline (finished).
gasoline, used as an energy source. Fuel oil includes          Gasoline blending components: Naphthas which will
distillate fuel oil (No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4), and residual    be used for blending or compounding into finished
fuel oil (No. 5 and No. 6).                                    aviation or motor gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline,
Fuel oil supplier: See Energy supplier.                        alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene).
Fuel switching capability: The short-term capability of        Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and
a manufacturing establishment to have used substitute          pentanes plus.
energy sources in place of those actually consumed.            Gasoline grades: The classification of gasoline by
Capability to use substitute energy sources means that         octane ratings. Each type of gasoline (conventional,
the establishment's combustors (for example, boilers,          oxygenated, and reformulated) is classified by three
furnaces, ovens, and blast furnaces) had the machinery         grades - Regular, Midgrade, and Premium. Note:
or equipment either in place or available for installation     Gasoline sales are reported by grade in accordance
so that substitutions could actually have been                 with their classification at the time of sale. In general,
introduced within 30 days without extensive                    automotive octane requirements are lower at high
modifications. Fuel-switching capability does not              altitudes. Therefore, in some areas of the United States,
depend on the relative prices of energy sources; it            such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings
depends only on the characteristics of the equipment           for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points
and certain legal constraints.                                 lower.
Gas plant operator: Any firm, including a gas plant                    Regular gasoline: Gasoline having an
owner, which operates a gas plant and keeps the gas                     antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater
plant records. A gas plant is a facility in which natural               than or equal to 85 and less than 88. Note:
gas liquids are separated from natural gas or in which                  Octane requirements may vary by altitude.
natural gas liquids are fractionated or otherwise
separated into natural gas liquid products or both.                    Midgrade gasoline: Gasoline having an
                                                                        antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater
Gas processing unit: A facility designed to recover
                                                                        than or equal to 88 and less than or equal to
natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas that
                                                                        90. Note: Octane requirements may vary by
may or may not have passed through lease separators
                                                                        altitude.
and/or field separation facilties. Another function of
natural gas processing plants is to control the quality of             Premium gasoline: Gasoline having an
the processed natural gas stream. Cycling plants are                    antiknock index, i.e., octane rating, greater
considered natural gas processing plants.                               than 90. Note: Octane requirements may vary
                                                                        by altitude. s or fluids at various depths

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           beneath the surface of the earth. The energy is   Heat pump (air source): An air-source heat pump is
           extracted by drilling and/or pumping.             the most common type of heat pump. The heat pump
Gasoline motor, (leaded): Contains more than 0.05            absorbs heat from the outside air and transfers the heat
grams of lead per gallon or more than 0.005 grams of         to the space to be heated in the heating mode. In the
phosphorus per gallon. The actual lead content of any        cooling mode the heat pump absorbs heat from the
given gallon may vary. Premium and regular grades are        space to be cooled and rejects the heat to the outside
included, depending on the octane rating. Includes           air. In the heating mode when the outside air
leaded gasohol. Blendstock is excluded until blending        approaches 32o F or less, air-source heat pumps loose
has been completed. Alcohol that is to be used in the        efficiency and generally require a back- up (resistance)
blending of gasohol is also excluded.                        heating system.
Gate station: Location where the pressure of natural         Heat pump (geothermal): A heat pump in which the
gas being transferred from the transmission system to        refrigerant exchanges heat (in a heat exchanger) with a
the distribution system is lowered for transport through     fluid circulating through an earth connection medium
small diameter, low pressure pipelines.                      (ground or ground water). The fluid is contained in a
Generating facility: An existing or planned location or      variety of loop (pipe) configurations depending on the
site at which electricity is or will be produced.            temperature of the ground and the ground area
                                                             available. Loops may be installed horizontally or
Generating station: A station that consists of electric
                                                             vertically in the ground or submersed in a body of
generators and auxiliary equipment for converting            water.
mechanical, chemical, or nuclear energy into electric
energy.                                                      Heat pump efficiency: The efficiency of a heat pump,
                                                             that is, the electrical energy to operate it, is directly
Generating unit: Any combination of physically
                                                             related to temperatures between which it operates.
connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion          Geothermal heat pumps are more efficient than
turbines, and other prime movers operated together to        conventional heat pumps or air conditioners that use
produce electric power.                                      the outdoor air since the ground or ground water a few
Generation: The process of producing electric energy         feet below the earth's surface remains relatively
by transforming other forms of energy; also, the amount      constant throughout the year. It is more efficient in the
of electric energy produced, expressed in kilowatthours.     winter to draw heat from the relatively warm ground
Generation company: An entity that owns or operates          than from the atmosphere where the air temperature is
generating plants. The generation company may own            much colder, and in summer transfer waste heat to the
the generation plants or interact with the short-term        relatively cool ground than to hotter air. Geothermal
market on behalf of plant owners.                            heat pumps are generally more expensive ($2,000-
Generator capacity: The maximum output, commonly             $5,000) to install than outside air heat pumps. However,
expressed in megawatts (MW), that generating                 depending on the location geothermal heat pumps can
equipment can supply to system load, adjusted for            reduce energy consumption (operating cost) and
ambient conditions.                                          correspondingly, emissions by more than 20 percent
Generator nameplate capacity (installed): The                compared to high-efficiency outside air heat pumps.
maximum rated output of a generator, prime mover, or         Geothermal heat pumps also use the waste heat from
other electric power production equipment under              air-conditioning to provide free hot water heating in the
specific conditions designated by the manufacturer.          summer.
Installed generator nameplate capacity is commonly           Heating degree-days (HDD): A measure of how cold a
expressed in megawatts (MW) and is usually indicated         location is over a period of time relative to a base
on a nameplate physically attached to the generator.         temperature, most commonly specified as 65 degrees
Geothermal energy: Hot water or steam extracted              Fahrenheit. The measure is computed for each day by
from geothermal reservoirs in the earth's crust. Water or    subtracting the average of the day's high and low
steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs can be            temperatures from the base temperature (65 degrees),
used for geothermal heat pumps, water heating, or            with negative values set equal to zero. Each day's
electricity generation.                                      heating degree-days are summed to create a heating
                                                             degree-day measure for a specified reference period.
Geothermal plant: A plant in which the prime mover is
                                                             Heating degree-days are used in energy analysis as an
a steam turbine. The turbine is driven either by steam
                                                             indicator of space heating energy requirements or use.
produced from hot water or by natural steam that
derives its energy from heat found in rock                   Heating equipment: Any equipment designed and/or
                                                             specifically used for heating ambient air in an enclosed
Heat pump: Heating and/or cooling equipment that,
                                                             space. Common types of heating equipment include:
during the heating season, draws heat into a building
                                                             central warm air furnace, heat pump, plug-in or built-in
from outside and, during the cooling season, ejects heat
                                                             room heater, boiler for steam or hot water heating
from the building to the outside. Heat pumps are vapor-
                                                             system, heating stove, and fireplace. Note: A cooking
compression         refrigeration        systems   whose
                                                             stove in a housing unit is sometimes reported as
indoor/outdoor coils are used reversibly as condensers
                                                             heating equipment, even though it was built for
or evaporators, depending on the need for heating or
                                                             preparing food.
cooling.


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Housing unit: A house, an apartment, a group of                existing DSM (Demand-Side Management) programs
rooms, or a single room if it is either occupied or            and all participants in new DSM programs during a
intended for occupancy as separate living quarters by a        given year. Reported Incremental Effects are
family, an individual, or a group of one to nine unrelated     annualized to indicate the program effects that would
persons. Separate living quarters means the occupants          have occurred had these participants been initiated into
(1) live and eat separately from other persons in the          the program on January 1 of the given year.
house or apartment and (2) have direct access from the         Incremental effects are not simply the Annual Effects of
outside of the buildings or through a common hall--that        a given year minus the Annual Effects of the prior year,
is, they can get to it without going through someone           since these net effects would fail to account for program
else's living quarters. Housing units do not include           attrition, equipment degradation, building demolition,
group quarters such as prisons or nursing homes where          and participant dropouts. Please note that Incremental
ten or more unrelated persons live. A common dining            Effects are not a monthly disaggregate of the Annual
area used by residents is an indication of group               Effects, but are the total year's effects of only the new
quarters. Hotel and motel rooms are considered                 participants and programs for that year.
housing units if occupied as the usual or permanent            Incremental energy costs: The additional cost of
place of residence.                                            producing and/or transmitting electric energy above
Incandescent lamp: A glass enclosure in which light is         some previously determined base cost.
produced when a tungsten filament is electrically              Independent power producer: A corporation, person,
heated so that it glows. Much of the energy is converted       agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality
into heat; therefore, this class of lamp is a relatively       that owns or operates facilities for the generation of
inefficient source of light. Included in this category are     electricity for use primarily by the public, and that is not
the familiar screw-in light bulbs, as well as somewhat         an electric utility.
more efficient lamps, such as tungsten halogen lamps,          Independent system operator (ISO): An independent,
reflector or r-lamps, parabolic aluminized reflector           Federally regulated entity established to coordinate
(PAR) lamps, and ellipsoidal reflector (ER) lamps.             regional transmission in a non-discriminatory manner
Incandescent light bulbs, including regular or                 and ensure the safety and reliability of the electric
energy-efficient light bulbs: An incandescent bulb is a        system.
type of electric light in which light is produced by a         Independent power producer: A corporation, person,
filament heated by electric current. The most common           agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality
example is the type you find in most table and floor           that owns or operates facilities for the generation of
lamps. In commercial buildings, incandescent lights are        electricity for use primarily by the public, and that is not
used for display lights in retail stores, hotels and motels.   an electric utility.
This includes the very small, high-intensity track lights
                                                               Independent system operator (ISO): An independent,
used to display merchandise or provide spot
illumination in restaurants. Energy efficient light bulbs,     Federally regulated entity established to coordinate
known as "watt-savers," use less energy than a                 regional transmission in a non-discriminatory manner
standard incandescent bulb. "Long-life" bulbs, bulbs           and ensure the safety and reliability of the electric
that last longer than standard incandescent but produce        system.
considerably less light, are not considered energy-            Indian coal lease: A lease granted to a mining
efficient bulbs. This category also includes halogen           company to produce coal from Indian lands in exchange
lamps. Halogen lamps are a special type of                     for royalties and other revenues; obtained by direct
incandescent lamp containing halogen gas to produce a          negotiation with Indian tribal authorities, but subject to
brighter, whiter light than standard incandescent.             approval and administration by the U.S. Department of
Halogen lamps come in three styles: bulbs, models with         the Interior.
reflectors, and infrared models with reflectors. Halogen       Indicated reserves: See Probable energy reserves.
lamps are especially suited to recessed or "canned             Indicated resources, coal: Coal for which estimates of
fixtures," track lights, and outdoor lights.                   the rank, quality, and quantity are based partly on
Incentives      Demand-Side Management               (DSM)     sample analyses and measurements and partly on
program assistance: This DSM program assistance                reasonable geologic projections. Indicated resources
offers monetary or non-monetary awards to encourage            are computed partly from specified measurements and
consumers to buy energy-efficient equipment and to             partly from projection of visible data for a reasonable
participate in programs designed to reduce energy              distance on the basis of geologic evidence. The points
usage. Examples of incentives are zero or low-interest         of observation are 1/2 to 1-1/2 miles apart. Indicated
loans, rebates, and direct installation of low cost            coal is projected to extend as a 1/2-mile-wide belt that
measures, such as water heater wraps or duct work for          lies more than 1/4 mile from the outcrop, points of
distributing the cool air; the units condition air only in     observation, or measurement.
the room or areas where they are located.                      Indirect cost: Costs not directly related to mining or
Incremental effects: The annual changes in energy              milling operations, such as overhead, insurance,
use (measured in megawatthours) and peak load                  security, office expenses, property taxes, and similar
(measured in kilowatts) caused by new participants in          administrative expenses.


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Insulation: Any material or substance that provides a          service at the discretion of the distributing company
high resistance to the flow of heat from one surface to        under certain circumstances, as specified in the service
another. The different types include blanket or batt,          contract.
foam, or loose fill, which are used to reduce heat             Interruptible load: This Demand-Side Management
transfer by conduction. Dead air space is an insulating        category represents the consumer load that, in
medium in storm windows and storms as it reduces               accordance with contractual arrangements, can be
passage of heat through conduction and convection.             interrupted at the time of annual peak load by the action
Reflective materials are used to reduce heat transfer by       of the consumer at the direct request of the system
radiation.                                                     operator. This type of control usually involves large-
Insulation around heating and/or cooling ducts:                volume commercial and industrial consumers.
Extra insulation around the heating and/or cooling ducts       Interruptible Load does not include Direct Load Control.
intended to reduce the loss of hot or cold air as it travels   Interruptible or curtailable rate: A special electricity or
to different parts of the residence.                           natural gas arrangement under which, in return for
Insulation around hot-water pipes: Wrapping of                 lower rates, the customer must either reduce energy
insulating material around hot-water pipes to reduce the       demand on short notice or allow the electric or natural
loss of heat through the pipes.                                gas utility to temporarily cut off the energy supply for the
Insulation around water heater: Blanket insulation             utility to maintain service for higher priority users. This
wrapped around the water heater to reduce loss of              interruption or reduction in demand typically occurs
heat. To qualify under this definition, this wrapping must     during periods of high demand for the energy (summer
be in addition to any insulation provided by the               for electricity and winter for natural gas).
manufacturer.                                                  Interruptible power: Power and usually the associated
Insulator: A material that is a very poor conductor of         energy made available by one utility to another. This
electricity. The insulating material is usually a ceramic      transaction is subject to curtailment or cessation of
or fiberglass when used in the transmission line and is        delivery by the supplier in accordance with a prior
designed to support a conductor physically and to              agreement with the other party or under specified
separate it electrically from other conductors and             conditions.
supporting material.                                           Interstate companies: Natural gas pipeline companies
Intermediate grade gasoline: A grade of unleaded               subject to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
gasoline with an octane rating intermediate between            (FERC) jurisdiction.
"regular" and "premium." Octane boosters are added to          Interstate pipeline: Any person engaged in natural gas
gasolines to control engine pre-ignition or "knocking" by      transportation subject to the jurisdiction of Federal
slowing combustion rates.                                      Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) under the
Intermediate load (electric system): The range from            Natural Gas Act.
base load to a point between base load and peak. This          Jet fuel: A refined petroleum product used in jet aircraft
point may be the midpoint, a percent of the peak load,         engines. It includes kerosene-type jet fuel and naphtha-
or the load over a specified time period.                      type jet fuel.
Intermittent electric generator or intermittent                Kerosene: A light petroleum distillate that is used in
resource: An electric generating plant with output             space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters and is
controlled by the natural variability of the energy            suitable for use as a light source when burned in wick-
resource rather than dispatched based on system                fed lamps. Kerosene has a maximum distillation
requirements. Intermittent output usually results from         temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-
the direct, non-stored conversion of naturally occurring       percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572
energy fluxes such as solar energy, wind energy, or the        degrees Fahrenheit, and a minimum flash point of 100
energy of free-flowing rivers (that is, run-of-river           degrees Fahrenheit. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K,
hydroelectricity).                                             the two grades recognized by ASTM Specification D
Internal Collector Storage (ICS): A solar thermal              3699 as well as all other grades of kerosene called
collector in which incident solar radiation is absorbed by     range or stove oil, which have properties similar to
the storage medium.                                            those of No. 1 fuel oil. Also see Kerosene-type jet fuel.
Internal combustion plant: A plant in which the prime          Kerosene-type jet fuel: A kerosene-based product
mover is an internal combustion engine. An internal            having a maximum distillation temperature of 400
combustion engine has one or more cylinders in which           degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point
the process of combustion takes place, converting              and a final maximum boiling point of 572 degrees
energy released from the rapid burning of a fuel-air           Fahrenheit and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655
mixture into mechanical energy. Diesel or gas-fired            and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-
engines are the principal types used in electric plants.       83133D (Grades JP-5 and JP-8). It is used for
The plant is usually operated during periods of high           commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft
demand for electricity.                                        engines.
Interruptible gas: Gas sold to customers with a                        Commercial: Kerosene-type jet fuel intended
provision that permits curtailment or cessation of                      for use in commercial aircraft.


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         Military: Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for      Loss of service (15 minutes): Any loss in service for
          use in military aircraft.                          greater than 15 minutes by an electric utility of firm
Ketone-alcohol (cyclohexanol): An oily, colorless,           loads totaling more than 200 MW, or 50 percent of the
hygroscopic liquid with a camphor-like odor. Used in         total load being supplied immediately prior to the
soapmaking, dry cleaning, plasticizers, insecticides, and    incident, whichever is less. However, utilities with a
germicides.                                                  peak load in the prior year of more than 3000 MW are
                                                             only to report losses of service to firm loads totaling
Kilovolt-Ampere (kVa): A unit of apparent power,
                                                             more than 300 MW for greater than 15 minutes. (The
equal to 1,000 volt-amperes; the mathematical product
                                                             DOE shall be notified with service restoration and in any
of the volts and amperes in an electrical circuit.
                                                             event, within three hours after the beginning of the
Kilowatt (kW): One thousand watts.                           interruption.)
Kilowatt-electric (kWe): One thousand watts of electric      Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program
capacity.                                                    (LIHEAP): The purpose of LIHEAP is to assist eligible
Kilowatthour (kWh): A measure of electricity defined         households to meet the cost of heating or cooling in
as a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt          residential dwellings. The Federal government provides
(1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh          the funds to the States that administer the program.
is equivalent to 3,412 Btu.                                  Main heating fuel: The form of energy used most
Kilovolt-Ampere (kVa): A unit of apparent power,             frequently to heat the largest portion of the floorspace of
equal to 1,000 volt-amperes; the mathematical product        a structure. The energy source designated as the main
of the volts and amperes in an electrical circuit.           heating fuel is the source delivered to the site for that
Kilowatt (kW): One thousand watts.                           purpose, not any subsequent form into which it is
Kilowatt-electric (kWe): One thousand watts of electric      transformed on site to deliver the heat energy (e.g., for
capacity.                                                    buildings heated by a steam boiler, the main heating
                                                             fuel is the main input fuel to the boiler, not the steam or
Kilowatthour (kWh): A measure of electricity defined
                                                             hot water circulated through the building.) Note: In
as a unit of work or energy, measured as 1 kilowatt
                                                             commercial buildings, the heating must be to at least 50
(1,000 watts) of power expended for 1 hour. One kWh
                                                             degrees Fahrenheit.
is equivalent to 3,412 Btu.
                                                             Mains: A system of pipes for transporting gas within a
Leaded gasoline: A fuel that contains more than 0.05
                                                             distributing gas utility's retail service area to points of
gram of lead per gallon or more than 0.005 gram of
                                                             connection with consumer service pipes.
phosphorus per gallon.
                                                             Measured heated area of residence: The floor area of
Leaded premium gasoline: Gasoline having an
                                                             the housing unit that is enclosed from the weather and
antiknock index (R+M/2) greater than 90 and containing
                                                             heated. Basements are included whether or not they
more than 0.05 grams of lead or 0.005 grams of
                                                             contain finished space. Garages are included if they
phosphorus per gallon.
                                                             have a wall in common with the house. Attics that have
Leaded regular gasoline: Gasoline having an                  finished space and attics that have some heated space
antiknock index (R+M/2) greater than or equal to 87          are included. Crawl spaces are not included even if they
and less than or equal to 90 and containing more than        are enclosed from the weather. Sheds and other
0.05 grams of lead or 0.005 grams of phosphorus per          buildings that are not attached to the house are not
gallon.                                                      included. "Measured" area means the measurement of
Load (electric): The amount of electric power delivered      the dimensions of the home, using a metallic,
or required at any specific point or points on a system.     retractable, 50-foot tape measure. "Heated area" is that
The requirement originates at the energy-consuming           portion of the measured area that is heated during most
equipment of the consumers.                                  of the season. Rooms that are shut off during the
Load control program: A program in which the utility         heating season to save on fuel are not counted.
company offers a lower rate in return for having             Attached garages that are unheated and unheated
permission to turn off the air conditioner or water heater   areas in the attics and basements are also not counted.
for short periods of time by remote control. This control    Measured reserves: See Proved energy reserves.
allows the utility to reduce peak demand.                    Measured resources, coal: Coal resources for which
Local distribution company (LDC): A legal entity             estimates of the rank, quality, and quantity have been
engaged primarily in the retail sale and/or delivery of      computed, within a margin of error of less than 20
natural gas through a distribution system that includes      percent, from sample analyses and measurements from
mainlines (that is, pipelines designed to carry large        closely spaced and geologically well known sample
volumes of gas, usually located under roads or other         sites. Measured resources are computed from
major right-of-ways) and laterals (that is, pipelines of     dimensions revealed in outcrops, trenches, mine
smaller diameter that connect the end user to the            workings, and drill holes. The points of observation and
mainline). Since the restructuring of the gas industry,      measurement are so closely spaced and the thickness
the sale of gas and/or delivery arrangements may be          and extent of coals are so well defined that the tonnage
handled by other agents, such as producers, brokers,         is judged to be accurate within 20 percent. Although the
and marketers that are referred to as "non-LDC."             spacing of the points of observation necessary to


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demonstrate continuity of the coal differs from region to      plus, etc., and to control the quality of natural gas to be
region, according to the character of the coalbeds, the        marketed.
point of observation are no greater than 1/2 mile apart.       Natural gas gross withdrawals: Full well-stream
Measured coal is projected to extend as a belt 1/4 mile        volume of produced natural gas, excluding condensate
wide from the outcrop or points of observation or              separated at the lease.
measurement.                                                   Natural gas hydrates: Solid, crystalline, wax-like
Megawatt (MW): One million watts of electricity.               substances composed of water, methane, and usually a
Megawatt electric (MWe): One million watts of electric         small amount of other gases, with the gases being
capacity.                                                      trapped in the interstices of a water-ice lattice. They
Megawatthour (MWh): One thousand kilowatt-hours or             form beneath permafrost and on the ocean floor under
1 million watt-hours.                                          conditions of moderately high pressure and at
Naphtha: A generic term applied to a petroleum                 temperatures near the freezing point of water.
fraction with an approximate boiling range between 122         Natural gas liquids (NGL): Those hydrocarbons in
degrees Fahrenheit and 400 degrees Fahrenheit.                 natural gas that are separated from the gas as liquids
Naphtha less than 401 degrees Fahrenheit: See                  through the process of absorption, condensation,
Petrochemical feedstocks.                                      adsorption, or other methods in gas processing or
                                                               cycling plants. Generally such liquids consist of propane
Naphthas: Refined or partly refined light distillates with
                                                               and heavier hydrocarbons and are commonly referred
an approximate boiling point range of 27 degrees to 221        to as lease condensate, natural gasoline, and liquefied
degrees Centigrade. Blended further or mixed with              petroleum gases. Natural gas liquids include natural
other materials, they make high-grade motor gasoline           gas plant liquids (primarily ethane, propane, butane,
or jet fuel. Also, used as solvents, petrochemical             and isobutane; see Natural Gas Plant Liquids) and
feedstocks, or as raw materials for the production of          lease condensate (primarily pentanes produced from
town gas.                                                      natural gas at lease separators and field facilities; see
Naphtha-type jet fuel: A fuel in the heavy naphtha             Lease Condensate).
boiling range having an average gravity of 52.8 degrees        Natural gas liquids production: The volume of natural
API, 20 to 90 percent distillation temperatures of 290         gas liquids removed from natural gas in lease
degrees to 470 degrees Fahrenheit, and meeting                 separators, field facilities, gas processing plants, or
Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP-4). It is         cycling plants during the report year.
used primarily for military turbojet and turboprop aircraft
engines because it has a lower freeze point than other         Natural gas marketed production: Gross withdrawals
aviation fuels and meets engine requirements at high           of natural gas from production reservoirs, less gas used
altitudes and speeds. Note: Beginning with January             for reservoir repressuring, nonhydrocarbon gases
2004 data, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in                removed in treating and processing operations, and
Miscellaneous Products.                                        quantities vented and flared.
National      Association      of    Regulatory     Utility    Natural gas plant liquids: Those hydrocarbons in
Commissioners (NARUC): An affiliation of the public            natural gas that are separated as liquids at natural gas
service commissioners to promote the uniform                   processing plants, fractionating and cycling plants, and,
treatment of members of the railroad, public utilities,        in some instances, field facilities. Lease condensate is
and public service commissions of the 50 states, the           excluded. Products obtained include ethane; liquefied
District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico,         petroleum gases (propane, butanes, propane-butane
and the territory of the Virgin Islands.                       mixtures, ethane-propane mixtures); isopentane; and
                                                               other small quantities of finished products, such as
National Rural Electric Cooperative Association
                                                               motor gasoline, special naphthas, jet fuel, kerosene,
(NRECA): A national organization dedicated to                  and distillate fuel oil.
representing the interests of cooperative electric utilities
and the consumers they serve. Members come from the            Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA): Signed into
46 states that have an electric distribution cooperative.      law on November 9, 1978, the NGPA is a framework for
                                                               the regulation of most facets of the natural gas industry.
Natural gas: A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbon
compounds, the primary one being methane. Note:                Natural gas processing plant: Facilities designed to
The Energy Information Administration measures wet             recover natural gas liquids from a stream of natural gas
natural gas and its two sources of production,                 that may or may not have passed through lease
associated/dissolved           natural       gas        and    separators and/or field separation facilities. These
nonassociated natural gas, and dry natural gas,                facilities control the quality of the natural gas to be
which is produced from wet natural gas.                        marketed. Cycling plants are classified as gas
                                                               processing plants.
Natural gas, "dry": See Dry natural gas.
                                                               Natural gas production: See Dry natural gas
Natural gas field facility: A field facility designed to       production.
process natural gas produced from more than one
lease for the purpose of recovering condensate from a          Natural gas utility demand-side management (DSM)
stream of natural gas; however, some field facilities are      program        sponsor:      A     DSM       (demand-side
designed to recover propane, normal butane, pentanes           management) program sponsored by a natural gas


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utility that suggests ways to increase the energy              No. 2 fuel oil and No. 2 diesel sold to consumers for
efficiency of buildings, to reduce energy costs, to            all other end uses: Those consumers who purchase
change the usage patterns, or to promote the use of a          fuel oil or diesel fuel for their own use including:
different energy source.                                       commercial/institutional buildings (including apartment
Natural gasoline: A term used in the gas processing            buildings), manufacturing and nonmanufacturing
industry to refer to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons          establishments, farms (including farm houses), motor
(mostly pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons) extracted           vehicles, commercial or private boats, military,
from natural gas. It includes isopentane.                      governments, electric utilities, railroads, construction,
Natural Gasoline and Isopentane: A mixture of                  logging or any other nonresidential end-use purpose.
hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier, extracted           No. 2 fuel oil sold to private homes for heating:
from natural gas, that meets vapor pressure, end-point,        Private household customers who purchase fuel oil for
and other specifications for natural gasoline set by the       the specific purpose of heating their home, water
Gas Processors Association. Includes isopentane which          heating, cooking, etc., excluding farm houses, farming
is a saturated branch-chain hydrocarbon, (C5H12),              and apartment buildings.
obtained by fractionation of natural gasoline or               No. 4 fuel oil: A distillate fuel oil made by blending
isomerization of normal pentane.                               distillate fuel oil and residual fuel oil stocks. It conforms
Net generation: The amount of gross generation less            with ASTM Specification D 396 or Federal Specification
the electrical energy consumed at the generating               VV-F-815C and is used extensively in industrial plants
station(s) for station service or auxiliaries. Note:           and in commercial burner installations that are not
Electricity required for pumping at pumped-storage             equipped with preheating facilities. It also includes No.
plants is regarded as electricity for station service and is   4 diesel fuel used for low- and medium-speed diesel
deducted from gross generation.                                engines and conforms to ASTM Specification D 975.
No. 1 diesel fuel: A light distillate fuel oil that has a      No. 5 and no. 6 fuel oil sold directly to the ultimate
distillation temperature of 550 degrees Fahrenheit at          consumer:         Includes    ships,      mines,     smelters,
the 90-percent recovery point and meets the                    manufacturing plants, electric utilities, drilling, railroad.
specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It         No. 5 and no. 6 fuel oil sold to refiners or other
is used in high speed diesel engines generally operated        dealers who will resale the product: Includes all
under frequent speed and load changes, such as those           volumes of No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oil purchased by a
in city buses and similar vehicles. See No. 1 distillate       trade or business with the intent of reselling the product
below.                                                         to the ultimate consumers.
No. 1 distillate: A light petroleum distillate that can be     Nonattainment area: Any area that does not meet the
used as either a diesel fuel (see No. 1 diesel fuel            national primary or secondary ambient air quality
above) or a fuel oil (see No. 1 fuel oil (below).              standard established by the Environmental Protection
No. 1 fuel oil: A light distillate fuel oil that has           Agency for designated pollutants, such as carbon
distillation temperatures of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at         monoxide and ozone.
the 10-percent recovery point and 550 degrees                  North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC):
Fahrenheit at the 90-percent recovery point and meets          A council formed in 1968 by the electric utility industry
the specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396.        to promote the reliability and adequacy of bulk power
It is used primarily as fuel for portable outdoor stoves       supply in the electric utility systems of North America.
and portable outdoor heaters. See No. 1 Distillate             NERC consists of regional reliability councils and
above.                                                         encompasses essentially all the power regions of the
No. 2 diesel fuel: A distillate fuel oil that has a            contiguous United States, Canada, and Mexico. See
distillation temperature of 640 degrees Fahrenheit at          the various NERC Regional Reliability Councils here:
the 90-percent recovery point and meets the                    http://www.nerc.com/regional/
specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 975. It         North American Industry Classification System
is used in high-speed diesel engines that are generally        (NAICS): A new classification scheme, developed by
operated under uniform speed and load conditions,              the Office of Management and Budget to replace the
such as those in railroad locomotives, trucks, and             Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, that
automobiles. See No. 2 Distillate below.                       categorizes establishments according to the types of
No. 2 distillate: A petroleum distillate that can be used      production processes they primarily use.
as either a diesel fuel (see No. 2 diesel fuel above) or       Nuclear electric power (nuclear power): Electricity
a fuel oil (see No. 2 fuel oil below).                         generated by the use of the thermal energy released
No. 2 fuel oil (heating oil): A distillate fuel oil that has   from the fission of nuclear fuel in a reactor.
a distillation temperature of 640 degrees Fahrenheit at        Nuclear fuel: Fissionable materials that have been
the 90-percent recovery point and meets the                    enriched to such a composition that, when placed in a
specifications defined in ASTM Specification D 396. It         nuclear reactor, will support a self-sustaining fission
is used in atomizing type burners for domestic heating         chain reaction, producing heat in a controlled manner
or for moderate capacity commercial/industrial burner          for process use.
units. See No. 2 Distillate above.


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Nuclear reactor: An apparatus in which a nuclear             Venezuela. Between 1960 and 1975, the organization
fission chain reaction can be initiated, controlled, and     expanded to include Qatar (1961), Indonesia (1962),
sustained at a specific rate. A reactor includes fuel        Libya (1962), the United Arab Emirates (1967), Algeria
(fissionable material), moderating material to control the   (1969), Nigeria (1971), Ecuador (1973), and Gabon
rate of fission, a heavy-walled pressure vessel to house     (1975). Ecuador withdrew in December 1992, and
reactor components, shielding to protect personnel, a        Gabon withdrew in January 1995. Although Iraq
system to conduct heat away from the reactor, and            remains a member of OPEC, Iraqi production has not
instrumentation for monitoring and controlling the           been a part of any OPEC quota agreements since
reactor's systems.                                           March 1998. For more information, go to OPEC’s
Number of mines: The number of mines, or mines               website                                                  at
collocated with preparation plants or tipples, located in    http://www.opec.org/aboutus/history/history.htm.
a particular geographic area (State or region). If a mine    Operable capacity: The amount of capacity that, at the
is mining coal across two counties within a State, or        beginning of the period, is in operation; not in operation
across two States, then it is counted as two operations.     and not under active repair, but capable of being placed
This is done so that EIA can separate production by          in operation within 30 days; or not in operation but
State and county.                                            under active repair that can be completed within 90
Octane: A flammable liquid hydrocarbon found in              days. Operable capacity is the sum of the operating and
petroleum. Used as a standard to measure the anti-           idle capacity and is measured in barrels per calendar
knock properties of motor fuel.                              day or barrels per stream day.
Octane rating: A number used to indicate gasoline's          Operable generators/units: Electric generators or
antiknock performance in motor vehicle engines. The          generating units that are available to provide power to
two recognized laboratory engine test methods for            the grid or generating units that have been providing
determining the antiknock rating, i.e., octane rating, of    power to the grid but are temporarily shut down. This
gasolines are the Research method and the Motor              includes units in standby status, units out of service for
method. To provide a single number as guidance to the        an indefinite period, and new units that have their
consumer, the antiknock index (R + M)/2, which is the        construction complete and are ready to provide test
average of the Research and Motor octane numbers,            generation. A nuclear unit is operable once it receives
was developed.                                               its Full Power Operating License.
OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer.                        Operable nuclear unit (U.S.): A U.S. nuclear
Off-highway use: Includes petroleum products sales           generating unit that has completed low-power testing
for use in:                                                  and is in possession of a full-power operating license
                                                             issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
      1.       Construction. Construction equipment
           including earthmoving equipment, cranes,          Operating capacity: The component of operable
           stationary generators, air compressors, etc.      capacity that is in operation at the beginning of the
                                                             period.
      2.     Other. Sales for off-highway uses other than
           construction. Sales for logging are included in   Operating day: A normal business day. Days when a
           this category. Volumes for off-highway use by     company conducts business due to emergencies or
           the agriculture industry are reported under       other unexpected events are not included.
           "Farm Use" (which includes sales for use in       Operator, gas plant: The person responsible for the
           tractors, irrigation pumps, other agricultural    management and day-to-day operation of one or more
           machinery, etc.)                                  natural gas processing plants as of December 31 of the
Oil company use: Includes sales to drilling companies,       report year. The operator is generally a working-interest
pipelines or other related oil companies not engaged in      owner or a company under contract to the working-
the selling of petroleum products. Includes fuel oil that    interest owner(s). Plants shut down during the report
was purchased or produced and used by company                year are also to be considered "operated" as of
facilities for the operation of drilling equipment, other    December 31.
field or refinery operations, and space heating at           Operator, oil and/or gas well: The person responsible
petroleum refineries, pipeline companies, and oil-drilling   for the management and day-to-day operation of one or
companies. Oil used to bunker vessels is counted under       more crude oil and/or natural gas wells as of December
vessel bunkering. Sales to other oil companies for field     31 of the report year. The operator is generally a
use are included, but sales for use as refinery charging     working-interest owner or a company under contract to
stocks are excluded                                          the working-interest owner(s). Wells included are those
OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting                that have proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas,
Countries): An organization founded in Baghdad, Iraq,        and/or lease condensate in the reservoirs associated
in September 1960, to unify and coordinate members'          with them, whether or not they are producing. Wells
petroleum policies. OPEC members' national oil               abandoned during the report year are also to be
ministers meet regularly to discuss prices and, since        considered "operated" as of December 31.
1982, to set crude oil production quotas. Original OPEC      Organization for Economic Cooperation and
members include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and        Development (OECD): An international organization
                                                             helping governments tackle the economic, social and

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governance challenges of a globalized economy. Its            building. Also known as: Packaged Terminal Air
membership comprises about 30 member countries.               Conditioners (PTAC). These packaged units are often
With active relationships with some 70 other countries,       constructed as a single unit for heating and for cooling.
NGOs and civil society, it has a global reach. For details    Packaged units: Units built and assembled at a factory
about the organization, visit http://www.oecd.org.            and installed as a self-contained unit to heat or cool all
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries             or portions of a building. Packaged units are in contrast
(OPEC): Countries that have organized for the purpose         to engineer-specified units built up from individual
of negotiating with oil companies on matters of oil           components for use in a given building. Packaged Units
production, prices, and future concession rights.             can apply to heating equipment, cooling equipment, or
Current members (as of the date of writing this               combined heating and cooling equipment. Some types
definition) are Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait,       of electric packaged units are also called "Direct
Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab          Expansion" or DX units.
Emirates, and Venezuela. See OPEC's site at                   Payment method for utilities: The method by which
http://www.opec.org for more information.                     fuel suppliers or utility companies are paid for all
Oxygenated gasoline: Finished motor gasoline, other           electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, kerosene, or liquefied
than reformulated gasoline, having an oxygen content          petroleum gas used by a household. Households that
of 2.7 percent or higher by weight and required by the        pay the utility company directly are classified as "all
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to be sold         paid by household." Households that pay directly for at
in areas designated by EPA as carbon monoxide (CO)            least one but not all of their fuels used and that has at
nonattainment areas. See Nonattainment area. Note:            least one fuel charge included in the rent were
Oxygenated gasoline excludes oxygenated fuels                 classified as "some paid, some included in rent."
program       reformulated      gasoline   (OPRG)      and    Households for which all fuels used are included in rent
reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate                were classified as "all included in rent." If the household
blending (RBOB). Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7        did not fall into one of these categories, it was classified
percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale           as "other." Examples of households falling into the
inside CO nonattainment areas are included in data on         "other" category are: (1) households for which fuel bills
oxygenated gasoline. Other data on gasohol are                were paid by a social service agency or a relative, and
included in data on conventional gasoline.                    (2) households that paid for some of their fuels used but
Oxygenated gasoline (includes Gasohol): Finished              paid for other fuels through another arrangement.
motor gasoline, other than reformulated gasoline,             Peak day withdrawal: The maximum daily withdrawal
having an oxygen content of 2.7 percent or higher by          rate (Mcf/d) experienced during the reporting period.
weight. Includes gasohol. Note: Oxygenated gasoline           Peak demand: The maximum load during a specified
excludes oxygenated fuels program reformulated                period of time.
gasoline (OPRG) and reformulated gasoline blendstock          Peak kilowatt: One thousand peak watts.
for oxygenate blending (RBOB).
                                                              Peak load: The maximum load during a specified
Oxygenates: Substances which, when added to                   period of time.
gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that
                                                              Peak load month: The month of greatest plant
gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
(MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and                electrical generation during the winter heating season
methanol are common oxygenates.                               (Oct-Mar) and summer cooling season (Apr-Sept),
                                                              respectively.
Ozone: A molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen.
                                                              Peak load plant: A plant usually housing old, low-
Occurs naturally in the stratosphere and provides a
protective layer shielding the Earth from harmful             efficiency steam units, gas turbines, diesels, or
ultraviolet radiation. In the troposphere, it is a chemical   pumped-storage hydroelectric equipment normally used
oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a major component of           during the peak-load periods.
photochemical smog.                                           Peak megawatt: One million peak watts.
Packaged air conditioning units: Usually mounted on           Peak watt: A manufacturer's unit indicating the amount
the roof or on a slab beside the building. (These are         of power a photovoltaic cell or module will produce at
known as self-contained units, or Direct Expansion            standard test conditions (normally 1,000 watts per
(DX). They contain air conditioning equipment as well         square meter and 25 degrees Celsius).
as fans, and may or may not include heating                   Peaking capacity: Capacity of generating equipment
equipment.) These are self-contained units that contain       normally reserved for operation during the hours of
the equipment that generates cool air and the                 highest daily, weekly, or seasonal loads. Some
equipment that distributes the cooled air. These units        generating equipment may be operated at certain times
commonly consume natural gas or electricity. The units        as peaking capacity and at other times to serve loads
are mounted on the rooftop, exposed to the elements.          on an around-the-clock basis.
They typically blow cool air into the building through        Petroleum: A broadly defined class of liquid
duct work, but other types of distribution systems may        hydrocarbon mixtures. Included are crude oil, lease
exist. The units usually serve more than one room.            condensate, unfinished oils, refined products obtained
There are often several units on the roof of a single         from the processing of crude oil, and natural gas plant


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liquids. Note: Volumes of finished petroleum products         product retailers and resellers, as well as tertiary stocks
include nonhydrocarbon compounds, such as additives           held at the point of consumption, are excluded. Stocks
and detergents, after they have been blended into the         of individual products held at gas processing plants are
products.                                                     excluded from individual product stimates but are
Petroleum Administration for Defense District                 included in other oils estimates and total.
(PADD): A geographic aggregation of the 50 States and         Pipeline, distribution: A pipeline that conveys gas
the District of Columbia into five Districts, with PADD I     from a transmission pipeline to its ultimate consumer.
further split into three subdistricts. The PADDs include      Pipeline freight: Refers to freight carried through
the States listed below:                                      pipelines, including natural gas, crude oil, and
PADD I (East Coast):                                          petroleum products (excluding water). Energy is
·                 PADD IA (New England): Connecticut,         consumed by various electrical components of the
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,            pipeline, including, valves, other, appurtenances
and Vermont.                                                  attaches to the pipe, compressor units, metering
·                 PADD IB (Central Atlantic): Delaware,       stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders
District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York,         and fabricated assemblies.
and Pennsylvania.                                             Pipeline fuel: Gas consumed in the operation of
·                  PADD IC (Lower Atlantic): Florida,         pipelines, primarily in compressors.
Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and        Pipeline, gathering: A pipeline that conveys gas from
West Virginia.                                                a production well/field to a gas processing plant or
PADD II (Midwest): Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,           transmission pipeline for eventual delivery to end-use
Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska,            consumers.
North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota,                   Pipeline (natural gas): A continuous pipe conduit,
Tennessee,                   and                 Wisconsin.   complete with such equipment as valves, compressor
PADD III (Gulf Coast): Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana,          stations, communications systems, and meters for
Mississippi,        New      Mexico,       and       Texas.   transporting natural and/or supplemental gas from one
PADD IV (Rocky Mountain): Colorado, Idaho, Montana,           point to another, usually from a point in or beyond the
Utah,                     and                     Wyoming.    producing field or processing plant to another pipeline
PADD V (West Coast): Alaska, Arizona, California,             or to points of utilization. Also refers to a company
Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington                        operating such facilities.
Petroleum imports: Imports of petroleum into the 50           Pipeline (petroleum): Crude oil and product pipelines
states and the District of Columbia from foreign              used to transport crude oil and petroleum products,
countries and from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and       respectively (including interstate, intrastate, and
other U.S. territories and possessions. Included are          intracompany pipelines), within the 50 states and the
imports for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and               District of Columbia.
withdrawals from bonded warehouses for onshore                Pipeline purchases: Gas supply contracted from and
consumption, offshore bunker use, and military use.           volumes purchased from other natural gas companies
Excluded are receipts of foreign petroleum into bonded        as defined by the Natural Gas Act, as amended (52
warehouses and into U.S. territories and U.S. Foreign         Stat. 821), excluding independent producers, as defined
Trade Zones.                                                  in Paragraph 154.91(a), Chapter I, Title 18 of the Code
Petroleum jelly: A semi-solid oily product produced           of Federal Regulations.
from de-waxing lubricating oil basestocks.                    Pipeline quality natural gas: A mixture of hydrocarbon
Petroleum products: Petroleum products are obtained           compounds existing in the gaseous phase with
from the processing of crude oil (including lease             sufficient energy content, generally above 900 British
condensate), natural gas, and other hydrocarbon               thermal units, and a small enough share of impurities
compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils,        for transport through commercial gas pipelines and sale
liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation            to end-users.
gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel,              Pipeline, transmission: A pipeline that conveys gas
kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil,        from a region where it is produced to a region where it
residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special          is to be distributed.
naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt,         Pipelines, rate regulated: FRS (Financial Reporting
road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.              System Survey) establishes three pipeline segments:
Petroleum refinery: An installation that manufactures         crude/liquid (raw materials); natural gas; and refined
finished petroleum products from crude oil, unfinished        products. The pipelines included in these segments are
oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons, and            all federally or State rate-regulated pipeline operations,
alcohol.                                                      which are included in the reporting company's
Petroleum stocks, primary: For individual products,           consolidated financial statements. However, at the
quantities that are held at refineries, in pipelines and at   reporting company's option, intrastate pipeline
bulk terminals that have a capacity of 50,000 barrels or      operations      may     be    included    in    the    U.S.
more, or that are in transit thereto. Stocks held by          Refining/Marketing Segment if: they would comprise


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less than 5 percent of U.S. Refining/Marketing Segment        is predicated upon each reporting company's
net PP&E, revenues, and earnings in the aggregate;            accounting practice. That is, accounting practices with
and if the inclusion of such pipelines in the consolidated    regard to capitalization of certain items may differ
financial statements adds less than $100 million to the       across companies, and therefore this figure in FRS
net PP&E reported for the U.S. Refining/Marketing             (Financial Reporting System) will be a function of each
Segment.                                                      reporting company's policy.
Population-weighted degree-days: Heating or cooling           Premium gasoline: Gasoline having an antiknock
degree-days weighted by the population of the area in         index (R+M/2) greater than 90. Includes both leaded
which the degree-days are recorded. To compute                premium gasoline as well as unleaded premium
national population-weighted degree-days, the Nation is       gasoline
divided into nine Census regions comprised of from            Primary coal: All coal milled and, when necessary,
three to eight states that are assigned weights based on      washed and sorted.
the ratio of the population of the region to the total        Primary energy: All energy consumed by end users,
population of the Nation. Degree-day readings for each        excluding electricity but including the energy consumed
region are multiplied by the corresponding population         at electric utilities to generate electricity. (In estimating
weight for each region, and these products are then           energy expenditures, there are no fuel-associated
summed to arrive at the national population weighted          expenditures for hydroelectric power, geothermal
degree-day figure.                                            energy, solar energy, or wind energy, and the
Potential peak reduction: The potential annual peak           quantifiable expenditures for process fuel and
load reduction (measured in kilowatts) that can be            intermediate products are excluded.)
deployed from Direct Load Control, Interruptible Load,        Primary energy consumption: Primary energy
Other Load Management, and Other DSM Program                  consumption is the amount of site consumption, plus
activities. (Please note that Energy Efficiency and Load      losses that occur in the generation, transmission, and
Building are not included in Potential Peak Reduction.)       distribution of energy.
It represents the load that can be reduced either by the
                                                              Primary       energy       consumption        expenditures:
direct control of the utility system operator or by the
consumer in response to a utility request to curtail load.    Expenditures for energy consumed in each of the four
It reflects the installed load reduction capability, as       major end-use sectors, excluding energy in the form of
opposed to the Actual Peak Reduction achieved by              electricity, plus expenditures by the electric utilities
participants, during the time of annual system peak           sector for energy used to generate electricity. There are
load.                                                         no fuel-associated expenditures for associated
                                                              expenditures for hydroelectric power, geothermal
Power (electrical): An electric measurement unit of           energy, photovoltaic and solar energy, or wind energy.
power called a voltampere is equal to the product of 1        Also excluded are the quantifiable consumption
volt and 1 ampere. This is equivalent to 1 watt for a         expenditures that are an integral part of process fuel
direct current system, and a unit of apparent power is        consumption.
separated into real and reactive power. Real power is
                                                              Primary fuels: Fuels that can be used continuously.
the work-producing part of apparent power that
measures the rate of supply of energy and is denoted          They can sustain the boiler sufficiently for the
as kilowatts (kW). Reactive power is the portion of           production of electricity.
apparent power that does no work and is referred to as        Primary metropolitan statistical area (PMSA): A
kilovars; this type of power must be supplied to most         component area of a Consolidated metropolitan
types of magnetic equipment, such as motors, and is           statistical area consisting of a large urbanized county
supplied by generator or by electrostatic equipment.          or cluster of counties (cities and towns in New England)
Voltamperes are usually divided by 1,000 and called           that demonstrate strong internal economic and social
kilovoltamperes (kVA). Energy is denoted by the               links in addition to close ties with the central core of the
product of real power and the length of time utilized; this   larger area. To qualify, an area must meet specified
product is expressed as kilowathours.                         statistical criteria that demonstrate these links and have
Power production plant: All the land and land rights,         the support of local opinion.
structures and improvements, boiler or reactor vessel         Probable (indicated) reserves, coal: Reserves or
equipment, engines and engine-driven generator,               resources for which tonnage and grade are computed
turbogenerator units, accessory electric equipment, and       partly from specific measurements, samples, or
miscellaneous power plant equipment are grouped               production data and partly from projection for a
together for each individual facility.                        reasonable distance on the basis of geological
Power transfer limit: The maximum power that can be           evidence. The sites available are too widely or
transferred from one electric utility system to another       otherwise inappropriately spaced to permit the mineral
without overloading any facility in either system.            bodies to be outlined completely or the grade
                                                              established throughout.
Powerhouse: A structure at a hydroelectric plant site
that contains the turbine and generator.                      Production, natural gas: The volume of natural gas
                                                              withdrawn from reservoirs less (1) the volume returned
PP&E, additions to: The current year's expenditures           to such reservoirs in cycling, repressuring of oil
on property, plant, and equipment (PP&E). The amount

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reservoirs, and conservation operations; less (2)              which oil, gas, or gas liquids are delivered to a main
shrinkage resulting from the removal of lease                  pipeline, a common carrier, a refinery, or a marine
condensate; and less (3) nonhydrocarbon gases where            terminal.
they occur in sufficient quantity to render the gas            Propane (C3H8): A normally gaseous straight-chain
unmarketable. Volumes of gas withdrawn from gas                hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at
storage reservoirs and native gas, which has been              a temperature of -43.67 degrees Fahrenheit. It is
transferred to the storage category, are not considered        extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It
production. Flared and vented gas is also considered           includes all products designated in ASTM Specification
production. (This differs from "Marketed Production"           D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications
which excludes flared and vented gas.)                         for commercial propane and HD-5 propane.
Production, natural gas, dry: The volume of natural            Propane air: A mixture of propane and air resulting in a
gas withdrawn from reservoirs during the report year           gaseous fuel suitable for pipeline distribution.
less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in             Propane, consumer grade: A normally gaseous
cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation      paraffinic compound (C3H8), which includes all
operations; less (2) shrinkage resulting from the              products covered by Natural Gas Policy Act
removal of lease condensate and plant liquids; and less        Specifications for commercial and HD-5 propane and
(3) nonhydrocarbon gases where they occur in                   ASTM Specification D 1835. Excludes: feedstock
sufficient quantity to render the gas unmarketable.            propanes, which are propanes not classified as
Volumes of gas withdrawn from gas storage reservoirs           consumer grade propanes, including the propane
and native gas, which has been transferred to the              portion of any natural gas liquid mixes, i.e., butane-
storage category, are not considered production. This is       propane mix.
not the same as marketed production, because the
                                                               Public utility: Enterprise providing essential public
latter also excludes vented and flared gas, but contains
plant liquids.                                                 services, such as electric, gas, telephone, water, and
                                                               sewer under legally established monopoly conditions.
Production, natural gas liquids: Production of natural
                                                               Public utility district: Municipal corporations
gas       liquids     is      classified   as      follows:
---Contract Production. Natural gas liquids accruing to        organized to provide electric service to both
a company because of its ownership of liquids                  incorporated cities and towns and unincorporated rural
extraction facilities that it uses to extract liquids from     areas.
gas belonging to others, thereby earning a portion of          Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935
the                     resultant                   liquids.   (PUHCA): This act prohibits acquisition of any
---Leasehold Production. Natural gas liquids                   wholesale or retail electric business through a holding
produced, extracted, and credited to a company's               company unless that business forms part of an
interest.                                                      integrated public utility system when combined with the
---Contract Reserves. Natural gas liquid reserves              utility's other electric business. The legislation also
corresponding to the contract production defined above.        restricts ownership of an electric business by non-utility
---Leasehold Reserves. Natural gas liquid reserves             corporations.
corresponding to leasehold production defined above.           Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of
Production, natural gas, wet after lease separation:           1978: One part of the National Energy Act, PURPA
The volume of natural gas withdrawn from reservoirs            contains measures designed to encourage the
less (1) the volume returned to such reservoirs in             conservation of energy, more efficient use of resources,
cycling, repressuring of oil reservoirs, and conservation      and equitable rates. Principal among these were
operations; less (2) shrinkage resulting from the              suggested retail rate reforms and new incentives for
removal of lease condensate; and less (3)                      production of electricity by cogenerators and users of
nonhydrocarbon gases where they occur in sufficient            renewable resources. The Commission has primary
quantity to render the gas unmarketable. Note: Volumes         authority for implementing several key PURPA
of gas withdrawn from gas storage reservoirs and               programs.
native gas that has been transferred to the storage            Publicly owned electric utility: A class of ownership
category are not considered part of production. This           found in the electric power industry. This group includes
production concept is not the same as marketed                 those utilities operated by municipalities and State and
production, which excludes vented and flared gas.              Federal power agencies.
Production, oil and gas: The lifting of oil and gas to         PVCs that convert sunlight directly into energy: A
the surface and gathering, treating, field processing (as      method for producing energy by converting sunlight
in the case of processing gas to extract liquid                using photovoltaic cells (PVCs) that are solid-state
hydrocarbons), and field storage. The production               single converter devices. Although currently not in wide
function shall normally be regarded as terminating at          usage, commercial customers have a growing interest
the outlet valve on the lease or field production storage      in usage and, therefore, DOE has a growing interest in
tank. If unusual physical or operational circumstances         the impact of PVCs on energy consumption.
exist, it may be more appropriate to regard the                Economically, PVCs are competitive with other sources
production function as terminating at the first point at       of electricity.


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Quality or grade (of coal): An informal classification of    Reserves, energy: See Proved energy reserves.
coal relating to its suitability for use for a particular    Reserves, net: Includes all proved reserves associated
purpose. Refers to individual measurements such as           with the company's net working interests.
heat value, fixed carbon, moisture, ash, sulfur, major,      Reserves changes: Positive and negative revisions,
minor, and trace elements, coking properties, petrologic     extensions, new reservoir discoveries in old fields, and
properties, and particular organic constituents. The         new field discoveries that occurred during the report
individual quality elements may be aggregated in             year.
various ways to classify coal for such special purposes
                                                             Residential propane price: The "bulk keep full" price
as metallurgical, gas, petrochemical, and blending
usages.                                                      for home delivery of consumer-grade propane intended
                                                             for use in space heating, cooking, or hot water heaters
R-value: A measure of a material's resistance to heat        in residences.
flow in units of Fahrenheit degrees x hours x square
                                                             Residual fuel oil: A general classification for the
feet per Btu. The higher the R-value of a material, the
greater its insulating capability. The R-value of some       heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that
insulating materials is 3.7 per inch for fiberglass and      remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter
cellulose,2.5 per inch for vermiculite, and more than 4      hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations. It
per inch for foam. All building materials have some R-       conforms to ASTM Specifications D 396 and D 975 and
value. For example, a 4-inch brick has an R-value of         Federal Specification VV-F-815C. No. 5, a residual fuel
0.8, and half-inch plywood has an R-value of 0.6. The        oil of medium viscosity, is also known as Navy Special
below table converts the most common "R" values to           and is defined in Military Specification MIL-F-859E,
inches. For other "R" values, divide the "R" value by 3      including Amendment 2 (NATO Symbol F-770). It is
to get the number of inches.                                 used in steam-powered vessels in government service
                                                             and inshore powerplants. No. 6 fuel oil includes Bunker
                 "R"-                                        C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric
                             Inches
                 Value                                       power, space heating, vessel bunkering, and various
                                                             industrial purposes.
                 3           1
                                                             Retail motor gasoline prices: Motor gasoline prices
                 11          3.5                             calculated each month by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
                                                             (BLS) in conjunction with the construction of the
                 19          6                               Consumer Price Index.
                 52          18                              Rural Electrification Administration (REA): A lending
                                                             agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the REA
Rack sales: Wholesale truckload sales or smaller of          makes self-liquidating loans to qualified borrowers to
gasoline where title transfers at a terminal.                finance electric and telephone service to rural areas.
Reformulated gasoline: Finished gasoline formulated          The REA finances the construction and operation of
for use in motor vehicles, the composition and               generating plants, electric transmission and distribution
properties of which meet the requirements of the             lines, or systems for the furnishing of initial and
reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the         continued adequate electric services to persons in rural
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section           areas not receiving central station service.
211(k) of the Clean Air Act. It includes gasoline            Scheduled outage: The shutdown of a generating unit,
produced to meet or exceed emissions performance             transmission line, or other facility for inspection or
and benzene content standards of federal-program             maintenance, in accordance with an advance schedule.
reformulated gasoline even though the gasoline may           Spot market (natural gas): A market in which natural
not meet all of the composition requirements (e.g.           gas is bought and sold for immediate or very near-term
oxygen content) of federal-program reformulated              delivery, usually for a period of 30 days or less. The
gasoline. Note: This category includes Oxygenated            transaction does not imply a continuing arrangement
Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG).                  between the buyer and the seller. A spot market is more
Reformulated      gasoline     excludes       Reformulated   likely to develop at a location with numerous pipeline
Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) and                 interconnections, thus allowing for a large number of
Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB).                       buyers and sellers. The Henry Hub in southern
Reseller: A firm (other than a refiner) that is engaged      Louisiana is the best known spot market for natural gas.
in a trade or business that buys refined petroleum           SPR: See Strategic Petroleum Reserve (below).
products and then sells them to a purchaser who is not       Stand-alone generator: A power source/generator that
the ultimate consumer of those refined products.
                                                             operates independently of or is not connected to an
Reserves, coal: Quantities of unextracted coal that          electric transmission and distribution network; used to
comprise the demonstrated base for future production,        meet a load(s) physically close to the generator.
including both proved and probable reserves. Also see        Standby electricity generation: Involves use of
Proved energy reserves; Probable energy reserves;
                                                             generators during times of high demand on utilities to
Energy reserves; Proved (measured) reserves, coal;
                                                             avoid extra "peak-demand" charges.
and Probable(indicated) reserves, coal.


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Standby facility: A facility that supports a utility system   Transmission system (electric): An interconnected
and is generally running under no-load. It is available to    group of electric transmission lines and associated
replace or supplement a facility normally in service.         equipment for moving or transferring electric energy in
Station (electric): A plant containing prime movers,          bulk between points of supply and points at which it is
electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for              transformed for delivery over the distribution system
converting mechanical, chemical, and/or nuclear energy        lines to consumers or is delivered to other electric
into electric energy.                                         systems.
Station use: Energy that is used to operate an electric       Transmission type (engine): The transmission is the
generating plant. It includes energy consumed for plant       part of a vehicle that transmits motive force from the
lighting, power, and auxiliary facilities, regardless of      engine to the wheels, usually by means of gears for
whether the energy is produced at the plant or comes          different speeds using either a hydraulic "torque-
from another source.                                          converter" (automatic) or clutch assembly (manual). On
Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): Petroleum                  front-wheel drive cars, the transmission is often called a
stocks maintained by the Federal Government for use           "transaxle." Fuel efficiency is usually higher with manual
during periods of major supply interruption                   rather than automatic transmissions, although modern,
                                                              computer-controlled automatic transmissions can be
Subbituminous coal: A coal whose properties range             efficient.
from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and
used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power               Transmitting utility: A regulated entity which owns and
generation. It may be dull, dark brown to black, soft and     may construct and maintain wires used to transmit
crumbly, at the lower end of the range, to bright, jet        wholesale power. It may or may not handle the power
black, hard, and relatively strong, at the upper end.         dispatch and coordination functions. It is regulated to
Subbituminous coal contains 20 to 30 percent inherent         provide non-discriminatory connections, comparable
moisture by weight. The heat content of subbituminous         service, and cost recovery. According to the Energy
coal ranges from 17 to 24 million Btu per ton on a moist,     Policy Act of 1992, it includes any electric utility,
mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of                qualifying cogeneration facility, qualifying small power
subbituminous coal consumed in the United States              production facility, or Federal power marketing agency
averages 17 to 18 million Btu per ton, on the as-             which owns or operates electric power transmission
received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture       facilities which are used for the sale of electric energy at
and mineral matter).                                          wholesale.
Tanker and barge: Vessels that transport crude oil or         Underground storage: The storage of natural gas in
petroleum products. Note: Data are reported for               underground reservoirs at a different location from
movements between PAD Districts; from a PAD District          which it was produced.
to the Panama Canal; or from the Panama Canal to a            Vehicle fuel consumption: Vehicle fuel consumption
PAD District.                                                 is computed as the vehicle miles traveled divided by the
Three-phase power: Power generated and transmitted            fuel efficiency reported in miles per gallon (MPG).
from generator to load on three conductors.                   Vehicle fuel consumption is derived from the actual
                                                              vehicle mileage collected and the assigned MPGs
Transformer: An electrical device for changing the
                                                              obtained from EPA certification files adjusted for on-
voltage of alternating current.                               road driving. The quantity of fuel used by vehicles.
Transmission and distribution loss: Electric energy           Vehicle fuel efficiencies: See Miles per gallon.
lost due to the transmission and distribution of
electricity. Much of the loss is thermal in nature.           Vehicle fuel expenditures: The cost, including taxes,
                                                              of the gasoline, gasohol, or diesel fuel added to the
Transmission (electric) (verb): The movement or
                                                              vehicle's tank. Expenditures do not include the cost of
transfer of electric energy over an interconnected group      oil or other items that may have been purchased at the
of lines and associated equipment between points of           same time as the vehicle fuel.
supply and points at which it is transformed for delivery
to consumers or is delivered to other electric systems.       Vehicle identification number (VIN): A set of codes,
Transmission is considered to end when the energy is          usually alphanumeric characters, assigned to a vehicle
transformed for distribution to the consumer.                 at the factory and inscribed on the vehicle. When
                                                              decoded, the VIN provides vehicle characteristics. The
Transmission circuit: A conductor used to transport
                                                              VIN is used to help match vehicles to the EPA
electricity from generating stations to load.                 certification file for calculating MPGs.
Transmission line: A set of conductors, insulators,           Wet natural gas: A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds
supporting structures, and associated equipment used          and small quantities of various nonhydrocarbons
to move large quantities of power at high voltage,            existing in the gaseous phase or in solution with crude
usually over long distances between a generating or           oil in porous rock formations at reservoir conditions.
receiving point and major substations or delivery points.
                                                              The principal hydrocarbons normally contained in the
Transmission network: A system of transmission or             mixture are methane, ethane, propane, butane, and
distribution lines so cross-connected and operated as to      pentane. Typical nonhydrocarbon gases that may be
permit multiple power supply to any principal point.          present in reservoir natural gas are water vapor, carbon
                                                              dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and trace amounts

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of helium. Under reservoir conditions, natural gas and      Exchange Commission and the Financial Accounting
its associated liquefiable portions occur either in a       Standards Board refer to this product as natural gas.
single gaseous phase in the reservoir or in solution with
crude oil and are not distinguishable at the time as
separate substances. Note: The Securities and

National Association of State Energy Officials
1414 Prince St., Suite 200, Alexandria, Va. 22314
Phone: (703) 299-8800 Fax: (703) 299-6208
www.naseo.org




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