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					 Week 12 - Professionalism,
  Hockey and Government
Involvement in 20th Century
      Canadian Sport
                1900-1960+


•$ $
•   Era of the Pro
•   Prostitute status in ’00 to Our Best
•   High quality performance
•   era of strong sport performance for Cdns
R Tait
McKenzie

’32 Ol
Shield
Brothers of
the Wind




              Joy of
              Effort
             Hanlan & Hanlan
             Club to promote




Paris Crew
promoted
themselves
Louis Cyr promoted himself as entertainer-strongman
                        Edouard “Newsy” Lalonde
                        Best lacrosse player of ½ century




Imperial tobacco company cards
Issued in 1911
BA Scott and
St Lawrence
foundation to
promote and
invest her
commercial
interests
              Jimmy
Burns (born   McLarnin ltw
Noah          (1923-36)
Brusso)       retired bec
and pro       of skilful
promotion     promotion
 Lionel Pretoria Conacher




Pro in Football, Hockey, Baseball,
Lacrosse, Boxing, Wrestling
            Cdn hopes




King Carl
“Say it ain’t so, Ben”


 Bennies Johnson
 Fastest Junkie on Earth
                  Hockey
•   History
•   Leagues
•   International competition
•   The monopoly
•   The dominant sport
•   Marketing violence
•   Canada’s game?
•   The Sweater
•   Shinty
•   Hurley
•   Shinny
•   Bandy
•   Montreal 1875 – 9 men per side
•   McGill University rules
•   Montreal City Hockey League - 1885
•   AmHA – 1886
•   OHA – 1890
•   Lord Stanley – Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley
•   International Hockey League – 1904
•   National Hockey Association, 1910
•   Pacific Coast League: The Patricks
•   National Hockey League 1917
•   Western Canadian Hockey League 1922
Taylor’s salary of $5200 in 09 made him most highly
paid pro player in any sport at the time
Lester Patrick
          Hockey’s Popularity
•   1. Town boosterism
•   2. Commercialization
•   3. Popular press
•   4. International competition
•   5. American Money
•   6. Radio
•   7. Television
1920 Winter
Olympic
Games
(unofficial)




        US, Czech, Sweden
        28 for 1 against
      1924 Chamonix, France

• Toronto Granites
• First Round: Canada   22   Sweden   0
                        33   Switz    0
                        20   Czech    0
1924 Team
                 1924
• Round 2
• Canada    19      Britain   2
            6       US        1
           1928 St. Mortiz
• Toronto Grads: 3 pools
• Canada      11         Sweden    0
              13         Switz     0
              14         Britain   0
             1932 Lake Placid
• Winnipeg
     1936 Garmish-Partenkirken
• Canada-Britain
           1948 St. Moritz
• Royal Canadian Air Force Flyers
             1952 Oslo
• Edmonton Mercuries
            American $$
• US owners – monopoly
• Mobility, pay, playing rights
              Hockey Violence
•   The law
•   Expansion after 1967
•   The Broad Street Bullies
•   The Big Bad Bruins
•   Don Cherry and the marketing of violence
    as entertainment
                      Why?
• Safety valve theory – letting off steam
• Intensity creates hair trigger tempers
• Puts people in the seats
• How boys and men learn to understand sport and
  its relationship to masculinity – confrontation is a
  test
• Respect from opponents – stick work
Canada Cup 1976;
1st time pro hockey
players included
in all national
teams for “best” in
the world
             Summary
• Small town, big city identification
• International success = expectation
  + national identity
• Stars – icons of Canadian culture
• Monopoly
American Gothic ?
Canadian Gothic ?
• “Hockey has left the river and will never
  return. But like the “street,” like an “ivory
  tower,” the river is less a physical place than
  an attitude, a metaphor for unstructured,
  unorganized time alone. And if the game no
  longer needs the place, it needs the attitude”
Government Involvement in 20th
       Century Sport

         Megan Popovic
    UWO Doctoral Candidate
    Kin 263: Canadian Sport
            History
             Denis Coderre
   Secretary of State- Amateur Sport
• “Sport…heart of Canadian life…benefits for each
  and every Canadian, for our communities, and
  our country…qualities we value as Canadians –
  fairness, team spirit, hard work, dedication, and
  commitment…hard-working, dedicated and
  committed high performance athletes are role
  models for our children…physical, mental,
  emotional, and spiritual health and well-
  being…develops character…discipline and
  perseverance…way for Canadians to get to know
  each other.”
        Intentions of Lecture
• Examine the larger social structure and cultural
  environment in which sport and physical activity
  function
• Look at the potential contribution of sport policy
  in strengthening citizenship and social cohesion
• Ask:
   – Forces and events caused gov’t action?
   – Key Actors?
   – Consequences of Actions?
               Citizenship
• “On one hand, citizenship is a legal,
  political, and social reality, a distinct way
  to organize and experience membership in
  a social and political community. On the
  other hand, it is both an idea and an ideal:
  the particular way in which we reflect
  upon evaluate this membership”
   Contribution of Sport Policy to
            Citizenship
• 1. Promotion of national identity and
  minority identities
• 2. Attainment of social rights and cultural
  rights: sport as common good
• 3. Participation in the life of the political
  community (volunteer involvement)
• 4. Set of moral qualities (civic virtues)
      Question to Consider:



Have Canadian sport policies contributed to
      the development of citizenship?
                Stakeholders
•   Athletes              • Sport organizations
•   Coaches               • Federal government
•   Administrators        • Provinces/
•   Educational systems     municipalities/
•   Canadian public         territories
                          • Canadian media
  Sport and Rec and the Welfare
              State
• Welfare State:
“the state has direct economic stake in the
  provision of public education, public health
  care, the setting of minimum wage, the
  regulation of profits, pollution and
  environmental degradation, and the
  development of legislation aimed at fair
  employment practices and equal
  opportunities for all citizens”
• Citizenship Regime
-a specific form of recognition of certain
  rights that is association with a dominant
  form of legitimate state action and the
  state’s relationship with society
-each citizenship regime links to:
      - a specific type of rights (R), and
      -a legitimate form of state action (A)
         Period: 1930-1945
• Role of state: Emergence of welfare state
• Citizenship regime: Liberal
   – R: Civic rights
   – A: Responsibility for self
• Policy objectives: Specific intervention,
  moral reform, employability
               1930-1945
• Pro-Rec program –B.C. in 1934
• Strathcona Trust
• Charitable organizations: YMCA, YWCA,
  Boys and Girls Club, Rec committees

“Liberal” –specific state interventions to
  support citizens, specifically youth, to
  enable them to take control of their lives
  to became responsible and productive
  citizens
         Period: 1945-1975
• Role of state: Consolidation of welfare
  state
• Citizenship regime: Social
   – R: Social rights
   – A: Social justice
• Policy objectives: Right to sports, disease
  prevention
               1945-1975
• 5 BX/ 10 BX RCAF Programs
   – 5 Basic eXercises for Men
   – 10 Basic eXercises for Women
   – Graduated callisthenic exercises
   – Very widely distributed and sold
   – Indirectly government since RCAF
   – Note: Militarism of Strath Trust, NFP
     Act, and 5BX/XBX
               CBC Archives
• 5 Basic eXercises       • 5 Basic eXercises -
   – Broadcasted Aug.       Getting Physical:
     16, 1961               Canada's Fitness
   – “RCAF exercises        Movement - CBC
     performed for 11       Archives
     minutes a day are
     ideal for both the
     champion athlete
     and the modern
     housewife”
              1945-1975
• Bill C-131 Fitness and Amateur Sport Act
  – Larger forces and events:
      • Post-war internationalism in sport
      • Impact of television
      • Urbanization and industrialization
      • Socio-economic changes
      • Growth of government
               CBC Archives
• “Armchair Suicide”       • Committing
   – Broadcast July 16,      armchair suicide -
     1968                    Getting Physical:
   – “The sudden death       Canada's Fitness
     rate climbs as lazy     Movement - CBC
     Canadians sit in        Archives
     front of the boob
     tube, experts say”
             PM John Diefenbaker
• Believed success in sport
  by Canadians would have
  positive effect on national
  pride:
“In the field of sport today there are
    tremendous dividends in national
    price from some degree of success
    in athletics. The uncommitted
    countries of the world are now
    using these athletic contests as
    measurements of the evidence of
    the strength and power of nations
    participating.”
   Fitness and Amateur Sport Act
                1961
• “to encourage, promote, and develop fitness and
  amateur sport in Canada” (Canada 1961: Chapter 59,
  Section 3)
• that a national fitness, recreation, and amateur
  athletic program be established
• that an Advisory Council be established
• that provision be made through grants and
  training courses for training of personnel and for
  research and surveys
• that federal assistance be given in the
  preparation of informational and educational
  material on fitness, recreation, and athletics,
• that $5 million be made available
• that a cabinet committee be established to
  consider the manner of presentation of the
  national fitness program
     F & AS Money Spent On:
• Federal-provincial cost-sharing programs
• Grants to sport governing bodies
• Hockey
• Coaching leadership and training
  programs
• Bursary programs for elite athletes
• Canada Games (“Unity through sport”)
• Scholarship and research programs
               F & AS Act
• Few grants to grass roots level
• House of commons debates through
  1960s clear –quest was for international
  sport prestige
• “they watered the flowers instead of the
  fields”
  Administration of F & AS Act
• Administered by National Advisory Council
• NAC interested in mass participation and
  fitness
• Gov’t interested in gold medals
• NAC advisory only and always in conflict
  with Ministry of Health and Welfare
Task Forces
      • Trudeau government set
        up dual study
        commissions in 1968
      “There are a certain
        number of symptoms
        which worry me –the
        fact that hockey is our
        national sport and yet
        in the world
        championship we have
        not been able, as
        amateurs, to perform
        as well as we know we
        can.”
                Task Forces
• 1969 Report on the
  Task Force on Sport
  in Canada
   – “Task Force
     Report”
   – Looked at sport in
     Canada
   – Nancy Green + 2
     non-sport admins
   – Concern: hockey
     and international
             Task Forces
• 1969 A Report on Physical Recreation,
  Fitness and Amateur Sport in Canada
   – The PS Ross Report
   – Look at fitness of Canadians and
     resulted in ParticipACTION
     1969 Task Force Report
• Report heavy emphasis on revitalizing
  sport in Canada re performance
• Most comprehensive on Hockey Canada
  and ways to WIN!! (not since 1961 had
  won world championship)
• Best result: Sport Canada, Recreation
  Canada
     1969 Task Force Report
• Noted how Pro sport had destroyed
  regional competition
• Problems unique to Canada –huge
  geographical mass; 1000s of $$ rinks;
  apathetic public; lack of athletic
  development programs
• Significant and comprehensive report
    F & AS Act Contributions?
• Systematized sport organization
• Created a bureaucracy of sport including
  large administration center in Ottawa
• Creation of National Coaching Assoc;
  Canada Fitness Awards program; set up
  grants-in-aid to athletes program; founded
  Cdn Academy of Sports Medicine; grants
  to international sport groups and games
  (ie Olympics)
    F & AS Act Contributions?
• Set precedents for provincial government
  programs/services
• “Best Ever” programs like Best Ever 88
• Became THE control agency for sport in
  Canada at all levels
• Bureaucratized sport; one more step in its
  institutionalization
         Period: 1975-2000
• Role of state: State-Province Restructuring
• Citizenship Regime: Neo-liberal
   – R: Rights based on proven needs
   – A: Citizen responsibility
• Policy Objectives: Promotion of healthy
  lifestyle
             ParticipACTION
• From 1969 study commissioned by NAC for
  Fitness and Amateur Sport –concluded Cdns in
  terrible shape, future of well-beings of Cdns in
  jeopardy, and most Cdns couldn’t care less
 ParticipACTION: 3 Objectives
• 1. Create a national awareness and educational
  campaign regarding the health and social
  benefits of an active lifestyle, with practical
  advie on “getting started”
• 2. leverage the public funds invested by
  generating private sector support to at least
  match the public funds
• 3. cooperate with and support the efforts of
  community-based health, sport and p.a. leaders
  and their programs
           ParticipACTION
        Mass Media Campaigns
• 3 decades: 533 television messages and 549
  radio messages
• Assessed value: $280 million
• Supported by: 350 TV stations, 110 daily
  newspapers, 950 weekly newspapers, 1100
  magazines, 1100 corporate publications and
  associations newsletters
• Also part of ParticipACTION:
   – Community-based initiatives
   – Education programs
   – Creation of resources (healthy eating, work-
     place health and activity, etc)
Early Years 1973-79
Theme for 1983-64
Vitality 1990-95
Sharing a healthier future 1996-
             2000




      “All in the family” video clip
         PARTICIPaction
• ParticipACTION packing it in? -
  Getting Physical: Canada's Fitness
  Movement - CBC Archives
            Period: 2000+
• Role of state: Post-welfare state
• Citizenship regime: Inclusive state
   – R: Social and cultural rights
   – Inclusive governance
• Policy obligations: Access to sport
                   2000+
• The Canadian Sport Policy (2002)
• Federal-Provincial/Territorial Priorities for
  Collaborative Action in Sport (2002)
• Bill C-54 Physical Activity and Sport Act
  (replace Fitness and Amateur Sport
  Act of 1961) (2003)
         Final thought…
• Funding Canadian athletes: An
  opposing view - Funding of Amateur
  Sports - CBC Archives

				
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