Kikoongo wordlists Jan Daeleman_COMBINED by xiangpeng

VIEWS: 120 PAGES: 159

									                                                                                                                        1




   Kikoongo wordlists classified according to their respective tones

                                                Jan Daeleman,s.j.


0. General introduction

It is the purpose of this paper to put at the disposal lists of Kikoongo (Kintandu) verbs and (pro)nouns

classified according to their respective tones. They are the results of research on Kintandu, eastern

dialect of the Kikoongo language, itself a western Bantu language of zone H, group 10. Kintandu (H.16g) is

spoken in the area extending from the river Lukuusu            (N of Madimba) up to the Fidi River in the south,

between the Nzadi-nkisi and the Nsele, all affluents of the Koongo river (cf map).


0.1.Informants

As informants acted in Leemfu the late Nzuunzu, in 1957, and Ntoya, in 1958. In Kisaantu the late Xavier

Sita (1884-1974), former chief of Kisaantu, was of invaluable help, in the years 1958-1959.Afterwards
(1967-1980)   informants    were   occasional    and   rather    supplementary,       especially   students   in   African
linguistics. Worth mentioning:

       Nsuka Zikabwiiku (°1936 in Kiyanika, between Kisaantu and Leemfu),

       sr Kiteewu Nduunsi-Mpasi (°1938 in Kinaanga, about halfway the same villages),

       Ntuunda-Nzeeza (°ca 1950 in the Kisaantu region).

As for the plant-names the principal informant, end 1972-beginning 1973, was the agronomist Nyana (°1922 in

Lwaangu in the Kisaantu region), at work in the well-known Gillet-garden of Kisaantu.



0.2. Division into three parts

Each part has its own introduction.

1st part : Kikoongo verbal bases divided into low and high bases (verbsintr 1-2, verbs 1-57)

2nd part : Kikoongo nouns and some pronouns classified in tone-groups (nounsintr 1-2, nouns 1-68)

3rd part : Kikoongo polysyllabic nouns classified in tone-groups (polintr 1-2, pol.1-26)
                                                                                                                     2




0.3. The order is as follows : the vowels a            e        i    o   u , the long vowel aa    ee    ii   oo     uu.
    The final consonants (indicated in the margin):

             the labials   m        b      p     v          f
             the dentals   n       l/d     t     z          s
             the velars            g      k
             the semi-consonants                  w        y
   the prenasalised consonants (NC) :
             the labials           mb     mp    mv         mf
             the dentals           nd     nt    nz         ns
             the velars            ng     nk
   Forms with nominal or pronominal prefix merging with the stem (np or pp x stem) follow the velars, under
   each of the vowels.
   Verbbases and (pro)nouns in tonal opposition only are bold-faced in the lists, and are also gathered in
   minimal pairs/trios at the end of each part.

0.4. The nouns in translation indicated by 'Bot.' are taken from our
    J.DAELEMAN & L.PAUWELS, "Notes d'ethnobotanique ntandu (koongo). Principales plantes de la
        région de Kisaantu : Noms ntandu et noms scientifiques" in Africana Linguistica IX
        (Annalen Menswetenschappen nr 110) Tervuren, 1983, pp.149-255.

    Useful     for   the    English      translation       of       quite   a   number   of   words    has   been    :
    Rev.W.Holman BENTLEY, Dictionary and grammar of the Kongo language, London, 1887,pp.245-482.
    Id., Appendix to the dictionary and grammar of the Kongo language, London, 1895, pp.815-944.
                                                                                                                                               verbs intr 1


             1. Kikoongo verb-bases divided into low bases and high bases

1.0.This list presents the verb-bases in Kintandu (Kikoongo eastern dialect) divided into
low (L) bases and into high (H) bases.

1.01. The verb-bases have to be distinguished into
         a mono-morphemic base                                          and                    a poly-morphemic base
            = single root                                                                 = root + extension, i.e.
                                                                                            root + one or more suffixes

1.0.2.From certain verb-forms the distinction can be inferred between

                          L       bases                                 and                                       H   bases

                As examples are taken, put into the 2nd class (3d person plural) :

       -man- (end)                       -manis- (let end)                           -sal- (work)                                 -sadis- 1 (help)
       -saas- (cut up)                                                               -saal- (remain)


                                  h     i    s      t       o       r       i        c            p       a       s       t

      bamana                           bamanisa                                 basala                                         basadisa
      basaasa                                                                    basaala
    kabamanako     (neg.)           kabamanisako       (neg.)              kabasalako         (neg.)              kabasadisako       (neg.)
    kabasaasako   (neg.)                                                     kabasaalako       (neg.)

                              s         u      b        j       u           n         c       t       i           v           e

      bamana                           bamanisa                                 basala                                         basadisa

                     (verbo-nominal)               i        n           f        i        n       i           t       i            v     e

      kumana                           kumanisa                                 kusala                                         kusadisa
      kusaasa                                                                    kusaala

1.0.3. There is also a distinction between short and long roots, e.g.


-zal-         (fill)       zaal-            (sieve)                         -sal-            (work)                  -saal-          (remain,stay)
-teb-         (emit)       -teeb-            (be brimfull)                  -bel-            (be wrong)              -beel-          (be ill)
-fin-         (pinch)      -fiin-            (clamp)
-lok-         (bewitch)    -look-            (shout)                        -yil-            (darken)                -yiil-          (be used to)
-tut-         (pound)      -tuut-            (bustle)                       -kol-            (be drunk)              -kool-          (pull off)
-sins-        (shake)      -siin-            (try)                          -buk-            (cure)                  -buuk-          (burst)
-bund-        (join)       -buund-           (enshroud)                     -leng-           (walk)                  -leeng-          (leap)
                                                                            -yung-           (fester)                -yuung-          (roam slowly)


1.0.4. For a long root is to be taken into account the fact that by its extension with two or
       more suffixes a long vowel does not pass beyond the third syllable from the end. 2




1
  These archaic data have been noted in Kisaantu, in 1958-1959, from our informant Xavier Sita
(Nsaawa-Kaluunga) (1884-1974). 'Archaic' (and thus interesting diachronically) because in later
generations the tones of the extended H roots coincide with those of the extended L roots, the
tones of the single H roots remaining distinct from the tones of the single L roots.

2
   Cfr. Jan Daeleman, s.j., 'Verkorting en "viermoren-wet" in het Kikoongo', Aequatoria 22
(1959/3) 93-96/7.
                                                                                                                     verbs intr 2


                                     The examples are in the infinitive, without ku-.




                                                                C        o         m        p         a          r        e
   -dyatidila         (trample on)               -dyaatila      (step on)                         -dyaata        (step, tread)
   -zayakana       (be knowable)              -zaayisa    (let know)                        -zaaya       (know)
   -tambulula      (take turns)               -taambula   (take over)                       -taamba       (reach hand)
   -tangulula      (recount, reread)          -taangisa   (teach to count/read)             -taanga       (count, read)
   -kangidila         (tie up)                   -kaangila      (tie with)                        -kaanga        (tie, bind)
   -lekidila       (stay at)                  -leekila    (sleep on)                        -leeka       (sleep)
   -kembidila      (extol on)                 -keembila   (praise on)                       -keemba       (pay homage,praise)
   -yindumuna         (ponder)           -yiindula              (consider)                        -yiinda        (think)
   -dingidika         (keep quite still) -diingika              (keep still)                      -diinga        (still)
   -fyonunuka         (skulk)            -fyoonuka              (sneak)                           -fyoona        (slink)
   -nyonsakana        (be weak)          -nyoonsisa             (let languish)                    -nyoonsa       (languish)
   -songidila      (show how)                 -soongisa   (let show)                        -soonga       (show)
   -nukutina          (smell at)                 -nuukuta       (smell, stink)                    -nuuka         (smell, stink)
   -bundumuna         (unfold entirely)          -buundula      (unfold)                          -buunda        (enshroud)
   -tuntumuna      (shock)                    -tuuntuka   (pull up)                         -tuunta       (pull, draw)




      0.5. Many English verbs can be both transitive and intransitive; if not only the transitive
                meaning is given.



transitive intransit.            spelt                              transitive intransit.             spelt
-sabik-        -sabam-        -sabik/am-          (stop)            -sabul-        -sabuk-         -sabul/k-           (unstop)
-yekik-      -yekam-      -yekik/am-       (prop)            -yekul-      -yekuk-       -yekul/k-         (un-prop,betray)

-zekul-      -zekuk-      -zekul/k-         (untwist)         -zekun-      -zekuk-       -zekun/k-         (distort)
-finik-        -finam-        -finik/am-          (put near)        -finangas- -finangan- -finangas/n-                 (close together)
-soongik-      -soongam-      -soongik/am-        (point)           -soongul-      -soonguk-       -soongul/k-         (make a point)
-konik-      -konam-      -konik/am-       (crease)          -konun-      -konuk-       -konun/k-         (decrease)
-buundik-      -buundam-      -buundik/am-        (fold up)         -buundul-      -buunduk-       -buundul/k          (unfold)
-tuumbik-   -tuumbam-   -tuumbik/am-    (consecrate) -tuumbul-        -tuumbuk-    -tuumbul/k-      (desecrate)
-yisumun-      -yisumuk-      -yisumun/k-         (cant over)       -labidik-   -labalal-    -labidik/alal- (look intently)
-ganginik- -ganganan- -ganginik/anan- (straddle) -bwitidik- -bwitalal- -bwitidik/alal-(darken)
                                                                                                                                                    verbs 1

                                                1. List of Kikoongo low and high verb-bases                    (Jan Daeleman)


                                           L                                                                                   H
     -CVC-          -CVC-VC-(VC-...)           -CVVC-          -CVVC-VC-(VC-...)          -CVC           -CVC-VC-(VC-..)           -CVVC-           -CVVC-VC-(VC-...)
-m                                       -baam- (scold)      -baamin- (scold         -bam-(tighten)
                                                                         for/with)   -bam-(invent)
                  -pamun/k- (leap,
                               spring)

                  -vwamvwan- (roam       -vwaam- (roost,     -vwaamin- (roost/                                                -vwaam-(be rich) -vwaamin- (get rich
                           about,rove)             perch)                perch on)                                                                                 with)
                  -nyamuk- (tiptoe)

     -lam-        -lamik/am- (stick,
          (stick)              affix)
                  -lamun/k- (unstick,
                             unfasten)                                               -dam- (smack)
                  -damun- (nip off)
                                                                                     -tam- (pace
                                                                                             off)      -tamin- (pace                           -taamin- (stride)
                                                                                                                  with/for)   -twaam- (sprout) -taminik/anan-
                                                                                                                                                               (straddle)
                                                             -tyaamun/k- (pour                                                -tyaam- (strike
                                                                           away)                                                 a heavy blow,
                                                             -tyamangas/n- (break                                                gather wood)
                                                                         fast/much   -zam- (be in
                                                                         at once)            use)      -zamin- (strut
                                         -zyaam- (be                                 -zam- (cherish                 about)
                                                   buried)
                                                                                                       -zamis- (pamper)
                  -samun/k- (tell,say                                                -sam-
                              inform)                                                      (twinkle)
                  -samunun- (tell                                                    -sam- (hack)                            -syaam-(be firm/
                              around)                                                                                                   strong)  -syaamin- (applic.)
                                         -swaam- (hide)      -swaamin- (hide for                                                                 -syaamis- (make firm)
                                                             -swaamis- (let hide)                                                                -syaminik/anan-
                                                                                                                                                             (steady,make
                                                                                                                                                             steadfast)
                                                                                                                        verbs 2

                               L                                                                                  H
(-m)                                                                             -amat- (straddle)
                                                                                 -amuk- (start loudly)
                                                             -gam- (strike)

                                                             -kam- (squize)     -kamun/k- (squize out)
                                                                                                                -kwaam- (sit firm in -kwaamin- (be fixed in,
                                                                                                                       its handle,be                    persist in)
                                                                                                                       fixed;persist) -kwaminin- (persevere in)
                                                                                                                -kwaam- (take fire, -kwamikin- (persist doggedly
                                                                                                                               burn)                            in)
                                                             -yam- (smart,                                                            -kwaamis- (set firm,let
                                                                        prick)                                                                             persist)
 -b                      -baab-(shake, -baabil- (applic.)    -bab- (singe)      -babis-(let singe,toast)
                               beat)   -baabis- (let beat/                       -babusuk- (crackle;
                                                    bat)
                                                                                                   stammer)
                                       -babidil- (tap on)
                                       -babumun/k- (flap,
       -vwab- (clap                               spring)
             blunt hoe
                                                             -lab- (throw,      -labidik/alal-(throw,
             in mud)
                                                                       wink)                 look intently)
                                                                                 -labis- (wink, beckon)
                                                                                 -labitil- (try to reach)
                                                                                 -labitis-(put beyond the
                                                                                                       reach)
                                                                                 -labul/k- (blink)
                                                                                 -labwasak- (flame)

                                                             -tab- (cut off)    -tabil- (cut off fire)
                                                             -tab- (flee)       -tabul/k- (cut in two)
                                                                                 -tabusul/k-(crumble off)
                                                                                 -tabik- (go into house
                                                                                                  of groom)
                                                                                 -tabikis- (lead into his
                                                                                                    house)
                                                                                                                                                 verbs 3

                                                  L                                                                                  H
(-b)                                            -tyaab- (gush : water,                                                                       -tyabidik/alal-
                                                         rain, words,and                                                                           (bulge,buck up)
                                                         longlasting)
                                                -tsyaab- (flow copiously                                                                     -tsyabidik/alal-
                                                         and loudly;leap
                                                                                                                                                  (bulge,buck up)
                                                         (many))
                                                -syaab- (leap (one only)
                                                             profusely)                                                                      -syabidik/alal- (full
                         -zabul/k- (hasten,                                                                                                              up,perk up)
                               move quickly)
                         -zabukil- (applic.)

       -sab- (hack,      -sabil- (applic.)                                                      -sab- (have
                clear)   -sabik/am- (stopper)                                                        one's fill)
                         -sabul/k-(unstopper)
                         -sabumuk- (flow off)
                         -sabunk- (gurgle)

       -kab- (deal,     -kabil- (applic.)                                                                          -kabul/k- (be bold/
                divide) -kabis- (let divide)                                                                                      frank)
       -yab- (divulge) -yabuk- (step over)
       -yab- (scoop,
             water out,
             bail out)
-p     -pap- (flap      -papal- (flutter,                                  -paapat- (grope)
                wings)            wriggle)
                        -papumun/k- (flutter                               -pwaapul- (leak
                                     hard)                                     (roof,bowels))
-f                                                                                                                 -bafun/k- (hit,punch;
                                                                                                                                    cry)     -laaful/k- (shrink)

                                                                                                -taf- (chew)      -tafin- (pre-chew)
                                                                                                                   -tafun/k- (chew)
                                                                                                                   -tafunun- (ruminate)

                                                                                                                   -yaful- (crawl (as
                                                                                                                               infant) on
                                                                                                                               all fours)
                                                                                                                                                           verbs 4

                                                 L                                                                                    H
-n-    -man- (end,finish)       -manis- (let end/finish
      n                         -manik/am- (hang up/on)
      n                         -manun/k- (take down)
      n                                                                                                                             -bwaan- (meet)       -bwaanan- (meet)
      n -pan- (clear,remove)
      n                                                                                                                             -pyaan- (run away)
      n
                                                                                                                                    -fwaan- (fit,re-   -fwaanas/n- (fit,
      -
                                                                                                                                            semble,suit,                agree)
      n -nan- (draw out         -nanik/am-   (strain)
                long,stretch)   -nanun/k-    (lengthen)                                                                                     suffice)     -fwananan- (fully
                                -nwanikin-   (trip)       -nwaan- (fight,      -nwaanin-                                                                                fit)
                                -nwanumuk-   (trip)                strive)          (fight                                                               -fwanakan- (fully
                                -nyanumun-   (sprinkle)   -nyaan- (stroll)          for)                                                                                fit)
                                                                               -nwaanis-                                                                 -fwanangan- (fully
                                                          -dyaan- (yell,be         (attack)                                                                             fit)
       -tan- (skin at one                                          infamous)                                                                             -fwaanik- (fit,
                    blow)                                                                                                           -taan- (loot)
                                                                                                                                                                        agree)
                                                                                                                                    -taan- (scatter)
       -san- (comb)                                                                                                                                      -fwanikis-
       -san- (boast)                                                                                                                                                (equalize)

                                                                                                                                                           -taanin- (protect)
       -an-/-gan- (snub)       -anin- (snub)                                                                -ganinik/anan-  -gaan- (give)
                                                                                                                        (sit inde-
                                                                                                                       cently)

                                -kanun/k-(dry,get hard)                                       -kan- (plan,   -kanin- (utter
                                -kanikin- (order,                                                   intend)         intention,ta
                                       strictly enjoin)                                                             -ke leave)                             -ganasan- (give to
                                                                                                              -kanan- (bid each                                    each other)
                                                                                                                       other
                                                                                                                       farewell)
                                                                                                                                    -waan- (meet)        -waanan- (meet
                                                                                                              -yanik/am-                                       each other)
                                                                                                                    (spread in
                                                                                                                    the sun,air)
                                                                                                              -yanun/k- (take
                                                                                                                    out of the
                                                                                                                    sun)
                                                                                                                         verbs 5
                                      L                                                                              H
-l/d -myal- (shine,
             gleam)      -badik- (pile to count,                       -bal- (mate)                                        -baal- (be hard/    -baadis- (harden)
                                         consider)                                                                                    tough)
                         -balul/k- (turn over)
                         -balumun/k- (upset,upend)
                         -balatal- (bluster)
                                                                                       -bwalangan- (meet each other)
                         -palumun/k- (hurry)
                         -pyaluk- (evade)
                                                                                       -vwalul- (rage)
     -vwal- (trouble)    -vwalangas/n-(muddle up)
                         -vwalumun/k- (slope off)                                      -vwalumun/k- (wake with a
                         -vyalumun/k- (sneak away)                                                              start)
                                                                                       -nwanumuk- (trip)
                                                                                       -nyalat- (drip)
                                                                                       -nyalumun/k- (sprinkle)
     -lal- (be lost,     -ladil- (be lost by)       -daad- (shake,
            disappear,   -ladis- (make less, waste)         beat                                                            -laal- (lay down,   -ladimin- (lay on
            lessen)      -ladik- (move on surface,          (heart)                    -lalul/k- (take from the
                                                                                                     surface,skim off)                  sleep)               eggs,brood,
                                       float,apply)
                         -ladikil- (apply on/with)                                                                          -lwaal- (be cut/               hatch)
                                                                                                                                       wounded)
                         -talul/k- (distance)                                          -tadil- (look at/with)
                                                                       -tal- (look)
                         -talumun- (space)                                             -tadidil- (look well at/with)
                         -talumuk- (roar,thunder)                                      -tadis- (let look,face)
                                                                                       -tadisil- (look closely
     -zal- (fill)                                                                                             at/with)
                                                                                       -tadidis- (let look at/with)
                                                                                       -tadikil- (gaze at)
                                                                                                                            -twaal- (bring)     -twaadis- (let
                                                                                       -talas/n- (look at each other)                                          bring)
                                                                                       -talasas/n- (put/be face to                             -twaalan- (keep
                                                                                                                  face)                                      pace with
                         -zadil- (fill with)          -zaal- (sieve)                                                                                         each other)
                         -zadis- (fill,make full)                                                                                                 -twalakas/n-
                         -zalun/k- (treat without                                                                                                         (carry away)
                                           respect)
                         -zaluk- (climb)
                         -zalumun/k- (stretch out)
                                                                                                                          verbs 6

                                         L                                                                               H
(-l/d)                      -saluk- (wince,flinch)                       -sal- (work)          -sadil- (work for,serve,      -saal- (remain,    -sadimin-(settle
                                                                                                                     help)             stay,dwell)         in)
                            -swalumuk- (spurt out)                                              -sadis- (let work,assist)
                                                                                                -salasan- (help each         -swaal- (sieve)
                                                                                                                     other)
                            -gaditin- (do one's best,                    -gal- (scrape,
                                       do by o.s.)                                              -gadil- (scrape/plane
                                                                                 plane,clear)
                                                                                                                     with)
                                                                                                -gadis- (let scrape/plane)
                                                                                                -galakan- (skim,brush,
                                                                                                                  come near)
         -kal- (exist,be, -kadil- (be/live at)             -kaal-                                                                                    -kaaluk- (bawl)
                  dwell) -kal-kal- (regain breath)             (stamp)                          -kadidik/kalalal- (dry,
                          -kalang- (grill,roast)                                                                     hoarsen)
                                                                                                -kaluk- (yell)
                            -kwalumuk- (trip,whiz)                                              -kaluluk-(call aloud,yell)

                            -walumun/k- (sprout,rustle)

         -yal- (lay out,    -yadil- (lay out for/with)
                spread      -yadis- (let lay out)                                                                               -yaal- (reign,     -yaadil- (reign
                open/out)   -yalam- (be spread)                                                                                            govern)                  for)
                            -yadik- (stay in room after                                                                                              -yaadis- (let
                                                 birth)                                                                                                            reign)
                            -yalal- (start a baby)                                                                                                   -yaadik- (invest
                            -yalan- (proliferate)                                                                                                              as chief)
                            -yalangas/n- (spread out
                                                 widely)
                            -yalul/k- (roll up,clear
                                                 away)
                            -yalumun/k- (extend over the
                                        entire length)
                            -yalunk- (extend over the
                                        entire length)
                                                                                                                            verbs 7

                                              L                                                                                      H
-t -mat- (climb)       -matin- (climb with)
                       -matis- (let climb)
                                                                                                      -batik/am- (stoop low)
                                                                                                      -batidik/alal- (crouch,
                                                                                                                           cower)
                                                                                                      -batakas/n- (make/be
                                                                                          -bwat-
   -pat- (muddle)                                                                                                            flat)
                                                                                            (pinch)
   -pwat-(leak(diar-   -pwatak- (leak,re-     -pwaat- (leak,re-
       rhoea,words))          lieve bowels;       lieve bowels;                                       -bwatul- (blink)
                              pearl)              pearl)                                              -bwatulul- (blink again)
   -pyat- (fidget)                                                                                                                       -pyaat-(lick) -pyaatun- (slide)

                                                                                                                                         -vwaat-(wear, -vwaatis- (help
                                              -fyaat- (nose                                           -pyatun (lick)                           dress)                 dress)
   -nat- (carry)       -natin- (carry                   about)
                                for/with)
                       -natis- (help carry)                                                                                                              -naatuk- (slip
                       -natuk- (be carried)                                                                                                                           in/out)
                                              -nwaat- (notch)
                       -nyatakas/n-(squash)

                       -latik/am- (apply)                                                             -latis- (sharpen)                -laat- (lick) -laatul- (lap)
                                              -dyaat- (walk,      -dyaatil- (walk/tread
                                                       tread)          on)
                                                                  -dyaatis- (help walk)
                                                                  -dyatidil- (trample)
                                                                  -dyatakas/n- (trample
                                                                       on/ under foot)
   -tat- (creak)       -tatil- (applic.)                                                  -tat-
                                                                                                      -tatis- (let yelp)                               -taatul- (speak
                                                                                            (yelp)    -tatik/am- (bite,prick)                                     aloud,yell
                                                                                          -tat-                                                                     out)
                                                                                            (char)
                                                                                                      -zatun/k- (tear off,
                                              -zaat- (be acid)
                                                                                                                  pinch off)
                                              -saat- (tart)                                           -zyatun- (spit)
                                              -saat- (weed)
                                                                                                                                                         -swaatun/k- (sneak
                                                                                                                                                                        off)
                                                                                                                             verbs 8

                                          L                                                                                    H
(-t)                                                                               -syat- (scrape                                                   -syaatun/k-(bubble up)
                                                                                         to pieces)                                                  -syaatul/k- (spit)
                                                              -aatun- (fold
                                                                        back)
                                                                                   -gat- (hoe,cul-
                                          -gaat- (grub up/    -gatakas- (grub              tivate)
                                                    about)         up,fit for
                                                                   cultivation)
                     -katul/k- (take      -kaat- (squeal,                                                                                            -kaatul- (amaze)
                                                            -kaatuk- (start
                           away,remove)             yelp)       out of sleep)
                     -katikis- (hesi-     -kaat- (hawk,                                                                      -kwaat- (catch
                            tate,doubt)          clear the                                                                               hold of)
                                                 throat)
                                          -kyaat- (draw up  -kyaatik/am- (set
                                               in order,           in a line, -yat- (cleave,         -yatun/k- (split,                            -yaatan- (cry,squall)
                                               form a line)        arrange)                                         burst)
                                                                                      split)
                                                                                                      -yatul/k- (slap,
                                                                                                                    smack)
-z                                        -zaaz- (shudder,    -zaazil- (shake/
                                                    jerk)          tremble with)
                                                              -zaazis- (let
                                                                  shake/shudder)
-s                                        -baas- (split)      -baasul/k-(burst,                       -basul/k-(release,
                                                                         split)                                    let go)
                                                              -basumun/k- (saw
                                                                      through)

                     -pasul/k- (cut up/   -paas- (tear,rip)   -paasul/k- (tear/
                                 open)                               rip open)

       -fwas-(spoil, -fwasakas/n- (de-
            destroy)        stroy,ruin)                                            -las- (be sharp) -lasis- (sharpen)
                                                                                                                             -lwaas- (tap palm
                                                                                                     -dasul/k- (enrage)
                                                                                                                                        for wine)

                                                                                                                             -twaas- (bring
                                                                                                                                     along/around)
       -sas- (floun- -sasul/k- (hasten,   -saas- (cut up,                                                                    -tyaas- (rend,
            der,wrig             hurry)             carve)                                                                             tear,slit)
            -gle)                                                                                                                                    -swaaswas/n- (differ
                                                                                                                                                              from each other)
       -gas-/-nas-   -gasul/k- (chip,
         (chip,tear)             split)                                                               -gasun/k- (gnaw)
                     -asul/k- (chip,
                                 split)
                                                                                                                        verbs 9

                                              L                                                                               H
(-s)                     -kasakas/n- (vex,anger)                                     -kas- (tighten)
                                                                                     -kas- (be bony/
       -kwas- (do
                                                                                           skinny)
            rashly;
            squander)

       -yas- (divulge)                                                                                     -yasik/am- (open)                      -yaasik- (open
                                                                                     -yas- (open,split)
                                                                                                           -yasidik/alal- (open                        wide,split)
                                                                                                                            wide,gape)
                                                                                                           -yasun/k- (open,burst)
-g                       -gagidik/alal- (sprawl,let -gaag- (seek,grub
                                      (arms, wings)            up)
                                      hang loose)
-k                       -makun/k- (throw/knock                                                            -makik/am- (raise/rise,
                                    over backwards)                                                                       stand bolt
                                                                                                                          up right)
                         -bakul- (recall to mind,   -baak- (tear,      -baakun/k-    -bak- (get,obtain,   -bakil- (get for/with)
                                       mention,cry)         rend,slit)    (tear,pull        seize,catch)
                                                                          down)                            -bakis- (help take/
                                                                                                                             seize)
                                                                                                           -bakam- (be caught)
                                                                                                           -bakan- (get on togeth-
                                                                                                                         er,agree)
                                                                                                           -bakanan- (get on/agree
                                                     -bwaak- (be red,
                                                                                                                         well, be on
                                                          redden,ripen)
                                                                                                                         good terms)
                         -pakul- (angle)             -paak- (tear with                                     -bakuk- (be caught)
                                                             the hands)
       -vwak- (sell      -vwakat- (cram,gorge)
              cheaply)

       -fwak- (splash,
               hurtle)                                                                                                                               -nyaakun/k- (chew
                                                                                                                                                                 noisily)
       -nyak- (recover, -nyakat- (act violently,                                                                                                     -nyakunun- (chew
            get better)             bully,trample)
                                                                                                                                                                the cud,
                                                                                                           -lakan- (be dying)                                 ruminate)
                         -lakat- (long for,hanker    -laak- (shrink)
                                        for,claim)                                                         -lakumun/k- (make a        -daak-
                                                                                                                                                    -daakis- (let
                                                                                                                 blaze, flare up,         (deflate,
                                                                                                                                                                deflate/
                                                                                                                 move the tongue)         explode)
                                                                                                                                                                explode)
                                                                                                                              verbs 10

                                                    L                                                                                   H
(-k)                                        -lwaak- (get to,arrive,     -lwaakil- (applic.)
                                                      come to,reach)    -lwaakis- (take near,
                                                                                    let arrive)
                    -takal- (waddle,        -taak- (thin)                                                              -takik/am- (bar,
                                wobble)                                                                                                 slant)
                                            -twaak- (tear)              -twaakuk- (be torn)                            -takidik/alal-
                                                                                                                                   (obstruct)
                                            -tyaak- (scatter in dis-    -tyaakil- (applic.)
                                                         order,flood)   -tyaakan- (scatter)                            -takul/k-(jump away)
                                            -tyaak- (hit lengthwise)    -tyakalakas/n- (clutter,
                                                                                      entangle)
                                                                        -tyaakun/k- (splash up)
                    -zakam- (quiver,                                                               -zak- (catch,      -zakul/k- (catch,
                                shiver)                                                                  intercept)                  clutch)
                    -zakimis- (quiver,                                                             -zwak- (chew
                                shake)
                                                                                                            noisily)
       -sak- (pro- -sakis- (spur on,
                                                                                                   -sak- (be too
            voke)               excite)                                                                                -sakil- (clap as       -saak-    -saakil-
       -sak- (comb -sakisil- (egg on,                                                                    much/late)
                                                                                                                            yield/gratitude)      (sever,           (sever
         out,frisk,             urge)                                                                                  -sakidik/alal- (re-   chop off)         with)
         hunt down) -sakan- (play)
                                                                                                                              lieve,decrease)
                    -sakul/k- (weed)
                    -sakul- (speak (of a
                            great chief
                            only) as Gods
                            spokesman)
                    -sakumun/k- (bless,
                         prosper,revive)
       -swak-       -swakat- (expell,
            (rinse)              exile)
                                                                                                                       -gakul- (pay tax/
                                                                                                                                    tribute)
                                                                                                                       -gakus- (tax)
       -kak- (block -kakil- (bar/block      -kaak- (chop off, mow)
            up,ob-      with,lay before)
            struct) -kakik/am- (put a
                             bar/block)
                    -kakul/k- (unblock)
                    -kakumun/k- (unblock
                             completely)
                    -kakidik/alal-
                                (block)
                    -kakal- (crawl,
                                 grate)
                                                                                                                             verbs 11

                                               L                                                                                 H
(-k)   -kwak- (drag,go     -kwakil- (applic.)                      -kwaakul- (cackle)
             about fast,   -kwakidil- (run very                    -kwakumun/k-(cackle,
             rasp)                      fast)                          talk on endless-
                           -kwakas- (rub,scrub)                        ly,waffle on)
                                                                                                     -kyakul-(gasp,choke,
                           -wakas- (rustle)                                                                 swallow water)
                                                                                                                                           -waakas/n- (resound,be
       -yak- (catch,with -yakul- (catch up,                                                                                                                   audible)
             both hands)        snatch at/up)
-w                                                                                                   -fyawuk- (be grate-
                                                                                                             ful/thankful)
                                                                                                                                           -nyaawun- (mew)
                                                                                                     -lawul/k- (madden,
                                                                                                                      craze)
                           -zawul/k- (draw                                                           -lawukil- (be crazy
                                        water)                                                                        about)

                           -sawul/k- (ferry,                                                         -sawul/k- (hate,
                                     ford,take                                                                scorn,detest)
                                     across)                                                                                               -waawan- (hear each other,
                                                                   -waawul- (rustle,
                                                                                                                                                          agree,accord)
                           -yawul/k- (tepefy,                              roar,hurtle
                                 cook lukewarm)                            down)                                                           -wawasan- (hear/understand
                           -yawul- (rave,                                                                                                             each other,agree)
                                       fluster)
-y     -pay- (lavish,be
               generous)

       -vway- (blend,
                 knead)                                                                                                        -zaay-    -zaayis- (let know,inform)
                                                                                                                                  (know)   -zaayan- (know each other)
       -say- (swim)        -sayis- (help/let                                                                                               -zayasan- (help to know
                                                                                                     -gayik- (come out,
                                        swim)                                                                                                                each other)
                                                                                                                 appear)
                                                                                                                                           -zayakan- (be knowable)
                                                                                                     -gayikis- (let come
                                                                                                                     out)
                                                   -kaay- (yell)   -kaayis- (bore,vex,    -kay-
       -way- (spill                                                             annoy)               -kayis- (greet,
                                                                                           (greet)
                 plenty)                                                                                            welcome)
                           -yayil- (apply to,   -yaay- (fizz)      -yaayil- (hiss,fer-
       -yay- (look in                   annoy)  -yaay- (be fa-           ment,hoarsen)
                 vain)     -yayidil- (receive/        mous/in      -yaayil- (be in
       -yay- (wail)            treat cordially)       fashion)                  vogue)
                                                                                                                          verbs 12

                                               L                                                                                  H
-mb                                       -baamb- (strike     -baambal- (slide along,      -bambakas-(tinker, -baamb- (charge, -baamban- (strive together)
                                                 with the                writhe (as a            do carelessly)            slander)
                                                 open hand)              wounded snake))   -bambalakas- (fail
                                                              -baambul/k- (remind)
                                                                                                     to catch
                                                              -bambukil- (remember to)                            -fwaamb- (be     -fwaambik/am- (curve,clinch)
                                                                                                     hold,miss)
                                                                                                                       curved/bent) -fwambidik/anan- (curve,clinch)
                                                                                                                                    -fwambalal- (wince,flinch)
                                                                                                                  -laamb- (cook,
      -lamb- (stretch                                         -laambul/k- (reach out)                                       boil)   -laambil- (cook for/with)
             out,creep                                        -lambidik/alal- (lay down)                                             -laambis- (let cook)
             (plant))
                                                                                                                                     -lambulul- (recook)

                                                                                                                 -taamb- (reach   -taambil- (reach for/with)
                                                                                                                    hand,present) -tambidil- (be ready to take)
                                                                                                                                   -taambis- (let reach)
                                                                                                                                   -tambasan- (reach to each other)
                                                                                                                                   -taambik/am- (hand to/over)
                                                                                                                                   -tambikil- (hand over to)
                                                                                                                                   -tambakas/n- (let pass,spread)
                                                                                                                                   -taambul/k- (take over,accept)
                                                                                                                                   -tambulul- (take turns,answer
                                                                                                                                                       back in song)
                                                                                                                                   -taambwas- (let take over)
                                                                                                                                   -tambwasan- (take over from each
                                                                                                                                                                 other)
                                                                                                                                   -tambwalan- (receive from each
                                                                                                                                                                 other)
                                                                                                                 -saamb- (pray)   -saambil- (pray for,implore)
                                          -saamb-(beat down -saambul/k- (transmit con-                           -saamb- (whine, -saambul/k- (bless)
                                               grass (for a             tagion,infect)
                                                                                                                      squall,yell) -saambul/k- (whet by hammering
                                               path), part -sambukil- (be contagious)
                                                                                                                                                  out the edge of a hoe)
                                               (hair))      -sambukis- (infect)
                                                                                                                                     -gaambul/k- (part,separate)
                                                                                                                                     -gaambas/n- (separate,disjoin)

                                                                                                                 -kaamb- (cross)
                                                                                                                                     -kaambik/am- (put across)
                         -yambil- (talk
                               with,con                                                                          -waamb-(flow on)
                               verse)                         -yaambik/am- (place upon
                         -yambul/k-                                          spreading,                          -yaamb- (welcome
                               (leave,a                                      cover over)                               embracing)
                               bandon)                        -yaambul/k- (lay open,
                                                                                uncover)
                                                                                                            verbs 13

                                                L                                                                H
-mp                                                                                                                       -laampik/am- (clench)
                                                                                                                          -lampidik/anan- (clench)
      -tamp- (paw,stamp,   -tampat- (paw,stamp,swim
           swim (as a dog)       (as a dog),squelch)
                           -tampakan- (stamp,swim (as
                                              a dog)

      -twamp- (thrive,
                 flourish)
                                                          -saampul/k- (hand over)
                                                          -samp(w)asan- (hand over,pass
                                                                         to each other)
                                                          -sampwanan- (hand over, pass
                                                                         to each other)
                                                          -sampudyan- (hand over,pass
                                                                         to each other)
                                                                                           -gaamp- (invent,act in line
                                                                                                    with his own views)
-mv                          -vwamvwan- (rove,rustle/
                                    sway about;blether,
                                    talk nonsense)
-mf                                                       -taamfun/k- (walk straddling,
                                                                     crawl on all fours)
                                                                                                                            verbs 14

                                      L                                                                                 H
-nd                  -baand- (beat)       -baandan- (beat together)    -band- (stop,     -bandumun/k- (disinter,                        -baandul- (draw,sketch)
                                                                                 stuff)            discover,drive up
                                                                                                   (game),rake up an
                     -vwaand- (sit)       -vwaandis- (let sit                                      old affair)
                     -fyaand- (rummage,
                                search

                     -laand- (follow)     -laandil- (follow for/
                                                             with)
                                          -laandis- (let follow)
                                          -laandas/n- (follow each
                                                            other)
                                          -laandul/k- (break order/
                                               succession,interrupt)
                                          -landulul- (repeat over
                                                     and over again)

                     -taand- (get thin/   -taandis- (make lean)                                                                             -taandul/k- (widen,broaden,
                                 lean)    -tandakas/n- (make/get
                                                                                                                                                                  expand)
                                                         thin/lean)                       -zandang- (limp)
                                                                                                                                            -zyaandam- (hold out)
                                                                                                                                            -syaandam- (be persistent)
                     -gaand- (plait,                                                                                   -gaand- (make a
                               braid)                                                                                            charm)
                     -kaand- (bend        -kaandik/am- (stop,                                                          -kaand-             -kandidik/alal- (stretch
                              straight,                  prohibit)                                                                                      out)
                                                                                                                               (languish)
                              stretch)    -kandikil- (forbid)
                                          -kaandil- (dab,maasage)
                                          -kaandul/k- (straighten by
                                              bending,bend straight)
                                          -kandumun/k- (stretch out/
                                                lay at full length)
                                          -kandwasak- (flinch,wince)
      -kwand-
          (talk                                                                                                                             -yaandul/k- (reheat,warm
          rapidly)                        -yaandam- (be stretched                                                      -yaand- (stretch
                                                                                                                                 and peg)               up)
                                                    and pegged out)
                                          -yaandas/n- (spread)
                                          -yandasan- (spread)
                                          -yandangan- (spread)
                                                                                                                  verbs 15

                                                 L                                                                           H
-nt   -pwant-(leak)
                                          -taant- (pull,draw,      -tantumun/k- (stretch out                                      -taantik/am- (stretch,
                                                         strain)             at full length)                                                       strain)
                                                                   -taantal- (crawl, creep)
                                                                                                                                  -yaantik/am- (begin,start)
-nz                                       -vwaanz- (wipe,spoil)    -vwaanzul/k- (soil,spoil)
                                                                   -vwanzakas/n- (soil,spoil)

                                                                   -zaanzal- (crawl,creep)      -zaanz- (trip)
-ns                                       -baans- (think)
                                                                                                -nyaans- (go/talk/rain slowly)

                                                                                                -lwaans- (be tasty)
                                          -saans- (tend,support)   -saansal- (stumble)                                            -sansumun/k- (shake out)
                                                                   -sansakas/n- (scatter)       -saans- (loot)
                                                                                                                                  -saansil- (sprinkle)
                      -kansakan- (jolt)                                                         -kaans- (wilt)
                      -kansangal- (jog)
                                                                                                                                  -kwansumun/k- (slip,slide)
                                                                                                -kyaans- (be pure)

      -yans- (tear) -yansumun/k- (dis-                                                          -yaans- (be clear)
                          play,flaunt)
                                                                                                                 verbs 16

                                                    L                                                                        H
-ng                                                                -maangun/k- (throw over
                                                                                         backwards)
                                                                   -manginik/anan- (be erect and
                                                                                    throw the chest
                                                                                    well out)
      -mwang-(strew, -mwangalakas/n-                               -mwaangas/n- (spread,scatter,
            scatter)       (scatter about)                                              disperse)
                     -mwangumun/k- (strew,
                                  disperse)                        -myaangan- (be well,greet)
                                                                                                                           -baangik/am- (oppress,worry,
                                                                                                                                                      pressure)
                                                                                                                           -baangul/k- (break open,pull
                                                                                                      -bwaang- (ache,of                         down,disclose)
      -pang- (be                                                                                              head only)
           restless)
                                                                                                                           -pyaanguk- (creep in)
      -vwang- (tap)    -vwangan- (gobble,                          -vwaangik/am- (mix up)
                                   mumble)                         -vwangalakas/n- (mix up totally,
                       -vwanganan-(sit idly)                                       huddle,tangle)
                       -vwangumun/k- (clear                        -vwanginik- (mess up,bungle)
                                      away)    -vyaang- (pry)                                                              -vyaangul/k- (get in secretly,
                                                                                                                                                       steal)
                                                                                                                           -vyangumun/k- (sneak in,slip
                                               -fyaang-(rummage)                                                                                     through)
                       -nangan- (walk with                                                            -naang- (stay)      -naangis- (let stay)
                                short steps,
                                slowly)                                                                                    -naangik/am- (linger)
                       -nangat- (grope)                                                                                    -nangimis- (let linger)

                       -nyangun/k- (hurry)
                       -nyangumun/k-(powder)                                                          -nyaang- (be
                       -nyangumuk- (drizzle;                                                                overcooked)
                              go stealthily)                                                          -nyaang- (mew,
                                                                                                                 whine)
                                                                                                                  verbs 17


                                                     L                                                                               H
-ng                                                                         -laangam- (be coverd (be     -laang- (watch,spy,    -langidil- (watch,spy on, super-
                                                                                        neath),be                        survey)                         intend,tail)
                                                                                        overwhelmed)                             -laangat- (look carefully, in vain)
                                                                            -langalakas/n-(fill up
                                                                                        as a hole)                               -laangas/l- (let worry/concern)
                                                                            -langumun/k- (take up an
                                                                                    end of sth.long, a
                                                                                    a rope/snake)
                       -tanginik/anan-                                                                                            -taangis- (teach to count/read)
                                                                                                         -taang- (count,read)
                          (stride,straddle)                                                                                       -tangulul- (recount,reread)


      -zwang-(swish,   -zwangil- (swish       -zwaang- (sway,swing,swish)   -zaangul/k- (lift,raise)     -zaang- (seize)
                                                                                                                                  -zaangik/am- (raise up, hoist)
               whip)                  with)
                                                                                                                                  -zangikil-(raise upon (the top of))
                                                                                                                                  -zanginik/anan- (hang up)
                                              -saang- (dance full of joy, -saangil- (applic.)
                                                          dance the sword- -saangat- (brandish)
                                                          dance (chief))   -saangas/n- (mix,in-
                                              -saang- (mingle,mix)               termingle)
                                                                           -sangalakas/n- (inter-
                                                                                 mix,blunder)
                                              -swaang- (rub,sprinkle)      -swaangas/n- (arrange
                                                                                 alternately)
                       -gangal- (wobble)                                                                 -gaang- (make,do,act)
                                                                                                                                  -gaangul/k- (main,mutilate,cripple)
                                                                                                                                  -gangulul- (remake,do again)
                                                                                                                                  -gangumun/k- (show off)
                                                                                                                                  -ganginik/anan- (straddle)
                                                                                                        verbs 18

                          L                                                                                  H
-ng   -kaang- (tie,fasten, -kaangil- (applic.)                                   -kanginin-    -kaang- (fry,roast)        -kaangal- (walk about,travel)
                     bind) -kaangis- (let tie)                                        (hold back)
                            -kangidil- (tie up)
                            -kaangul/k- (untie,unbind,
                                                   loose)
                                                                                                     -kwaang- (ache,head
      -kwaang- (scratch)
                                                                                                                      only)
                                                            -yang- (show,                                                   -yangidik/alal-(make happy/glad)
                                                                                                     -yaang- (feel happy,
                                                                      display)
                                                                                                            rejoice,be glad) -yaangil- (float on)
                                                            -yang- (roast on
                                                                                                                             -yaangis- (let float)
                                                                       a spit,
                                                                       toast)                                                -yaangik/am- (set afloat)
                                                                                                                             -yaangul/k- (lift up)
                                                                                                                             -yangumun/k- (rake up,dredge up)
-nk                        -kaankal- (tie palmrib-battens                        -kankitin-(fit
                                          on a roof/wall)                                tightly)
                           -kankalakas/n- (muddle up,
                                                 entwine)
                           -kaankat- (toddle about)
                           -kaankan- (slander,embroider)
                                                                                                                                 verbs 19

                                              L                                                                                    H
-m                                                                                      -mem- (bustle)
                                           -fweem- (dislike)                                                                           -fweem- (blow
     -nyem- (press,     -nyemit- (nip)                                                                                                     one's nose)
             squize)
                        -lemun/k- (let     -leem-(glow,gleam)   -leemis- (let glow/
                             run/jump)                                        gleam)
                                           -teem-(shed light)                                                                                             -teemun/k-
                                           -tweem- (gasp)       -tweemin- (be                                                                                       (enlighten)
                                                                          breathless)

     -sem- (boast)                         -seem- (gleam,       -seemis- (let gleam,
                                                       shine)                 shine)

                                           -geem- (gasp)        -geemin- (be           -gem- (strive,be
                                                                           breathless)
                                                                                                  zealous)
                                                                -geemun- (blow off)
                                                                -geemuk- (sigh)
                                                                                       -kem- (moan)
                                                                                                              -yemik-(give suck,
                                                                                                                       suckle)
                                                                                        -yem- (suck)
                                                                                                              -yemun/k- (wean)
-b                                         -beeb- (be weak/     -beebis-(tire,weaken)   -beb- (stroll)       -beban- (roam
                                                      tired)                                                           around)
                        -lebil- (be                                                     -leb- (smear,coax)
                            soft/supple)
                        -lebit- (sip)
                                                                                        -deb- (borrow)
     -teb- (emit)                          -teeb- (be           -teebis- (fill to the
                                                    brimfull)                  brim)
                                           -tyeeb-(chat away)   -tyeebul- (chatter)
                                           -tsyeeb- (strut)                                                                                               -tsyebidik/alal-
                                                                                                                                       -zeeb-(loosen)   -tswebidik/alal-
                                                                                                                                                          -syebidik/alal-
                                                                                                                                                          -swebidik/alal-
                                                                                        -keb- (take care,                                                     (bulge,buck up)
     -yeb- (mock)                                                                                    keep)
-p   -pep- (dart off)                      -peep-(air,winnow)
-f                                                                                      -bef- (hit)                                                      -beeful-(depreciate)
                                           -fweef- (drip)
                                                                                        !-def-(borrow)
                                                                                                                          verbs 20

                                        L                                                                                H
 -n    -men- (grow)        -menik/am- (increase)
                           -menimin- (claim)                                                                          -mween- (applic.:-mon-)
                                                        -neen- (shit)
                           -nyenumuk- (parkle)                           -nyen(y)-(twin- -nyenis- (let dazzle)
                                                                               kle,dazzle)
       -ten- (skin)                                                                                                   -zyeen- (urinate)
       -sen- (be in)
       -sen- (tuck up)
                                                                                                                      -sween- (sniff, choke)
       -gen- (gird up)     -genun/k- (hitch up)
                           -genanan- (sit carelessly/
                                      indecently (of
                                      women))
       -ken- (bare its                                  -kween- (shave                     -kenik/am-(bare its
                 teeth)                                        clean)
                                                                                                   teeth)
                                                                                                                      -ween- (cease)
-l/d   -bel- (blame)                                                     -bel- (be wrong/ -bedis- (put in the      -beel- (be ill)            -beelul/k- (heal)
                                                                              guilty,lose)                  wrong)                                 -beedis- (make ill)
       -pel- (burn)
       -pel- (move         -peluk- (evade)
                quickly)

       -lel- (nurse,       -ledik/am- (snuggle)                          -lel- (glide)    -ledik/am-(even)
              bring up)                                                                                               -deed- (equal)
                                                                                           -lelumuk/n- (be/ make                                -dedakas/n- (equalize)
                                                                                                          slippery)                                -dedangan- (be equal)
                                                                                                                                                   -dedusuk- (crackle)
                           -dyelumun/k- (turn around)
                                                                                                                    verbs 21

                                  L                                                                          H
(-l/d)                                                -tel- (call)     -tedis- (let call)                 -teel- (tell to,hit with)
                                                                        -tedik- (put on the fire)
                                                                        -telul/k- (put off the fire)
                                                                        -telam- (stand up)
                                                                        -tedimis- (let stand up)
                           -zelul/k- (melt)           -zel- (flow
                           -zelumun/k- (melt down)
                                                              slimy)
                           -zelangas/n- (twist)                                                              -zyeel- (take care of)
         -sel- (gird up)   -selul/k- (uncover)                          -sedidik/selalal- (expose/be
                           -seding- (limp)
                                                                                                 exposed)
                                                      -gel- (pluck)    -gelutun- (nibble)
                                                                                                             -geel- (bloom,blossom)
         -kel- (cut up)    -kedikit-    (nibble)      -kel- (filter)   -kedis- (let filter)
         -kel- (slander)   -kelutun-   (gnaw)         -kel- (shrill)   -keluk- (be dry : fish,meat)
                           -keding-    (slight)
                           -kedim-     (twinkle)
                           -kedit-       (prick)
                           -kelumuk- (echo)

                           -kwelutun- (gnaw)                                                                 -kweel- (marry)             -kweedis- (give in
                                                                                                                                                        marriage)
                                                      -yel- (ripen)                                         -kyeel- (dawn)              -kyelulul- (wake till
                           -yedik-      (taste)
                                                                                                                                                          dawn)
                           -yelul/k-    (flicker)
                           -yelumuk- (move feebly)
                           -yelwasal- (move feebly)
                                                                                                                            verbs 22

                                                L                                                                                    H
-t                                           -myeet- (crush)
                      -betumun/k-                                                                                                        -beet- (hit)    -beetam- (be hit)
                            (overflow)       -bweet- (crush,     -bweetil- (crush on)
                                                         crunch) -bwetakas/n- (squash up)
     -pet- (overdo,
           do too                            -vweet- (bend)       -vweetik/am- (lean,swing)
           much)
                                             -nweet- (pinch)      -nyeetik/am- (squash)
                                             -nyeet- (crush)      -nyetikin- (fling angrily
                                                                                    to)
                                                                  -nyetakas/n- (smash)
                                                                  -nyeetun/k- (crush)
                                                                  -nyetumun/k- (act de-
                                                                                 pressed)
                                                                                              -let- (tattle)

                                                                                              -tet- (retire     -tetim/tetam-       -teet- (pare,   -teetuk- (hatch
                                                                                                     discreetly)         (shiver)                crack,             out)
     -tyet- (crack)
                                             -zyeet- (turn,       -zyeetul/k- (turn around)
                                                                                                                                                 cut)      -teetis- (let
                                                   twist,swirl)   -zyetumun/k- (swirl)                                                                              cut)

                                             -syeet- (twist,      -syetumun/k- (glide,slip)
                                                         twine)                                                                                            -sweetik/am-
                                                                                                                                                                   (thin)
     -get- (throw)    -getis- (let throw/    -geet- (run away)
     -get- (hunt                   hunt)
         with dogs)                                                                                                                                        -eetun- (fold
                      -ketik/am- (hang up,                                                    -ket- (lust,hate)
                                                                                                                                                                    over)
                                   hinder)                                                    -(ki)ket- (double
                      -ketidik/alal-         -kweet- (grind,                                         up,writhe)
                                  (clutch)               gnash)

                      -yetumun/k- (set                                                        -yet- (sing         -yetil- (warm
                               cautiously)                                                               loudly)           o.s.)
-z   -vwez- (scorn,
            slight)                          -zeez- (slacken,     -zeezis- (make slack,
                                                         loose)                  loosen)
                                                                                                                                vebs 23

                                          L                                                                                           H
-s                                                                                                                                   -mwees- (let see,
     -pyes- (fasten                                                                                                                                 show)
            tightly)    -lesil- (be dying)                        -leesik/am- (make/be
                        -lesik- (eat up)                                       earnest)
                        -lesim- (shine)
                        -lesisis- (let shine)
                                                                                                                                     -tees- (let
                                                                                          -ses- (sift)                                         do,tell)
                                                                                                                                     -tees- (try,test,
                                                                                                             -gesun/k-(nibble)                   measur
                                                                                                                                                   e)
                                                                                                             -gesumun/k-(gnaw,
                                                                                                                         nibble)     -gees- (let give)
     -kes- (chop,
              cut up)                                                                                        -kesumun/k-(gnaw,
                                                                                                                          nibble)
                                                                                                             -kesun/k- (break
                                                                                                                         in half)
                                                -kwees- (frown,                                              -kesunun (crumble)
                                                      contract)                                                                      -kyees- (let dawn,
                                                                                                                                                clear up,
                                                                                                                                                brighten
-g                                              -geeg- (blow,     -geegil- (blow on)      -geg- (glide,be -gegil- (be light)
                                                     vent,air)    -gegumun/k- (blow          light/supple) -gegis- (lighten,
                                                                           about,whirl)
                                                                                                                      soften)
                                                                                                           -gegul/k-(relieve)
-k                                                                                        -mek- (test)                              -meek- (bleat,        -meekin- (applic.)
                        -bekit(il)- (waddle)                                              -mek- (shine)                                          trumpet)   -meekis- (let bleat)
     -pek- (hang
              about)                                                                                         -nekin- (lure,
                                                                                          -nek- (tease)
                                                                                                                        ensnare)
                                                -nyeek- (sit)     -nyeekin- (come near)                      -nekis- (elicit)
                                                                  -nyeekis- (move near)
                                                                                                                                     -deek- (sparkle)
                        -lekit- (taste)         -leek- (trap,   -leekul/k- (unset,
                                                    cock a gun)          uncock,release                                              -leek- (sleep)        -leekis- (let sleep)
                                                                                                                                                             -leekil- (sleep on)
                                                                                                                                     -lweek- (wound,       -lekidil- (stay at)
     -tek- (do first/ -tekit(il)- (shiver,                                                -tek- (sell)     -tekil- (applic.)                    gash)
              before)          tremble,walk                                               -tek- (dip to    -tekis- (let dip/
                               unsteadily)                                                           fill)               sell)       -teek- (sprout)
                                                                                          -tek (turn away, -tekik/am- (bend,
                                                                                                    wring)              distort)
                                                                                                            -tekumun/k-
                                                                                                                        (wriggle)
                                                                                                            -tekun/k- (fill
                                                                                                                        up)
                                                                                                                             verbs 24

                                             L                                                                                   H
(-k)                                                                                -zek- (wring        -zekul/k- (untwist)
                                                                                          round,twist)   -zekun/k- (distort)
                                                                                                         -zekis- (let wring)
                                                                                                         -zekas/n- (struggle
                                                                                                                      wrangle)
       -sek- (be in) -sekul/k- (alter state;                                                                                         -seek- (lay on
                                  pour out)                                                              -sekis-(whet,sharpen)               the back)
                     -sekulul- (id.again)                                                                                            -seek- (abound)
                     -sekusil- (fidget)
                     -sekusuk- (fidget)
                                                  -sweek- (hide)

       -gek- (gasp)                               -geek-(move away)
                                                  -geek-(clasp,hold
                                                             close)
                                                                                    -kek- (make the
                       -kekumun/k-(cough,clear                         -keekil-
                                                                                             daily cut
                                    the throat)                          (cackle)                        -yekik/am- (prop)
                                                                                             in palm)
                                                                                                         -yekul/k- (remove
                                                                                                                     prop,betray)
-w                                                                                                       -lewul/k- (insult)
                                                                                                         -lewus- (let insult)
                                                                                                                                                           -teewul- (breathe
                                                                                                                                                                     painfully)
                       -zewul- (tog out)
                       -zewulul- (doll up)
-y     -ley- (be
             long)

       -sey- (laugh)

       -gey-
           (deplume)                                                                -key- (flicker)
                                                                                    -key- (cackle
                                                                                              shrilly)
                                                  -yeey- (joke,jest)                                                                 -yeey- (yell)
                                                                                                                       verbs 25

                                        L                                           H
-mb                                                                                     -beemb- (plop down)                -beembik/am- (plump down on the back)

                          -vweemb- (bend,be      -vweembik/am- (sway,waver)
                                      supple)    -vweembis- (bend)
                                                                                        -fweemb- (blow one's nose)
      -lemb- (be tired)                          -leembul- (cancel the effect)                                               -leembik/am-(allay,pacify,appease)
                                                                                        -leemb- (soothe,calm)
                                                                                        -leembw- (miss,lack)                -lembakan/s-  (calm down, appease)
                                                                                        -dyeemb- (dangle, threaten)

                                                 -teembil- (shake)                      -teemb- ((steal a look at)
                                                 -teembis- (agitate)
                                                 -teembul/k- (pull out)

                                                 -zeembik/am- (hang up,sling)
                                                 -zembidik/alal- (hang loose,           -zeemb- (swing,sway,strut about)
                                                               carry in a sling)
                                                 -zembusuk- (swoon,walk drunk)

                                                                                        -seemb- (blame)                    -seemban- (blame each other)
                                                                                                                            -sembasan- (blame each other)

                                                                                        -keemb- (make homage to)           -keembil- (applic.)
                                                                                                                            -kembisil- (extol on)
                                                                                                                            -keembis- (rejoice)
                          -yeemb- (rob,rape,     -yeembis- (let rob)                                                        -kembisil- (welcome)
                                   violate)      -yeembik/am- (lay around)
                                                 -yembidik/alal- (expose
                                                          carelessly)
                                                 -yembalal- (be stunned :
                                                          surprise,deception,rapt
                                                          ure)
                                                 -yembumun- (abandon)
-mp                       -teemp- (be pulpy/
                                soft/overripe)

                          -seemp- (extol,        -seempul- (puff (the chest) out)                                           -seempul/k- (lift,pass on)
                                       boost)
                                                                                                                            -geempul/k- (pale)
                          -geemp- (rape,clean
                                 by scraping)
                                                                                                                         verbs 26


                                            L                                                                              H
-mf                                                            -leemful/k- (make
                                                                   obedient/docile)
-nd                                                                                   -bend- (turn aside)                                   -beendul/k- (bend)
                                                                                                                                             -bendumun/k- (turn away,
      -lend- (can, be                                                                 -dend- (heave,wiggle)                                                    pervert)
               able to)
                          -tendib-                                                                             -teend- (cut)
                               (move                                                                                                         -teendul/k- (cut open,
                                                                                                               -teend- (pull,swim)                          make clear)
                               plumpy)
                                                                                                               -teend- (chirp,shriek)       -tendulul- (cut open
                                                                                                                                                                 again)
                                         -seend- (reward)
                                         -seend- (clear up)                                                                                  -seendul/k- (trip up,
                                                                                                                                                               push over)
                                         -geend- (lick)        -gendubul- (lick                                -geend- (miss)
      -kend- (fell)                                                         clean)
      -kend- (tick)

      -yend- (go)
-nz                                                                                                            -zeenz- (melt,be sweet)
                                                                                                               -zeenz- (shred,tear up)
-ns                                                                                                            -nyeens- (tell at length)

                                                                                                               -leens- (scrape out empty)
                                                                                                               -lweens- (munch creaky,
                                                               -teensik/am- (lay                                                   champ)
                                                                      upon,pile up)
                                         -seens- (flow over,                                                   -seens- (mince,slice up)
                                              flood,expand)
                                                                                                               -keens- (strain off,
                                                                                                                                  filter)
                                                                                                                        verbs 27


                                                 L                                                                                H
-ng                                                                                                             -meeng- (hate)             -meengan-(hate each other)
                                                                                                                                            -meengun/k- (make red-hot)
                                           -beeng- (redden)
                                                                                                                                            -peengul/k- (spread out)
                                                                                                                -fweeng- (deflate,
                                                                                                                                 whistle)   -nenginik/anan- (overhang
                                                                                                                                                            ready to fall)
                                                                                                                                            -nengumun/k- (let roll)
                                                                                                                -nweeng- (be tight)
                                           -nyeeng-(resound)   -nyeengis- (resound)                             -nyeeng- (be overcooked)
                                                               -nyengumun/k- (smash,rot to                      -nyeeng- (whine)
                                                                                   pieces)

                                           -leeng- (smooth,    -leengul/k- (smooth,polish,     -leng- (walk,   -leeng- (leap)             -leengul/k- (look askant)
                                                   flatter)                        stroke)           travel)                                -lengulul- (id.again)
                                                                                                                                            -leengil- (leap)
                                                                                                                -lweeng-(be very clever)
                                                                                                                -dyeeng- (sway,swing)      -dyeengan- (wiggle,waver)
                                                                                                                                            -dyeengul/k- (cut around)
                                                                                                                                            -dyeengun/k- (cut around)
                                                                                                                                            -dyenguluk- (turn round)
                                                                                                                                            -dyengumun/k- (turn round)

                                           -tyeeng- (do a      -tyeengun- (do a belly-dance)                    -teeng- (run jumping)      -teengik/am- (tilt,slope)
                                                belly-dance)
      -zeng-(cut)   -zengan- (be weak,                         -zeengan- (be fickle)                                                        -teengam- (pool)
                            swoon)                             -zenginik/anan- (bewilder)
                                                               -zengalakan- (be twined,
                                                                                 twist,coil)
                                                               -zengumun/k- (divert,wind up)
                                                                                                                -zweeng- (squeak,tweet)

                    -senginin- (ripen;     -seeng- (prune)                                                      -seeng- (spy)
                          shine feebly)
                    -sengumun/k- (seek)
                    -sengibit- (jig,                                                                            -sweeng- (sputter)
                                 wiggle)                                                                        -sweeng- (be nipped in,
                                                                                                                                 wheeze)
                                                                                                                            verbs 28

                                                L                                                                                  H
(-ng)                                                                                                                     -weeng- (squeal
                                                                                                                                        (pig))
                                                                                                                          -yeeng- (squall
                                              -geeng- (turn       -gengumun/k- (push
                                                                                                                                        (baby))    -geengik/am- (put
                                                       aside)                aside)                                                                                   away)
                                                                                                                                                   -gengidik/alal- (jet
                                                                                                                                                          ajar,look askant)
                                                                                                                                                   -geengul/k-(move away)
                                                                                                                                                   -genguluk- (push off,
                                                                                                                                                                       avoid)
                                                                                                                                                   -gengusun/k- (move far
                                                                                                                                                            off,look away)
                                                                                                                          -keeng- (watch)
                                                                                                                                                   -kengidil- (watch
                                                                  -kyeengun-(advise)                                      -kyeeng- (peep,cheep
                                                                                                                                                                     close)
                                                                                                                                        (chick))

        -yeng- (glare in -yengidik/alal-                          -yeengun/k- (take a     -yeng- (be                     -yeeng- (chirp,
            the sun)          (suspend                                 large piece)                                                                -yeengil- (be high/
                                                                                               hot)                                     twitter)
                              high, hang                          -yengumun/k- (take the                                                                            deep)
                              on/over/up)                                 largest part)
 -nk                                          -fweenk- (rub       -fweenkas/n- (rub each
                                                  hard,snuffle)                   other)
                                                                  -fwenkakan- (resnuffle)

                                              -sweenk- (wheeze)   -sweenkan-(wheeze)
                                                                  -syeenkil- (withstand)
                          -kenkumuk- (skip)                                                             -kenkin(y)-
                          -kenkumuk- (hawk)                                                                   (twinkle)
                                                                                                        -kenkitil-
                                                                                                                (make
                                                                                                                milder)                            -kweenkun/k- (chip,
                                                                                                                                                                  splinter)
        -yenk-
            (criticize)
                                                                                                                               verbs 29

                                    L                                                                                      H
-m                                                                       -bim- (moan)

     -dim-(grumble)                                                      -dim- (poison)         -dimun/k- (dip)

     -tim- (dig)        -timun/k-(hollow)
                        -timunun- (re-hollow)
                        -timun/k-(fillip)
                                                                         -zim- (quench)
                        -siminin- (restrain)
                                                                         -sim- (prohibit)
                        -yimit- (be pregnant)
                        -yimitis- (make                                                          -yimin- (grudge)
                                    pregnant)
-b                                                                       -bib- (beat)
                                                                         -fib-(suck,kiss)       -fiban- (kiss each
                                                                                                                 other)
     -dib- (spill       -dibumun/k- (gurgle)                                                     -dibalal- (bulge)
               water)
     -tib- (skip)       -tibul- (frolic)

                        -zibik/am-(close)
                        -zibul/k- (unclose,open)                         -sib- (curse)

                                                   -yiib- (be bad)       -yib- (steal,robber)
-f                                                                                                                                                  -diiful/k- (upset)
-n   -min-(swallow)                                                  -

     -fin- (pinch)      -finik/am- (put near)      -fiin- (clamp)        -fin (dispute)                                   -tiin- (flee)
                        -finangas/n- (put close
                                      together)                                                                            -ziin-(run away)       -tiinis- (put to flee)
                                                                                                 -sininik/anan-
                        -yinik/am-(soak, ret)
                                                                         -sin- (be deep)                                  -ziin- (char)
                                                                                                               (stiffen)                            -ziinis- (char)
                        -yinikin- (give light)                                                                             -ziin- (yearn)
                                                   -kwiin- (sting,       -kin- (dance)
     -yin-(dislike)                                         prick)                                                         -swiin-(stab (pain))
                                                                                                                                verbs 30

                                           L                                                                                    H
-l/d -bil- (boil)     -bidis-(let boil)                                                            -bidil- (follow crying)
                      -bidim- (murmur)                                                             -bidik/bilam- (put/ be
                      -biluk- (be well
                                                                                                                      plenty)
                              informed)    -bwiil-             -bwiidis- (let
                                                 (fall upon)         fall upon)                    -bilalal- (abound)
                      -pilul/k-(change)

     -vil- (be        -vidis- (lose)
             lost)    -vilakas/n- (for-
                            get,mislead)
                                                               -fiilan- (bet)      -fil- (lead)   -fidis- (send)
                                                                                                                                -fwiil- (die of)

     -dil- (weep)     -didil-(weep for)                                                                                         -diil- (eat in/
                      -didis-(let weep)
                                                                                                                                           off/with)
                      -didim- (rumble)                                                             -tilumun/k-(fly up)
                                                                                                                                -twiil- (breed)
                                                                                   -zil- (beat)
     -sil- (cause a   -siding- (hobble)                                                                                         -siil- (promise)
             spasm)
                                                                                                                                -wiil- (listen to,   -widikil- (hearken)
                                                                                                                                               obey)
                      -yidis-(let boil)
                      -yilangas/n-(make    -yiil- (hem)                            -yil-(darken) -yidis- (darken)
                                                                                                  -yidik/yilam- (arrange) -yiil- (be used        -yiilan- (get along
                            an exchange)
                                                                                                                                            to)                       with)
-t                                                                                                -mitun/k- (sulk)

     -bit- (be                             -bwiit- (grow     -bwitidik/alal-    -bit- (grip)      -bitan- (be at grips)
         respected)                               dark/cool)     (darken,chill)
                                           -bwiit- (be ripe)

                                           -viit- (scoop)      -viitik/am-
                                                                        (stoop)
                      -fitun/k- (upturn)   -fiit- (threaten                        -fit- (tuck
                      -fitumun/k- (tip          (dark cloud/                                       -fitik/am- (tuck up)
                                                                                            up)
                                 over)          smoke))
                                                                                   -fit- (pay)
                                           -nwiit- (ripe)

                      -titim- (shiver)     -tiit- (shudder)    -tiitil- (shudder
                                                                         on)
                                                               -tiitis- (let
                                                                        shudder)
                                                                                                                            verbs 31

                                              L                                                                                    H
(-t)   -zit- (weigh)     -zitis- (respect)
       -zit- (be res-    -zitik/am- (tie)
               pected)   -zitul/k- (untie)
                         -zitikil- (betroth)
                         -zitikis- (betroth
                                    (parents))
                                                                                                         -situmuk- (be
                                                                                                                      competent)
       -kit- (trade)                                                                                     -kitul/k-(transform)
                                                  -kwiit- (roar,
                                                           howl)

                         -yitul/k- (wonder)       -yiit- (be over- -yiitan- (be                        -yitis- (precede)
                                                                                        -yit- (be
                                                           cast)            overcast)           first) -yitul/k- (grab)
                                                                   -yitidik/alal-                      -yitumun/k- (grab)
                                                                           (overcast)
 -z                      -zizik/am- (cool)                                                               -zizil- (be patient)
 -s                                               -bwiis- (let     -bwiisil-(applic.)
                                                           fall)                                                                   -nwiis-(let drink)

                                                                                                                                   -diis- (let eat)     -diisan-(agree)

                                                                                                                                   -twiis-(let breed)
                                                                                                                                                          -siisan- (leave
       -sis-(frighten)   -sisikil-(threaten)                                            -sis- (leave)                             -siis- (leave)
                                                                                                                                                                 each other)

                                                                                                                                                          -wiisan- (agree)
                                                                                                                                   -wiis- (let hear)

       -yis- (come)      -yisik- (bend)                                                                                            -yiis- (let burn)
                         -yisumun/k- (cant
                                        over)
                                                                                                                             verbs 32

                                           L                                                                                         H
-k   -mik- (move)
     -mik- (wish s.o.
              evil)   -bikit- (follow crying) -biik- (let,         -biikil- (give up,   -bik- (name)
                      -bikul- (tell,mention)         allow)                  forgive)   -bik- (re-
     -vik- (be/do/go
                                                                                                appear)                                  -viik- (put clothes
             before)                                                                                                                                    on)
     -fik- (itch)                                                                                         -fikul/k- (uncover)          -fiik- (receive gift
                                                                                        -fik- (cover)
                                                                                                          -fikil-(sell cheaply)                from a suitor)
     -nik- (rub)        -nikun/k- (shake)
                        -nikusuk- (fidget)
                                                                                                                                         -nwiik- (be ripe)
                        -dikik/am-(stand still)                                                                                          -nwiik- (give to
                        -dikimin- (stand per-                                           -dik- (pound)                                                 drink)
                                  fectly still)                                                           -dikul- (calculate)
                        -dikalal- (be stagnant)                                                           -dikumun/k- (rush           -diik-   (give to
                        -dikit-   (pound)                                                                                   away)                       eat)
                        -dikitil- (climb swift)

     -tik- (shake)      -tikit-   (pound)                                               -tik- (sweat                                    -twiik- (poke)
                                                                                               heavily)                                  -twiik- (put up a
                                                  -ziik- (bury)    -ziikam- (sink)                        -zikis- (certfy)                           load)
                                                                                        -zik- (char)
                                                                   -ziikil- (shut                         -zikisil-(scrutinize)
                                                                               up/in)
                                                  -zwiik- (prick   -zikidil- (lock                        -zikul/k- (perform)
                                                         in)                   in)
                                                                                        -sik- (play)
                        -sikik/am- (fasten)                                                                                                                       -siikil- (firm)
                        -sikimis- (waken)         -swiik- (hem,                         -sik- (shoot)
                                                                                                                                                                  -siikul- (sob)
                                                         saw)
                                                                                                                                                                  -sikusuk-(sob)
                                                                                                                                                                  -sikumb- (sob)
     -kik- (cut with                                                                                                                     -kiik- (keep)
          dull knife)
                                                                                                                                         -kwiik- (fix)          -kwiikil-
                                                                                                                                         -kwiik- (put on)              (believe
     -yik- (fit,add)    -yikul- (unfit)                                                                                                                                  in)
                        -yikil- (add to)
                        -yikakas/n- (put
                                     together)

-y                                                                                                                                       -biiy- (be bad)        -biiyis- (make
                                                                                        -fiy- (bet)                                                                           bad)
                                                                                                                      verbs 33


                                             L                                                                                 H
-mb                                                                                                              -biimb- (test,taste)
                                                                                                                 -biimb- (embrace)

                                                                                                                 -viimb- (swell)
                                                                                                                                         -viimbis- (let swell)
                                                                                                                 -fiimb- (scent out)
                                                                                                                                         -fiimbul/k- (track by
                                             -niimb- (doze)       -niimbis- (let doze)
                                                                                                                                                     scent)
                                             -diimb- (aim,mark)   -dimbidil- (peep at)
                                                                                                                                         65
                                                                                                                 -tiimb- (be stiff)
                                                                                                                                         -tiimbul/k- (rebound)
                                                                                                                                         -timbusul- (reject)

                                                                                                                                         -ziimban- (get lost)
                                                                                                                                         -zimbakas/n- (mistake)
      -simb- (seize,   -simbil- (hold to)
               hold)   -simbidil- (hold on
                                   to)
                       -simbis- (let hold)
                                                                                                                                         -yiimbul- (poison)
                                                                                           -yimbil- (sing)
                                                                                           -yimbidil- (sing
                                                                                                       for)
                                                                                           -yimbidis- (let
                                                                                                       sing)
-mp                                          -fiimp- (examine)    -fimpulul- (re-
                                                                               examine)
                                             -tiimp- (immerse)
-mf                                                               -fiimfil- (grope)
                                                                  -fiimfit- (grope)
                                                                  -fimfitil- (grope)
nd-                                          -biind- (bind,       -biindik/am- (fasten)
                                                       braid)     -bindikil- (fasten
                                                                                 with)
                                                                  -bindalakas/n-
                                                                            (interlace)
                                                                  -bindul/k- (unfasten)
                                                                  -bindumun/k-(unfasten
                                                                               entirely)

                                                                  -piindul/k-(overturn)
                                                                                                                 -viind-(wrap around)   -vindumun/k- (roll over
                                             -fiind- (be                                                                                                   and over)
                                                     reluctant)
                                             -fiind- (kill,
                                                      dispatch)
                                                                                                     verbs 34

                                        L                                                                 H
(-nd) -dind- (sink,                               -diindam- (fail)
           descend                                -dindimin- (fail in)
                                                                                 -siind- (be in good health)   -siindik/am- (send away)
                                                                                 -siind- (sink,founder)        -siindul/k- (move on)
                        -kiind- (gain strength)   -kiindis- (strengthen)
                                                  -kiindul/k- (upset)

                        -yiind- (think)           -yiindul/k- (think,consider)
                                                  -yindumun/k- (ponder)
                                                  -yindidik/alal- (render/be
                                                                 pensive/sad)

-nt                                                                              -tiint- (grow)                -tiintik/am- (tighten)
                        -siint- (be rickety)
                        -siint- (cut deeply)
-nz                     -viinz- (rub round)       -viinzun/k- (stir)
                                                  -vinzumun/k- (wring)

-ns-                    -biins- (rot,soil)        -biinsuk- (soil)

       -sins- (shake)   -siins- (try)             -siinsil- (try with)
                                                  -siinsik/am- (firm)
                                                                                                                    verbs 35

                                                 L                                                                             H
-ng   -bing- (meet)                                                                             -biing- (kindle)

                                                              -viingun- (chop off)              -viing- (wait)
                                                              -vingumun- (chop up completely)

                                           -fiing- (insult)
                                                                                                -fiing- (get angry)

                      -ningis- (shake)                        -niingik/am- (stop, impede)       -niing- (narrow)
                      -ningun- (shake)                                                          -niing- (hum,drone)
                      -ningan- (wag)                                                            -nwiing- (lash,dash)
                      -ninginis-(wobble)

                                           -diing- (still)    -diingik/am- (keep still)
                                                              -dingidik/alal- (keep still)

                                                              -tiingun/k- (scorn)
                                                              -tingumun/k- (rebound)
                                                                                                -twiing- (twang)

      -zing- (live)                                                                             -ziing- (wrap,wind)       -ziingul/k- (unwind)
                                                                                                                           -zingumun/k- (unwind,untwist,
                                                                                                                                                    disentangle)
                                                              -siingik/am- (straighten)                                    -zingalakas/n- (entwine,entangle)
                                                                                                -siing- (insult)
                                                              -singalakas/n- (line up)          -swiing- (take aim)

                                                                                                -wiing- (whizz past)

                                                                                                -kiing- (wait)            -kiingil- (wait for)
                                                                                                                           -kiingul- (visit)

                                                                                                -wiing- (whizz past)
                      -yingil- (watch)     -yiing-(succeed) -yiingil- (guard)
                                                            -yiingis- (let guard)
                                                                                                                       verbs 36

                                        L                                                                                 H
-m                                                      -boom- (be just ripe/
                                                                 well cooked)
                             -tomangan- (fit,adjust)                              -tom- (be good/nice)      -tomin- (be good for)
                                                                                                             -tomis- (do well,make nice)
                                                        -zoom- (be soft/tender)   -zom- (curse,revile)
     -som- (thread,string)

     -kom- (put more,add)    -komikin- (be piled)                                                            -komin- (compell,urge,
                             -kominin- (ram,cram)                                 -kom- (nail,fasten/
                                                                                           fix by nailing)                    insist upon)
-b                           -bobul- (sound hollow)
                                                                                  -lob- (fish with line)    -lobul/k- (fornicate)
                                                                                  -lob- (provoke)
                                                                                                             -tobul/k- (pierce,bore)
                             -zobidik/alal-(make sad)

     -sob- (fill,persist)    -sobut- (bustle)
                                                                                  -sob- (change)            -sobas/n- (exchange)
                                                                                                             -sobul/k- (change place)
                                                                                                             -sobung- (limp)

                                                                                                             -gobul/k- (knock a hole)
     -kob-(be well (set) up) -kobik/am-(lean,fold up)
                                                                                                             -kobul/k- (go wrong)

                                                                                  -yob- (smear,anoint)      -yobil- (bathe)
                                                                                                             -yobidil- (save from the
                                                                                                                       water)
-f                                                                                -bof- (hit)               -bofun/k- (mellow)
                             -foful- (grope)
                             -fofut- (grope)

                             -toful/k- (stun)
                                                                                                                                             -gooful/k- (hollow)
                                                                                                             -koful/k- (cough)
                                                                                                                            verbs 37

                                               L                                                                                  H
-n                                                                                        -mon- (perceive,     -monan- (see each other)
                                                                                                       see)     -monik- (come to view,be
                                                                                                                           visible)
                                               -fyoon- (slink)        -fyoonuk- (sneak)
                                                                      -fyonunuk-(skulk)
       -non- (elect)                                                                                                                               -noon- (pick up)
       -non- (pearl)
                                                                                          -ton- (discern)

                                                                                          -son- (mark,write)   -sonik/am- (write down)
                                                                                                                -sonikin- (write to/for/
                                                                                                                            with/about/on)
                                                                                                                -sonikis- (let write)
                                               -syoon- (slip,glide)                                             -sonunun- (rewrite)
       -on- (growl)

       -gony- (agonize, -gonun/k- (slip off)                                                                    -konanan- (curl up)
                rattle)                                                                   -kon- (miss)
                                                                                          -kon- (fold,tuck     -konik/am- (crease)
                                               -kyoon- (debark,                                        up)      -konun/k- (decrease)
                                                            ravel)                        -kon- (keep quiet)
-l/d   -bol- (rot)      -bodis- (let rot)
                                               -byool- (knock down)
                                               -byool- (guzzle)
                                                                                                                                                   -pool-(pluck)
                                               -lool- (rant)                              -lol- (bark)         -lodil- (applic.)
                                                                                          -lol- (punish)       -lolul/k- (forgive)
                                               -dood- (tap,rap,
                                                        knock)                            -dod- (linger)       -dodokil- (beseech,plead for
                                                                                                                            as a favour,entreat)
                                                                                                                -dodusuk- (crackle)
                                                                                                                -dolut- (crackle)

                                                                                                                -tolul/k- (snap in two)
                                                                                                                -tolukil- (bow down for,stoop
                                                                                                                                         for)
                                               -zyool- (smooth out)   -zyoodil-           -zol- (like,love,    -zodil- (applic.)
                                                                              (massage)                wish)
                                                                      -zyoolan- (rub
                                                                            each other)
       -sol- (clear     -solul/k- (refind,                                                -sol- (leak)         -solong- (leak,drip)             -sool- (select,
                away)              discover)
                                                                                                                                                              choose)
                                                                                                                                     verbs 38

                                                 L                                                                                      H
(-l/d)   -gol-(draw,pull)                                                               -gol- (chill,      -godis- (chill,cool)          -gool- (booze)     -godidik- (toss off)
         -gol-(calm down)                                                                         cool)
         -kol-(grow hard/ -kodil- (get well/                                                                                                -kool- (pull
                  strong)                 strong)                                       -kol- (be drunk)                                           off,pluck)
                          -kodikil- (strengthen)
                          -kolam- (disobey)
                                                                                                            -koluluk- (cry,howl)         -kool- (die)
                          -kolul/k- (defoliate)                                                             -kolumb- (gurgle)
                          -kolumun/k- (strip all
                                     leaves off)
                                                                                                            -kyoluluk- (rumble,
                                                                                                                          grumble)
                            -yolul- (be pregnant)                                       -yol- (chat)                                       -yool- (bathe)
  -t     -bot- (prosper)    -botalal- (be soft)      -bwoot- (gnaw,      -bwootul/k-                        -botik/am- (dip,baptize)
                            -botumun/k-                      squeeze)        (squash)                       -botul- (dip in)
                                     (be overripe)   -byoot- (exceed
                                                           in food/
                                                           drink/flog)

                                                     -v(w)oot- (be
                                                              cloudy)
                                                     -vwoot- (thrash)

                                                     -fwoot- (clear a                                                                                            -fyootun/k- (lessen)
                                                               path)

                                                     -noot- (play out)                                                                      -loot- (dream)     -lootil- (dream)
                                                                                                            -dyotul/k- (dip,immerse)
                                                                                                                                            -loot- (cook)
                                                                                                            -dyotun/k- (dip,immerse)
                                                                                                                                            -toot- (pick up) -tootil- (cleave)
                                                     -zyoot- (snatch)                                       -zotun/k- (nip off)           -toot- (notch)

                                                     -oot- (toss off)                                      -sotul/k- (let fall)
                                                                                                                                                                 -ootun- (make a
                            -gotut- (toss off)       -goot- (take too                   -got- (muddle)                                                                    sneering
                                                                                                            -gotakas/n- (disorder)                                      gesture)
                                                              much by
         -kot- (enter)      -kotil- (enter for)               handful)
                            -kotis- (take in)
                            -kotam- (bend)
         -kyot- (swish)     -kyotil- (swish with)
                                                                                        -yot- (be ex 65                                                         -wootuk- (be curved,
                                                                                                            -yotil- (warm o.s.)                                          concave)
                                                                                        posed to the
                                                                                                sun)        -yotis- (circumcise)
                                                                                                                              verbs 39

                                          L                                                                                   H
-s                                             -loos-(throw out)   -loosil-
                                                                    (lay                    -tosusuk- (crackle)
     -sos- (search)                                                 eggs)

     -gos- (stuff)                                                                          -gosul/k- (stuff)
     -kos- (crush)     -kosan- (beat each                                                                                                           -koosik/am- (bend,fold)
     -kos- (cheat)                  other)                                                                                                          -kosulul- (bend over)
                       -kosakas/n- (smash)
                       -kosumun/k- (smash)
                       -kosul/k- (sit)                                                      -kosul- (cough)

                                               -woos- (make
     -yos- (buzz)                                        noise)
-g                     gogul- (sound husky)                                   -gog-     -gogil- (applic.)
                                                                                 (speak) -gogis- (let speak)
                                                                                         -gogasan- (speak to each
                                                                                                      other,converse)
-k -mok- (talk)
                       -bokut- (grumble)                                                    -bokul/k-(fold back)        -book-(shout,cry out)   -bookil-(shout/call for)
                                               -byook- (belch)
     -pok- (seethe)    -pokut- (seethe,sing                                                                               -pook- (crack)
                                   (kettle))
                       -pokumun- (puff)                                                                                   -pook- (waste away)
                                                                                                                          -pook- (be decked up)

                                                                                                                          -vyook- (pass)
                       -fokutun- (grub)                                                     -fokul/k-(fold back)
                                                                                            -fokukil-(bend down for)
                                                                                                                          -nyook- (weary)
                                                                              -nok-
                                                                                 (rain)                                   -look- (become red,     -lookil- (scream)
     -lok- (bewitch)   -lokil- (applic.)       -look- (call,cry,                            -lokumun/k-(raise voice)
                       -lokut- (happen upon)             shout)                             -dokun/k- (pluck)                          redden)
                                                                                                                          -dook- (crack,burst)    -dookis- (let crack)
                                                                              -dyok- (go
                                                                                 deep)
     -tok- (prick)     -tokik/am- (worry)                                                                                 -took- (crack)
     -tok- (steam,     -tokimin-/s- (worry,
              sweat)                 hurt)
                       -tokun/k-(pick out)
                       -tokutun-(pick,probe)
                                                                                                                               verbs 40

                                           L                                                                                      H
(-k)   -zok- (bore)     -zokik/am- (pierce)                                           -zok- (be     -zokun/k- (pick out from
                        -zokul- (chat)                                                       fooled)                     cob)
                        -zokubul- (babble)
                        -zokumbul- (chatter)                                                                                          -zyook- (shrink)
                                                                                                                                      -zyook- (slip off,
       -sok-(pack full) -sokil- (pick)                                                -sok-(invent,                                                 escape)
                        -sokik/am- (stick in)
                                                                                         plan,plot) -sokimbil- (poke fun at)
                        -sokisil- (jeer,pester)
                        -sokutun- (prize out)                                                        -sokimbis- (rarefy)
                        -sokumuk- (swoop)                                                            -sokul/k- (unpick)
                                                                                                     -sokulul- (ape,mimic)
                                                                                                                                      -syook- (thin)
                                                                                      -kok- (trail)
                                                                                                                                                               -ookan-
                                                                                                                                                                         (whine)
                                                                                                                                      -gook- (tumble,flee)

                        -kokul/k- (take out,                       -kookil- (crow)                     -kokil- (applic.)            -kook- (become
                                 empty a trap)                     -kookul- (crow)                                                                   loosed)
                        -kokulul/k- (empty                                                             -kokis- (let trail)
                                       again)
                        -kokumun/k- (move                                                              -kyokul- (gasp,pant)
                                       slowly)                                                                                        -yook- (be pregnant
       -yok- (burn)
                                                                                                                                                  (2months))
 -w                     -towul/k- (enfeeble,
                                       weaken)                     -woowul- (buzz)
 -y    -zoy- (knead)

       -soy- (last)
                                                                                      -koy-(be hard
                                                                                            and dry)
                                                  -yooy- (be       -yooyis- (wear
                                                      worn/weak)        out,weaken)
                                                                             verbs 41

                           L                                                        H
-mb   -boomb- (be just ripe)
                                                                                            -nyoombuk- (go slowly)

      -loomb- (blacken)        -loombul/k- (blacken, darken)   -loomb- (ask for)           -loombil- (applic.)
                               -toombul/k- (climb)
      -zoomb- (be afflicted)                                   -zoomb- (insult, censure)
                                                                                            -soombul/k- (hop,jump)
                                                                                            -soombul- (infest)
                               -koombul/k- (snatch,fetch)
                                                               -koomb- (sweep)
                                                                                            -koombil- (sweep with/for)
                                                                                            -koombis- (let sweep)

                                                                                            -yoombul/k- (slink)
-mp   -dyoomp- (plunge)

      -soomp- (borrow)         -soompik- (lend)

      -koomp- (hollow out)     -koompul/k- (render concave)
                                                                                                        verbs 42

                         L                                                                             H
-nd                                                          -bondung- (walk heavily)   -boond- (soothe)            -bondidik/alal- (soothe)
                                                                                                                       -boondul/k- (overturn)
      -foond- (sit)                                                                                                    -bondumun/k- (tumble)

      -loond- (mend,repair)       -loondil- (applic.)                                                                  -loondul/k- (let go away)
                                  -loondis- (let mend)
                                                                                          -toond- (love,thank)        -toondil-   (applic.)
                                                                                                                       -toondis-   (let love/thank)
                                                                                                                       -toondam-   (be loved)
                                                                                                                       -toondan-   (love each other)
                                                             -zondong- (walk slowly)
                                  -goondul/k- (twist,bend)
                                                                                          -goond- (kill,slay)
                                                                                                                       -goondil- (kill for/with)
                                                                                                                       -goondis- (help to kill)
                                                                                                                       -goondan- (kill each other)

                                                                                          -koond- (lack,want,miss)    -koondil- (applic.)
                                                                                          -koond- (hunt,stalk;coax)   -koondis- (help hunt)
                                  -yoondik/am- (soak)
                                  -yoonduk- (be soaked)                                   -yoond- (slink off)
-nt   -toont- (pry,test,proof)
-nz   -zoonz- (argue,debate)      -zoonzik/am- (arrange)

-ns   -nyoons- (languish,loiter) -nyoonsis-(let languish)
                                 -nyonsakan- (be weak)
                                                                                                                       -loonsul/k- (drive out of
                                                                                                                                             hiding)
                                                                                                                       -lonsumun/k- (drive out of
      -toons- (doze,have a nap)
                                                                                                                                             hiding)
                                                                                          -soons- (drip)
                                                                                                                       -gonsumun/k- (glide away)
                                                                                          -koons- (fish out,glean)
                                                                                                                      verbs 43

                                              L                                                                             H
-ng                                                                                       -monginik/anan-
      -bong- (get,     -bongil- (get for/                                                          (shut s.o.
             take)                  with)                                                          's mouth)
                       -bongunun- (pick up)
                       -bwongutun- (take
                               large piece)
                                              -foong- (sit)     -foongis- (let sit,
                                                                         welcome,host)
                                                                                                                 -noong- (aim at)
                                                                                                                 -nyoong- (be sad)
      -long- (teach)   -longis-(let teach)    -loong- (advise,                                                                            -loongil- (arrange for)
                       -longuk- (be taught,          counsel)                                                    -loong- (arrange)
                                                                                                                                          -loongis- help arrange)
                                    learn)    -loong- (pour)   -longulul- (pour into,
                       -dongumun/k- (let                                      decant)
                              emerge,raise)                                                                      -dyoong- (peer,stare)

                       -tongas/n-(nauseate)                     -toongun/k- (pierce)                             -toong- (rise)
                                                                -toongik/am- (raise)
                                                                -tongidik/alal- (lift,
                                                                          put upright)
                                                                -tonginik/anan- (let
                                                                                loom)
                                                                -tongumun/k- (peer,pry)

                                              -zoong-(measure) -zoongik/am- (make
                                                                              pools)
                                                               -zoongam- (sit,throne)
                                                               -zoongun- (nip off)
                                                               -zyoongun- (pinch)

                                              -soong- (be       -soongis- (make right)
                                                       right)   -songisil- (make right
                                                                                                                 -soong- (show)          -soongis- (let show)
                                                                                for)                                                      -songidil- (show how,
                                                                -soongik/am- (point)                                                                        signify)
                                                                -soongul/k- (cut into a
                                                                               point)
      -gong- (be/      -gongis- (fatten)
           grow fat)                                            -koongul/k- (clean out)                          -koong- (appease,
                                                                -kyoongun- (guzzle)                                            elicit)
                                                                                                                 -kyoong- (rumble)
                                                                                                                                          -woongul/k- (do profu-
                                                                                                                                                      sely:sound,sing,
      -yong- (marry)                                                                                                                                  laugh,drink)
-nk                                                                                                              -koonk- (knock)         -konkutil- (knock at)
                                                                                                                                          -koonkil- (draw near to)
                                                                                                                                          -koonkis- (put close)
                                                                                                                               verbs 44

                                          L                                                                                        H
-m                                                                                   -bum- (hit, beat)
     -vum- (flower)      -vumangan- (flower)
                         -vumin-(fear,respect)
     -vum--(rumble,      -vumis- (rumble,
             grumble)                grumble)
                         -vumisin- (applic.)
                         -vumun/k- (remove,
                                      empty)
                                                                                                                                            -fuuman- (hold aloof)
     -dum- (rustle)      -dumis- (let rustle)                                        -lum-(eject semen)
                         -dumun/k- (root out)
                                                 -tuum-                                                     -tumin- (applic.)
                                                     (miss,                          -tum-(send)
                                                                                                            -tumis- (let send)
                                                     misfire)
                                                                                     -zum- (be             -tumam- (be willing,
                                                                                              delighted)                      obedient)
     -sum- (sew)         -sumun/k- (pull out)                                                               -sumun/k- (transgress,
                         -sumik/am- (fix,                                                                                    break,sin)
                                      needle)                                                               -sumat- (sip)
                         -sumimin- (claim)
                                                 -guum-         -guumun-(breathe
                                                     (pant)              slowly)
                         -kumik/am- (stop)                                           -kum- (fasten,set
                         -kumanan- (stand                                                      up;get to)
                                       still)
                                                                -wuumun/k- (sigh)    -wum- (spray,         -yumin- (applic.)
                                                                                               sprinkle)    -yumis- (let dry)
                                                                                                            -yumas/n- (quarrel)
                                                                                     -yum- (dry)
                                                                                                            -yumangas/n- (quarrel)
-b                                                              -buubut- (grope)    -bub- (beat,strike)    -bubik/am- (lay down)
                                                                                                            -bubidik/alal- (lay down
                                                                                                                             s.th. great)
     -vub- (clap)        -vubul- (kick)
     -vub- (cut off                                                                                         -vubul-(do superficially:
           one by one)                                                                                                      doze,singe)
                                                                                     -fub- (strike with
                                                                                                            -fubul/k- (blunt)
                                                                                             blunt thing)
                                                                                                            -fubis- (blunt)
                                                                                                            -fubam- (be blunt)
                                                                                                            -fuban- (be blunt)

     -dub- (dam and sti -lubul/k- (warn,be                                                                  -dubalal- (bulge)
                                      wary)
                                                                                     -tub- (throw,cast,
                                                                                                            -tubul/k- (bore,pierce)
                                                                                                 fling)
                                                                                                            -tubumun/k- (rush on)
                                                                                                                              verbs 45


                                                    L                                                                                  H
(-b)                          -zubukut- (dabble)                                                  -zub- (strike)        -zubil- (strike with)
       -sub- (piss,urinate)

       -kub- (weave,dupe,     -kubakan- (be duped)
                embroider)    -kubik/am- (arrange)
       -kub- (strike)         -kubul/k- (shake off)
       -kub- (be old)
-p     -pup- (flap)           -pupumuk- (flutter)       -puup- (blow)          -puupik- (gulf)
                                                                               -pupidik- (gulf)
-f     -buf- (strike)
                              -fufun- (laugh)
                              -fufun- (eat/beat
                                          copiously)
                                                                                                                         -dufumuk- (fester)
                              -tufun/k- (squash)

                              -kufik/am- (shorten)                                                                       -kufun- (snort)
                              -kufis- (make short)
-n                                                      -buun- (skin,strip
       -vun- (brag)                                                 off)                          -vun- (fold up)       -vuninik/anan- (bristle,bow,bend)

       -fun- (swell,                                                                              -fun- (be unlucky/
                increase)
                                                                                                              useless)
       -nun- (be old)
                                                        -tuun- (debark,strip
                                                                     off)                         -tun- (refuse)
                                                                                                                         -sunun/k-(undo,unfasten,unpick)
                                                                                                  -sun- (detach)
       -un- (hum)            -uut- (hum,buzz)
                              -uut- (wiggle)

       -gun- (lie)            -gunin- (lie about)
                              -gunis- (deny,distrust)
                              -gunakan- (be duped)                                                                       -kunis- (let sow/plant)
                                                                                                  -kun- (sow,plant)
       -yun- (skin,deplume,
                   peel)
                                                                                                                               verbs 46

                                            L                                                                                    H
-l/d                          -budik/bulam- (fold up)                                -bul- (beat,       -budil- (beat with/ for)     -buul-(rip up,cleave,
                              -bulumun/k-(upset,spill)                                        strike)    -budis- (let burst)                     split,burst)
                              -bulukut- (crack,nibble)
                              -bulung- (stir)                                                            -bulasan- (interchange)
       -pul- (blow)
       -pul- (toss with
                    pain)     -vulangan- (bloom)                                                         -vudik/vulam- (dress up)
                                                                                                                                        -vuul- (take off
                                                                                                         -vulumun/k- (startle)                       cloths)
                              -fulukut- (fumble)                                     -ful-   (blow)     -fulumun- (breathe)         -fuul- (continue)
                                                                                     -ful-   (bloom)    -fulalal- (be puffed up)
                                                                                     -ful-   (forge)    -fulumb- (will firm)
                                                                                     -ful-   (foam)     -fudil- (forge for/ with)
                                                                                                         -fudis- (let forge)
                                                                                                         -fuluk-(boil over/up,
                                                                                                                            overflow)
                                                                                                         -fululuk-(froth over)
                              -dudul- (echo, sparkle)                                                                                   -duud- (sizzle)
                                                                                     -dud- (swell,
       -lul- (be bitter)      -ludik/lulam- (set up/in
                                                                                              ferment) -lulumun/k-(dash off)
       -lul- (rage)                       order,ready)
       -lul- (rush)                                                                  -lul- (run away) -lulumuk- (rise high)

                                                                                                         -tudik/tulam- (pile up)
                                                                                     -tul- (butt)                                      -tuul- (arrive)
                                                                                                         -tulul/k- (take down)
                                                                                                                                        -tuul- (put/lay down)
                                                                                                        --tulumun/k- (raise
                                                                                                                                        -tuul- (trim)
                                                                                                                         suddenly,skid)
                                                                                                         -tudimin- (claim)
                                                         -zyuul-
                                                             (pull
       -sul- (press pulp of   -sulul/k- (abort)              up,dig   -suulam- (be                       -sudikil- (importune)
               palmnuts       -sulul/k- (disgust)            up)            hidden
               with thumb)    -sulasan- (disgust each                       away)
       -sul- (cut off in                        other)
                   pieces)
                                                                                                         -gulul/k- (save,deliver)
                                                                                                         -gulus- (save,deliver)

       -kul- (chase,expel)    -kulul/k- (release,lose)                               -kul- (grow)       -kulul/k- (decrease)
                              -kulumun/k- (lower, let                                                                                   -kuul- (buy back,
                                                down)                                                                                                   redeem)
                              -kulukut- (crunch)
                                                                                                                                        -wuul- (booze)          -wudikil-
                                                                                                                                                                    (listen)
       -yul- (sweat)          -yulul/k- (alter)                                                                                         -yuul-(question,
                              -yulumun/k- (turn over)
                                                                                                                                               inquire)
                                                                                                                              verbs 47

     L                                                                                                                            H
-t                                                                                       -but-(bear,beget,   -butil-   (bear for)
                                                                                                    bread)    -butis-   (help bear)
                                                                                                              -butuk-   (be born)
                             -putut- (take abun-    -puut- (gobble)                                           -butan-   (be fecund)
                                      dantly,live
                                      in luxury)
                                                                                                              -vutul/k- (return)
                                                                                                              -vutukil- (return
                                                                                                                                for/to)
     -fut- (pay,reward)      -futis- (let pay,                                                                -vutukis- (return)
                                                                                         -fut- (bathe,
                                          fine
                                                                                                   massage)                                  -fuutan- (mope,ponder)
                                                                                                              -futumun/k- (raise from
                             )                                                           -fut-(lie fallow)                   the dead)
                                                                                         -fut-(smoke fish/
     -lut- (pass,exceed)     -lutil- (applic.)                                                      meat)
                             -lutis- (let pass)

     -tut- (crush,pound)     -tutis- (let pound)    -tuut- (bustle)                                           -tutik/am- (crowd)

                                                    -suut- (be impatient/
                                                                 eager)                  -kut- (gather)      -kutik/am- (put
                                                                                                                                together)
                                                                                                              -kutidik/alal-(shrivel)
                                                                                                              -kutakas/n- (cluster)
                                                                                                              -kutul/k- (undo,untie)
                                                                                                              -kutumun/k- (untie
                                                                                                                             completely)
                                                                                                              -kyutul- (bolt)
                                                    -wuut- (gasp)                                             -kyutumun/k-(gobble up)
                                                                                         -yut- (pull)                                       -yuutan- (be dark)
-z   -vuz- (uproot)          -vuzas/n- (disgust)
-s   -fus- (bore wood,       -fusun/k- (seethe)
                  moulder)                                                               -lus- (overdo)
                             -susul/k- (scare)                              -suusik/am-
                             -susumun/k-(startle)                               (baffle:
                                                                                fear,sur -kus- (rub on,
                                                                                -prise)
                                                                                                   smear)
     -yus- (skin,deplume)
                                                                                                                       verbs 48

                                              L                                                                                 H
-k                                                                                                           -mukun/k-(break,chew)

                         -bukik/am- (turn upside down) -buuk- (run/                       -buk- (cure,      -bukul/k- (pour)         -buuk- (burst,
                         -bukimin- (bend down to show     flee fast)                             nurse)                                        collapse)
                                     her buttocks:                                                           -bukulul- (re-pour)
                                     woman insulting)                                                        -bukumun/k- (shed,
                                                                                                                             spill)
                                                                                                             -bukun/k- (break in
                                                                                                                               two)
     -puk-(emit strong                                                                                       -bukunun- (break to
               smell)
                                                                                                                             pieces)
     -vuk- (join)                                                                                            -bukut- (crunch)
                                                                                                                                        -vuuk- (stripe,be
                         -vukas/n- (unite)
                                                                                                                                               unclothed)
                         -vukul/s- (rut)
                                                                                                                                        -vuuk- (be saved)
     -fuk- (prune)                                                                                           -fukam- (kneel)
     -fuk- (itch)        -fukan- (be blunt)                                                                  -fukamis- (let kneel)   -fuuk- (finish,
                         -fukis- (blunt)                                                                     -fukamin- (kneel for,          complete)
                         -fukus- (boil)
                                                                                                                              adore)
                                                                     -nuukis- (emit
                                                       -nuuk-                    smell)
                                                             (smell) -nuukut- (smell,                        -nukun- (break,chew
                                                                                 stink)
                                                                     -nukutin-(applic.)
                                                                                          -luk- (vomit)
                                                                                                             -lukis- (let vomit)      -luuk- (jut out)
     -duk-(give amply)                                  -luuk- (warn,                                        -lukul/k- (push over)    -duuk- (crack)
     -duk-(rout,snout)   -dukumuk- (rise,sprout)             beware,                      -luk- (name
                         -dukung- (gurgle,rumble,throb)      be wary)                               after)   -dukul/k- (pull,move)    -dyuuk- (dive,
                                                                                                                                                 jump down)
     -tuk- (root out,
               grub)     -tukam- (be busy)                                                                   -tukul- (wring)          -tuuk-(come from)   -tuukil-
                         -tukut- (drip with sweat)                                                           -tukun- (flap as                                (applic.)
                                                                                                                           defense)
                                                                                                                                                              -tuukis-
                                                                                          -zuk- (throw)                                                             (take
                                                                                                            -zukumun/k- (fling)                                   out)
                                                                                          -zuk- (pay       -zukis- (let pay
                                                                                                  interest)       interest)
                                                                                          -zuk- (be beside
                                                                                                    s.o.)
                                                                                                                  verbs 49




                                    L                                                                         H
(-k) -suk- (put in,   -sukul/k- (wash                         -suk- (end)         -sukis- (make an end)
            stick in)           clean/out)                                         -sukinin- (be late/last)
                      -sukulul- (wash
                                    again)                                         -sukik/am- (make poor)
                                                                                   -sukamis- (make poor)          -syuuk- (leap)

                                                              -guk- (amass)       -gukumun/k- (seduce, tempt)    -guuk- (swoop)
                                                              -guk- (hum)

                      -kukam- (stammer)                       -kuk- (clear,
                                                                                   -kukul- (flow along/down,   -kuuk- (lose
                                                                                           catch and carry away)      leaves/hair)
                      -kukumuk- (stutter)                            sweep away)

                      -yukul/k- (snap away)                   -yuk- (gain self-
                                                                                 -yukut- (be satisfied)
                                                                     confidence)
                                                                                 -yukutis- (satisfy)
-g                                            -guug- (blow)   -gug- (regain                                                            -guugik/am- (keep
                                                                        breath)                                                                          save)
-w                                                                               -kuwas- (yes)
                                                                                 -kuwalal- (yes in chorus)

                                                                                   -yuwul- (question,inquire)
                                                                                                                     verbs 50

                                                L                                                                              H
-mb                                                                                                            -buumb-(mould)          -buumbam- (flock,swarm)
                                                                                                               -buumb-(mound,earth up)

                                             -vuumb- (burn un-   -vuumbul/k- (loft up)                         -vuumb- (hum,buzz)
                                                  der the ashes)
                                                                                                                                          -fuumbik/am- (bend,bow)
                                             -fuumb- (waste,                                                   -fuumb- (bow,curve)
                                                  swear falsely)                                                                          -fumbalal- (wince)
                                                                                                                                          -fuumbul/k- (kill,finish
                                                                                                                                                                off)
                                             -luumb- (mix up                                                   -luumb- (plop down)       -luumbam- (plump down)
                                                      together)
                                             -dyuumb- (dive)
      -tumb- (set
            fire to)                         -tuumb- (scold,       -tuumbul/k- (do clearly,                    -tuumb- (initiate,con-    -tuumbul/k- (desecrate)
                                                        defame)              speak louder)
                                                                                                                       secrate,install)   -tuumbik/am-(consecrate)
                                                                                                               -tuumb- (pile up,add,     -tuumbik/am-(make dense)
                                                                                                                         put in touch)    -tuumbik/am- (hang up to
                                                                                                                                                      catch palmwine)
                                                                                                                                          -tumbulul- (refute)
      -zumb- (commit
           adultery)                                                                                           -zuumb- (rejoice,
                                                                                                                               gladden)
                                                                                                                                          -suumbil- (buy for/with)
                                                                                                               -suumb- (buy)
                                                                                                                                          -suumbis- (let buy,sell)
                                                                                                                                          -suumbul/k- (pass over)
                                                                                                               -guumb- (rustle nearer)
                                             -kuumb- (rake)
                                                                                                               -kuumb- (marvel,wonder, -kuumbis- (amaze)
                                                                                                                            be famous)  -kumbalal- (leave hasty)
                                                                   -yuumbul- (trim,lop)                        -kuumb- (roar)
                                                                   -yumbalal(be bewildered)
-mp                    -fumpulul- (repeat
                                in detail)   -dyuump- (dive)

                       -tumpas/n- (toss                            -tuumpuk- (speed up)       -tump- (rush
                                    about)                                                           about,
                       -tumpidik/alal-                                                               bustle)
                               (daze,numb)                         -suumpul/k- (flood,
                                                                                 overflow)
                                                                                                               -guump- (take/drink a
                       -kumpulul- (tell in   -kuump- (dig up,      -kuumpil- (applic.)                                          lot)
                                   detail)            gather)      -kuumpis- (let dig up/
                                                                                   gather)
                                                                                                                          verbs 51

                                           L                                                                                  H
                                                                                                                                            -nyuumfun- (crowd noisy)
                                                               -kuumfuk- (be sated)
                                                                                                                                            -yuumfuk-   (gobble)
-bund-(put toge-    -bundis-(let join) -buund- (enshroud,      -buundik/am- (fold up,                           -buund- (beat,thrash)      -buundil-   (applic.)
      ther,join)    -bundas/n- (make         wrap a corpse                    close)                            -buund- (boast)            -buundis-   (let beat)
                             alliance)       in cloth)         -buundul/k- (unfold,
                    -bundakas/n- (add                                   unwrap,open)                                                        -buundan-   (collide)
                            up, cast                           -bundumun/k- (unfold,
                            up,reckon)                                unwrap;arouse)

-vund- (mix)                             -vuund- (rest)        -vuundis- (let rest,      -vundumuk-
                                                                              ease)                  (splash)                               -vuundul/k- (swell)
                                                                                         -vundung-
                                                                                                  (splatter)
-fund- (coil;sit                         -fuund- (mould,get    -fuundik/am- (get                                                            -fuundil- (applic.)
     crosslegged)                                   mouldy)                   mouldy)                           -fuund- (accuse)
                                                                                                                                            -fuundis- (try)
                                                                                                                                            -fuundan- (accuse each
                                                                                                                                                                 other)
                                                                                                                                            -fundumun/k- (swell)
                                         -luund-(keep,store, -luundil- (applic.)         -lundumun/k-
                                                     protect) -luundis- (let keep)                (rush off)

                                         -tuund-(skin,strip,                                                    -tuund- (grow famous/
                                                     flay)                                                                   prominent)

                                         -suund- (excel,       -suundas/n-(alternate)                           -zuund- (withdraw sadly)
                                                     exceed)   -sundasan-
                                                                        (interchange)

                                         -kuund-(pause,stay,   -kuundik/am-(put more,                           -kuund- (salute,pay
                                                     remain)                heighten)
                                                                                                                                 homage)
                                         -kuund- (exhale       -kundikil- (raise up
                                                      smell)           upon a support)
                                                               -kundidik/alal- (make
                                                                          high,super-
                    -yundul/k- (feed,                                     pose,exalt)
                         provide food)
                    -yundumun/k-                               -yuunduk- (darken)
                        (cause a rash)
                    -yundalal- (be
                             cheerful)
                                         -fuunt- (rake)        -fuuntil- (rake with)
                                         -fuunt- (remain       -funtulul- (grub)
                                                     unsold)                                                    -tuunt- (pull,draw,tug)    -tuuntik/am- (pull up,
                                                                                                                                                              hoist up)
                                                                                                                                            -tuntumun/k- (shock)
                                                                                                                        verbs 52

                                              L                                                                                H
-nz                                                                                                        -zuunz- (rise high
                                                                                                                   above,stand out)
-ns                                                                                                                                   -fuunsul/k- (soil,stain)
                                                                                                           -luuns- (ache)
                                                                     -suunsul/k-                                                      -suunsul/k- (present)
                                                                              (startle)
                                                                     -sunsumun/k-                                                     -sunsumun/k- (swallow)
                                                                               (flinch)                    -kuuns- (eat raw)
                                                                                                                                      -kunsumun/k- (let escape)
                                                   -yuuns- (try)     -yunsumun/k- (slip
                                                                                 away)
-ng                      -mungun-(eat with gums/
                                     mouth full)

                         -bungul- (sound hollow)                                          -bung-(waste,                              -buungul/k- (pour over,shed
                                                                                                fluster)                                                       forth)
                                                                                                                                      -bungumun/k- (shed all over)
      -pung- (wince                                                                                                                   -bungutin- (gargle)
            with pain)
                         -vungut-(mumble,murmur)                                                           -vuung- (cover,           -vuungul/k- (uncover,dig out
                                                                                                                         sprinkle)            animals after bush-fire)
                                                                                                                                      -vunginik/anan- (bristle up)

                                                                                                           -fuung- (be underdone,  -fuungun/k- (confess)
                                                                                                                  fall short,miss) -fuungus- (let confess)
                                                                                                           -fuung- (be angry,sulk) -fuungis- (make angry,vex)
                                                                                                                                    -fuungan- (anger each other)

                         -nyungut- (wag,wriggle) -nyuung- (frisk,    -nyuungin-                            -nuung- (win)
                                                                                                                                      -nuungis- (let win)
                                                           stir)              (welcome)
                                                 -nyuung- (be well   -nyunginin- (give                                                -nuungun/k- (shove over/along)
                                                      cooked/soft)             a hearty                                               -nungumun/k- (jostle away)
                                                                               welcome)
      -lung- (be full/  -lungis- (complete)     -luung-(be every-                                          -luung- (fan the fire)
              complete) -lungidis- (complete)             where)     -luungul-
                        -lungan- (be all                                     (overheat)
                                     present)                                                                                         -duungul/k- (flow out)
                        -lungalakas/n- (gather                       -dungumun/k-
                                        all)                              (raise above)
                        -lungidik- (accomplish)
                        -lungalal- (be wary/
                                       prudent)
                                                                                                                                     verbs 53

                                                L                                                                                        H
(-ng)                   -tungan- (get lost)                            -tuungik/am-                        -tungunun-       -tuung- (stitch,sew,    -tuungil- (sew/build with)
                        -tunginik/anan- (con-                                 (wear out)                        (stare,gaze)                  build)    -tuungis- (let sew/build)
                                    fuse/get                           -tungimis-
                                    confused)                                  (exhaust)                                                                -tungulul- (resew,rebuild)
                        -tungumun/k-(turn up)
                                                                       -zuungun- (allude                                                                -zyuungas/n- (twirl)
                                                                                                                               -zyuung- (surround)
                                                                                 to)                                                                    -zyungalakas/n- (whirl,
                                                                                                                                                                             swirl)
                                                                                                                                                        -zyungumun/k- (twirl,
                                                                                                                                                                           swirl)
        -sung- (be      -sungidil- (snap up         -suung (be con- -suungam- (stand
            first/            before,intrude)            cerned,wor-      up straight)
                                                                                                           -sungul/k- (men- -suung- (take care,      -suungam- (take care)
                                                                                                                  tion,name)                attend)     -sungimin- (care for)
            about to)   -sungut- (hobble)                ry about)   -suungik/suungam-
                                                                             (swallow)
                                                                                                                               -guung- (buzz,hum,      -guungis- (let buzz)
                                                                                                                                            resound)
                                                                                                                               -guung- (grab)

                                                    -kuung- (rub)    -kuungun- (rub                                            -kuung- (moan,groan)    -kuungan- (moan)
                                                    -kuung- (pull        off,wipe off)
                                                       o.s together)                                                                                    -kuungan- (leave all
                                                                                                                                                                             together)
                                                                                                                                                        -kungalakas- (take up all
                                                                                                                                                                             together)
                                                                                                                                                        -kuungul/k- (grab,snap)
                                                    -wuung- (herd)     -wuungul-                                                                        -kungidik/alal- (slap down
                                                                            (herd,tend)
                                                                                                                                                                         a huge person
                        -yungas/n-(rove fast)                                              -yung-
                                                                                                                               -yuung- (roam slowly)                    or thing)
                                                                       -yuungas/n- (roam        (fester)
                                                                                slowly)    -yung-
                                                                                                 (rove
                                                                                                 fast)
 -nk                                                -fuunk- (roar,
                                                            rattle
                        -kunkum- (shiver,                   (dying))   -kuunkum-(quiver)                                                                -kuunkut- (knock)
                                    tremble)                           -kuunkul/k-                                                                      -kunkutil- (knock at)
                        -kunkusil- (fidget)                                 (knock down)
                        -kunkusuk- (fidget)                                                                                                             -kunkumun/k- (shake off)
                                                                  verbs 54


                                   1.2. Minimal pairs in Kikoongo verb-bases

                            L                                            H
-CaC-    -sab-      hack, clear                     -sab-     have one's fill
         -tat-      creak                           -tat-     char
                                                    -tat-     shriek, yelp
        -yas-       divulge                         -yas-     open, split
        -sak-       provoke                         -sak-     be too much/late
        -sak-       comb out,frisk,hunt down
 -CaaC- -vwaam-     roost, perch                 -vwaam-     be rich
-CaaNC- -baamb-     strike with the open hand    -baamb-      charge, slander
        -saamb-     beat down the grass (for a   -saamb-      whine, squall, yell
                         path), part (the hair)
                                                 -saamb-      pray, entreat
         -gaand-    plait, braid                 -gaand-      make a charm
         -kaand-    bend straight,stretch,strain -kaand-      languish
         -saans-    tend, support                -saans-      loot
         -kaang-    tie, fasten, bind            -kaang-      fry, roast
         -kwaang-   scratch                      -kwaang-     ache (head only)
-CeC-    -bel-      blame                        -bél-         be wrong/guilty
         -lel-      nurse, bring up              -lél-         glide
         -kel-      cut up                       -kél-         filter
         -kel-      slander                      -kél-         shrill
                                                 -ték-         dip to fill
         -tek-      do first/before              -ték-         turn away, wring
                                                 -ték-         sell
-CeeC-  -fweem-     dislike                      -fwéém-       blow one's nose
        -leek-      trap, cock (a gun)           -léék-        sleep
 -CeNC- -yeng-      glare in the sun             -yéng-        be hot
-CeeNC- -geend-     lick                         -géend-       miss
        -seens-     flow over, flood             -séens-       mince, slice up
        -nyeeng-    resound                      -nyéeng-      whine
                                                 -nyéeng-      be overcooked
         -leeng-    smooth, flatter              -léeng-       leap
         -seeng-    prune                        -séeng-       spy
-CiC-    -dim-      rumble                       -dim-        poison
         -fin-      pinch                        -fin-        dispute
         -bit-      be respected
                                                 -bit-        grip
         -sis-      frighten                     -sis-        leave
         -fik-      itch                         -fik-        cover
         -tik-      shake                        -tik-        sweet heavily
-CiiC-   -yiil-     hem                          -yiil-      be used to
-CiiNC- -fiing-     insult                          -fiing-   get angry
-CoC-    -kom-      add, put more                   -kom-     nail,fasten/fix by nailing
         -sob-      fill, persist                   -sob-     change
         -sol-      clear away
         -gol-      draw, pull                      -sol-     leak
         -gol-      calm down                       -gol-     chill, cool

         -kol-      grow hard/strong                -kol-     be drunk
         -zok-      bore                            -zok-     be fooled
         -sok-      pack full
                                                    -sok-     invent, plan, plot
-CooC-   -look-     shout, cry                      -look-   become red, redden
-CooNC- -loomb-     blacken                         -loomb-   ask for
        -zoomb-     be afflicted                    -zoomb-   insult, censure
         -loong-    pour
         -loong-    advise, counsel                 -loong-   arrange

         -soong-    be right                        -soong-   show
                                                                                     verbs 55

                                 L                                             H

-CuC-    -vun-     brag                                 -vun-     fold up

         -fun-     swell, increase                      -fun-     be unlucky/useless

         -lul-     rush                                 -lul-     run away
         -lul-     rage
         -lul-     be bitter

         -kul-     chase, expel                         -kul-     grow

         -fut-     pay, reward                          -fut-     bathe, massage
                                                        -fut-     smoke fish/meat
                                                        -fut-     lie fallow

         -suk-     put in, stick in                     -suk-     end
-CuuC-   -buuk-    run, flee fast                       -buuk-   burst, collapse

         -luuk-    warn, be wary, beware                -luuk-   stretch out, jut out
-CuuNC- -vuumb-    burn under the ashes                 -vuumb-   hum, buzz

         -fuumb-   swear falsely, waste                 -fuumb-   bow, curve

         -luumb-   mix up together                      -luumb-   plump down

         -tuumb-   scold, defame                        -tuumb-   initiate, install
                                                        -tuumb-   add, pile up

         -kuumb-   rake                                 -kuumb-   roar
                                                        -kuumb-   marvel, wonder, be famous

         -buund-   enshroud, wrap a corpse in a cloth   -buund-   beat, thrash
                                                        -buund-   boast

         -fuund-   mould, get mouldy                    -fuund-   accuse

         -tuund-   skin, strip, flay                    -tuund-   grow famous/renowned/prominent

         -kuund-   pause, stay, remain                  -kuund-   pay homage, salute
         -kuund-   exhale smell

         -luung-   be everywhere                        -luung-   fan the fire

         -suung-   be concerned, worry                  -suung-   take care, attend
         -kuung-   rub
         -kuung-   pull o.s. together                   -kuung-   groan, moan
                                                                                                 verbs 56

    1.3. Minimal pairs in Kikoongo poly-morphemic verb-bases          :   -CV(V)(N)C-VC(-VC)-
                                       (archaic, cf.n.1)




              L                                             H

 -CaC-    -sawul/k-      ferry, ford                  -sawul/k-          hate, scorn, detest

          -vwalumun/k-   slope off                    -vwalumun/k-      wake with a start

-CaaC-    -vwaamin-      perch on                     -vwaamin-         get rich with

-CaaNC-   -saambul/k-    infect,transmit contagion -saambul/k-          bless

                                                      -saambul/k-       whet by hammering out
                                                                               the edge of a hoe

-CeeNC-   -seempul-      puff (chest) out             -seempul-         lift, pass on

          -leengul/k-    smooth, polish               -leengul/k-       look askant

 -CiC-    -yidis-        let cook                     -yidis-            darken

          -yitul/k-      wonder                       -yitul/k-          grab

 -CoC-    -kosul-        sit                          -kosul-            cough

-CooNC-   -soongis-      make right                   -soongis-         let show

 -CuC-    -sumun/k-      pull out                     -sumun/k-          transgress, sin

          -vubul-        kick                         -vubul-            do superficially :
                                                                                    doze, singe

                                                      -kulul/k-          decrease
          -kulul/k-      release, lose

          -futis-        let pay, fine                -futis-            let bathe/massage

-CuuNC-   -tuumbul/k-    do clearly,speak loudly      -tuumbul/k-       desecrate


          -suunsul/k-    startle                      -suunsul-k-       present


          -sunsumun/k-   flinch
                                                      -sunsumun/k-      swallow

          -suungam-      stand up straight
                                                      -suungam-         take care
          -suungam-      be swallowed
                                                                                       verbs 57


     1.4. Tones of poly-morphemic bases differing from those of other related mono- and poly-morphemic bases

                                   (could be partly due to mistaken recording)


                               L                                                          H
a   -taant-   pull,draw        -tantumun/k-   stretch out                             -taantik/am-       stretch

e   -geeng-   turn aside       -gengumun/k-   push aside                              -geengik/am-       put away
                                                                                      -gengidik/alal-   jet ajar
                                                                                      -geengul/k-         move away
                                                                                      -genguluk-          push of
                                                                                      -gengusun/k-        move far off


    -teem-    shed light                                                              -teemun/k-          enlighten
    -ken-     bare its teeth
                                                                                      -kenik/am-       bare its teeth
a -tyaab-     gush                                                                    -tyabidik/alal- bulge
  -tsyaab-    flow copiously                                                          -tsyabidik/alal- bulge
  -syaab-     leap
                                                                                      -syabidik/alal- be full up
o -gos-       stuff                                                                   -gosul/k-          stuff out

    -look-    shout,cry                                                               -lookil-            scream
a                              -yaandam-       spread        -yaand-   stretch and
                               -yaandas/n-     spread                      fasten
                               -yandasan-      spread
                               -yandangan-     spread

                               -zaanzal-       crawl,creep   -zaanz-   trip
e                              -zeembik/am-    sling         -zeemb-   swing,sway
                               -zembidik/alal- carry in a
                                                   sling
                               -zembusuk-      swoon
u                              -yungas/n-      rove fast     -yung-    rove fast
                               -yuungas/n-     rove slowly   -yuung-   roam slowly
e                              -nyenumuk-      sparkle       -nyen-    twinkle       -nyenis-             let twinkle
a                              -zaangul/k-     lift,raise    -zaang-   seize         -zaangik/am-       raise up
                                                                                      -zangikil-          raise upon
                                                                                      -zanginik/anan-   hang up

                               -ladik-         apply                                  -lalul/k-            take from the
                               -ladikil-       apply on/                                                     surface,skim
                                                   with


                               -kaankal-      tie palmrib-                            -kankitin-          fit tightly
                                                   battens
u                              -kuunkul/k-     knock down                             -kuunkut-           knock
                                                                                      -kunkutil-          knock at
                  = 16/7 out of 1170/284                                    = 14/12 out of 1139/272
                  = 23 out of 1454 = 1.58%                                  = 26 out of 1411 = 1.84%

                                              = 30/19 out of 2309/556
                                              = 49 out of 2865 = 1.71%
                                                                                         nouns intr 1

                   2. Kikoongo nouns and some pronouns classified in tone-groups


2.0. This paper presents the classification of np-(N)C(S)V(V)(N)CV 1 nominal and some pronominal
forms in Kintandu, the eastern Kikoongo dialect. It distinguishes four tone-groups (a, b, c and
d) and for each tone-group also four tone-cases (I, II, III and IV) 2.



       s   t   e    m     case   t             o       n       e        -   g        r        o         u             p

    syllab.        mora                    a                   b                    c                       d

                           I          L-L(L)L               L-L(H)L             L-L(L)H                 L-L(L)H

       2             3               ma-biibi              ki-wiina            ki-tuutu               n-tuutu

       2             2                ma-lafu              lu-ngweni           ma-tuti                ma-kuku

                           II        L-L   H       L        L-H(H)L             L-H(L)L                 L-H(L)L

       2             3               ma-biibi             ki-wiina           ki-tuutu               n-tuutu

       2             2                ma-lafu             lu-ngweni           ma-tuti                ma-kuku

     neg. ka-IV-ko         IV          = II                  = II               L-H(H)H                 L-H(H)H

       2             3               ma-biibi             ki-wiina           ki-tuutu             n-tuutu

       2             2                ma-lafu             lu-ngweni           ma-tuti               ma-kuku



The following lists mention the tone-groups in the predicate-case II, as in a lexicon or
separately, such as malafu (a) 'palm-wine', lungweni (b) 'chameleon', matuti (c) 'clouds', makuku
(d) 'hearthstones', mabiibi (a) 'fatigue', kiwiina (b) 'thirst', kituutu (c) 'occasion', ntuutu
(d) 'bottle'.

With regard to the counting stems with N- as plural prefix (cl.10) have not been counted
separately, unless the plural has a specified meaning, such as nzefo (pl. of luzefo) 'beard-
hairs', but mostly meaning 'beard'. Besides lukaya 'leaf' there is makaya (both with stem -kaya)
meaning 'trimmings'. The same plants having ki- or mun- besides n- as prefix are counted only
once. Not counted are the loan-words (in the lists preceded by !).

2.1. Striking are the proportionally few nouns belonging to tone-group b : apart from -CVVCV,
numbering 124 out of 157 (almost 79%) – itself totaling only 5.75% of the 2728 items – there are
only 14 with –CVCV stem (including two numerals, -mosi and -tatu), 17 with –CVNCV stem, and 2
with the same –CVVNCV stem, in fact compounds : nkeento 'woman' and nkeento 'female'. Apart from
the two numerals cited all the –CVCV stems begin with NC : NCVCV and –NCSVCV. As –CVNCV stems,
have       in       one       way       or         another         to         do       with       NC.

1
   This formula gives all the possible variants of nominal forms : np = nominal prefix; as nominal stems
can be found : -CVCV, -CSVCV, -CVVCV, -CSVVCV, -NCVCV, -NCSVCV, -NCVVCV,              -NCSVVCV, -CVNCV,
-CSVNCV, -CVVNCV, -CSVVNCV, -NCVNCV, -NCSVNCV, -NCVVNCV and –NCSVVNCV.
2
   For more details about 'tone-groups' and 'tone-cases', cfr our paper 'Tone-groups and tone-cases in a
Bantu tone-language', ITL (Review of Applied Linguistics, Leuven) 60-61 (1983) :§3.Bantu 'Tone-group'
Languages and 'Tone-case' Languages (pp.131-132); §4. Tone-groups and Tone-cases in Kintandu (pp.132-137);
§5. How to distinguish Tone-groups (pp.137-138). Table 1 (p.133) includes also polysyllables. Here we focus
on disyllables. Case III having only low tonemes does not figure in the table (cfr p.134).
                                                                         nouns intr 2


The –CVVCV nouns of tone-group b outnumber largely those of tone-group d : 124 out of 504 (24.6%)
as against 49 (9.72%).For the other b nouns and pronouns it is the opposite : 33 out of 2224
(1.48%) as against 778 (nearly 35%).

2.2. The paper ends with minimal pairs and trios in tonal opposition only, a bit less than 13% :
    342 out of 2728 (pro)nominal forms (12.5%).
     Tone-group d is the best represented: 133 out of 831 (16%) ;
     Tone-group a proportionally less: 137 out of 1007 (13.6%) ; but
     Tone-group c only 65 out of 733 (8.87%), and
     Tone-group b no more than 7 out of 157 (4.46%) a bit more than the half of c.
Among these tone-groups a and d involve one another in 85 minimal pairs or trios, a and c in 35,
c and d in 20, b and d in 2, just as much as b and c; b and a only in one.
Three tone-groups involve each other in 6 minimal trios : a, c and d in 5; a, b and d
in one.

                         2.3. This table lists the nominal prefixes (np)
 (C = initial consonant of the noun-stem)(NC = initial prenasalised consonant of the noun-stem)

                  class    np                                 represented as
                    1      mu-                          n-   before C
                    2      ba-    plural of 1

                    3      mu-                          n-   before C
                    4      mi-    plural of 3           n-   before C

                    5      di-                          di- only before NC
                    6      ma-    plural of 5, 14, 15

                    7      ki-
                    8      bi-    plural of 7

                    9      N-
                   10      N-     plural of 9
                                  collective of 11

                   11      lu-    singulative
                   13      tu-    plural of 11

                   14      bu-
                   15      ku-

                   16      ga-    locative (surface)
                   17      ku-    locative (distance)
                   18      mu-    locative (inside)

                   19      fi-    diminutive
                                                 -CaCV                              nouns 1


                   a             b                       c                                d
-m                                   bumbamu (exaction)
                                      kipamu (short loin-cloth)

                                      lulama (snail)
                                        lami (telephone)
                                     kindami (nearness)
                                                                                 tama (cheek)
                                                                                ntama (span)
                                                                                ntama (distance)

                                                                                nzama (small jackal)
                                     kinsama    (termitary)
                                        sami    (stopper)
                                       nsamu   (news,report)
                                     kinsamu    (death-notice)

                                      kigama (Bot.Dichrostemma glaucescens)
      nkama (spouse)                                                          nkama (dam)
                                        kama   (even number)                  nkama (hundred)
                                     kinkama    (Bot.Dorstenia psilurus)
                                       nkamu    (Bot.Cyperus esculentus)
-b                                    lubaba    (spleen)                         baba (mute)
                                                                               kimbwabu (a frog)
      nlaba (Bot.pumpkin-            nlabu (flame)                          lulabu (eyelash)
           leaf)

       taba (rag)
      ntaba (thickness)             (ki)zabu (speed)

                                        sabi (stopper)
                                      !nsabi (key)
      ngabu (half (cassava-
                      bread))           gabu (odd number)
      nkaba   (dividing)
                                        kaba (an edible cater- pillar)
      nkaba   (a game)
      nkaba   (syncope)
     kikabi   (benefactor)           kikabi (distributor)                     nkabu (omission)
       kabu   (gift)

     kiyaba (dough-ball)
-f   malafu (palmwine)               nbafu (thickness)
       lafu (one palmwine-
                     calabash)
                                                                                nsafu (Bot.Dacryodes
      nsafi (wool)                                                                             edulis)
                                                                                nsafu (Bot.its fruit)
      nsafi (a colobus)
       safi (hairbunch at              kafi (husk of palmnut after            nkafi (paddle)
                     tailend)                     expression of oil)
-p   !kilapi (pencil)
                                                -CaCV                                     nouns 2


                     a                      b                   c                            d
 -n    !kipanu (bucket)                            !mumpani (pagan)
         vwanya (vanity)                           !bumpani (paganism)

         nnanu (pullover)
                                                                                nnani? (who?)
        kisani (Bot.Caloncoba
                        welwitschii)
         nsani (its caterpillar)
         nsanu (Bot.Luffa
                        cylindrica)
        kisanu (comb)

                                                    kingana (saying,tale)      ngani (other people's)
         ngani (acidity)

                                                                                nkanu (lawsuit, trial)
                                                                               lukanu (intention)
                                                                              (ma)kani (purpose)
                                                                              kinkani (obstinac
-l/d                                                kimalu (rapidity)
         mbala (Bot.sweet potato,                                              mbadi (Mr X)
                    Ipomoea batatas)
         mbalu (value,worth)                       bibalu (bowlegged)
       kimpalu (groove)                                                        mpala (rival)
                                                                              kimpala (rivalry)
        nvwadi (reveller)                                                     mpadi (small sun-
                                                                                               squirrel)
        lulala/ndala (Bot.palm-
                             frond)                                           bandala (tooth-decay)
        kilala (hovel)                              nlalu (waster)
                                       kindyala
          lalu (gun-lock)                           nlalu (Bot.Crassoce-
                                         (common                             muntala    (groove)
         nladi (forgetful)             lizard)          phalum sarcobasis)
                                                                               ntala    (looking, look)
         ntalu (value,cost)                                                   ntadi   (onlooker)
         ntalu (trail)                                                        ntadi   (Bot.large tree)
                                                                                tadi    (stone)
                                                                              butadi    (iron-ore)
                                                                              kitadi    (ironwork)

                                                    nzadi (brother/sister- nzadi (great river)
         nzala (hunger)                                          in-law)   luzala/nzala (fingernail)
                                                     zala (nest)
         nzalu (spoon)
                                                                              sala (tuft)
                                                                             nsala (edge)
        kisala (smallpox)                                                  kisala (tail-fin)
                                                                            lusala/nsala (feather;
                                                                                            insect-wing)
                                                                            munsala (shrimp)
                                                                            masala (Bot.peanut-leaves)
        kisadi (Bot.Dioscorea                                              kisadi (hard worker)
                         cayensis)                                           nsadi (worker)
                                                                             nsadi (grit; red)
                                                    -CaCV                                      nouns 3


                           a                    b                  c                         d
(-l/d)                                                  nsalu (fallow)      kisalu (work)
                                                                              lusalu (harvest,capital)
         kigala (gecko)
                                                                              kigala (Bot.Crossopteryx
                                                                                               febrifuga)
          ngala (Bot.banana var.)
                                                                               ngala (its caterpillar)
                                                       !ngalu (large bottle)
                                                                                 gala (charcoal)
                                                                               ngadi (woodworker)

            kala (of old)                                                        kala    (charcoal)
          nkala (state of being)                                                nkala    (crab)
          nkala (earth-heap)                                                  kikala    (dryness)
          nkadi (bitterness)                                                    nkadi    (demon)
         kinkadi (edible green frog)
          nkalu (refusal)                                                      nkalu (Bot.calabash,Lage-
                                                                                           naria siceraria)
          nyalu   (layer,row)
                                                                                  wala (a dance)
         kiyalu    (layer,row)                         nyadi (new mother)
         ngyalu    (straw-row)
         luyalu    (start)
  -t     kibata    (quiff)                                                     !dibata (duck)
          mbata    (crown)
          mbata    (climb)
                                                                                  nbati (trousers)
          mbata    (blow with open hand)
          npata   (quiff)
          npata   (hunting-knife)
         !npata   (a coin)
         kipati    (coal-black)                                                 mpati (integrity)
                                                       kimpyatu (inedible       mpati (Bot.Dioscorea sp.)
                                                                 caterpillar)
                                                        kinatu (loan)
                                                       kinyata (an inedible
                                                                       frog)
                                                       lunyatu (disgust at
          ntati (bubo)                                               food)      nsatu (hunger)
                                            tatu      dintata (Bot.Desmo-
                                               (three)     dium gangeticum)        gata (village)
                                                                                  ngati (farmer)
                                                                                mungati (farmer)

           kata (testicle)                                                      nkata    (headpad)
                                                                                 nkata    (lap)
                                                       lukati (middle)          nkati   (trunk of elephant)
                                                       (n)kati (inside,         nkatu    (void,naught
                                                                     middle)
                                                          yata (headache)
  -z      vwaza (careless work)
                                                         nzazi (lightning)
                                                -CaCV                                    nouns 4


                       a                b                  c                                 d
-s                                                                          lubasa/mbasa (stem of
                                                                                                  palmfrond)
       mbasi (tomorrow)                     mbasi (open space;(law-)      kibasa (slat,mat from
                                                                 court)                           palmfrond)
                                                                              basi (scar)

     kimpasi (initiation-union,            mapasa (twins)
                                                                             mpasi (pain,suffering)
               initiation-place)

       ntasi (belt)

        sasi (Bot.Zea mays)                kisasi (Bot.a plant)
                                            lusasi (Bot.its fungus)
                                             nsasa (Bot.Markhamia          munsasa (Bot.Spathodea
                                                               tomentosa)                      campanulata)
                                             nsasu (Bot.Cassia sp.)
                                            kisasu (swiftness)

       nkasa (Bot.Erythrophloeum            ngasi (Bot. palmnut)
                                                                             nkasa (Bot.Vigna unguicu-
               suaveolens;poisonous                                                            lata;beans)
               bark used for ordeal)                                        lukasa (sing. : one bean)
        kasa (male of the small
                                                                             nkasa (wife)
                       sun-squirrel)
     (ma)kasi (anger,irritabili-
                                                                            nkasi   (mother's brother)
                      ty,rage,wrath)
                                                                            nkasi  (others,more besides)
                                                                            nkasu   (Bot.Gilbertiodendron
                                            kikasu (haematuria)
                                                                                          dewevrei:its seed)
                                                                            nkasu (Bot.cashew-tree,Ana-
                                                                                       cardium occidentale)
-k    mbaka (Bot.Tephrosia vogelii)         lubaki (sparrow-hawk)           mbaka (catching,capture)
      mbaku (black otter)                  kimbaki (Bot.Funtumia          kibaka (wall,partition)
                                                               africana)

      mpaka (horn)                           mpaka (pen,enclosure)
                                              mpaka (objection, denial)
      mpaku (fishhook)                       mpaku (tribute, tax)
     kipaku (hole in a tree)
                                              nlaku (flame)                 laka (throat)
                                                                            lulaka/ndaka (larynx,tongue)
                                                                             nlaka (greed)

     lutaku/ntaku (brass-wire;                                            mataku (buttocks)
                      brass-currency)
       taka (tadpole)                       kitaka (fishhook)
      ntaka (marshy ground)                  ntaka (flatness)
                                             -CaCV                                      nouns 5


                       a               b                   c                              d
(-k)     nsaka (play,fun)
        kisaka (rat-trap)
                                                                              saki (delirium in agony)
         nsaki (ramrod)
                                                                            masaki (menstruation)
         nsaki (Bot.cassava-leaves
               prepared as vegetables)
         nsaku (pointed stake)             nsaku (large road)
                                                                             nsaku (weed-growth)
       (ki)saku (bush around the
                                                                              saku (Bot.Croton mubango)
                              village)
       kigaka (breeder)
       kigaku (fishhook)

         kaka (Bot.large turf)            bukaka    (loneliness)           nkaka (other)
        nkaka (Bot.Rhynchelytrum             kaki   (small thornfish)      nkaka (anteater, pangolin)
                         amethisteum)      kikaku    (obstacle)
        nkaku (weir for fishtraps)
                                           makaku    (Cercopithecus sp.)
       lukaku (barrage)
                                           nkwaka   (tibia)
       luyaku (exile from his
                             village)
 -w     lawu (good luck)                                                     lawu (insanity)
                                                                            bulawu (insanity)
                                                                            kilawu (insane person)
       nzawu (elephant)
                                            nsawu (ferryman)
       nsawu (Bot.immature cassava-
                               root)         sawu (ferry)
       ngawu (weaverbird sp.)
                                            nkawu (alert, alarm)
       nkawu (Bot.rattanpalm,Ancis-
                      trophyllum secun-
                      diflorum; staff)
 -y        baya (sheath)
         dibaya (plank, board)

       lundaya (prettiness)
                                            ntayi (branches)
                                             zayi (wisdom, insight)
         nsaya (overhang)
                                                                             nkayi (bushbuck,Tragela-
                                            nkayi (maternal grand-
                                                                                           phus scriptus)
                                                              parent)
                                                                            lukaya (a frog)
                                                                            lukaya (Bot.leaf)
                                                                            makaya (leaves,trimmings)
                                           kiwaya (Bot.Olax gambeco-
                                                      la;Scorodophloe-
                                               nom.prefix      x   stem
 -s                                          masa (water)
                                                  -CaaCV                                  nouns 6


                   a                          b                        c                        d
 -m                                                           maama (mother)
                                                                                       mvwaama (rich man)
                                                                                     kimvwaama (Bot.vari-
                                     fwaamu (house of a                                  ety of cassava)
                                                   dead)
                                    ndyaamu (grave)
                                                             zyaami (grave)
        nswaama (hiding)
                                                            nkyaama (rainbow)
 -b       baaba (husk)                                                              mbwaabu (small frog)
                                                                                     mbwaabwa (alarm)

 -p                                                                                  npwaapu (diarrhoea)
 -f                                                                                   fwaafu (mess)
                                                                                      fwaafwa (heritage)
                                     kwaafi (cheat)
 -n                                                          bwaani (merely)

                                                            !mpaanu (white baft)
                                                                                     kifwaani (image)
          naana (gratis)
                                                              naana (eight)
       kinwaani (Bot.liana
                  Triclisia           taanu (five)
                  dictyophylla)
                                     nzaani (a rat)

                                    ngwaani (meeting)
-l/d     mbaala (palmcivet)                                 kibaala (scale)
       kimbaala (old bag)          (ki)baalu (bully)       mbaadi (raffia-
        mbwaadi (friend)              nbaalu (costly)                  cloth)
                                                                                     kimpaala (small
                                                              mpaadi (hoof)
                                                                                               turtle-dove)
                                                              mpaadi (vanity)
        mvwaala (staff)                                    kimpaadi (short bony
                                                                   fish)

                                       laadi (Bot.Otte-  nlaala (loincloth)      kilaala = ndaala (cry
         dyaadi (Bot.elephant                                                                    for help)
                                          lia ulvifolia) !(di)laala (Bot.ci-
              's–grass,Pennise-
                                                                     trus sp.)
              tum purpureum)
       kidyaadi (Bot.Dracaena
                        nitens)       ntwaadi (partner)    ntwaala (pipestem)    ntwaala (front)
                                    kintwaadi              ntwaala (needle)
         nzaalu (sieve)                 (partnership)      ntwaala (bringing)

          nsaala (tied cassava-
                         breads)
          nsaala = kisaala
                                                              swaala (young
                   (fringe-cloth)
                                                                           female)
         nsaala (burnt grass)
        nswaalu (quickness)
        nsyaala (hand-
                       clapping)
                                                      -CaaCV                                   nouns 7


                   a                        b                             c                         d
(-l/d)                                                     kikaadi   (Bot.Agave spsp.)
                                                           kikaadi   (Bot.Ananas
                                                                              comosus)
                                                           kikaadi   (hoof)
          !kaalu (wheel,                                 !kikaadi   (step)
                    carriage)    kinkaala (kick)        !kikaala   (stairs,ladder)
                                                           nkwaala   (mat)

         !ngwaala (rum)                                  kingwaadi (a small par-
                                   nyaadi (ruler)                         tridge)
                                  luyaalu (rule,
                                                reign)
  -t     !mbwaata (bottle)                                 bwaati (Bot.Berlinia           baatu (bottom)
                                                                              giorgii)
                                                          nbwaati (its caterpillar)
                                    mpaati (branch,
          mpyaata (a charm)                      fork)
                                    vwaata (fathom)
                                 nvwaatu (dress)      kinwaatu (carving)
                                                          binwaatu (marks)
                                  !laata (tin)
         kidyaati (walker)
                                                             taata (father)
                                                            ntaatu (Bot.seed of
                                                                     Ensete gilletii)
                                 lugaati (side)
                                                            ngaatu (perhaps)
  -z       nzaaza (ship)
         kizyaazi = nzyaazi                                                            kizwaazu = nzwaazu
             (Bot.liana,Tetra-                                                                (whip,swatter)
             cera alnifolia)
          nzyaazi (its
                  caterpillar)
  -s                             kimaasi (a grass-
                                               hopper)
          kibaasi (splinter)    kimaasi (pot with
          mbaasa (a cloth)                human head)
                                                               paasa (gaiety)
         kimpaasa (fike)
                                                                                          mpwaasa (gap,in-
                                 mpyaasa (grassfire
                                                                                                   terval of
                                            (-season))
                                                                                                   space)
                                                          !kinaasi (Bot.Ananas
                                  nyaasa (Bot.onion,
                                                                            comosus)
                                          Allium cepa)
                                                            taasa (ulcer)
                                 kitaasi (of old)
          nsaasa (cutting up)                             nsaasa (dung)

                                                           nkaasu (Bot.kolatree, Cola
                                                                           acuminata)
                                                            kaasu (its fruit)

                                                            waasi (a skin-disease)
                                                         -CaaCV                                         nouns 8



                 a                               b                                  c                            d
-k   lubwaaku (jaundice)                                             mbwaaki (red)
                                    mpaaku (women's
                                                   cloth)

                                    kisaaka (bunch)
                                     nsaaku (knife with
                                              large blade)
                                    !nsaaku (bag,sack)
                                                                       nkaaka (maternal
                                                                                     grandparent)
      kwaaku (inedible                                                nkaaka (peer)
                   caterpillar)                                                                     kikwaaku = nkwaaku
                                                                       nkaaka (Bot.a plant)                  (torrent)
     nkwaaku (diarrhoea)
-w     baawu (fever)                                                  (baawu (they))
     mbaawu (warmth,fire)
     bwaawu (soberness)

      nyaawu (cat)
                                                                                                     nkaawu (signal)
-                                      aaa (fool)

             (p   r    o)   n   o   m    i   n   a   l            p     r   e   f   i   x     x     s    t   e   m

-f   lwaafu (adze)
                                                                       maalu (legs)
     mwaadi (Bot.bit of a                                            mwaala (Bot.small palmnut)
                     kolanut)
     mwaalu (rapid)                                                  bwaalu (Bot.Cassia alata)

     lwaalu (layer)

     kyaala (garden)                                                 kyaadi (sorrow)
-t                                                                    bwaatu (dugout)

                                                                      kyaata (crack)
-s    maasa (belt)                                                    maasi (Bot.palmoil)

                                                                      kyaasi (Bot.palmnut-
                                                                                         cluster)
-k   mwaaka (itch)                                                   mwaaka (of old)

                                                                      lwaaka (mourning)
                                                                      dyaaka (again)
                                                                      dyaaki (egg)
     kyaaka (Bot.Sapium sp.)
-w                                                                     baawu (they)
-y                                                                    mwaaya (gape)
                                                   -CaNCV                                     nouns 9

                         a                         b                     c                         d
-mb    kibamba    (short cloth)
        mbamba    (Bot.fleshy pit)
      kimbamba    (sturdy person)
      kimbambi    (small bottle)                                                       mumbambi (a cater-
        ndamba    (a coin)                                                                            pillar)
        ntambu    (small drum)                                                         kintamba (Bot.Dorste-
                                                               zamba   (nest)                   nia psilurus)
        nzamba    (Bot.Panicum
                           phragmitoides)
      kinsamba    (Bot.Allophyllus sp.)
      munsamba    (its caterpillar)
      lunsambi    (Bot.fungus on dead
                                   wood)
        nsambu   (Bot.Cassia sp.)
        ngambu    (large earth- worm)
-nd     mbanda    (space,furrow)         nbandu (dance-    mbanda   (top of head)
        mbanda    (brother/sister-in-               drum)
                                   law)   nbandu          kimbanda   (lump)
      kimbanda    ((alarm-)drum)                  (powder-
        nlandi   (2nd trumpet)                   barrel)
        ndanda    (pipe,tunnel)                                                    ntanda (chigger having
        nzandi   (rag)                                      nkanda (long conical              penetrated)
        nkandi   (kidney of animal)                                      rattrap)
                                                            dinkanda (slat of
                                                                       palm-frond)
                                                            munkanda (fall)
-nz kimpwanza (independence)
    kimvwanza (chicken with de-
                      formed wings)
      nzanza (Bot.Loudetia phrag-
              mitoides; arrowshafts                         !wanzyo (angel)
              made from its stalk)
-ns kimpansa (fyke with lid)                                                           kimbansi (Bot.Eleusine
                                                            kinsansi (Bot.Aframo-                     indica)
                                                                    mum sanguineum)

                                                            kinkansa (fyke)
       nkyansa (young of mouse/rat)                        dingwansi (Bot.Ocimum
                                                                             canum)
-ng !nmanga (Bot.mango)
    kimwanga (twinbarrel;rifle)                                                        kimbanga (bruise,
    bimwanga (shot)                                                                                 contusion)
                                                                                        mumbanga (Bot.Lindack-
    kimwangi (generous)
                                                                                                  eria dentata)
     mbwanga (generosity)
     mbangi (remainder)                                    kinyangu (speed)
                                                            lunyangi (cattle-egret
                                                                     Bubulcus ibis)
                                                                                           nzanga (Bot.Astonia
                                                            nzwangu (beanpole,                      congensis)
      kinsanga (island)                                                      lout)     dinsanga (tear)
                                           munsanga(Bot.
                                             Hymenocardia
                                             ulmoides)                                  lunkanga (Bot.fungus)
         nominal prefix       x   stem
-ng      mwangu (seed)
                                                   -CaaNCV                                   nouns 10



                           a                  b               c                               d
-mb    mbaamba    (Bot.Lindackeria dentata) a                               lubaamba/mbaamba (Bot.Eremo-
       mbaamba    (cobra,Naja nigricollis)                                           spatha haullevilleana)
       mbaambi    (bush-duiker)                                               nbaamba (whip)
       mbaambi    (horn;a charm)                                              mbaambi (monitor-lizard)
       mbaambu    (greed;a charm)              mbaambu ((cassava-)bed)       mbaambi (a caterpillar)
                                                                              kibaambi (small board)

                                                                                mpaamba   (embrace;armful)
                                                 naambu(charm for hunting/     mpaamba   (futility)
                                                               protection       mpaambu   (branching)
                                                               of property)
                                                                              nvwaamba   (smart young man)
                                                nlaamba(a loin-cloth)
       ndaamba    (a ring)                                                    ndaamba (cooking)
      kilaamba    (a field)                                                   nlaambi (cook)
        laambu    (track of beasts)                                           ndaambu (part, piece)
       nlaambu   (region)
                                                  taamba (store-rack)        lutaambi    (footstep)
                                                                               ntaambi    (footmarks)
                                                                              kitaambi    (footsole)
                                                                               ntaambu    (receiving)
                                                                               ntaambu   (snare, trap)
                                                Nzaambi (God)                 nzaamba    (elephant)
                                                nzaambi (elephantiasis)

       nsaamba (parting of hair, grass                                      lusaamba/nsaamba (tattoo,
                             beaten down)                                                       tribal mark)
      !masaamba (garden)                       masaamba,pl.of saamba        nsaamba (a palmwine))
       nsaambi (pluriarc)                                  ((razor-)knife)    nsaambi(worshipper)
                                                kisaambu (Bot.palmnut)
      kisaambu = nsaambu (Bot.Penta-                                       kisaambu (worship,prayer)
                    clethra eetveldiana)          saambu (side)
                                                 nsaambu (blessing)

       ngaamba (Bot.Dioscorea sp.)              ngaamba (porter)            lugaambu (chain)
       ngaambi (driver-ant)                     ngaambu (swoon)

      lukaamba (sling of palm-climber)           kaambi (drove, herd)          kaamba   (purlon)
                                                                                 kaamba   (savelist)
                                                                              kikaamba    (verge)
                                                                               nkaamba   (eellike catfish)
                                                                               nkaamba   (clear night/day)
                                                                               nkaamba   (Bot.Chlorophora
                                                                                                    excelsa)

                                                                                yaamba (a charm)
                                                   -CaaNCV                               nouns 11



                     a                 b                     c                             d
-mp     ntaampa (marsh)

        nsaampu (edge)                    nsaampa (shelter)
                                           nsaampa (potbelly)
                                                                             ngaampi (inventor)
-mf                                        mbaamfu ((sorghum)beer))

                                           nzaamfi (twig)

                                           nkaamfi (chewed refuse)
                                           nkaamfi (miscarried)
-nd    kibaanda (termitary-hole)                                            kibaanda(cap)
      mumbaanda (cassava-bread)                                               baanda (downstream)
        mbaandu (example,copy)                                              mabaanda (favourite wife)
                                                                               baandu (bottom,base)
        mpaandi (forking of a              mpaanda (crime)                  mpaandi (brother,sister)
                            branch)                                           mpaandu (charms)
      mumpaandi(Bot.Homalium sp.?)         nvaanda (large antelope)

       nlaandi (follower)                kilaandi (follower, supporter)
       nlaandu (first child after         ndaandu (reply)
                              twins)        ndaandu (profit,gain)
       nlaandu (aftereffects,fine)
       ndaanda (act of following)
      mandaanda (retort)
                                           mataanda (cradle)                mataanda, plural of
                                                                               taanda (rack,shelf)
                                                                               taandi (molar-tooth)
        taandu (leanness)                                                   lutaandi (Bot.a fungus)
      kitaandu (fence for fish)                                               taandu (time,period)
                                                                              ntaandu (top, upriver)
                                            nzaandu (bickerings)
                                                                              nzaanda (small demijohn)
                                                                               zaandu (market)
       nsaanda (Bot.Ficus
                         thonningii)
        saandi (rag)
                                             ngaanda (outside)
                                           kingaandi (thingummy)
                                             ngaandu (crocodile)
                                            bigaandu (baldness)
         kaanda   (clan)
       nkaanda   (tomb)                   lukaanda/nkaanda(iron hoop)     nkaanda (skin,bark
      kikaandu    (ban by oath)           kinkaanda (Bot.Cnestis           kikaandu (sign defending
       nkaandi    (Bot. coconut)                             ferruginea)                 from thieves)
                                                                              nkaandu (thickness)
                                                                              nkaandu (one of the four
                                                                                                weekdays)
                                                                               yaanda (Bot.Raphia sp.)
                                                                                yaanda (Bot.Capsicum
                                                                                         frutescens var.)
                                                -CaaNCV                                 nouns 12



                   a                   b                  c                               d
-nt !lumaantu (Bot.tomato)
                                           mfwaanti (trash,rubbish,
                                                        useless fellow)
       ntaantu (bridge : pole or                                          ntaantu (opponent,foe,enemy)
                  stem across river)                                       kitaantu (enmity)
       ntaantu (sorrow,grief)

        saantu (blood from nose)
       !saantu (name of a saint)

-nz lunzaanza (bloodthirsty fly)           nzaanza (foot of basket)
                                            nzaanza (uprightstand)
                                            nzaanza (table-land)
-ns    mbaansa (thinking)                                                  mbaansa (graveyard; city,
      mabaansa (thought)                                                                      chieftown)
      kibaansa (sorrow)
                                                                            mbaansi (an inedible
      lubaansi/mbaansi (rib)
                                                                                             caterpillar)
      lubaansu (memory)
                                                                            mpaansa (pod;disk)
                                                                            mpaansu (plain)
       nyaansi (louse,vermin)
                                            nlaansi (tatter)
        taansi (drying-rack)
      kitaansi (cutlass)
                                             saansa (shelf)
                                            nsaansa (a charm)
                                           masaansa (season of the
                                                     early light rains)
       nsaansi (wet-nurse)                nsaansi (Bot.Oncoba spino-
      lusaansu (clan-chronicle)                      sa;rattle (fruit))
      lusaansu (education)                 nsaansi (small calabash as
                                                           powder-flask)
                                            nsaansi (tip of tail)
                                           kisaansi (hand-piano)
                                           lunswaansu (Bot.a fungus on
                                                              dead wood)
       ngaansi (anger)                                                     ngaansi (Bot.Pentaclethra
                                                                                              macrophylla)
                                                                           kigaansi (a viper)
        kaansi (but,however)
       nkaansu (wrist)
      makwaansa (scabies)

      mungwaansi (green bird)
                                               -CaaNCV                                 nouns 13



                         a              b                 c                             d
-ng     mbaangu    (large antelope)          baanga (cheek)               mbaangu (basket)
        mbaangu    (clever person)           baanga (plank-house)
      bumbaangu    (skill)                   baanga (crime)
                                                                            nbaangu (litter)
        nbaangu   (row,line)
                                                                            nbaangu (ridge-pole)
        mbaangi (witness)                    baangi (a large red         kibaangi (misery)
      kimbaangi (testimony)                              grasshopper)
                                                                           mbwaanga (a charm)
      bumbaangi (testimony)
                                                                           kimaanga (evening-star)
      kimwaanga (clear sky)

                                                                          mpaangi   (kins(wo)man of
        mpaangu (a charm)                   mpaangu (word introducing
                                                                                     the same genera-
      !lupaangu (fence)(Lingala)                  a question:'well,
                                                                                     tion : brother,
                                                    now'; - an explana-
                                                                                     sister,cousin)
                                                    tion:'I suppose')
                                                                        kimpaangi   (kinship)
      kapyaangu (thievish person)          kimpaanga (selfwill)
                                                                           nvwaanga (smart young man)
      mavwaanga (disorder)                   vwaangi (thicket)
                                                                          kifwaanga (offal)
       nfyaangu (back-muscles)
                                              nyaangi (epilepsy)         lunyaanga/nyaanga (Bot.
                                                                                        thatch,Imperata
                                                                                        cylindrica)
                                               laanga (Bot.taro,Colo-      nlaanga (plain)
       bulaangi (Bot. alga)                          casia esculenta)      nlaangi (hollow leaf)
                                                                            nlaangi (watcher)
       kilaangu (trade-center)                                             nlaangu (long cloth)
                                              ndaangu (dance-cloth)
      kidyaanga (Bot.Parinari sp.)
                                              dyaanga (burnt stalk)
       ndyaanga (its caterpillar)
                                                                            ntaangu (sun)
         taanga (leg of beef)
                                                                           lutaangu (count,reading)
         taanga (marshy garden)
                                                                             zaanga (lake)
                                                                            nzaangi (a grey monkey)
                                                                            nzaangi (twig)
                                              nsaangi (forest growing
                                                                 again)    kisaanga (Bot. a liana)
       lusaangu/nsaangu (news,tale)        lusaangu/nsaangu (Bot.       nsaanga (its caterpillar)
                                                                millet)     nsaanga (Bot.plantain-
                                               saangu/masaangu                                shoot)
                                                        (Bot.Zea mays)      nsaanga (brother,sister)
                                                                            nsaanga (opening of a
                                                                                            fish-trap)
                                                                            nsaanga (string of beads)
      kiswaangi (red caterpillar)

      nsyaangi (small redhead bird)
      nsyaangi (whitebait)
                                                       -CaaNCV                                       nouns 14



                       a                        b                  c                             d
(-ng)     ngaanga (expert : divin-                                                kigaanga (pile of wood)
                      er,medicine-man)                                               gaangu (Bot.Sclerosperma
        mungaanga (Bot. a plant)                                                                       mannii)
          ngaangu (skill, craft)                                                  kigaangu (yoke,shackle)

          nkaanga    (tying)                                                       nkaanga    (frying)
           kaangu    (covenant,bond)                                               nkaanga    (hand of plantain)
          nkaangu   (burial-gifts)                                                nkaanga    (guinea-fowl)
                                                     nkaangu (agreement)
          nkaangu   (belt)                                                         kaanga    (clay)
                                                                                   makaanga    (wilderness)
        kikwaanga (cassava-bread)
         nkwaanga (scratching)                     nkwaanga (rattle)
         nkwaangu (file, saw)

        mangwaanga (motionless
                         uprightstand)
        kingwaangu (water-beetle)                                                   yaanga (fyke-opening)
                                                      yaanga (fine)
           yaanga (heap of thorn-                                                   yaanga (pong, lake)
                             branches)
                                                     yaangi (liveliness)
         ngyaangi (lier, cheat)
         kiyaangi (afterbirth-pains)
                                                    kiyaangi (wrench,urgent
                                                                          need)
 -nk      nkaanka (threat)                         mankaanka (threat,
                                                                    insinuation)
                                                      nkaanka (a small
                                                                       squirrel)
                                                     bikaanka (brushwood)
          nkaanku (chisel)
                                                      nkaanki (thorn-fish)
                        n   o   m   i   n   a   l      p   r   e   f   i   x   x        s   t    e    m
 -mb    dyaamba (Bot. hemp)                        mwaamba (gravy of stew)
        dyaambu (affair, matter)
 -mf                                                mwaamfu (crack)
                                                    kyaamfu (bridge)
 -nd    mwaanda (air, breath)
        kyaanda (airstream)
                                                     waandu (Bot.Cajanus
        kyaandu (mat, seat)
                                                                      cajan)
 -ns    mwaansa (Bot.stem-heart)                   mwaansi (Bot.small root;
        bwaansi (dirt)                                        sinew,muscle)
                                                    lwaansa (period of strong
                                                               heat)
                                                    kyaansu (short dry season)
 -ng     maanga   (charms)                         lwaanga (fierce sun)
        mwaanga   (sting)                          lwaanga (armpit-ulcer)
        mwaanga   (passion)                        kyaanga (long fyke)
        mwaangu   (Bot.palmnut-fibre)              kyaanga (soot)              mwaangu (ridgepole)
                                                    kyaangu (Bot.Cymbopogon
                                                                    densiflorus)
                                                 -CeCV                                       nouns 15



                  a                         b                       c                          d
 -m                                                                                 nmémo (underrim)

                                                                                   mabémi (cow-mil)

                                                                                   kitémo (company)

                                                                                   magéma (zeal)
                                                                                    ngémi (filth)
 -b    maleba,pl.of leba                                                         maleba = mandeba
                  (Bot.Ficus                                                                   (disposing
                  congensis)                                                                   favorably)
        kiteba (leopard-cub)                                téba
                                                            nteba (mud)
                                                            nteba (softness)
                                                             tebo (ghost)

                                                             sebe (crack on
                                                                                    nkebo (line)
                                                                     lipcorner)
       kinkebo (smallness)                                                        lukebo (caution)
 -f     kibefo (chin)
        kilefo (chin)                                                              ndefi (oath)

        kizefo (chin-tuft)
        luzefo (beardhair)
         nzefo (beard)
                                                            nkefu (pungent        nkefu (striped
                                                                     peperodour)               watersnake)
 -n                                                                                  mene (morning)
                                                          kimpeni (nudity)
                                                             venya (baldness)
                                                                                      nene (greatness)
                                                                                   lunene (righthand,
                                                                                             rightside)
         nzeni (unripe)                                                           nnyeni (shooting star)

                                  munkeni (Bot.Costus                             lukeni/nkeni (Bot.seed)
                                        phyllocephalus)
                                  lungweni (chameleon)
-l/d     mbela (blaming)                                   mbela (nearness)       mbela (wrong)
                                                                                    nbedi (loser)
                                                                                    nbele (a grasshopper)
                                                                                   dibedi (Bot.seed of
                                                                                           Gilbertiodendron
        lubelo (blame)                                                                    dewevrei)
                                                                                   kibelo (hamlet)

          lela (box)                                       nlelo               nlele (cloth)
                                                                  (slipperiness mundele (whiteman)
       muntele = ntele (Bot.                                   )
                Ficus mucuso)                                                        tele (whale)
         ntedi (leucoma)                                                          ntela (stature)
                                               -CeCV                                  nouns 16



                       a                 b                 c                           d
(-l/d)    kisela (Bot.cassava-leaf)          nsedi (demijohn)
          kiselo (ingenuity)
         munswele (mousebird)

           ngela (Bot.stem of the
                      male palmflower)
         kingela (Bot.bitter
                             cassava)
                                                                       kela/makela (shot,bullet)
                                             kikéle (Bot.piece of      kikéle (Bot.widened palm-
                                                  retted cassava-root)                rachis-base)
                                               kédi (scab-spot)         nkéle (gun)
            kelo (notch)                                               nkélo (funnel)
                                                                        nkélo (spring)
            wele (Bot.Smilax sp.)
                                                                        mayela   (maturity)
                                                                        ngyela   (riping)
                                                                        biyela   (small change)
  -t        bete (deep valley)               mbéte(Bot.Dioclea sp.)     mbéte    (snail)

         dimvweta (wasp,gen.)                                           mpeto (ring)

           ntete (carrier's basket                                      ntéte (first,former)
                                                                        kintéte (first day)
                  of woven palmfronds)
                                                                         lutéte (Bot.Hypselodel-
                                             nsyeti (ascarid)                    phys scandens)
                                                                         kigeta (lean-to)

                                             kiketa (obstacle)           nkete (honest man)
                                                                        kinkete (honesty)
                                                                        kinkete (Bot.Heinsia
                                                                                        pulchella)
                                                                           keto (passion)
                                                                         luketo (waist,hip)

                                                                         mawete (kindness)
  -z     luvwezo (scorn,disregard)
  -s       mbese (Bot.Paramacrolo-
                       bium caeruleum)
          lubese (Bot.its seed)
           nbesi (shovel)

           mpese (cockroach)
           mpese (Bot.bracts of
                            palmnut)
          mfwese (powder)
                                                -CeCV                                   nouns 17


                     a                      b                     c                        d
(-s)     nlese (placenta)
         nlese (clan-chronicle)
                                                                                kilési (lad,girl)
       kindese (girl,maid)

         ntese (leucoma)
                                                                                 nsésa (cassava-bread)
       kinsyese (whitlow)                                                        nsyése (blue-duiker)
                                                                                dinsyése (Bot.Euphor-
                                                                                             bia sp.)
                                                                                lunsyése (Bot.fungus)
          kesa (brave,soldier)
                                    kinkéso           kikéso (Bot.shriv-
        kikesa (bravery)                  (calabash-        elled peanut)
         nkesi (grudge)                   splinter)

       kikwese (old person)
       kikwesi (cleverness)
 -g     ngego (desire)                                                         ngégo (Bot.Euohorbia
                                                                                           tirucalli)
 -k     mbeka (cloth-fold)                             kibéka (spleen;
                                                                  splenitis)
                                                         mpéku (Bot.bitter
                                                                    cassava)
                                                                                 nnéku (live bait)
         leka (roof-beam)                                                      kiléku (large basket)

        nteka (chrysalis)                                                       ntéka (sale)
                                                          téke (Bot.Bixa         ntéki (seller)
                                                                    orellana)
                                                                                 ntéko (wares)
                                                         ntéke (mud,dirt)
                                                        kitéke (charm-image)
                                                                                kizéke (Bot.Ensete
                                                                                            gilletii)
                                                                                luzéku (contortion
                                                                                luzéku/nzéku (sole-
                                                                                          ulceration)
        nseka = kiseka(Bot.Pen-
                                                                                luséke (steppe)
                     taclethra
                                                                                 nséke (savannah)
                     eetveldiana)
        nseka (siftings)
         seke (widowbird)
        nseku (verge)             kinséku (bug,sow-
                                             bug)
                                                          géko (hindrance)
                                                        magéko (clan-
                                                                  chronicle)
                                                          géku (tsetse)
       lukeke (turako)
                                                                                kikéke (Bot.widened
                                                                                      palmrachis-base)
                                                                                 nkéka (Bot.Solanum
                                                                                          macrocarpon)
                                                                                 nkéka (white-thighed
                                                                                            hornbill)
       kiyeka(charge,authority)
                                               -CeeCV                                 nouns 18



                   a                      b                         c                        d
 -m                                                         méeme (sheep)
                                                        kimfwéema (dislike)
        nleémo (light)
                                  ntéémo (bright
                                       shining light)
                                 kigéémo (breath-
                                            lessness)
 -b        beébe (blade)
       (n)beébi (Bot.unripe
                        fruit)
           beébi (weakling)

         fweéba (blister)

          teébe (Bot.a plan-
                       tain)                              twéebo (pant)
         sweéba (blister)

          yeéba (new hoe)
 -v      mpeéve (light wind,
               breeze;ghost)
 -f                                                                                  mbéefo (sick)
        mfweéfo (toe-fungus)                                                       kimbéefo (sickness)
        nfweéfo (drizzle)
 -n                                 bééno (breast)        (béeno you)              mpwéena (beauty)
                                   mbééni (enemy)
                                 kimbééni (enmity)       kibéeni (self)

                                 mazyééni (urine)
                                                        nkwéena (unripe)           nkwéeno (your fellow)
-l/d     mbeéla   (revenge)        mbééla (illness)      mbéele (knife)
         mbeéla   (game)
         vweéla   (charm-hut)                           mbwéela (a turtle-dove)
       !mvweéla   (long dress)
                                                         !néela (window)
          leéla (loincloth)
         ndeéla (ring)
         ndeédi (cramp)                                  léelo (now,this time)     ndéedi (short key,
        ndyeédi (stripe)                                                                    high tone)
       kindyeéla (a grass-
                       hopper)
       bundweélo (smallness)
                                   ntéélo (saying)                                   téela (droplet)
                                   ntéélo (extra)
          seélo (hearth)                                séela (Bot.Albizzia sp.)
        kiseélo (servant)                               séela (its caterpillar)
       kinsyeédi (small fish)                           nswéele (young hen)
       kinsyeédi (Bot.Lind-
             ackeria dentata)
                                  nkyééle (Kongo
       kingweedi (small               tree-squirrel)
                  partridge)      nkyéélo (dawn)
                                                                                     wéela (hunt)
         ngweéla (Bot.Croton
                                                                                     wéela (black ant)
                        sp.)
       kingweéla (Bot.Dios-
                  corea sp.)
                                                -CeeCV                                 nouns 19


               a                          b                        c                        d
-t   mbweéta (ball)
                               mpééta (shawl)
     !kindeéta (puppet)

      nteétu (side)                                     ntéetu (Bot.Citrul-       téeta (Bot.leaf)
                                                               lus lanatus)
     ntyeéti (small bird)

     nzyeéta (vertigo)
                                                                                 kigéete = ngéete (Bot.
                                                                                    Hymenocardia acida)
-s    mpeéso (colouring                                  lupyéese/mpyéese
                   earth)                                      (small pearl)
                               fwéési (a field-rat)
                                                           déeso (Bot.Phase-
                              kitééso (measure)               olus vulgaris)
       teéso (a bird)

      nseésa (Bot.flower                                manséesa (Bot.Aca-
                of maize)                                        lypha sp.)
      nseésa (fan)
     kiseésa (broom)
                                                         nswéesu (young hen)    nswéesu (leak)
                                                                                 nswéesu (unripe)
     nsyeési (Bot.Cathor-
         mion leptophyllum)
     kinsyeési (small
                                                           kéesa (children's
                     pearl)
                                                                      illness)
                                                         !lukéesu (gourd)
                              nkwéése (relative by
                                         marriage)
                              nkwééso (rubber)            kwéeso (a green
                                                                  caterpillar)
-k                               bééka (garment-edge)
                               fyééki (egg-eating-
                                               snake)
                               nlééko (mildness)
                                                          nléeke (junior)
                               ntééki   (darkred ant)
                               ntééko   (Bot.fern)
                              kitééko   (fernery)
                                sééka   (room)

                                gééku (ruse)

     nkweéko (edge)                                      nkéeke (smallness)
-w                                                       diméewu (wild dog)
     !mpeéwo (hat)

     kiweéwo (a snake)
     kiweéwo (wretch)
-y    mpeéya (Bot.Monodora
              angolensis)
                                    -CeeCV                        nouns 20



                  a                 b                c             d
          (p r o)n o m i n a l   p r e f i x     x   s t e m

-f   kyeéfo (chin tuft)

-n                                           béeno (you)

-l   mweéla (breath, air)                 mwéelo (doorway)

                                          kyéelo (door)

                                         !bwéelo (copper)

-t                                           béeto (we)

-s                                        myéese (moonlight)

                                          kyéese (joy,gladness)

                                          lwéeso (blessing)

                                          !méesa (table)

-k                                        lwéeka (part,half)

                                          byéeya (joke)

                                          !méeya (sock)

                                          !méeya (half-franc)
                                         -CeNCV                                  nouns 21


                    a                       b                    c                          d
-mb   mambemba (on one's back)
                                                                              lumpémba (Bot.Fadogia
                                                                                           tomentosa)
                                                                              mumpémba (Bot.Adenia
                                                                                            gracilis)

        lemba (Bot.fruit of the                        kindémbo (extra        lulémbi (Bot.a fungus)
                                                              small finger)
            Solanum macrocarpon)
                                                        kingémbu (Bot.Mae-
                                                             sopsis eminii)
-nd     ndendi (termitary-hole)                        kindénde (boy,girl)
                                                                              kinsénde (Bot.Phyllan-
                                                                                      thus discoides)
                                                                              munsénde (its cater-
        nkenda (felling)                                                                     pillar)
      kinkenda (horror)

       ngyenda (going)
-nt    kimenta (cassava-
                       doughball)
      !kimenta (houseground)
      !kimenta (Bot.banana sp.)
-nz                                                                           kinzénze (Bot.a liana)
                                                                              kinzénze (a charm)
-ns   kinsensa (a partridge)
-ng    kimenga (offering)

         bengi (a large          kimbéngi (fading
                                          illness)
                     grasshopper)

      mpenga (a large swallow)
      mpenga (Bot.Dioscorea sp.)

      lunyengi (Bot.a fungus)

       kilenge (prettiness)        luléngi (harmless                         mundéngi (bet)
                                        green snake)
       luzengo (cut)
      dinzenga (Bot.a forest-
                   liana,Vahade
                   nia laurentii)
                                    kinséngu (male of munséngi (Bot.un-
                                           the widow-         ripe maize/
                                           bird)              peanut)

                                                        kingénga (aside)
                                                                              mungyénga (cicada)
                                             -CeeNCV                                 nouns 22



                   a                b               c                             d
-mb    mbeémba (pitcher)                                              mbéembe (flint-gun)
       mbeémba (palmnut-eagle)                                      kimbéembi (a small hawk)
       mbeémbo (dirge; voice)
                                                                     mbwéembo (Bot.Amaranthus
                                                                                      cruentus)

       mpeémbe (whiteness,pallor)                                     mpéemba (pipe-clay)
                                          nvwéemba (smart young
                                                          man)
                                        kimvwéemba (gaiety,joy)

                                         kiléemba (wedding-gift)
                                           léembe (ruddy              léembe   (a stilt-walker)
                                                    caterpillar)      léembe   (a calming charm)
                                                                    maléembe   (kindness)
                                                                    kiléembe   (Bot.Piper
                                                                                     umbellatum)
      kileémbo (a fish-basket)                                        nléembo (finger)
       ndeémbo (thickness)                                            ndéembo (a charm)

                                          ntéembo (air-bell)        kitéembo (strong wind)
                                                                    kitéemba (band,strip)
                                          nzéemba (nursing-band)
                                                                    kiséembo (spur of fowl)

                                                                    lugéemba (pipe-clay-mark)
                                                                    kigéemba (Bot.a plant)
                                          ngéemba (peace,            ngéemba (its white
                                                      friendship)                   caterpillar)
                                          ngéembu (fox-bat)           géembo (shoulder)

                                                                      nkéembo (recognized
                                                                                    quality,glory)
                                                                      nkéembo (display of glory,
                                                                                  praise,ornament)
                                                                      nkéembo (black-headed
                                                                                           monkey)
        yeémbo (case, affair)              yéembe (greyish dove)
      mayeémbo (ecstasy)                                               yéemba (deathwatch)
-mp    mpeémpo (Bot.Sphenustylis                                    mumpéempe (a white bottle)
                     stenocarpa)

        teémpa (circular opening
               of a drum/basin)
       nteémpa (groin)
-mf                                       nléemfu (docility)

                                          nzéemfo (Bot.maize-
                                                         beard)
                                           séemfo (freshly
                                                 tapped palmwine)

                                         lugéemfo (Bot.maize-
                                                         beard)
                                           -CeeNCV                                  nouns 23



                   a                       b                  c                        d
-nd                                                                        mbéende (striped mouse)
        veénda (bald head)
                                                      vwéende (a field-
       nleéndi (powerful)                                 rat)
       nleéndi (corpse)
      luleéndo (power-ground :
                 pride,ambition)
        leénda (ribbon, tape)
                                                                            téenda (Bot.Andropogon
                                                                                          gabonensis)
                                                                            téenda (a cricket)
                                                                            téenda (cannon)
                                                                          lutéenda/(cannonball)
                                                                           ntéenda (shot,hail)
                                                                          (n)téenda (open-air)
                                                                          kitéenda (band,strip)
                                                                          kitéende (Bot.Capsicum
                                                                                          frutescens)
                                                                           ntéende (Bot.idem var.)
                                                                           ntéende (Bot.young palm)
                                                                           ntéendo (frankness)

       nseéndo (reward,fee)                                              luséende/(Bot.thorn)
                                                                           nséende (Bot.thorns,
                                                                                        thornbush)
       ngeénda (licking)
                                                                           ngéenda (lacking)
       nkeénda (story,news)                                               nkéenda (mercy,kindness)
        yeénda (steering-wheel)
       nyeénde (conical basket)
-nt                                nkéénto (woman)
                                   nkéénto (female)
-nz   kinzeénze (Bot.Holarrhena                       nzéenza               nzéenze (mole-cricket)
                    floribunda)                            (foreigner)
-ns                                                                       kimpéensi (chimpanzee)
                                                                          kimpéensi (brass-farthing)
                                                                            mpéensa (bareness, ex-
        leénsi (fur on tongue in                                                   posure,publicity)
              sickness;loathing
              of food after
              over-feeding)
        teénsi (button,tumor)
      mateénsi (glass,pane)
       nteénsi (eyeball)                              kitéenso
       nteénsi (fetus)                                      (row,layer)

       nseénsa (flooding)                             mumsyéensi            nséensa (parcelling)
                                                           (widow-bird)    nsyéensi (Bot.Aristida
                                                      minsyéensi (sun-                adscensionis)
       ngeénsa (Bot.grain)                                     shimmer)
                                                       bikwéense            nkéenso (funnel)
                                                              (scabies)
                                                                             yéense (Bot.Macaranga
                                                                                      monandra)
                                              -CeeNCV                                 nouns 24



                     a                  b                c                             d
-ng                                                                       kiméenga (frying-pan)
       mbeénga (red)                                                       mbéenga (hating)
        beénga (baldness)                                                 luméengo (hate,envy)
                                            mbwéenge (Bot.Millettia
                                                         drastica;its     lubyéenga (small demijohn)
       mpeénga (large fox-bat)                           caterpillar)
                                            mfwéenge (grey mongoose)
                                                                            néenga (privacy)
                                                                          kinéenga (size,direction)
                                                                          binéenga (landscape)
        nyeénga (excrements)                                              kinyéenge (loose sand)
      nnyeénga (nit,egg of insect)

        leénge (Bot.Cucurbita maxima)        nléengi (flatterer)       nléenge (slipperniness)
      kileénge (Bot.Ipomoea batatas                                     nléenge (green cater-
                               var.)        kiléengo (Bot.Solanum sp.)                    pillar)
                                            kiléengo (safe and sound) kiléenga (apron)
                                            bundéengo (discontent)     kilwéenge (clever person)
                                                                        ndwéenga (cleverness)
                                                                        ndyéengo (headband)

                                                                          kitéenga (calabashbottom
                                                                               used as bowl or cup)
        mazeénga (to and fro)
                                                                          kizéengi (fool)
         nzeéngo (judgment)
      (ki)zeéngo (line of limit in            nzwéenge (sword,cutlass)
                    height or depth)        minzwéengi (whiskers)

         nseénga (excrement)                                               nséenga (Bot.Musanga
                                                                                        cecropioides)
          seéngi (sand,sandbank)                                           nséengi (surveyor,spy)
                                                                           nséengi (longtailed
                                                                                              monkey)
        kiseéngo (iron)                                                    nséengo (hoe)
         sweénga (Bot.unripe peanut)

         ngeéngi (eagerness)
       mungeénge = mungyeénge
                (Bot.Spondias mombin)
         ngeéngo (sidestepping)              géengo (remote hamlet)

                                            kikéengi = nkéengi (Bot.a     nkéengi (inspector)
                                                       liana,Macaranga
                                                       saccifera)
                                              kéenge (Bot.Pandanus
                                                       candelabrum)
                                             nkéenge (its caterpillar)    nkéenge (one of the four
                                             nkéengo (candle, lamp)                       weekdays)

      lungweéngo (a sparrow-hawk)                                         ngwéengo (Bot.Amaranthus
          weénga (Bot.almond of large                                                     cruentus)
                           palmnut)
          yeénga (chasm,abyss)
          yeénga (top of (heat))
      kingyeéngi (small dungbeetle)
                                                 -CeeNCV                                   nouns 25



                   a                        b                c                             d
-nk                                             kimfwéenka (resentment)

                                                    kéenki (thickness)
                                                    kéenki (spot,stain)

                                                  nkwéenku (booster,crook)
                                                kinkwéenku (boost,crookery)
               n   o    m   i   n   a   l       p   r   e   f   i   x    x     s   t   e   m
-mb
                                                 dyéembi (swing,yoka)

                                                 kyéemba (flap-trap)

-mf                                              mwéemfo (hunter's horn)

-nd   mweéndo (journey,trip)                     mwéenda ((ret-)trail)

-ns   mweénse (maiden,virgin)                    dyéense (bracelet,ring)
-ng
       meénga (blood)

      mweénge (Bot.male flower
                   of the palm)

      dyeénga (favour,grace)

      kyeénga (Bot.Nauclea
                    latifolia)
                                              -CiCV                                     nouns 26



                  a                b                  c                                 d
-m                                       nima (back,rear)
                                                                        ludimi (tongue)

                                                                          tima (desire,zeal,zest)
                                                                         ntima (heart,mind)

                                                                         nzima (a large civet)
                                                                          zimi (pregnancy,clanname)

     kisima (image)                                                      simu (bank,beach,shore)
     kisima (Bot.Garcinia
                     huillensis)                                         nkima (white-nosed monkey)
-b     diba (pool,deep water)         kidiba (forgetfulness)
                                       kidiba (Bot.a fungus on dead
                                                             wood)
                                         dibu (Bot.shell of Boras-
                                                     sus aethiopum)
                                         dibu (used as rattle for
                                                             hound)

                                       kitiba (Bot.banana var.)
                                        ntibu (bow for arrows)

                                       luzibu (Bot. a fungus)
                                                                         ngiba (theft,robbery)
                                         kibwa (Bot.Heinsia pul-
                                                            chella)
-v     sivi (surprise,marvel)                                            vivi (pimple)
-n    mbina (swallowing)                nminu ((self)confidence,
                                                           arrogance)
                                       kimfini (nearness)               tufina (pus,matter)
                                                                          ntini (piece)
                                                                          ntinu (great chief,king)

      nzini (vagina)
                                                                           zina (name)

                                                                           sina   (basis,foundation)
                                                                           sina   (stock,stem-base)
                                                                           sina   (breeding female)
                                                                        (n)sina   (deepness,depth)

                                                                          nkina (dancing)
                                                                          nkini (dancer)
                                                                         makinu (dances)

                                                                          nyini (handle)
                                                     -CiCV                                       nouns 27



                         a                  b                c                               d
-l/d                                                                         mbila (call)
                                                                           kimbila (whistle)
                                                                            kibidi (Bot.Canarium
                                                                                             schweinfurthii)
        mbidi (abundance,mass)                                              mbidi (its fruit)
                                                                             nbidi (its caterpillar)
                                                                            kibidi (cassava-rettingpool/
                                                                                                    -place)
                                                                             mbilu (deep hole,pit)

                                                                             mpidi (Gaboon viper)
        mpila (manner,sort,species,
                        size,shape)
                                                                           mumvidi (female jigger having
        mvila (loss)
                                                                                   burrowed under the skin)
       luvila (clan,clanname)
                                                                             nvilu (soot,grime)
                                                                            kifilu = nfilu (Bot.Vitex
        ndila (weeping)                         ndila (rat-passage)                             madiensis)
       kidilu (wail)
        ndilu (trench,limit)
                                                 nzila (path,road)
        nzila (outside)                                                     nzila (Bot.small prickly
                                                kizidi (figure,                                    creeper)
       kizila (taboo, oath)
                                                             silhouette)     nzila (whip,lash)
        nsila (a caterpillar)
                                                kisidi (an edible frog)
                                                                             nkila (tail)
                                                                            luyila = yila (pitfall)
 -t    kimpiti (blackstriped duiker)
                                                  vita (war)
          fiti (acidity)                                                   lufita (crease,fold)
                                                 mfitu (fee,payment)        mfita (resentment)

                                                                              nitu (body,colour)
                                                                            kinitu (bad luck)
          zitu    (weight)                     kititi (peel,husk, pod)
        kizitu    (load,burden)
        luzitu    (respect,honour)               zita (knot,tie)
         nzitu   (relative by marriage)                                   kisita (barrenness)
        buzitu    (affinity)                                                nsita (stubbornness)
                                                                             nsitu (thicket)

                                                                             ngita   (precedence)
                                                                            kiyitu   (entrance,vestibule)
                                                                             nkita   (immobility)
         nkita (trading)
                                                                             nkita   (ancestor-ghost)
       munkiti = nkiti (merchant)
                                                                           (n)kitu   (altered appearance,
       kinkita (red-haired edible
                                                                                              were-leopard)
                            caterpillar)
                                                 -CiCV                                    nouns 28



                   a                b                 c                               d
-z    nzizi (chilliness)               kizizi (appearance,face)
-s                                                                     mbisi (animal,meat)
                                                                       nbisu (raw;unruly,indocile)

                                                                        visi (pimple)

                                                                      kisisi (half-burnt log)
      nsisi (horror,threat)
                                                                       nyisi (bone)
      ngisa (coming,arrival)                                         kiyisi (bone of game)
-k                                                                     nbiki (gluttony)
                                         mpiki (scrotal hernia)
                                                                       nfiku (cover,lid)
                                                                       mfiku (stale,old)
      ndiki (a small frog)
                                                                        ziku (fireplace,hearth)
      nziku (mouth of river)             ziku (certainty,
                                                       reliability)     ziku (musk-organ in civets;
                                                                                       their scent)

                                                                      masika (full night)
      nsiku (law,command,rule)         nsiki (Bot.Morinda          nsiki (player)
                                                            lucida)
                                                                      lukika (eyebrow)
       yiku (joint,articulation)
-w   kisiwu (dry season)
-y    mbiya (bead)

      mpiya (red-billed dove)

     !madiya (Bot.Citrus
                       sinensis)                                       nsiya (sneeze)
                                        nominal prefix    x   stem

-l                                        kilu (sleep)

-y                                        tiya (fire)
                                                       -CiiCV                                    nouns 29



                  a                              b                           c                       d
 -b    mabiibi (fatigue)         nyiibu (Bot.Pseudospon-
                                             dias microcarpa)
 -v                                                                kiviivi (shadow,
                                                                        shadowy figure)
 -n    lumpiina (bowl,basin)     ntiini (fugitive)
                                 kitiini (refugee)
                                  ntiinu (speed)

                                   ziinu (lust)

                                 kiwiina (thirst)
-l/d   mbwiila (invasion)                                         mbwiila (destruc-
                                  mvwiilu (property)                     tive locust) nvwiila (rivulet)

                                  mfwiila    (mortality)                                 mfwiila (black ven-
                                 mafwiila    (death)                                             omous ant)
                                  nfwiilu   (expense,decline)
                                  mfwiilu    (way of dying)

                                  kidiila    (sack,bag)
                                  kidiila    (provision)
                                   ndiila    (eating in/with)
                                   ndiilu    (way of eating)
                                                                    tiidi (Bot.Phyto-
                                                                      lacca dodecandra)
                                                                   ntiidi (Bot.Sorghum
                                  ntwiidi (breeder)                        caudatum)

                                  lusiilu (promise)              kisiila (redheaded      nsiila (gutter)

        nkiisu (Bot.a tree)                                                 lovebird)
                                                                                            nkwiidi(widower)
                                                                                           bukwiidi(widowhood)
 -t    kitiiti (Bot.Sapium                                                                   tiiti
                     cornutum)                                                                       (grassblade)
        ntiiti (its cater-                                                               matiiti (grass)
                       pillar)
       kitiitu (fear)
                                                                     kwiita (tenacity)
                                                                   nkwiita
                                                                           (rumblingpot)
       kiwiita (large frog)
                                                             -CiiCV                                           nouns 30


                 a                               b                             c                              d
-s                                                                    ndiisu (a coin)             kidiisa (Bot.Euphorbia
                                                                                                              cactiformis,
                                                                                                              Cereus sp.)
                                                                                                  kindiisa (layabout)

                                                                                                  bitwiisi (livestock)
                                                                     nsiisi (cane-rat)
                                                                 (ki)nsiisi (Bot.ex-Musa
      nkiisu (Bot.Syzygium                                                     sinensis)
                 guineense)                                                                        kiwiisa (authority)
-k                                                               lubiika/mbiika (Bot.seed
                                                                            of gourd-kind)
                                      viiku (stopper)

                                     nfiiku (cheapness)

                                     ndiika (feeding)
                                    kidiiku (food)
                                                                 kisiika (redheaded
     nswiiku (seam)                                                            lovebird)
                                     nkiiku (screen)
                        n   o   m    i   n   a   l       p   r    e   f     i   x    x        s   t   e   m
-m                                                                mwiimi (stingy,miser)
                                                                  bwiimi (stinginess)

                                                                   kiima   (thing)
                                                                   fiima   (little thing)
-f                                                                mwiifi   (thief)
                                                                  bwiifi   (theft)

                                                                   kiifi (shade)
-n                                                                mwiini (daylight,
                                                                           sunlight)

                                                                   diinu (tooth)

                                                                   kiini (shadow)
-l    mwiilu (a charm)

       kiila (prop)
       kiila (Bot.Carpo-
                lobia alba)
-t                                                                mwiita (whistling)
                                                                   kiita (sheaf)
-s    mwiisi (cat)                                               mwiisi (smoke)
      mwiisu (pestle)
                                                                   diisu (eye)
-k    mwiiku (spatula)                                           mwiika (body-hair)
                                                                  bwiiki (honey)
                                                    -CiNCV                                    nouns 31



                a                             b                         c                       d
-mb kimbimbi (a quail)

        mpimba (a fish)
                                                                                      munzimba (Bot.Com-
                                                                                         bretum laxiflorum
-mf                                                           kintimfu (chubby
                                                                            child)
-nd kibinda (misfortune)                                     kimbinda (locked up
                                                                       mystery,com-
                                                                       plication)
                                                                 bindwa (flint-
                                                                       lock,match)

                                                                mvinda (bushbaby)
                                    nsindya(edible cater-
                                         pillar on all the
                                         grasses masiinda)
-nz     nzinzi (a fly)
-ns                                                           kimfinsi (a gland)
                                                              kimfinsi (gizzard)
      lufwinsi (Bot.a tree)

     lusinsi (Bot. rush)
    kinsinsi (weight)
-ng   nbingu (waitingplace
            for hunting game)
                                                                mpingi (the small-
       madinga (a dance)           kindinga (depths)                  est mouse)

        ntinga (hard cassava-
                        bread)                                  nzinga (corner)

        nsinga (Bot.a liana;                                  nsinga (smoked
                         fibre)                                             fish)
      dinsinga (Bot.palmleaf-
                nerve also used
                as slipknot)

        nginga (Bot.seed)                                                            mungingi (Bot.leaf-
                                                                                                     stalk)
      nominal prefix   x     stem
-ns    kinsu (earthen pot)
                                                -CiiNCV                                     nouns 32



                       a                  b                c                            d
-mb    mbiimbu (foretaste)                   kimbiimbi (reply in
                                                                unison)
       nviimba (the whole)                                                nviimbu (swelling)
                                                                             viimbu (bulk,volume)
                                                                             viimbu (Bot.tree-trunk)

                                                                            nfiimbu (whip,lash)
      maniimba (sleepiness, sleeping
                            sickness)

        diimba(small cylindrical drum)                                     ndiimba (red clay)
                                                ndiimba (valley,glen)
        diimba (big pearl)
      madiimba (large copper necklace)
      kidiimbu (sign,token)                   kidiimbi (Bot.Ochna
        diimbu (Bot.latex from rubber-                         afzelii)
               plant (Landolphia);gum,
               resin,birdlime,glue,tar)

       nziimba (mine,quarry)
      luziimbu (cowry-shell)
       nziimbu (id. used as currency,
                               money)
                                                                            Nsiimba (firstborn twin)
                                               kisiimba (thread)
                                                                           kisiimbi (water-ghost)
                                                nsiimbi (pledge,pawn)
       nkiimba (a charm)

        yiimbi (black kite)
-mp    mpiimpa (night)

       ntiimpa (large barrel)

       nsiimpa (hemp-pipe)
       nsiimpu (drumstick)                                                 nyiimpi (healthy person)
                                                                           mayiimpi (health)
-mv                                                                         mviimvi (satiety)
-mf                                           lumfiimfi (otter-shrew)
-nd kimwiindu (Bot.Bridelia
                     ferruginea e.a.)
      mwiindu (its caterpillar)

                                               mbiindi (arrangement)       mbiinda (palmwine-
        nbiindu (intertwining)
                                                                                            calabash)
        mviindu (dirt,filth)

        mfiinda (forest)
         fiindu (obstinacy)

        ntiindu (model,kind)
                                                       -CiiNCV                                    nouns 33



                            a                  b                 c                             d
(-nd)                                                                             siinda (Bot.grass-tuft)
                                                                                 nsiindu (tramp,footfall)

                                                                                 nkiinda    (a charm)
                                                                                 nkiindi   (block;head-rest)
                                                                                kikiindu    (stamping of feet)
                                                                                 nkiindu    (noise,commotion)

         ngiindu     (thought)
                                                                                kiyiindu (thud,flop)
        mayiindu     (worrying)
        kiyiindi     (trunk,monster)
 -nt      tiinti     (proud reserve)
         ntiinti     (pride,fastidiousness)
                                                                                kitiintu (sudden death)
         !tiinta     (ink)
 -nz                                                                            kiviinzu (Bot.Petersianthus
                                                                                                 macrocarpus)
           ziinza (bean-,peanut-field)                                          nviinzu (its caterpillar)
        kinziinzi (weevil; a fly)
 -ns      fiinsi (willpower)
        lufiinsi (Bot. a liana)
                                                                                kisiinsa (stump)
         nsiinsa (attempt,trial)
                                                                                masiinsa (midday)
        masiinsa (attempt)
        kisiinsu (mark,sign)
                                                                                 nkiinsa (dam)
                                                                                 nkiinsi (feast)
 -ng      mbiingu (natural products,
                      first-fruits)
        !lumiingu (the Lord's day,
                            sunday)
         mafiinga (abuse, curse)
                                                   mafiingu (curse,scorn)      mafiinga,pl.of fiinga
          mfiinga (abuse, curse)                                                               (cramfull)

         kiniinga (shade,phantom)                                                niinga (sorrow)

          ndiingi (Bot.seedshell of              ndiinga (voice;language)     ndiingi (depth of water)
             palmyra,Borassus aethiopum)           ndiinga (green fruit-
         kidiingi (handleless jar)                                 pigeon)
        kindiingi (Bot.rubber-liana)
          ndiingu (midnight)                     ndiingu (Bot.plant-peak)
                                                   kidiingu (grief)
                                                   kidiingu (pearl)

                                                     tiingu (insolence)
          nziinga    (living)
                                                    nziinga (deep place)        nziinga (winding)
         luziingu    (life-span)
                                                                                  ziinga (castrated male)
         kiziingu    (life-span)
          nziingu   (contest,battle)                                           nziingu (iron ring)
                                                  -CiiNCV                              nouns 34



                      a                  b                    c                       d
(-ng)                                                                     lusiinga (Bot.raffia-
                                              nsiingi (labour-pains)                     fibre)
                                                                           nsiingu (neck)
         nkiingu (appointment)
                                                                           nkiingi (great number)
        mayiinga (inheritance)
 -nk                                          nkiinki (smallest drum)

                 n o m i n a l      p r e f i x      x      s t e m

 -mb                                          mwiimba (tail-feather)

 -mp      kiimpi (young fox-bat)
          kiimpi (insanity)

 -nd                                          mwiinda (candle,lamp)

                                              lwiinda (cockscomb)

                                                  kiinda (torch)

 -ns     mwiinsa (match)

          kiinsa (Bot. a tree)

 -ng                                          mwiinga (Bot.fine stalk)

                                                  diinga (throat)

                                                  kiinga (torch)
                                                 -CoCV                                   nouns 35



                   a               b                   c                                 d
-m                                     kimomi (bafflement)
       mboma   (African python)
       mboma   (edge)
       mboma   (fortress)
     lumboma   (rounded hoe)

      !ndoma (demijohn)                                                    ntoma (virtue)
      !ntoma (demijohn)                                                    ntomo (pleasant taste)
      !ntoma (automobile)
                                        nsoma (spine,fork)
       ngoma (drum)
                                         kome   (Bot.bud)
                                        nkome   (Bot.fern-shoot)        (ki)komo    (heaviness,load)
                                        nkome   (fist; punch)
-b   kimboba (a small basket)           bobo   (Bot.Physalis angulata)
       mboba (rash)                   mabobo   (chickenpox)
                                       mabobo   (rail-sleepers)
                                       kibobo   (lip)                      ndoba    (fishing)
       ndobo (clay)                                                        ndobo    (fishhook)
                                                                            nlobi   (fisherman)
                                         toba (mess of clay mixed
      kitoba (leopard-cub)                             with palmwine)
                                        nzobo (African civet)
        zoba (fool)
                                       lukobe (charm-box)                   nkobo (thickness,mus-
                                        nkobe (a box)                               cular strength)

                                        !yobi (Bot.Coix lacrimajobi)
-f      bofo (prettiness)
       mpofo (blind person)
                                         tofi (Bot.nutshell,also used
       ngofo (uselessness)                            for tattooing)
                                         kofi (fist-blow)
-n                                                                          mbona (seeing,sight)
                                                                           mamoni (insight,clever-
                                                                                      ness,sagacity)
                                                                            nmoni (who who sees)
                                        kinoni (small black ant)           nmoni (pimples)

                                       kintona (discernment,sense)          tona (spot,speck)
                                         ntoni (grave)                     nsona (one of the four
                                                                                            weekdays)
                                                                          dinsona (Bot.Landolphia
                                                                                          parvifolia)
                                                                          munsona (a caterpillar)
                                         nsoni (Bot.thatching grass,      nsoni (writer)
                                                  Imperata cylindrica)      nsoni (shame)
                                                                           kisono (letter,mark)
                                                   -CoCV                                      nouns 36



                     a                 b                 c                               d
(-n)     ngoni (large forest-rat)          gono (roller)
                                                                            makono (wit,cleverness)
                                                                            kikono (palmwine-ration
                                                                                       for the spouse)
-l/d    kibola    (a black bird)
         nbodi   (lead,tin,melt)                                           mbodi (Bot.banana-heart)
          bolo    (rotten thing)
        kibolo    (rot,hovel)

        kipodi (credit)
         mpolo (face)                                                       mpolo (ash,cinder)

                                            kilolo = nlolo (Bot.Annona
        kilodi (Bot.Cyrtosperma
                                                           senegalensis)
                     senegalense)
                                           kintolo (fragility)
       kintodi (a small lizard)
                                           bintolo (poliomyelitis)
                                                                            luzolo (will,wish)
         nsole (Bot.large root)            nsole (a fish)
                                              sole (field cleared in a
         ngola (catfish)                                      forest)
         ngodi (calm person)                                                 golo (charcoal)
         ngolo (strength,power)
                                                                             nkola (Bot.cassava var.)
                                            makodi (scabies)               makodi,pl.of kodi (helix-
                                                                                                shell)
          kolo (leg of animal)
                                                                             nkole (prisoner,hostage)
          kolo (gun-cock)
                                                                             nkolo (breast of
       kinkolo (a small fish)                                                                quadruped)
 -t     kibota (cudgel,club)                                                 mbote (goodness; also as
         mbota (Bot.Millettia                                                               greeting)
                         versicolor)                                        kimbote (goodness used as
         mbota (its caterpillar)                                                            greeting)
         nbota (Bot.banana var.)                                           kiboto (Bot.Millettia
           boto (Bot.palmoil-                                                               laurentii)
                            deposit)                                          nboto (its caterpillar)
         mpota (gum in eye-corner)
       dimpoto (Bot.latex-liana,
                       Saba florida)        ntoto (earth,soil)              ntoto (mongoose)
                                           kitoto (waste on the soil)
         nsoti (a frog)
                                           kisota (Bot.stalk-neck)
         nsoti (nose-ulcer)                                                   goto (fool)
                                             kota (Bot.node of plant)
         nkota (entering)
                                            nkota (tail-bone)
         nkoto (top of head,crest
                          of hair)
       kinkoto (rap on the skull
                 with the knuckles)
                                                        -CoCV                                 nouns 37


                     a                         b                     c                           d
-s                                       -mosi (one)
     kiboso (caries)
      mposa (Bot.banana var.)                           lumposi (shade)

      ndosi (dream)
      nsosa (searching)
      nsoso (Bot.Rottboellia
                      exaltata)                            ngosi (climbing notch)
                                                           ngosi (snoring)
     makosi,pl.of kosi               kinkoso (bend:                                makosi (fine for
                       (occiput)          elbow,knee)                                               adultery)
                                                                                       nkosi (lion)
                                                                                     lunkosi (Bot.a fungus)
-g                                                                                     ngoga (speaking)
                                                                                       ngogo (speach)
-k    mamoko (conversation)
       mboko (cancerous wounds)                                                       mboko (bribe)
                                                            mpoki (large (head))     luboko (long distance)
     kimboko (blackfronted
                         duiker)                            mpoki (Bot.Dioscorea
                                                                            sp.)
                                                             foko (fold)
                                                            mfoko (fold,hem;the
                                                                   number of times
                                                                   multiplied)
                                                           mfwoko (sense,content)
                                                         lumfwoko (suspicious
                                                                          conduct)
                                                                                       nyoka (snake,gen.)
       ndoka    (bewitching)
                                                                                       ndoka (raining)
       ndoki    (bewitcher)
     kindoki    (witchcraft)
       nloko   (spell)

     kintoka (kind of cassava-
                         bread)
        toko (youth,young man)
      kitoko (youthfulness;
                     smartness)

       nzoko    (a large drum)
        soka    (wound-hole)
       !soka    (axe)
       nsoka    (nicotine,deposit
                       in pipe-stem)
      kisoka    (a rat-trap)
       nsoki   (ramrod)                                                             nsoki (wrong,iniquity)
       nsoki    (Bot.Hyparrhenia
                         diplandra)                      lunsoki (swoop)
      lusoki    (its awn)
                                                           nsoko (entrails of an
        soko    (Bot.yam,Dioscorea                                       animal)     nsoko (Bot.unopened
                         bulbifera)
                                                                                                       shoot)
                                                    -CoCV                                       nouns 38



                       a                   b                   c                                 d
(-k)     goki (Bot.Landolphia
                          owariensis)

         koko (a male)                          koko   (crust)
                                                nkoko   (large grey antelope)    nkoko   (river)
        nkoko (Bot.Ctenium newtonii)
                                               kikoke    (Bot.MImosa pigra)       nkoki   (a bird)
                                                nkoki   (hook)                     koka   (tusk used as horn)
                                                                                  nkoka    (pulling,dragging)
                                                                                    koka   (ataxic child)
                                                                                 bukoka    (walk-ataxy)
        nwoko (breasts of young woman)

         ngyoka (fire,blaze)
       kingyoka (burn,blister)
          luyoko (fire,blaze)
 -w       bowa (Bot.Amaranthus viridis)
 -y     nboyo (density)
        ndoyi (namesake)
                                                 ntoya (violet plantain-
                                                                  eater)
                                               kingoyi (shackle)
                                                kikoyo (cry,shout)
                                                 nominal prefix     x   stem
 -l                                               tolo (sleep)
                                                   -CooCV                                 nouns 39



                    a                         b                          c                      d
 -m     booma (fear)
 -b    mbooba (piston-gun)      kibooba (old person)
       mboobo (a longlegged      nbooba (old basket)
                           bird)
       mboobo (Bot.plantain-
                      headnerve)
        looba (with salt and
          onion prepared pepper)
  p                                                          poopi (small cloth)
 -v     vwoovo (tuft)
 -f    !nkoofi (Bot.cabbage,
              Brassica oleracea)
 -n                                  !ndoona (dona
                                             mistress)       kindyoona (Bot.Maranta
                                                                         arundinacea)    (ma)zoono
                                     nsyoona(orphan)                                        (yesterday)
                                   kinsyoona(orphanhood)
-l/d                                                           !moolo (lazy person)
                                                             !bumoolo (laziness)
       kimboolo (Bot.a plant)       !boola (Bot.Allium
                                                             kimboodi (Bot.Gaertnera
       kimboolo (crocodile)                       cepa)
                                                                           paniculata)
       kibyoola (boozer)                                     nbyoodi (boozer)
                                    kipoola (dismay)
                                                             !kinoodi (doll)
         ndooda (knock)
        kidoodi (peeler)                                      ndoodi (cap-gun)
                                                             lundoolo (Bot.a fungus)
                                     toolo (jaw,gill)
                                     toolo (ventral fin)
                                   kitoolo (songverses)

                                     zoole (two)
                                    nzoole (couple)          nzoole (second
                                    nzoole (large cloth                  marriage)
                                          of a chief with      nzoole (Bot.three
       !luzyoolo (scissors)              double fringe)             peanuts in a pod)

                                     nsoola   (choosing)      soola (Bot.Andropo-
                                   kinsoola   (a bead)                gon gayanus)
                                     nsoodi   (beak)        kisoodi (gunchimney)
                                    lusoolo   (choice)

                                     ngoodi (boozer)      kingoodi (a beetle)

                                     nkoola (lighter)
                                                              kikoodi (hoof)
         nkoolo (fine)            kikoola
                                         (Bot.rootshoot)
                                                   -CooCV                                   nouns 40



                  a                            b                           c                      d
-t                                                               booti (Bot.empty
                                                                               peanut)
                                                               nbooti (Bot.Dialium
                                                                         englerianum)
                                                              kimbyooti (fatty)
                                   kitoota (arrow)

                                    ngooto (bogey)

                                    nkooto (sackcloth)
-z kizyoozo (small savannah                                  nzyoozo (surplus (of
                   near water)                                              palmwine))
-s                                                                                       mbooso (greenhorn)
                                     nyooso (beads of
                                                 fat/sweat)
                                   buntooso (pipestem)
      nsooso (large fyke)
      nsooso (cloth with long
                        fringes)
     kisooso (tuft of hair/
                grass;headdress)

      nkooso (fence)
     kikooso (coop)

     kiwooso (noise)
     mayooso (noise)
-k                                  mbooka (calling)
     bibyooko (burp;dry throat)

      mpyooka (crested hawk)        pooka (death)
                                                              !divooka (Bot.avocado,
                                                                   Persea gratissima)
                                                               nvwooki (a sparrow-
                                                                                 hawk)
                                                                vwooka (deserted
                                   nsooki (darkred ant)                     village)
                                   nsyooka (watersnake)

                                    ngooka (steep
                                            descent)
      kooko (Bot.Raphia sp.)       ngooko (dip,reflow)
                                                               (kooko arm)
-w lukoowu/nkoowu (Bot.           nkoowo (a stiltbird)                               nkoowu (an inedi-
              Dioscorea sp.)                                                                     ble frog)
-y kimooya (liver)
   !kipooya (tipoya,litter)

      kikooya (fringing check-
                         cloth)
       nkooya (a bird)
                                                     -CooCV                                        nouns 41



                      a                                  b                             c                      d
(-y)     yooyo (jingle)
        nyooyo (cloth with long
                           fringes)
       biyooyo (Bot.Trichoscypha
                           oddonii)
               n   o   m   i   n   a   l     p   r   e   f    i   x    x       s   t       e   m
 -l    kyoolo (a huge thing/
                           animal)
 -t                                         fyooti (few)             looti (squamous skin-
                                                                                        disease)

                                                                      kyooto (fire(-place))
                                                                      kyooto (leafy shelter)
 -s                                                                   myooso (whistling with the
                                                                                          mouth)

        loosi (prolonged cry of                                      !looso (Bot.rice, Oryza
                             joy)                                                        sativa)

       kyoosi (cold,cool shade)
 -k     looka (Bot.a fungus on
                          palmstub)
        looko (Bot.sickly tree-
                         yellowing)        !dyooko (Bot.Manihot
                                                      esculenta)
                                                                       kooko (arm)
 -y     mooyo (life,mind)
                                                                      myooya (moustache)
                                                   -CoNCV                                 nouns 42



                   a                   b                        c                          d
-mb    kibomba (hairtuft)
      !kibomba (reservoir)
                                                    kimbombe (spark)
        nbombo (corpulence)
                                                                               kindomba (Bot.Ficus sp.)
                                                                               kindomba (Bot.figwort)

                                                                               kintombo (heavy rain-
                                                     bazombo (dental decay)                    season)
                                kinsombo (crip-
                                        pelness)
      kingombe (vaccination)                                                  kingombi (Bot.a plant)
                                                                               mungombi (its green
                                                                                            caterpillar)
    dinkombo (Bot.a vege-
                    table)                                                     munkombo (Bot.Lannea
    lunkombo (hook)                                                                        welwitschii)
-mp !kipompi (pump)

     nkyompa (small bird)
-nd (ki)pondi (tableknife)
                                                    lundondo (Bot.Desmo-
                                                                   dium sp.)
                                                    kingondi (Bot.Curcuma
      dinkondo (Bot.plantain                                         longa)   dinkondi (Bot.Ocimum
                       gen.)                                                                 gratissimum)
-nz                                                 kinzonzi (Bot.Rungia
                                                                  congensis)
-ns                                                  lumonso (left-
                                                                 handedness)
-ng nbongi (fetcher,
                  precentor)
    mbongi (pardine genet)
    mbwongo (small bird)
                                                                               kinonga (umbrella,
                                                                                               parasol)
      kindongo (cup,glass)
                                                    kintongi (upright,
                                kinzyongo (nip,              sleeplessness)
      kisongi = nsongi (Bot.           pinch)
                  Symphonia     dinsongo (Bot.       nsongi (honeybird)
                  globulifera)        date-palm,      nsongi (snipefish)
       nsongi (its cater-           Phoenix
                        pillar)       reclinata)
       nsongi (wine-tapster)
                                                      ngongi (big frog)
        konga (spear)
                                                                               (ki)nkonga (nudity)
        konga (Bot.Eulophia
                      sp.)
       nkongo (huntsman)                                                        nkongo (a grasshopper)
-nk                                                                            kinkonko (woodpecker)
                                                -CooNCV                                 nouns 43



                    a                 b                 c                              d
-mb                                       luboombo/ (nostril)
                                           mboombo (nose)
                                            boombo (nasal mucus)
                                           mboombe (ashes)
                                            boombe (ash-heap)
                                          !mboomba (matchbox)

        loomba (mourning-black)
                                           nloomba (Bot.Andropogon
       ndoomba (blackening)                                               ndoomba (request, begging)
                                                           gabonensis)
                                          kiloomba (Bot.Pycnanthus
                                                                kombo)
       nloombo (darkness,dark
                                            loombo (a striped black-
                           cloud)
                                                    white caterpillar)
                                          diloombo (Bot.forestliana,
      kiloombo (lodging)
                                                  Vahadenia laurentii)
      kiloombo (damages)
                                           ndoombo (Bot.cutting of
                                                            sugarcane)
                                           ndoombo (council)
                                            doombo (brassware;doit)
                                           ndoombe (black person)

        toombe (Bot.Raphia sp.)             toombe   (darkness)
                                           ntoombo   (Bot.seedling)
                                           ntoombo    (fresh fish)
      kinzoomba (last extremity)
                                           nzoombo    (lungfish)
                                                                           nsoombe (palm-weevil)
        nsoombe (blackfronted
                          duiker)                                          nsoombe (Bot.plantain sp.)
       kisoombe (loneliness)                                               soombo (Bot.fleshy
                                                                                              palmnut)
                                                                           nsoombo (Bot.Xylopia
        ngoombe (cattle)                  ngoombe    (sham-death)                        aethiopica)
        ngoombo (charm to dis-                                             goombo (Bot.Abelmoschus
                   cover a witch)                                                          esculentus)
                                             koombe   (gunbarrel-ring)
                                                                          kikoomba (Bot.Rhabdophyllum
                                           nkoombe   (guts wrapped)
                                                                                          arnoldianum)
         koombo (bundle)                                                 kikoombo (Bot.Aeolanthus
                                                                                            lamborayi)
         yoombe (quarrel)                 nyoombo   (laggerd)           nkoombo (goat)
                                           nyoombo   (overplus)
-mp     mpoompo (scoop-measure)

        nsoompa (borrowing)
        nsoompi (borrower)
-mf     nzoomfi (Bot.Haumania
                   liebrechtsiana)
       kizoomfi (mat from
                   nzoomfi-strips)
                                                -CooNCV                                     nouns 44



                   a               b                c                                d
-nd                                                                    mboonde (Bot.a vegetable)
                                                                        boondo (Bot.a palm,Scle-
                                                                                 rosperma mannii)
                                                                      luboondo (Bot.bundle-leaves
                                                                                    of lémbalémba)
       mpoonda (belt,girdle)           mpoonda (slaughter)
      mvwoondo (hair-crest)
                                        nloondo (hill)
                                        nloondo (Bot.leaf of a
                                                     forest-liane)
                                                                       ntoonda    (thanking)
                                         toondo (exclusive love)
                                                                      matoondo    (thanks)
                                       lutoondo (Bot.an edible
                                                                      lutoondo    (love,gratitude)
                                                          fungus)
                                                                       ntoondo    (sheatfish)

       nzoonde (hamlet)                 zoonde (slobber)
                                                                       ngoonda (killing,murder)
       ngoonda (moon;month)
                                                                       ngoondi (killer,murderer)

                                                                       nkoonda    (lacking)
                                                                       nkoonda    (hunting)
                                                                       nkoondi    (a charm)
                                       lukoonde/nkoonde (netsack)
                                                                       nkoondi   (hunter)
                                        nkoondi (crossing arms
                                                    over the chest)    nkoondo   (Bot.baobab,
       nkoondo (ban,interdict)
                                          koonde (trap-net)                       Adansonia digitata)
      kiyoondo (hair-tuft)
                                                                        yoonda (dawdler)
-nt   loonto (Bot.Abelmoschus
                    esculentus)         ntoonti (drop,wetness)        ntoonto (freshness,youth)
-nz   nzoonzi(mediator,                nzoonzi (barbel)
                     advocate)
    kinzoonzi (pleading,
                     advocacy)
     luzoonzo (procedure)
-ns                                      toonsi (drop)
       soonso (torch)                                                  soonso (Bot.a grass)
      nsoonso (nail,peg,screw)         nsoonsa (bustle,rustling)
    lunsoonso (lasting
                       drizzle)                                       kigoonsa (great danger)

                                         koonso (clapping)            nkoonso (nervous energy,
                                         koonso (one of the four                        strength)
                                                            days)
-ng     mboongo (seeds,fruits,                                        mboongo (rust)
                 food;offspring)                                      luboongo (raffia-cloth)
                                                                       mboongo (cloths,goods;
                                                                                      wealth,money)
                                        mpoongi (chimpanzee)          mpoongo (long-tailed
        mpoongo (calming charm)
                                                                                        weaverbird)
                                                                       mpoongo (Bot.plantain var.)
                                                  -CooNCV                                   nouns 45



                        a                 b                  c                              d
(-ng)                                         f(w)oongo (council-sitting)
          loonga (plate,dish)
          loonga (piece of meat)              nloonga (line,row)
                                               ndoonga (assembly,kinsfolk)
         nloongi (adviser)                   nloongi (teacher)
                                              (ma)loongi (teaching,lesson)
                                                loongi (Bot.cassava var.)
                                                                                biloongo (medicine)
         nloongo (remedy,spell,taboo)        nloongu (Bot.Mitragyna
         ndoongo (gallery-forest)                               stipulosa)
                                              luloongu (its caterpillar)

                                                toonga (a large waterrat)
                                              butoonga (brain)
                                               ntoongo (bigness)
        matoongo (side-dish)

         nzoonga (dry measure)
        !(di)zoonga (Bot.Citrus
                            aurantium)
                                               nsoonga (iron point of hoe)
        masoonga (rectitude)                  nsoonga (Bot.pistil of the
                                                        peanut-flower enter-
         nsoongo (pangs,labourpains,                   ing into the soil)
                    severe suffering)          nsoongi (point,tip)              nsoongi (guide)
        kisoongo (pointed object)            kisoongo(Bot.pineappleshoot)
        munsoongo (a reddish cater-
                             pillar)
        lusyoongo (Bot.palmleaf-rib)
                                                goongi   (cassava-bite)
                                               ngoonge   (double gong)
                                               ngoonge   (internode)
                                               ngoonge   (Bot.Calabar-bean)
        dingoongo (a reddish ant)
                                               ngoongo   (refusal,dissent)
        mungoongo (backbone,midrib)
                                               ngoongo   (conical twist in
                                                          which to hold sth.)
                                                                                  koongo (Bot.kolanut)
                                              lukoonge/nkoonge (Bot.pine-
                                                                                  koongo (Bot.plantain
                                                             appleleaf-fibre)
                                                                                                  var.)
                                               nkoongi (Bot.longnecked
                                                                                  koongo (win,goal)
                                                                    calabash)
                                                                                  Koongo (origin,
                                              kikoongi (swan)
                                                                                                kingdom)
                                                                                kikoongo (language of
                                                                                          the Bakoongo)
                                                                                makoongo (ancestors;all
                                                                                   the charms together)
                                                                                kikoongo (a rat-trap)

                                                                                kiyoongo (ripeness)
                                                         -CooNCV                                   nouns 46



                     a                       b                    c                            d
-nk                                               nkoonka   (handle)
                                                  nkoonka   (straddle-legged)
                                                   koonki    (cassava-ball)
                                                  nkoonki    (old chief,
                                                                  forbear;thumb)
                                                 kikoonki    (Bot.Nux vomica)    nkoonko (tail-bone)
                                                   koonko    (grasshopper,gen.)  nkoonko (long slitdrum)
                                                 nkyoonki    (wetness;swallow-  kikoonko (angle,corner)
                                                                 ing a mouthful)
                 n       o   m   i   n   a   l       p   r    e   f   i   x    x       s   t   e   m
-mb
                                                  moombo (Bot.Marquesia
                                                          acuminata/macroura)
      kyoomba (Bot.female palm-
                         flower)
-nd
       loonde (hill-crest)                       loonda (skullcap)

                                                  moondo (signal-drum)
-ng
       moongo (hill,mountain)
                                                  boonga (fear,terror)

       loongo (wedlock,marriage)                                                  loongo (circumcision-hut)
                                                 dyoonga (spear,lance)

      kyoonge (husband,in rela-
                tion to the clan
                of his wife)
                                                   -CuCV                                       nouns 47


               a                  b                          c                                  d
-m                                          kibuma (fertile soil)
                                             mbuma (egg-yolk)
                                             mbuma (Bot.fruit of avocado,
                                                         Persea gratissima)
                                             nbumi (Bot.Strychnos pungens;
                                                    also name for grapefruit)
                                            mabumi (Bot.Strychnos-fruits;
                                                  used also as playing-balls)
      nvumu (rolling                       mvuma (Bot.blossom,bloom)
                thunder)                      vumi (respectful fear)
     kivumu (belly)                                                              nfuma (menses)
        vumu (pregnancy)                                                         nfuma (Bot.kapok-tree,
                                                                                          Ceiba pentandra)
                                                                                 lufuma (grudge,enmity)
                                                                                  mfumu (chief,master)
                                                                                kimfumu (dignity,rank)

                                                                                 malumi    (semen)
                                                                                  ntumi   (bidder,sender)
                                                                                 kitumi    (director)
                                             ntumu (envoy,messenger)             ntumu    (order)
                                                                                 lutumu    (bidding,sending)
                                                                                 masumu    (guilt,sin)

                                                                                 kikuma (reason,sake)
                                                                                   kumu (bank,shore)

                                                                                 mayuma (quarrel,discord)
-b      buba (callosity)                   kibubi (Bot.banana var.)             nbuba (Bot.Myrianthus
     luvubi (Bot.Ma-                                                                             arboreus)
               ranta sp.)                                                          fubu (Bot.marrow of
      nfuba (bluntness)                                                             sugercane/palmfrond)
                                                                                  mfubu (mat of pandan-
     kitubu (hoopnet                                                                            frondlets)
               with lid)                                                          nzubi (executioner)
     masubi (urine)

      ngubu (dorsal fin)                    nguba (Bot.peanut,Arachis
     dikuba (bale)                                             hypogaea)
                            kinkuba (old                                         nkuba    (pain,suffering)
       kubi (Bot.Olax             hoe)                                           nkuba    (a big fish)
                   sp.)
                                                                                 makuba    (pretextes)
      nkubu (a duiker)     kinkubu (a
                                                                                   kubu    (generation)
       kubu (thornfish)           trap)      yubi (worthlessness)
-f                                                                               fufu (cassava-flour pre-
                                                                                        pared in hot water)
       ndufu (passion)                                                          nfufu (a woodrat)
                                             ngufu (hippopotamus)
                                                                                 nkufi (shortness)
                                                                                lukufi (clap of the hand)
     kinkufu (a stinging                                                       (ma)kufi (clapping)
                   fly)                                                          nkufu (edge,rim)
                                                   -CuCV                                  nouns 48



                   a                  b                       c                           d
 -n                                            !kibuni (bonnet,cap)
                                                 nvuni (deceiver,cheat)
                                                                                funa (scrap;bad luck)
         funi (anus)                                                         mfuna (faintness due to
        nfuni (breaking of                                                         hunger,exhaustion)
                          wind)                                               mfuna (blackstriped
                                                                                               duiker)
                                                                              nfuna (pack,bale)
                                                                              nfunu (use,advantage)
        nnunu (old person)                     nuni (bird,fowl)
       kinunu (old age)
                                                                             ntuni (minor)
       bununu (old age)                       lutunu (refusal,
                                                             unwillingness) kituni (selfwill)
                                                ntunu (Bot.Harungana       ntunu (restiveness)
         tuni (immature)
                                                          madagascariensis)

                                                  zunu (nostril)
                                                nzunu (muzzle)

                                                nsuni (a black ant)
        nsuni (flesh)
                                               kisuni (Bot.Dioscorea sp.)
        nsuni (Bot.sapwood)
                                                nsunu (reedbuck)
                                                                              nkuna (sowing,planting)
       lugunu (lie,deceit)       kinsuni                                   lukuna (grain)
                                     (pinch)                                  nkuni (sower,planter)
                                                                             lukuni/(log of firewood)
                                                                              nkuni (firewood)
                                                                             lukuni (trap with a
                                                                                           crashing log)
-l/d   kibulu (quadruped)                                                   kibulu (Bot.Acioa sp.)
                                                                              mbulu (felled palm)
                                                                                bulu (pit,hole)
                                                                             lubulu (pitfall)
                                                                             dimbulu (Bot.Landolphia
                                                                                             lanceolata)
                                                                              mbulu (a jackal)
                                                                              nbula (Bot.kolanut)
                                                                              mbula (blow)
                                                                             kibula (influence,
                                                                                                dignity)
                                                                              mbudi (a charm)
                                                                              nbudi (striker)

       luvula(Bot.a fungus)
                                                                              mvula(rain,wet weather)
         vula(station,factory,
             residence,mission)
         vudi (downy hair)
        mvudi (mane)
        mvudi (greater kudu)
                                                      -CuCV                                      nouns 49



                        a                    b                   c                                 d
(-l/d)                                                                             fula    (path at entrance to
                                                                                                   village/town)
                                                                                  nfula   (violence,injustice)
                                                                                 lufula    (longheaded fish)
         kifulu (place,space)                                                    nfudi   (smith,metalworker)
         lufulu (site (for house),                                              kifulu    (metal)
                  place,foundation)                                                fulu    (foam,froth)
                                                                                   fulu    (lung)
          mfulu (bed)                                                             fulu    (carpet)
          mfulu (council,confer-                                                 mfulu    (turtle,tortoise)
                  ence,consultation)
                                                                                  ndulu (bile,gall)
         kilula (adult male)                         biludi (surround-
          nludi (roof)                                         ings)
          nlulu (Bot.edible bitter                   ndudi (acridity)
                              leaf)
         kilulu (insect)
                                                                                 kitula (barn,shed)
         malulu (vermin)                muntudi
                                            (leech)                               ntulu (breast)
                                                                                 kitulu (breast,chest,bosem)
          nzulu   (reddish small ant)                  zulu (sky, heaven)
          nzulu   (craving,passion)
         buzulu   (craving,passion)
         dizulu   (Bot.basil,Ocimum                   nsula (electric ray)
                   basilicum)                         (ma)sul(w)a (Bot.palm-
                                                             nutshell-fibres)
          nsudi (stench,stink)                        nsudi (a thrush)
         kisudi (shelter,shed)                        nsudi (a fish)
                                                       nsulu (miscarriage)
                                                       nsulu (pointed stake)
           gudi (tree-hole)
                                                                                  ngudi (mother;maternal
          ngudi (gullet,pharynx)                                                                 relative)
          ngulu (pig,hog,sow)
                                                                                  nkula (growth in stature)
          nkula (driving away)                                                   nkula (Bot.red colouring
           kudi (Bot.bitter cassava                                                    prepared from cam-
                              var.)                                                     wood reduced to pow-
          nkudi (gulp,small quanti-                                                   der and mixed with
                      ty of liquid)                                                     oil,used as cosmetic)
          nkulu (framboesia)                                                     nkulu (old,ancient)
         makulu (dysentery)                                                      nkulu (forefather,
                                                      kiyulu (unsteady                            ancestor)
                                                                      person)
  -t                                                                               buta (an adder)
                                                                                  mbuta (elder,senior)
                                                                                 kimbuta (age, seniority)
                                                                                  kibuti (kins(wo)man)
                                                                                  lubutu/(Bot.cutting,shoot)
                                                                                   mbutu (Bot.seed)
                                                  -CuCV                                     nouns 50



                     a                     b                       c                        d
(-t)     mputu (poor,needy)                                                     mputa (wound,sore)
       bumputu (poverty)
       kimputu (tick)
                                                       mvutu (return;answer)
        mfuta  (payment)
                                                                                 mfuta (bathing)
        mfuta  (savannah,jungle)
                                                                                 mfuta (smoking (out))
        nfuta (jungle)
       kifuta  (jungle/bush afire
                 watched for game)
       mafuta (fat)
                                                        futi (Bot.Entada
        nfutu (paymant,fee)                                         gigas)

        nduta (passing,passage)
        nluta (excess,profit)
        nluti (passer(-by))

                                                         tuti (cloud)          kitutu (calabash-sherd)
         tutu (housemouse)
                                                       ntuti (Bot.Ongokea
                                     kinsuti (Bot.                     gore)     sutu (uncircumcised
                                        peanut                                            organ/person)
                                        with only
         ngutu (wholly,fully)          one seed)

         nkutu(entirely,fully)
                                                        kutu   (ear)            nkutu (bag,satchel)
       kinkutu(forever)
                                                      kikutu   (cocoon)         nkuti (gatherer)
       kinkutu (shirt,coat)
                                                      kikutu   (shjeath,bag)
       kinkutu (a squirrel)
                                                      lukutu   (stomach)          kuta (a coin)
         nkuta (coward)
                                                                                 nkuta (provisions)
       bunkuta (cowardice)
                                                                                 nkuta (bundle,sheaf)
        kikuta (parcel wrapped in
                   banana-leaves)
 -z      mvuza (Bot.seedling)                          vuzi (fluff)

         nzuzi (serval)                              (ma)zuzi (the day be-
         nzuzi (lastborn twin)                              fore yesterday)
 -s                                                                              mbusi (a charm)
                                                                                 mpusu (Bot.Raphia sp.)
                                                                                lupusu (its fibre)
       kimfusi (small green frog)                     mfusi (craftsman)
          fusu (loose sand)
                                                                                    susa (Bot.Renealmia
        bifusu (wormholes)                                                                     africana)
                                                                                  nsusa (Bot.corncob)
                                                                                  nsusa (axle)
                                                                                  nsusu (chicken)
                                                                                lunsusu (yellowbill)
                                                                                dinsusu (Bot.Ocimum
                                                                                             gratissimum)
                                                -CuCV                                    nouns 51



                      a                    b                     c                           d
(-s)     ngusi (thread,spool)                                                    gusu (Bot.cotton)

        bikusi (mange)                                                           nkusa (an adder)
         nkusu (parrot,gen.)                                                     nkusa (Bot.Mannio-
         nkusu (a rat)                                                                   phyton fulvum)
 -g                                                                               ngugu (deep voice)
 -k      mbuka (bedstead,berth)                     kibuki = mbuki (short-     nbuki (physician)
        kibuka (flock,drove,herd)                          legged black frog)
          buki (part of cupful,                     kibuku (stump,stub)
                        halffull)                    lubuku (large squirrel)
                                                                                  mpuku (rat,gen.)
         mpuku (disaster)                            mpuki (gross liar,ras-
                                                          cal,scoundrel,scamp)
       kimvuka (sum,total)
         mvuku (union)
         nvuku (reunion,joining)

          fuka (handful)                                                       (ki)fuka (ceremonies,
                                                                                       respectful behav-
                                                                                       iour,in approach-
                                                                                       ing a great chief)
                                                                                 mfuka (loan,debt)
                                                                                 nfuka (Bot.banana-
                                                                                                   trunk)
          fuku (rubbish(-dump))                       nfuki (marsh-mongoose)   fuku (night)
          fuku (million)                             lufuki (bad body-odour)

                                                     dinyuka (Bot.stalk-fibre
                                                             of Entada gigas)
                                                       nyuki (bee)
                                                                                  nduka (vomiting)
         nluka (cave,hole in a                                                 biluki (vomit,puke)
                                                      maluku (Bot.fruits,
                         hillside)                                                nluku (marrow)
                                                                liana-seeds)
         nduku (friend)
                                                     kid(y)uka (tambourine-
         nduku (girl-breasts,                                        dove)
                           lovely)

         ntuku (bird-young)        kintuku
                                      (short hole)
        kizuka (interest)
                                                      lusuki/(one hair)
                                                                                nsuka (end,extremity)
        kisuka (bird-tail)                            nsuki (hair)
                                                                              munsuka (small cater-
          suku (hole;inner,bed-                      lusuki (hairy cater-
                                                                                               pillar)
                 room,storeroom)                                      pillar)
                                                      disuki (Bot.rubberli-
          guku (wave,billow;echo)                        ana,Landolphia sp.)
         nguku (squall,gust)                                                     nguka (edible cater-
        kiguku (pest,plague)                                                                      pillar)
                                                         -CuCV                                        nouns 52



                      a                       b                       c                                d
(-k)                                                                                   nkuka    (current,flow)
                                                                                       nkuka    (turako)
                                                                                       nkuka   (tunnelled track of
                                                                                                             beasts)
        nkuku (a rat)                                                                 nkuku   (a bird)
                                                  !mukuku (Bot.sugarcane)            dikuku    (Bot.Landolphia
                                                                                                          owariensis)
                                                                                      kikuku    (mushroom-shaped
                                                                                                           termitary)
                                                                                        kuku    (termitary-stone
                                                                                                      used as hearth)
                                                                                      bikuku    (grime)
                                                  luyuki (Bot.'plant of life',
                                                          Bryophyllum pinnatum)
                                                  luyuki (moth)
 -w     nkuwu (chief's carpet)                                                        nkuwa (a tick)
 -y    mpuya (palmwine from rachis)

       dintuya (hairworm)
                                                      nkuyi (a rodent)               kikuya (Bot.Ficus
        nkuya (ghost,sprite)
                                                                                                       exasperata)
                          n   o   m   i   n   a   l       p   r   e   f   i   x   x     s   t     e   m

 -m      tuma (pottery-clay

 -k                                                    luku (cassava-root beaten
                                                                into flour and
                                                                prepared as bread)
                                                                                              nouns 53


                                                          -CuuCV

                    a                            b                            c                     d
 -m                                 !fuumu (tobacco)

                                    nguumu (breathing)

                                     kuumi (ten)
 -b      buubu (Bot.Ficus bubu)
       kibuubu (swarm,cluster)
                                                                     fuubu (worn)
 -f                                                                !luntuufu (slipper)
 -v    kivuuvu (hope)
 -n     nyuuna (leopard)
-l/d    kimuulu (Bot.Albizzia
                  adianthifolia)
       kimbuulu (Bot.Loudetia                                     kibuula (Bot.bark)
                    arundinacea)
                                      fuula (Bot.toxic yam,
                                               Dioscorea
                                               semperflorens)
                                                                    nsuudi (Bot.Cucum-
                                                                        eropsis mannii)
                                                                   kisuudi (Bot.palm-
                                                                         nutshell-rest)
                                     nguudi (soaker)

        kikuulu (Bot.Syzygium       nkuula (redemption)
                            sp.)    lukuulu (redemption)
         nkuulu (its cater-       kikuula (freed slave)
                         pillar)
                                    ngyuula (question)
 -t                                                                 nfuuta (coolness)
                                                                     fuuti (silent)

                                                                   kiluuti (Bot.Gilber-
                                                                               tiodendron
                                                                               dewevrei)
                                                                    nluuti (its cater-
                                                                                 pillar)
          tuuta (jump-rope)                                                                 tuutu (Bot.bam-
        ntuuta (dance-drum)                                      kituuti (Bot.Trichi-          boo,Bambusa
       kituuta (Bot.unripe                                                lia heudelotii)        vulgaris)
                       palmbunch)                                  kituutu (occasion)     ntuutu (Bot.Can-
                                                                                                   thium ar-
                                                                                                   noldianum)
                                                                                           ntuutu (bottle)
                                                                                           ntuutu (void)
        nsuuta (impatience)                                        nsuuti (impatience,
       busuuta (impatience)                                                       haste)
                                     nguutu (punch)
                                                                                          nouns 54


                                                      -CuuCV


                   a                              b                       c                             d
 -s     mbuusi (small bird)                                   !mbuusi (wad)                lumbuusu (Bot.Momor-
                                                                                                    dica charantia)
        nfuusu (heap of fish)
                                     muntuusu (Bot.Myrian-
                                            thus arboreus)
                                     dintuusu (its fruit)
        nkuusu (pigpen)
        nkuusu (shout)

 -k                                    buuku (iron sheet)    kibuuka (Bot.dry
                                                                     plantain-leaf)
                                      mpuuka (feature)
       kinuuka (grasshopper)
        nnuuku (stench)
        nduuka (caution)             nluuku (space)         nluuki (caterpillar)

                                      ntuuka (coming from)
                                     lutuuku (origin)
                                       tuuku (cape)        nsyuuka (dawn)

                                      nguuku (expanse)        kuuku (a pigeon)
                                                                nkuuku = kikuuku
                                                                             (kitchen)
 -y      yuuya (war-drum)                                                                   kiyuuyu (fool)
        nyuuyu (fool)                                                                      buyuuyu (foolishness)

         n   o   m   i   n   a   l    p   r   e   f   i   x     x         s   t   e   m

 -m                                                            kyuuma   (thing)
                                                               fyuuma   (small thing)
                                                                muuma   (interior)
                                                                buuma   (matter)
                                                                guuma   (place on)
                                                                kuuma   (place to)
 -b                                                            kyuubi   (axe)
 -f                                                             luufu   (smithy)
                                                                tuufi   (dung)
                                                               kyuufu   (question)
 -n                                                             guunu   (today)
-l/d    muulu (Bot.Albizzia
               adianthifolia)                                   kuulu (leg)
                                                               kyuula (toad)
                                                               kyuudi (island)
 -s                                                             buusa (oversensi-
                                                                              tivity)
                                                               kyuusi (boy,lad)
 -k                                                             muuku (steam)
                                                                                         nouns 55


                                                 -CuNCV


                    a                       b                     c                       d
-mb     mbumba (cat,kitten)
                                                         kinyumba (ghost)
       (ki)lumbu (day)                                                          nlumba (rabbit,hare)
      (mu)ndumbu (small fish)
      kindumbu (Bot.Alternan-
                  thera sessilis)
        ndumbu (Bot.resin of
                Canarium,incense)

        ntumba (rat-hole)

       bizumba (adultery,
                     fornication)
                                                                               kinsumba (Bot.Solanum
         gumba (charm against
                                                                                   aethiopicum;Lapor-
                      stillbirth)
                                                                                   tea ovalifolia)
      kingumbu (screen,
                       partition)

                                                                                  kumba (protruding
      munkumbu (ridge-beam)                                                             navel;padlock)
                                                                                 nkumba (navel)
                                                                                 nkumba (dried pistil
                                                            yumbu (Bot.old             of the palmnut)
                                                                      palm)
-mp                                                                            mumpumpu (broad road-
        ntumpa (rat-hole)                                                                way,avenue)
        ntumpa (chesttrouble)
                                                         mansumpu
      lunkumpa (Bot.fungus)                                    (cleverness)

-mv   lumvumvu (Bot.Sida acuta)
-mf     mfumfu (cassava-meal)
-nd                                                      kimbundi (piece of
                                                            cloth measuring
       kifunda (bundle,parcel)     bumfundu (Bot.         ten fathoms)
                                         palm-fungus)
       kilunda (upricht before)                            lundu (conical     lulundu (Bot.fungus
                                                                  termitary)                 on lundu)
      kinsunda (the only child)    kinsundi (only                            kinsundi (Bot.madder)
                                           survivor of                         munsundi (its cater-
                                           the clan)
                                                                                                pillar)

      kinkunda (Bot.a parasite)    dinkundi (Bot.Mu
      kinkunda (elevation)            cuna pruriens)
-nz     mvunzi (a weaverbird)
                                                  -CuNCV                                    nouns 56



                  a                         b                         c                         d
-ns kibunsi = nbunsi (Bot.
        Alchornea cordifolia)

      kitunsi (pygmy kingfish)
                                                             nsunsa (cyprinid)      nsunsa (Bot.a plant)
                                                             nsunsa (coward)        nsunsu (Bot.a plant)
                                                           kinsunsa (chance)
      kigunsi (Bot.Berteria
                   subsessilis)
                                                             nkunsa (boulder)
-ng                                                        kimbungu (spotted
                                                                            hyena)
                                                           kimbungu (stoneblock)
      kimpunga (vagrant,tramp)
      kimpungi (a big frog)
                                     mfungu (Bot.Ani-
                                            sophyllea
                                            dichostyla)
                                                            kilunga (even (num-
       bilungi (abyss,hell)                                              ber))
                                     ndungu (barrel)
        nlungu (waitingplace                              malunga (fullness,       madungu (scrotocele)
               for hunting game)   mandungu (necklace)               wholeness)
                                                            malunga (a charm)

         tunga (confusion)                                  ntunga (maggot)
       kitunga (a basket)
       kitunga (a thief)

      lunsunga (small green
                                                            lusungu (Bot.fungus)    mansunga (Bot.Dios-
                    grasshopper)
                                                                                                corea alata)
                                                                                     kinsungu (Bot.Oxyan-
                                                                                             thus speciosus)
      mungunga (a bird-young)
      dingungu (Bot.Megaphry-
            nium macrostachyum)
      dingungu (a hornet)
      kingungu (muscleman)
      lungungu (music-bow)
      lungungu (wheel;bicycle)

       kiyunga (wanderer)
                                                                                             nouns 57


                                                   -CuuNCV

                      a                    b                 c                              d
-mb     mbuumba (outstanding.debt)                                           mbuumba (moulding)
        mbuumba (secret,mystery)                                             nbuumba (lumps of dried
                                                                                          cassava-meal)
                                                                             lubuumba (potter's clay)
                                                                              nbuumbi (potter)
                                                                              mbuumbu (woodworm,borer)

                                                                              mpuumba (carp)
                                                                              Mpuumbu (country of the
                                                nvuumba (salvo)                              Bawuumbu)
                                                nvuumbi (rainy weather)
                                                mvuumbi (corpse,dead
                                                                 person)    nfuumba (Bot.liana Cnes-
                                                                                       tis ferruginea)
                                                                            nfuumba (arch,vault)
                                                                           lufuumba (arch,roofslope)
      kimfuumbi (taciturnity)                  mfuumba (Bot.liana Gnetum kifuumbi (ambush)
        nfuumbi (silent person)                               africanum)  nfuumbi (highway-robber/
                                                                                             murderer)
                                               kinyuumba (Bot.a plant)

                                                nduumba (young woman,
                                                              girl,maiden)
                                                nduumbi (front)
       ntuumba (blaming)                                                     ntuumba (initiation)
      kituumbu (blame,reproof)                                               ntuumbu (needle)
      lutuumbu (blame,reproof)                                               ntuumbu (tap-calabash)
        tuumbu (Bot.fruit of nkéka,
                Solanum macrocarpon)
       ntuumbi (needle-clawed galago)
                                                 zuumbu (Bot.Rauvolfia
       nzuumbu (snout)                                       vomitoria)
                                                 zuumbu (palm-clump,re-
                                                           mains of a de-
                                                           serted village)
                                                                             kisuumba    (Bot.Tragia sp.)
       nsuumbi (illness: hernia?)               suumbu (purchase-price)     nsuumba    (buying)
       nsuumbi (an ant)                        nsuumbu (a charm)            nsuumbi   (buyer)
                                                                             kisuumbu    (bundle)

      kinguumba (scoundrel)                    nguumba (a porcupine)        nguumba (tube)
        nguumbi (scaly francolin)
        nguumbu (screen,partition)

        nkuumba    (raking)                    nkuumba (track of game)     nkuumba (rumbling)
         kuumbi    (heap,pile)
                                                                             makuumba (rumbling)
         kuumbi    (engine,steamer)
        nkuumbi   (Bot.Lannea anti-           nkuumbi (pouched rat)
                                                                              nkuumbi (subchief)
                             scorbutica)
                                                                                             nouns 58


                        a               b                   c                              d
(-mb)    nkuumbi (high dance-drum)                                           kuumbu (fame)
         nkuumbu (age-group)                                                nkuumbu (name)
                                                                              nkuumbu (time,repetition)
                                                                             kikuumbu (waterfall)
                                                                             kikuumbu (Bot.coral-tree,
                                                                                   Erythrina abyssinica)

                                                                              wuumba (Bot.unripe nsafu)
                                                                              wuumbu (abscess,boil)
 -mp                                          mpuumpa (single person)
                                            bumpuumpa (single-state)
        tuumpu (paunch)
        tuumpu (Bot.fruit of nkéka,
                Solanum macrocarpon)
           (= tuumbu)
        butuumpu (licentiousness)
                                               kuumpa (large flat
                                                             basket)
 -mf      fuumfu (clapping in dis-                                           nfuumfu (Bot.liana Maca-
                 tress/astonishment)                                                    ranga saccifera)
                                            kikuumfu   (bruise,lump)
 -nd      buunda (baldness)                  buundi   (cheek)                 buunda   (a small duck)
          buunda (spot of sheep or           buundi   (Bot.oilpalm var.)    nbuunda   (bulkiness)
                           goat)            kibuundi   (a small fly)        dibuundu    (community,church)
          buundu (Bot.fleshy and                                              buundu    (cluster,group)
                        edible fruit)
         mbuundu (heart)                                                     mbuundu (Bot.grass Eleusi-
                                                                                               ne indica)
        kibuundu (abscess)                                                  kibuundu (all together,
                                             mpuundi (Bot.yam Dioscorea                       wholesale)
                                                                   baya)
                                            kimpuundi (a barbet)
         mvuunda (resting)
        kivuunda (resting-place)
                                             mvuundu (a labeo)
        luvuundu (rest)
                                              fuunda (bundle,parcel)         mfuunda  (Bot.palmnutflesh)
         mfuunda (fermentation)
                                              fuunda (thousand)              mfuunda  (accusing)
         mfuundi (cassavabread-                                              nfuundi (accuser)
                            mouthful)                                           fuundi (palmbeetle-larva)
                                                                             kifuundi  (Bot.toxic liana
                                                                                        Millettia barteri)
          fuundu (shroud)                                                    nfuundi (its caterpillar)
         mfuundu (secret)                                                    nfuundu (main-charge)

          nduunda (top,ridge)
          nduundu (albino)
                                              luundu (hundred-thousand)
        kinduundu (loan at interest)

          tuunda (grassy place)
         ntuunda (peeling,debarking)                                         ntuunda (excellence,
                                                                                              celebrity)
                                                                                          nouns 59


                                                 -CuuNCV

                     a                   b                 c                               d
(-nd) nzuundu ((sledge)hammer)                zuundu (edible bullfrog)
      nzuundu (anvil)
      nzuundu (Bot.Leptaspis
                         cochleata)

       nsuunda (scrotum with one
                        testicle only)
       nsuunda (Bot.Securidaca
                    longipedunculata)          suundi (young animal)       nsuundi (caterpillar on
       nsuunda (canine tooth,tusk)           suundi (tusk,horn)                   madder kinsundi)

       nguunda (home-life)                    guundu (hole;wound)

       nkuunda (stay)                                                      nkuunda    (homage paid)
                                               kuunda (elevation)
                                                                            nkuundi   (friend)
                                             kikuunda (platform,throne)
                                                                           kikuundi    (friendship)
                                                                            nkuundu    (pubic hair)
                                              nyuundu (an otter)
 -nt     nfuuntu (unsaleable ware)

         ntuuntu (point)                                                  kituunti (pulley)
       kintuuntu (measles)                                                kituuntu (Bot.flower)
 -nz                                          mvuunzu (muddy sediment)
          zuunzi (heap;ants'nest)                                          nzuunzu (cheerfulness)
 -ns                                          mbuunsu (brow,forehead)

          luunsi (king-post,pile)            nduunsa (stomachache)        nduunsi (a charm)
        kiluunsi (forehead)
                                               suunsi (a rat)             kisuunsa (Bot.Vernonia
       kinsuunsu (kissing bug)                                                           potamophila)
       kinsuunsu (stinking he-goat)                                        nsuunsu (peg,wedge)

                                                                            nguunsa (herald)
                                                                           luguunsa (chest-cavity)

          kuunsi (king-post)                                               nkuunsu (rawness)

        ngyuunsa    (attempt)
        mayuunsa    (attempt)
 -ng      buungi    (mist,fog)                                            kibuungu (narrownecked
         nbuungi   (mildew)                                                         flagon,calabash)
         mbuungu    (yellow;yolk)                                          mbuungu (cup,mug)

                                              mpuunga (gullet)
         mpuungi (tusk,ivory horn)                                        lupuunga/mpuunga (Bot.fi-
                                                                                    bre(s) of Trium-
                                                                                    fetta cordifolia)
                                                                            Mpuungu (the All-highest;
                                                                                              a charm)
         mvuungu (deep sound,bass)                                          vuunga (blanket,rug)
         nvuungu (water-cooler)                                           mvuunga (covering)
                                                                                           nouns 60


                                                     -CuuNCV

                       a                b                 c                               d
(-ng)     nyuungi (joy,gaiety)
        nnyuungi (shrewmouse)
                                             nluunga (bracelet,anklet)
           luunga (single gong)
                                               luungi (Bot.Chryso-         kiluungu (Bot.Capsicum
        kaluunga (see,ocean : im-                                                             frutescens)
                                                            phyllum sp.)
             mensity;respectful yes)                                        luluungu/ (its fruit :
                                             nluungi (a specified pe-
         nduungu (long conical
                                                         riod completed)    /nduungu     : pepper)
                         wooden drum)
                                                                             nluungu (canoe)
         nluungu (completion;arri-
                   val at its zenith                                        kiluungu (Bot.Rauvolfia
                                                                                                vomitoria)



                                                                             ntuunga (construction)
                                                                             ntuungi(builder)
                                                                            kituungi (master builder)
                                                                             ntuungi (inhabitant)
                                                                           kintuungi (sense of feeling
                                                                                                  at home)
                                             nzuungu (boilder,caldron)     kituungu (wall-post)
                                             nzuungu (allusion)            lutuungu (construction)

                                                                            nzyuunga (deviation;dizzi-
                                                                                            ness,giddiness)
                                                                           kizyuunga (surroundings)
                                                                           kizyuunga (funnelshaped trap)
                                              suunga (grass-knot to
                                                                            nzyuungu (deviation,sur-
                                                      heal or remember)
                                                                                                roundings)
         nsuungi (Bot.high tree             nsuungi (specified season)
                   Treculia africana)       kisuungi (a season)            nsuungu (worry)
         nsuungu (conical basket)
                                                                            nsuungu (caterpillar on
         nsuungu (a grasshopper)
                                                                                                 kinsungu)
        kisuungu (large stump)
                                                                            nsuunga (asthma)
                                                                            nsuunga (scent,perfume)
         nguunga (bell)
                                             nguunga (rustling)            nguungu (derma,midriff)
                                             nguungi (delight,mirth)

          wuunga (long horn)                nkuunga (song,anthem)       kikuungu (Bot.Chaetocarpus
          wuunga (hole,cave)                                                                  africanus)

                                                                             yuunga (fame)
        mayuunga (bustle,noise)                                           mayuunga (rose-beetle,pl.)
                                                                           kiyuunga (coat)
 -nk                                         nkuunka (size)               nkuunku (an eagle)
         kikuunki (little heap)             nkuunki (hunch)               nkuunku (bush around the vil-
         kikuunku (handful)                                                          lage protected from
        kinkuunku (shiver,shudder)                                                   annual bush-fires by
                                                                                      a ring of clearing)
                                                   -CuuNCV                                    nouns 61




                       a                       b                     c                            d
                           n   o   m   i   n   a    l      prefix        x   s   t   e   m

-mb                                                      muumbu (spout-bowl)
                                                         muumbu (slave;blockhead)
      luumbu (hedge,fence,enclosure,
              residence of the chief)
                                                     kyuumbu (beehive)
                                                     kyuumbu (indigo)
                                                    !kyuumbu (lead)

-nt   muuntu (human being)

      luuntu (sharpness : excess,
                          violence)

-ns                                                      luunsu (winged termite)

-ng   muungu (salt)
                                                                                         luungu (canoe)
                                                        kyuungu (ascites)
                                                                                                          nouns 62


                   4. Minimal pairs of (pro)nouns in opposition of tone only
                                                    4.1. –CVCV

             t     o   n   e    –   g   r   o   u   p   (a)           t     o   n     e   -   g   r   o    u   p     (d)

-CaCV    nkama       spouse                                     nkama       dam

         ngani        acidity                                    ngani        other people's

         nzala        hunger                                     nzala        fingernails (pl.of luzala)

        kisala        smallpox                                  kisala        tail-fin
        kisadi        Bot.Dioscorea cayensis                    kisadi        hard worker

        kigala        gecko                                     kigala        Bot.Crossopteryx febrifuga

          kala        of old                                      kala        charcoal
         nkala        state of being                             nkala        crab
         nkadi        bitterness                                 nkadi        demon
         nkasa        Bot.Erythrophloem suaveolens               nkasa        Bot.Vigna unguiculata :
                                                                                      beans (pl.of lukasa)

         mbaka        Bot.Tephrosia vogelii                      mbaka        catching, capture

          saku        bush around the vollage                     saku        Bot.Croton mubango

         nkaka        Bot.Rhynchelytrum amethisteum              nkaka        anteater

          lawu        good luck                                   lawu        insanity
-CeCV   maleba        Bot.Ficus congensis (pl.of leba) maléba                 disposing favourably

         ngego       desire                                     ngégo        Bot.Euphorbia tirucalli

         nteka        chrysalis                                  ntéka         sale

-CiCV    mbidi        abundance, mass                            mbidi        Bot.fruit du Canarium)

-CoCV    ndobo        clay                                       ndobo        fishhook

         mpolo        face                                       mpolo        ash, cinder

        makosi        occiputs (pl.of kosi)                    makosi        fine for adultery

         mboko        cancerous wounds                           mboko        bribe

         nsoki       ramrod                                     nsoki       wrong, iniquity

         nkoko       Bot.Ctenium newtonii                       nkoko       river
                                                                              nouns 63



                    t o n e - g r o u p    (a)              t o n e = g r o u p     (d)
-CuCV      kubu     a thornfish                   kubu     generation

         kibulu     quadruped                   kibulu     Bot.Acioa sp.

         kifulu     place, space                kifulu     metal
          mfulu     bed                          mfulu     tortoise
          mfulu     council, conference

          nkula     driving away                 nkula     growth (in stature)
                                                  nkula     Bot.red colouring from camwood

          nkulu     framboesia                   nkulu     old, ancient

          mfuta     payment                      mfuta     bathing
          mfuta     savannah                     mfuta     smoking out

          nkuta     coward                       nkuta     provisions

          mpuku     disaster                     mpuku     a rat

           fuka  handful                          fuka     respectful behaviour
           fuku  rubbish(-heap)                   fuku     night
           fuku  million
                 t o n e – g r o u p       (a)              t o n e – g r o u p     (b)
-CeeCV    mbeéla  revenge                         mbééla     illness
                 t o n e – g r o u p       (a)              t o n e – g r o u p     (c)
-CaCV    kikabi  benefactor                     kikabi     distributor

          mbasi     tomorrow                     mbasi     open space; lawcourt

          mpaka     horn                         mpaka     pen
                                                  mpaka     denial
          mpaku     fishhook)                    mpaku     tribute, tax

          nsawu     Bot.unripe cassava-root      nsawu     ferryman
-CaaCV    naana     gratis                       naana     eight

         nsaasa     cutting up                  nsaasa     dung

          baawu     fever                        baawu     they

         mwaaka     itch                        mwaaka     of old
-CiCV     ndila     weeping                      ndila     rat-passage

          nzila     outside                      nzila     path, road
-CiiCV   mbwiila    invasion                    mbwiila    destructive locust

         mwiisi     cat                         mwiisi     smoke
-CoCV     nkota     entering                     nkota     tail-bone

           koko     male                          koko     crust
-CooCV    kooko     Bot.Raphia sp.               kooko     arm
 -CuCV    nsudi     stench, stink                nsudi     a thrush
                                                  nsudi     a fish
                                                                                   nouns 64



                                           4.2. –CV(V)NCV
                    t o n e – g r o u p   (a)                    t o n e – g r o u p    (d)
           mbaamba    Bot.Lindackeria dentata          mbaamba    Bot.Eremospatha haullevilleana
-CaaNCV    mbaamba    cobra Naja nigricollis)                           (pl. of lubaamba)

           mbaambi    bush-duiker                      mbaambi      monitor-lizard
           mbaambi    horn; a charm                    mbaambi      a caterpillar

           ndaamba    a ring                           ndaamba      cooking

          kibaanda    termitary-hole                  kibaanda      cap

           mpaandi    forking of a branch              mpaandi      brother, sister

            taandu    leanness                             taandu   time, period

           nkaanda   tomb                             nkaanda     skin, bark; book

          kikaandu    ban by oath                     kikaandu      sign defending from thieves

           ntaantu   bridge : pole or stem            ntaantu     opponent, foe, enemy
                                  across river

           mbaansa    thinking                         mbaansa      graveyard; city, chieftown

           mbaansi    riba (pl. of lubaansi)          mbaansi      an inedible caterpillar

           mbaangu    large antelope                   mbaangu      basket
           mbaangu    clever person

           nbaangu   row, line                        nbaangu     ridge-pole
                                                        nbaangu     litter

           nsaanga    mixing                           nsaanga      Bot.plantain-shoot
                                                        nsaanga      brother, sister
                                                        nsaanga      opening of a fish-trap
                                                        nsaanga      caterpillar on a liana

          kisaanga    island                          kisaanga      Bot.a liana

           nkaanga    tying                            nkaanga      frying
                                                        nkaanga      hand of plantains
                                                        nkaanga      guinea-fowl

           mwaangu    Bot.palmnut-fibre                mwaangu      ridge-pole

-CeeNCV    ndeémbo     thickness                        ndéembo       a charm

           ngeénda     licking                          ngéenda       lacking

           nseénsa     flooding                         nséensa       parcelling

           mbeénga     red                              mbéenga       hating
                                                                                nouns 65



                    t o n e – g r o u p      (a)             t o n e – g r o u p     (d)
          masiinsa    attempt                       masiinsa    midday
-CiiNCV
          mafiinga    abuse, curse                  mafiinga    cramfull (pl.of fiinga)

           ndiingi    Bot.seed-shell of palmyra      ndiingi    depth of water

           nziingu   contest, battle                nziingu   iron ring
-CoNCV     nkongo     huntsman                       nkongo     a grasshopper

           ndoomba    blackening                     ndoomba    request, begging
-CooNCV
           nsoombe    blackfronted duiker            nsoombe    palm-weevil
                                                      nsoombe    Bot.plantain sp.

           ngoonda    moon; month                    ngoonda    killing, murder

           nkoondo   ban, interdict                 nkoondo   Bot.baobab

            soonso    torch                           soonso    Bot.a grass

           mboongo    seeds,fruits; offspring        mboongo    cloths,goods;wealth,money
                                                      mboongo    rust
           mpoongo    calming charm
                                                      mpoongo    long-tailed weaverbird
                                                      mpoongo    Bot.plantain var.

            loongo    wedlock, marriage               loongo    circumcision-hut
           mbuumba    outstanding debt               mbuumba    moulding
-CuuNCV    mbuumba    secret, mystery

           nfuumbi   silent person                  nfuumbi   highway-robber/murderer

           ntuumba    blaming                        ntuumba    initiation

           nkuumba    raking                         nkuumba    rumbling

            buunda    baldness                        buunda    small duck
            buunda    spot of sheep/goat
                                                       buundu    cluster, group
            buundu    Bot.fleshy and edible fruit
                                                     kibuundu    all together, wholesale
          kibuundu    abscess
                                                      mbuundu    Bot.Eleusine indica
           mbuundu    heart
                                                      mfuunda    accusing
           mfuunda    fermentation
                                                      mfuunda    Bot.palmnut-flesh

           ntuunda    peeling, debarking             ntuunda    excellence, celebrity

           nkuunda    stay                           nkuunda    homage, worship
                                                                                    nouns 66



                        t o n e – g r o u p     (a)                t o n e – g r o u p   (d)
-CuuNCV     mbuungu       yellow; yolk                mbuungu       cup, mug

            nluungu      completion;arrival at       nluungu      canoe
                                         its zenith
            nduungu       long conical wooden drum    nduungu       Bot.peppers(pl.of luluungu)

            nsuungu      conical basket              nsuungu      worry
                                                       nsuungu      caterpillar on kinsunga

           mayuunga       bustle, noise              mayuunga       fames (pl.of yuunga)
                                                      mayuunga       rose-beetles (pl.of yuunga)
                        t o n e – g r o u p     (a)                t o n e – g r o u p   (c)
-CaNCV      mbanda       space, furrow                 mbanda       top of head
            mbanda       brother/sister-in-law

        kimbanda         (alarm-)drum                kimbanda       lump
-CaaNCV   mbaambu         greed; a charm              mbaambu       (cassava-)bed

          !masaamba      garden                      masaamba       (razor)knife (pl.of saamba)

            ngaamba       Bot.Dioscorea sp.           ngaamba       porter

            mpaangu       a charm                     mpaangu       word introducing a question
                                                                                 or an explanation

           lusaangu/      news, tale                 lusaangu/      Bot.millet
            nsaangu                                   nsaangu

            nkaangu      burial-gifts                nkaangu      agreement
            nkaangu      belt

           kiyaangi       afterbirth-pains           kiyaangi       wrench, urgent need

-CiiNCV     ndiingu      midnight                    ndiingu      Bot.plant-peak
-CooNCV      toombe       Bot.Raphia sp.               toombe       darkness

            ngoombe       cattle                      ngoombe       sham-death

            mpoonda       belt, girdle                mpoonda       slaughter

            nzoonzi       mediator, advocate          nzoonzi       barbel

            nloongi      adviser                     nloongi      teacher

            nloongo      remedy, spell               nloongu      Bot.Mitragyna stipulosa

           kisoongo       pointed object             kisoongo       Bot.pineapple-shoot
-CuuNCV     nsuungi       Bot.Treculia africana       nsuungi       specified season

            nguunga       bell                        nguunga       rustling
                                                                                              nouns 67


                                                -CV(V)(N)CV

                      t o n e – g r o u p      (c)                      t o n e – g r o u p    (d)
 -CaCV     nzadi       brother/sister-in-law                 nzadi      great river

           nkayi       maternal grandparent                  nkayi      bushbuck,Tragelaphus scriptus
-CaaCV    ntwaala     pipestem                          ntwaala       front

-CaaNCV mataanda       cradle                            mataanda       racks, shelves (pl.of taanda)

 -CeCV    kikéle        Bot.piece of retted               kikéle          Bot.widened palmrachis-base
                                cassava-root
           mbéte        Bot.Dioclea sp.                       mbéte       snail
-CeeNCV maléembe        ruddy caterpillars                maléembe        stilt-walkers (pl.of léembe)
                              (pl.of léembe)              maléembe        calming charm (pl.of léembe)
                                                          maléembe        kindness

           nléengi     flatterer                             nléenge    slipperiness
                                                              nléenge    green caterpillar

           nkéengi     Bot.liana Macaranga saccifera         nkéengi    inspector
           nkéenge     catterpilar on kéenge

 -CiCV      ziku       certainty, reliability                 ziku      fireplace, hearth
                                                               ziku      musk-organ in civets

           nsiki      Bot.Morinda lucida                    nsiki     player

 -CoCV    makodi       scabies                           makodi         helix-shells (pl.of kodi)


-CooNCV lutoondo       Bot.an edible fungus              lutoondo       love, gratitude

          matoondo     exclusive loves (pl.of toondo)   matoondo       thanks

           nkoondi    crossing arms over the chest          nkoondi   hunter

           nkoonde     net-sacks (pl.of lukoonde)           nkoondi    a charm

 -CuCV     ntumu       envoy, messenger                      ntumu      order

           ntunu      Bot.Harungana madagascariensis        ntunu     restiveness

-CuuNCV    nkuumbi     pouched rat                           nkuumbi    subchief

           mpuunga     gullet                                mpuunga    Bot.fibres of Triumfetta
                                                                             cordifolia (pl.of lupuunga)
                                                                                              nouns 68




                       t o n e – g r o u p    (b)                       t o n e – g r o u p     (c)

-CeeCV      bééno        breast                                 béeno     you

-CooCV     nzoole      couple                             nzoole       second marriage
           nzoole      large chief-cloth



                       t o n e – g r o u p    (b)                       t o n e – g r o u p     (d)

-CiiCV     mfwiila     mortality                          mfwiila      black venomous ant

-CuNCV    kinsundi      only survivor of the clan         kinsundi      Bot.madder



            5. Minimal trios of nouns (pn-CV(V)(N)CV) in opposition of tone only



            t o n e – g r o u p      (a)       t o n e – g r o u p      (c)      t o n e – g r o u p (d)

 -CaCV     nsaku        pointed stake        nsaku     large road              nsaku     weed-growth

-CaaNCV   kisaambu      Bot.Pentaclethra    kisaambu   Bot.palmnut            kisaambu   prayer,worship
                              eetveldiana

            yaanga      heap of thorn-        yaanga   fine                     yaanga   fyke-opening
                              branches
                                                                                  yaanga   pond,lake

 -CeCV     mbela        claming              mbela     nearness                mbela     wrong

-CiiNCV    nziinga      living               nziinga   deep place              nziinga   winding



            t o n e – g r o u p      (a)       t o n e – g r o u p      (b)      t o n e – g r o u p      (d)

-CooCV     nkoowu      Bot.Dioscorea sp.     nkoowo    a stiltbird             nkoowu    an inedible
                          (pl.of lukoowu)                                                        frog
                                                                                pol intr 1


             3. Kikoongo polysyllabic nouns classified in tone-groups



3.0. This paper lists the classification of np-CVCV(CV)(CV)CV nominal forms in
   Kintandu,the eastern Kikoongo dialect, arranged in the same four tone-groups (a, b, c,
   and d) and the four tone-cases (I, II, III, and IV) as established for the (pro)nouns
   with disyllabic stem (cf.table 1).

3.1. The formula –(N)C(S)V(V)(N)C(S)V(N)CV gives its most common trisyllabic variants 1 .
   For the quadri- and quinque-syllabic stems 2 there is a restriction of length : a long
   vowel does not pass beyond the third syllable from the end 3.
   A -(N)CV(V)CV stem can be reduplicated with or without its prefix. A comparable
   restriction of length applies to both stems, cf e.g.

                  malembe-malembe       : maleembe 'quietness, quietly';
                     lembe-lembe          :   leembe 'stork'.

    A trisyllabic –(N)CV(N)CVCV stem can also be reduplicated with or without
    its prefix. The following seven examples have been noted :

                   katula-katula            'rain/girl sweeping off'
                kindemuka-ndemuka             'fugitive'
                kinseyila-nseyila             'smile'
                 makumiti-makumiti       'knaggy' : makumiti 'knags'
                  ndidila-ndidila     :    ndidila 'striped'
                 nzengele-nzengele      :    nzengele 'wheel'
                 nkongolo-nkongolo      :    nkoongolo 'rainbow'




1
  -CVCVCV,-CSVCVCV,-CVVCVCV,-CSVVCVCV,-NCVCVCV,-NCSCVCV,-NCVVCVCV,-CVNCVCV,
-CSVNCVCV,-CVVNCVCV,-CSVVNCVCV,-NCVNCVCV,-NCSVNCVCV,-NCVVNCVCV,-NCSVVNCVCV,
-CVCVNCV,-CSVCVNCV,-NCVCVNCV,-NCSVCVNCV,-CVVCVNCV,-CSVVCVNCV,-NCVVCVNCV,
-NCSVVCVNCV,-CVNCVNCV,-CSVNCVNCV.
2
  -CVCVCVCV,-CSVCVCVCV,-CVNCVCVCV,-CSVNCVCVCV,-NCVNCVCVCV,-CVNCVNCVCV,
-NCVCVNCVCV,-CVCVNCVCV,-CSVCVNCVCV. One quinque-syllabic stem :
-NCVCVCVCVCV : ki-ntulumukina 'suddenness'.

3
  Cf. Jan Daeleman, S.J.,'Verkorting en "viermoren-wet" in het Kikoongo', Aequatoria
22(1959/3)93-96/97.
                                                                                            pol intr 2


            3.2. Table 1. T o n e – g r o u p s                and        t o n e – c a s e s

 (slb = syllables, mor = morae ; high toneme is indicated by H or  ; low toneme by L, or by absence
        of tone-mark, or  on syllabic nasal ; the antiflex  indicates a short risin toneme)


s t a m     cas      t          o    n      e          -   g          r           o     u       p             s
            e

slb   mor                   a                    b                            c                     d

             I       L-(L)(L)LL            L-(L)(L)HL                  L-L(L)H(L)             L-L(L)(L)H

 4     4             ma-solokoto          ki-butukulu                ma-fwatabala         ki-tundibila

 3     4             ki-nwaaninu           ki-taaninu                 ma-kaakila            ba-teekolo

 3     3              ki-menina            ma-kyeleka                 ki-kalala             ki-kokila

 2     3                 ma-biibi           ki-wiina                     ki-tuutu             n-tuutu

 2     2                 ma-lafu            lu-ngweni                    ma-tuti              ma-kuku

             II      L-(L)(L)HL            L-(H)(H)HL                L-H(H)HL/H(L)L           L-H(L)(L)L

 4     4             ma-solokoto         ki-butukulu             ma-fwatabala        ki-tundibila

 3     4             ki-nwaaninu          ki-taaninu               ma-kaakila          ba-teekolo

 3     3              ki-menina           ma-kyeleka                ki-kalala            ki-kokila

 2     3                 ma-biibi          ki-wiina                    ki-tuutu             n-tuutu

 2     2                 ma-lafu           lu-ngweni                    ma-tuti              ma-kuku

(neg.)ka-IV-ko             = II                 = II                   L-H(H)(H)H             L-H(H)(H)H

 4    4              ma-solokoto         ki-butukulu             ma-fwatabala       ki-tundibila

 3    4              ki-nwaaninu          ki-taaninu               ma-kaakila         ba-teekolo

 3    3               ki-menina           ma-kyeleka                ki-kalala           ki-kokila

 2    3                  ma-biibi          ki-wiina                    ki-tuutu           n-tuutu

 2    2                  ma-lafu           lu-ngweni                    ma-tuti             ma-kuku
                                                   -CaCVCV                                     pol.01


                    a                          b                          c                        d
 -m                                                             mamaya (Bot.bitter
                                                                            cassava)     kindamina (Bot.Cissus
                                                                                                    aralioides
                                                                                          kitamina (stride)
                                                                gamiti (axe)
                                                              kigamiti (sturdy)        kingyamina (Bot.a
                                                                                                  rubber-liana)
 -b    lumbabika (Bot.a liana)
       lumbabika (its cater-
                         pillar)     !saboola (Bot.
                                                    onion)
 -f    kifwafwala (useless thing)
                                     nkafunga (useless
                                           thing/person)
 -n                                  kifwanisu (image,
                                                 picture) kinanasi (Bot.Ananas
                                                                         comosus)
                                                           !nanasi (its fruit)
-l/d      palungu (stain)
       kimpalungu (groove)
                                                             vwadingi (a duck)
          valangi (roan-antelope)
                                                            !fwalanta (Bot.Psidi-
                                                                        um guajava)
                                                           !dilalansa (Bot.Citrus
                                                                              sp.)
                                      kisalulu            !nsalaba = !kisalaba
                                            (instrument)                (fringe)
                                       nsadisi (helper)  lusalafwa (driverant)
         ngadidi (Bot.Garcinia
                           kola)      kigalulu (plane)
                                                              kikalala (Bot.Smilax
         nkalulu (character)                                             kraussiana)
        kikalulu (nature)                                   dinkalanga (Bot.latex-
                                                                         liana,Clitan-
                                                                         dra cymulosa)
                                                               nkalanga (its            nkalanga (store-
                                                                          caterpillar)                 basket)
         nyalala (delta)
                                                             nkwalala = kikwalala
         nyadiki (midwife)                                                 (sledge)
 -t     kimatinu (ladder)
             (= kimantinu)
         mbatinu (manner of
                                      kibatuka (lid,
                        climbing)
                                                   cap)
         ndatinu (manner of
                        carrying)                                                        bitatila (canesugar-
        kinatinu (carrier)                                    nsatiti (Bot.Sapium                    drink)
                                                                            cornutum)
                                                               nkatanga (cramp)
 -s                                                                                        mbasinga (mug,cup)
        kisasala (honeycomb)                                  nsasata (Bot.Markha
         nsasala (surfacefire)                                        mia tomentosa)
                                                                       (= nsasa (c))
 -g     kigagala (a light thing)
                                                    -CaCVCV                                          pol.02


                 a                          b                             c                          d
-k   kimakulu (forever)

     (ki)mbakala (male)
         mbakoko (long
           black snake)
     kimpakala (satchel)
      mpakasa (buffalo)
                                   kizakulu
     kisakala (bunch)                       (fishnet)                          munsakala (venomous
     kisakudi (gardener)                                                                       black ant)
                                    nsakani (player)   sakuba (stumble)    munsakala (Bot.Barteria
      nsakusu (bellows)
                                                        kisakamba (Bot.Cogni-                nigritiana)
                                                             auxia podolaena)     nsakala (Bot.ex-Musa
                                                                                             paradisiaca)

     kinkakala (palmbeetle)                                                              nkakala (scaly)
     kinkakasa (dark hut,
                    prison)                                 kikakasi (Bot.Ananas
                                    nkakutu (whip-                    comosus)
                                                weal)

-w                                                                                        ntawudi (boy,lad)
                                                            biyawula (ravings)
       n   o   m   i   n   a   l    p   r   e   f   i   x       x     s       t   e   m
-n   !bwanana (newyear)
-l                                                          mwalala (centipede)
-k                                                          mwakaka (pepper-
                                                                          pricking)
                                                  -CeCVCV                                pol.03


                a                       b                      c                          d
 -b    kimvwebédi
                (layabout)

       bulebila (Bot.an
             edible fungus)
       kidebula (Bot. an
                  acanthus)
 -p    kipepila (strip)
 -n    kimenina (plant)
-l/d   mbelolo (reproof)   kibélulu (wrong,
                                         loss)                                mvwélele (Bot.an aquatic)
                            kibedila
                                   (scapegoat)
       !dindeléni (Bot.Ci-       lélénsi (plain)
           trus deliciosa)
                                                                              nswélenge (Bot.Dioscorea
       !kingelési                                                                                  sp.)
                (English)    ngegodi                                       nsyélele (termite)
                                                                             kisyélele (Bot.fern)
                                   (benefactor)
                                                                              nsyélele (its caterpillar)
         nkeléle (crest-    bugegodi
                guineafowl)        (beneficence)
       lunkeléle (treble    lukélolo (filter,
                                                                              nkélele (shrill voice)
              voice/pitch)               funnel)
                             kyéléka (truth)
 -t                                                    mbwététe (star)

                                                      kimfwététe (stinging   fwétete (a big grasshopper)
                                                                    ant)
                                                        ntétémbo (star)
       kigetolo (sling)
        ngetolo (fling)

       kiketika (grip)
       (di)wetéte (an ant)
 -s    kigesila (snipping)    kigésuka (shard)
                                                       nkésuna (shard,
                                                                crumb,bit)
 -k     mbekéle (dwarf)
                                ntékolo (sale)

        nsekula (trans-         sékusu               nsékéni (Bot.Trile-
                    ferring)                                pisium mada-
                                     (weaverbird)
       (di)swekamu                                         gascariense)
                                                                               kékete (hardness)
                    (secret)
                                                                              nkékete (Bot.Dialium cor-
                                                                                               bisieri)
                                                                               kékese (soldier-termite)
                                             -CiCVCV                                      pol.04


                 a                       b                         c                          d
 -b                                                    nsibisi (large canerat)
                                                            (= nsiisi (c))
 -n                              nkinunu (manner
                                      of dancing)
                                                      kiyinika (torch)
-l/d    mpiluka (the oppo-
                  site side)
         vididi (shore-bird)
                                                      kifilungu (Bot.Vitex
                                                                      madiensis)
                                                          (= kifilu,nfilu (d))
                                                                                      ndidila (striped)

                                                                                    lunzididi (slender
        ngididi (Bot.Trachy-                                                                  mongoose)
                 phrynium
                 braunianum)                            kididi (slight heat)
 -t                                                                                 kititila (small
        ngituka (amazement,                                                                      blade)
                  surprise)
 -z                             buzizila
                                         (patience)
                                 nzizidi
                                         (patience)
                                luzizilu
                                         (patience)
 -s     ngisulu (purpose for
                     coming)




 -k                                                                                 nvikiti (whip-weal)
       kisikiti (Bot.stump)      sikulu (a drum)
                                kisikulu (musical
                                       instrument)
        ngikulu (way of
                  adapting)     kiyikama (adding)
                                                  -CoCVCV                                    pol.05


                  a                           b                           c                            d
-b    nsobuta (diligence)
-f    !fofolo (lucifer)
-n                               mbonana (interview)
                                 mbonika (appearing)
                                                                                          binkonono (wrinkled)
 -                                                              mbolongu (Bot.egg-
l/d                                                                      plant,Solanum
                                                                         melongena)
                                                               kimbyolongo
                                                                          (Bot.liana,
                                                                          Chlorocodon)
                                                                fyolongo (Bot.Vi-
                                lulololo (remission)
                                                                          tex doniana)
                                luloloko (pardon)
                                                                ndoluta (crackle)
                                 ndolula (remission)
                                 ndoluka (pardon)
                                  tolula (dance-shirt)
                                kintolula (polio)
                                matolula (reparation-
                                                 presents)
                                luzolanu (mutual
       kigololo (puller)                        affection)
                                                                nkodinga (blue
                                 nyolongo (handsome boy)           plantain-eater)
-t      mbototo (dampness)
                                                                                          bindotila (ravings)
      kingotolo (bogyman)
                                 luyotisu (circumcision)
          (= ngooto (b))
-s                                mposuka (interspace)        mposuka (axil)
-g                              ki(n)gogila (spokesman)
                                kingogila (pretence)
                                  ngogolo (manner of
                                                   speaking)
                                 kigogolo (saying)
-k     mbokuta   (grumbling)     mbokula (fold)
       mpokoso   (chat)
                                                               kimfokumba
       mfokolo   (fold)
                                                                     (knuckle,joint)      kinokina (spittlebug)
        lokila   (a bird)
                                buntokosi (lack of
                                                   manners)                                 sokolo (slipknot)
        kokoto (dung-beetle)
                                                                                          lukokila   (ambition)
                                                                                          kikokila   (trail)
                                 kikokolo (ruse)
                                                                                          kikokolo   (loop)
                                 kikokolo (rake)
      kiyokolo (fire-engine)                                                             kikokolo   (guitar)
      ngyokolo (spark)                                                                    nkokoto   (miser)
      mayokoso (noisy- chat)                                                              nkokoso   (old chap)
-y                              nvoyongo (handsome boy)

                                                                nom.prefix    x    stem
-l                                                              byololo (criesà
                                             CuCVCV                                      pol.06

                  a                          b                         c                        d
 -m                               nsumuki (sinner)

                                   kumina (stop)           kumiti (knar,knot)
                                 kikuminu (cottage)

                                 kiwuminu (watering-
                                                can)
 -b       tubulu (fatty)        kitubilu (sling)                                   ntubungu (Bot.Chlo-
                                                                                           rocodon whitei)
                                 kisubilu (urinal,
                                             bladder)

       kinkubungu (sturdy)      kinkubula (a drum)
 -f                                                                                   nbufungu (blunt)
         nfufulu (dimness)
 -n                                ntununu (refusal)
         ngununu (lie)
-l/d                                                      kibulumfwa (axe)          nbulungu (torrent)
                                                           !buluku (ass,donkey)
       kimpulumba (rascal)
                                                            vulungu (an antelope)
         nfululu (gruffness)
                                                           ndulunsi (Bot.Ectadi-
       lunzyululu (secret                                     opsis oblongifolia) ngulunga (caries)
                        tips)
                                   ngulusi (saviour)
        kigudinga (horn)
                                  lugulusu
                                            (salvation)
        kikuluka (close-
                cropped hair)                              nkuluntu (elder)
         !kulunsi (cross)

        kiyuluka (caprice)
 -t      mbututu (haze)          kibutamu (abdomen)    lubutuku (birth)

         nfututu (dust)

         ntutulu (Bot.Can-
            thium arnoldianum)
            (= ntuutu (d))

          yututu (idiot)
 -k                                                        mbukini (an inedible
         mpukulu (veranda)                                           caterpillar)
                                                          lumpukeni (a small bat)
        luvukanu (union)
                                 kizukulu (sling)                                    ndukangi (queasi-
       kinsukula (Bot.Solanum                                                                 ness,qualm)
                        sp.)                                gukula (Bot.Dioscorea
                                                                             sp.)      nkukutu (stinging
       kinkukulu (fatty)
                                   yukuta (Bot.Dios-                                           large ant)
                                           corea sp.)
                                                          nominal prefix x stem
 -l                                                         mulula (nosebleed)
                                                  -CaaCVCV                                       pol.07


                   a                          b                        c                         d
 -m    kivwaaminu (roost)
                                  kityaamuka (sturdy
                                                 person)

                                 mankwaamina
                                           (perseverance)
 -b                                                                                    ntaabala (tall sturdy
                                                                                                    person)
 -n                               mfwaanana (equality,
       kinwaaninu (weapon)                similarity)
        ndwaaninu (fight)
                                 kitaaninu (armour)
                                 lutaaninu (defence)
                                  ntaanini (defender)
-l/d    nzaalala (lightness,
                    weakness)     nyaadiki (installer                            ngwaalasi (question
                                             of a chief)                                    proposing a tale)
 -t                              mvwaatilu (manner of
       ndyaatilu (walk,gait)                    clothing)
 -k                                                                                   nlaakisi (Bot.creep-
                                                                                              ing-grass,Comme-
                                                                                              lina sp.)
                                                                                     kizaakila (brushwood)
                                                                                      nsaakila (younger)
        nkwaakula (cackling)                                  kaakila (hurdle)
        nkwaakudi (cackler)
 -w                               luwaawanu (concord)
 -y                               kizaayilu (sense
                                                 (organ))
                                  luzaayisu
                                           (information)

                                                  -CeeCVCV

 -n                              kizyeenina (bed-            nteelani =
                                           wetter)            manteelana
                                 kizyeeninu (urinal)        (oral tradition)
 -t                                                                                    béetila (accord)

       nzyeetolo (flying)       nsweetami (lanky                                kitéetila (fragment)
                                             person)
 -k                                                                                  luvyéekese (beanpole)
        ndeekana (harmony)       nleekolo (sleeping on    nleekolo           ndéekila (spark)
                                                  the way)              (sleeping-    ndéekila (Bot.Lapor-
       nsweekolo (trunk as                                            place)               tea ovalifolia)
                   doorstep)                                                          ntéekolo (grandchild)
       nsyeekéle (brush-
             tailed porcupine)
 -y      mpeeyila (breeze)
          nom.prefix x stem
 -k      mweekese (quill)
         mweekolo (doorstep)
                                              -CiiCVCV                                        pol.08


                a                        b                         c                            d
 -n                           kitiininu (refuge)
                             kintiininu (to be
                                            avoided)
 -t                                                                                kifiitidi (Bot.Anti-
                                                                                             desma venosum)
 -s                          ngwiisana (accord)

 -k    mbiikilu (pardon)    lubiikilu (manner
                                     of forgiving)
                                                        ndiikila (poison)
                             kisiikilu (support)

                             kikiikilu (screen)
                             kikwiikila (switch)
                             lukwiikilu (belief)
       nom.prefix x stem
 -d     mwiidila (brook)

                                                 -CooCVCV

-l/d                                                                                kikoodila (handle)
 -t     ntootila (king)
 -k                                                                                kindookila (clap on the
                                                                                              right palm)
                                                                                   kindookila (Bot.Antho-
                                                                                          clitandra robus-
                                                                                          tior,latex-liana)
                                                                                   kityookolo (Bot.Cyrto-
        nkookila                                      kikookolo (protrusion                sperma sene-
                                                                                               galensis)
                (evening)                                          on palmfrond)

 -y     yooyolo (jingle)
          (= yooyo (a))

                                                 -CuuCVCV

 -m                                                                                kifuumani (aloofness)
 -b     mbuubulu (white                                buubuta (sty on the
                fowl-meat)                                                eye)       yuubulu (idiot)
 -l                          kituululu (clipper)
                             kituululu
                                     (destination)
 -k                                                                                 nluukusu (beanpole)
                              ntuukila (exit)       kintuukila (origin)             (: nluuku (b))
                              ntuukulu (evasion)
                             lutuukulu (exit)
                                                        nom.prefix     x   stem
 -f                                                    kyuufuta (sultriness,
                                                                         sweat)
                                                -CaCVCVCV                                        pol.09


                  a                         b                         c                          d
 -m    kityamununu (waterer)
 -v    mvwavalakani(5-syll.)
           (obstructed way)
-l/d    mpalakata (rascal)                                                         mpalakata (Bot.a tree)
                                lutalasanu (vis-à-vis)
       ntwalakasa (carrying                                                        nsadidila (remaining
                      away)                                                                             people)
                                                                                    nsadidila (remaining
         kalabonga (large                                                                              things)
                     lizard)

       ngyalumuka (surface)
       luyalungusu (news-    luyalungusu
                      spread)                (spreading)
 -t                                                           fwatabala (Bot.a
                                                                          liana)

                                                  -CeCVCVCV

 -n                                                         lukénéngéne
                                                                     (grain
                                                                     of sand)
 -l                                                          ntéléngése
       kizelekéte (Bot.                                         (uproar,fuss)
              Dioscorea sp.)                                                  nkélekete (Bot.Dialium
                                                                                        corbisieri)
                                                                                        (= nkékete (d))
                                                            nkwéléngéne       nkélekete (white clay)
                                                                (grain of      wélekese (Bot.Scleria
                                                                sand in food)                     spsp.)
 -t                                                                           ntétukila (fish newly
                                                                                                hatched)
 -s    fwe(n)sengéne (loose
                     sand)                                  nkwé(n)séngéne
                                                                (grain of
                                                                sand in food)
 -k    mbelekéte (dwarf)
          (= mbekéle (a))        ntékololo (great-
                                        grandchild)                                 nzékumuna (Bot.Claoxylon
                                        (:ntéekolo (d))                                            africanum?)

                                                  -CiCVCVCV

 -d    kimpidingiingi (a
               spry old man)
 -t    kimbitintiinti
             (sturdy person)
       kimpitimpiindi
              (inextricable)

       kitikila (muddle)
 -k                             lukwikidisu
                                    (belief,faith)
                                                -CoCVCV                                        pol.10



                    a                              b                     c                       d
 -m                                  bintomisina (ornaments)
-l/d                                                                                   mbolokoso (nightjar)
       kimpolongoso (hole)                                       mpolotobo
                                        dodokolo (favour)             (trigger)

        solokoto (whitethroat)       luzolasanu (mutual                            nsolokoto (Bot.Bi-
        solompati (a bird the                       affection)                                 dens pilosa)
               size of a thrush)
                                                                                       nkolokoso (Bot.Urena
       kiwolongoso (hollow)                                                                          lobata)
 -n                                    nsonokono (manner of
                                                       writing)
 -k                                    mbokololo (manner of
        nwokotila (breasts of                         crying)
                      young woman)

                                                     -CuCVCVCV

 -b     kizibululu (opener)
 -f    kinkufungulu(short fatty)
 -l       bulukutu (Bot.Diosco-                                  kibulakati         bulukutu (Lippia
                  rea sp.,edible)                                           (half)                multiflora)
         mbulunkutu (Bot.Acioa
                            lujae)
         mbulunkutu (its cater-
                          pillar)
       kimbulunkutu (cocoon)
       kimpulungusu (hole)                                                           lumpulukusu (a bat)
         mvulumuna (Bot.Ectadio-
              psis oblongifolia)
        kifulumuna (breathing)
                                     kifulumunu (breathing)
        kitulungusu (giant)                                                         ukintulumukina(5-syll.)
                                                                                              (suddenness,un-
                                                                                              expectedness)
        kikulumunu (tapcalabash)
                                                                                       kulukutu (hardened
        kikulukutu(questionable)
                                                                                                cassava-meal)
        kikulunyaansi (a fly)
                                                                                      nkulukutu(black
                                                                                                      beetle)
                                                                                      nkulukusu (a bird)
                                                                                      kinkulakani (vexation)
       (ki)wulungusu (hole)
 -t                                  kibutukulu (nature)
                                     lufutumuku
          kutukulu (nil,zero)       (resurrection)
 -k                                  kipukululu (a rodent)

          fukutila (null)           mfukululu (mustiness)
                                                                                       nsukinina (retard)
                                                  -CaNCVCV                                       pol.11


                  a                     b                          c                              d
-mb kimbambala (sturdy person)                     mbambudi (glowing heat,
           (= kimbamba (a))                                       scorching sand)

       kitambala (towel,scarf)
                                                    nsambwadi (seven)
      dinkambwala (Bot.Urena                                                          nkambala (weaver-ant)
                         lobata)

     ngyambila (conversation)
     luyambulu (leaving)
-mp   ntampata (swamp,marsh)                        tampala (signal-drum)
    kinsampala (ringworm)
     !nsampatu (sandal,shoe)
-nd   mbandundu (thunderbolt)

       malandila (a children's
                          game)                     ngandaka (Bot.variety of
                                                                       plantain)
-nz kinzanzala (creeping
                         insect)
      nzanzungu (red hairy
                    caterpillar)
-ns   mbansala (palm of hand)
      nbansungu (drying rack)
      ntansungu (drying rack)
                                                     sansala (Bot.variety of
                                                                       plantain)
                                                    nsansala (rag)
-ng                                                  mbangasi (radiant heat)         mbangasa (mug,cup)
                                                                                               (comp.mbasinga)
                                                   kimpangansa (painting)            mbangala (cudgel)
      kindyangula (a lizard)      nlangidi
                                       (guard)
       kisangala (demijohn)
      lunsangala (Bot.fungus on
                      dead wood)
      munsangula (spanworm)                       munsangani (a tapeworm)

       kigangala (hencoop)
         gangila (Bot.stalk of
                                                      kangala (handcart)            (ki)kangala (bunch)
                   Megaphrynium
                   macrostachyum)                     kangila (Bot.a grass)               (: nkaanga (d))
                                                      kangeni (Bot.Setaria
                                                                     megaphylla)
                                                   kinkangudi (palm-beetle)           nkangudi (Bot.Verno-
      kingwangula (water-beetle)                                                                    nia sp.)
              (= kingwaangu (a))

-nk                                                nkankiti (Bot.Bridelia sp.?)
                                                   nkankiti (its caterpillar)
                                                      nominal prefix      x    stem
-ng                                                dyangala (Bot.burnt stalk)
                                                              (= dyaanga (c))
                                             -CeNCVCV                                     pol.12

                                                -CeNCVCV

                  a                      b                        c                        d
-mb                                                   nlembila (Bot.Cus-
         tembéle (Bot.Ipo-                                sonia angolensis)
              moea batatas,
              sweet potato)

      kinzembéle (earring)
-nd    kilendila (Bot.Manni-
            ophyton fulvum)                                                    kiténdila (band,strip)
                                                                                    (= kitéenda (d))
        nkendolo (felling)                                                   kinténdila (cicada)
                                                                                    (: téenda (d))
       ngyendolo (reason for
                      going)
-nt                                                   ntenteni (spark)
-ng                                                                            lubyéngele (rod)
                                                                              kimbyéngila (link)
      mfwengénge (galago,
                   bushbaby)                                                  kindyéngila (link)
                                                                              kindyéngila (whirlpool)

      kizengilu (cutter)                                                       nzéngele (blindworm)
       nzengoni (Bot.variety
                of plantain)
                                 séngéni (large
                                      black ant) ngenguba (Bot.Abrus
       ngengéle (pupil)
                                                          precatorius)           kéngele (lump of salt)

                                                                              kingyéngila (piercing sun)

                                                 -CiNCVCV

-mb                                                                            nvimbila (swelling)
      kisimbulu (handle)
       nsimbulu (Bot.root)
       nsimbulu (a snake)
                                 nyimbidi
                                           (singer)
-mp kimpimpila (twilight)
        (: mpiimpa (a))
-ns                                                                           kinsinkulu (in ancestors'
                                                                                                    days)
                                                                               kisinsila (stump)
                                                                                      (= kisiinsa (d))
                                                                                nyinsidi (petiole)
-ng    nbingulu (waiting-
           place for hunting     kimfingini           bufingini (gums)
           game)(=nbingu(a))       (bruise)
                                                      !(di)dingamu (Bot.
                                                          Citrus auranti-
                                                          folia,lime)      kinzingila (eddy,curl)
       kisingini (heel)
                                                    -CoNCVCV                                       pol.13


                   a                            b                                    c                        d
-mb    ntombula (waterrat)
-nd                                                                 londonse (Bot.Dissotis sp.?)

        zondondo (idler)                                            zondende (slobber)(= zoonde (c))
-ns                                                                nsonsila (Bot. palmleaf-nerve)
-ng kimbongila (whirlwind)
                                     nlongoki (pupil,
                                                   disciple)        zongisi (weaverbird)

                                                                   nsongeni (driver-ant)

      dingongongo (ruddy ant)                                     lungongisi (Bot.Euphorbia sp.)
          (= dingoongo (a))

                                                        -CuNCVCV

                   a                                b                     c                          d
-mb nsumbala (Bot.thorny liana,
             Combretum racemosum)
                                                                                    ngyumbula (bee)
-nd kimfundila (yeast)
                                                                                     ntundulu (Bot.fruit of the
                                                                                           ginger kitundibila,
                                        kinkunduba (tick)                                Aframomum stipulatum)
-ns    kibunsila (Bot.Alchornea
                   cordifolia)
                   (= kibunsi (a))                                                 (ki)nsunsulu (gulp)
-ng                                                                                 (ki)bungala (clod)

                                                                                     lupungala/mpungala (Bot.
                                                                                           fibre of Triumfetta
                                                                                           cordifolia)(=lupuunga/
                                                                                           mpuunga (d))
                                                                                     lumpungulu (dragonfly)
      mvunguta (Bot.sweet potato)                                 nvungini (ash-       (= lumpungumpungu (d))
      mvunguta (mumbling)                                                    flake)
                                                                                    kintungila (smoke-column)
      lunzungulu
                                         nsungutu (cane,
                (nuisance(person))
                                              walking stick)
      kingungulu (muscleman)                                                        ngungulu (fixity)
                 (= kingungu (a))
        ngungudi (herdsman)
                                          kunguni (knee-
       kiyungasi (roamer)                        bow,knee)
        nyungani (roamer)
                                              -CaaNCVCV                                     pol.14


                  a                            b                         c                        d
-mb                                                           bwaambata (rust-
                                                                     deposit in
                                     saambanu (six)               a liquid)
      kigaambala (fall,flop)      kisaambulu             kisaambulu
                                               (prayerplace)          (prayerbook)
     nkaambila (walk)
-mp mansaampula (tradition)
-nd kivwaandilu (seat)
-nt                           luyaantiku (beginning)
-ns                                                                                   kibaansala (courtyard)
     nsaansala (offal)                                                                      (: mbaansa (d))
     nsaansala (small
                 change,coin)
-ng mbaangala (radiant heat
          during dry season)
                                                                                       mpaangula (rope)
      kimpyaanguka (intruder)

      lumwaangusu
                 (announcement)
                                                                                      kigaangala (ruin :
       ngaangula (metalworker,
                                                                                                house,person)
                        smith)
                                    nkaangala (walk)
                                                                                      nkwaangila (foolishly
                                                                                            long thing/person)
-nk    nkaankala (woodhouse)
             n o m i n a l             p r e f i x          x   s t e m
-ng                                 mwaangala (millipede) mwaangala (stabbing
        waangila (Bot.sesame,                                       pain)
              Sesamum indicum)

                                                   -CeeNCVCV

                 a                            b                      c                           d
-mp                              kifweempete (ruin)
-nd    mbeendula                 mbeendula (lapel)
                (conjugation)                                                         ntéendele (Bot.Euphor-
                                                                                                     bia sp.)
-nt                                                        ntééntila
                                                                  (equilibrium)
-ns                               nkéénsolo (manner of
                                            filtering)
                                 kikéénsolo (funnel)
-ng                                                                                   kivwéengedi (fool)
      kidyeengula (puller)                               dindééngula (a cater-
                                                                         pillar)
      munzeengéle (a venom-                                                           kiséengele (axe)
                   ous snake)                                                           nséengele (blade
                                 ngyééngila (depth)                                           without handle)
                                 ngyééngila
                                          (waterbeetle)
       kikeengolo (vat)         nkééngéle              nkééngédi (guard)
                                          (waterbeetle)
                                            -CeeNCVCV                                      pol.15

                 a                      b                  c                                 d
-nk                                            nkéénkéte (Bot.Macaranga
                                                              saccifera)
                                             nkwéénkéte (crook)
                                                        (: nkwéenku (c))
        nom.prefix   x    stem                   nom.prefix x stem
-ng                                           mwééngéte (Bot.Millettia
                                                             drastica)
                                              mwééngéte (its caterpillar

      kyeengéle (mass)                        kyééngéti (Bot.Millettia
                                                              drastica)
                                              kyééngula (heat)

                                                 -CiiNCVCV

                    a                            b            c                         d
-mb (ki)mpiimbidi (unwieldy thing)                                   mpiimbidi (Bot.end of the
                                                                                      plantain-flower)
                                                                      mpiimbidi (a 'two-headed' snake)
-nk                                                                   nkwiinkiti (Bot.Combretum psidi-
                                                                                oides)(= nkuunkuti (d))
           nom.prefix x stem
-ng kiingidi (ants' nest on a tree)

                                                 -CooNCVCV

                     a                                  b                  c                     d
-mb                                          mboombula (lining)
       koombélo (purgatory)                 kikoombolo (broom)                    kigoombolo (shackle)
-np  nsoompiki (lender)
          (: nsoompi (borrower))
-nd ntoondana (mutual love/                lutoondanu (mutual
                           gratitude)                       love)
-nz luzoonzamu (order)
     nzoonzama (order)
     nzoonzika (arrangement)
-ng luvoongolo (Bot.a fungus)
    kifoongolo (seat)
     mfoongolo (manner of sitting)

      ndoongila (Bot.ex-Musa
                        paradisiaca)
       zoongolo (circle, round hole)

      ngoongolo (millipede)                                         ngoongingo
                                                                     (an oriole)
                                                                                     nkoongolo (rainbow)
        nominal prefix      x    stem
-ng   myoongoti (loins)

      kyoongolo (huge)
                                         -CuuNCVCV                                      pol.16



                 a                        b                       c                       d
-mb                                                                          mbuumbulu (a mole)
      kimpuumbulu (rascal)
                                                          kifuumbani
                                ntuumbulu                   (aloofness)
                                          (initiation)

                                nsuumbulu ((manner
                                           of) buying)
                                                                             nkuumbila (heavy shower)

                                                                              yuumbulu (fool)
-nd    mbuundika (fold)

       mvuundulu (manner of
                    resting)
      kivuundulu (resting-
                     place)

       ntuundula
                (brassnail)

        kuundulu (roost)
-nt                             ntuuntula (traction)
                               kituuntulu (pulley)
-ng   luvuungulu              kivuungulu (waterer)
                (peritoneum)
                               kinuungunu (winning)
       nkuungulu (a bluish
                     snake)
       nkuungulu
             (turnover,hem)

       nwuungudi (herdsman)
           (= ngungudi (a))
-nk    nkuunkuta (knock)     nkuunkuta (a turkey)                        nkuunkuti (Bot.Combretum
                                                                                     psidioides)
                                                                                     (= nkwiinkiti (d))
               n o m i n a l      p r e f i x      x      s t e m
-nd   luundulu (winged
         darkbrown termite)
-ng                                                        kyuungila
                                                                    (heat)
                                               -CaNCVCVCV                                    pol.17


                   a                              b                      c                       d
-mb                                  kisambululu          kisambululu
                                               (prayerplace)         (prayerbook)
                                     kisambululu
      luyambululu (remission,             (blessing-brush)
                        pardon)
-nd    nsandukulu (shambling)
-ns                                                                                  lumpansukila (hit on a
                                                                                            green leaf to
                                                                                            discover truth)

                                                                                      ngansakala (fleshless
                                                                                                (tooth-)bone;
                                                                                                long tooth)
-ng   mbangalala (navel-rupture)
                                      nlangididi (keeper,
       tangawusa (Bot.ginger,                        guard)
          Zingiber officinalis)
                                       sangavudi (venomous                        nzwangibila (beanpole,
                                                     spider)                               lout)(:nzwangu(c))

                                                  -CeNCVCVCV

                    a                          b                             c                        d
-mb   nzembololo (treetop above
                          reach) mankembidila (praise)       bikembisila (ornaments)
-nd   ndendakana (possibility)
-ns   nkensengele (joint :
              wrist,ankle,elbow)
-ng    sengenéni (large black    lusengumunu (finding,
            ant)(= séngéni (b))                  discovery)

      ngengebele (eagerness)
            (= ngeéngi (a))

      nkengeléle (field-cricket)

                                                  -CiNCVCVCV

                    a                                    b                       c                    d
-mb                                    ngimbululu (way of singing)
                                       nyimbidisi (choirmaster)
-nd     mbindukulu (locking)
       kibindukulu (bolt,bar)
      lumbindimisa (Bot.a fungus)

      kimpindibidi (freak)

      kinkindibidi (freak)
-ns     mbinsikulu (lever)
        mpinsikulu (lever)
                                              -CoNCVCVCV                                        pol 18


                      a                        b                           c                d
-mb                                                                                         nsombokila (chigoe,
                                                                                                Tunga penetrans)
-nd   kiyondongolo (hair-crest)                                                            nkondobolo (russet
      ngyondongolo (hair-crest)                                                                      wood-ant)
-nz   luzonzikilu (order,
                    arrangement)
-ns    nkonsongolo (joint of
                         bones)
-ng                                                             ndyongololo (ascaris,
      kizongotonu (tuft,bunch)                                         intestinal worm)
      kizyongololo (round hole)     nsongidila
                                           (signifying)
                                    masongidila
                                           (significance)
      kingongovuma (stupor)        lusongidilu (meaning)
-nk                                                                                         nkonkobolo (worn-
                                                                                                     out thing)
          nom.prefix x stem
-mb   kyumbululu (swarm)

                                                   -CuNCVCVCV

                      a                   b                     c                                d
-mb    ndumbululu (title)
-mp                                             kitumpululu (ruin, hovel)
-nd    mbundakasa (addition)
       mbundakana (addition, sum
                              total)

       mfundikila (overlooking,
                         winking at)                                             kitundibila (Bot.ginger,
                                                                                        Aframomum stipulatum)
      kinkundubulu (small hill)
       makundungulu (void)
-ng    nbungululu (morning-mist)
             (: buungi (a))
      luvungululu (membrane, film,
                         peritoneum)
        fungununu (carpenter-bee,
                          boring-bee)
       mfungununu (confession)

       ndungalala    (warying)
      malungalala    (wisdom)
      lulungalalu    (wisdom)
       nlungaladi   (prudent)

       ntungununu (fixing,proof)

       nsungadila (sobbing)
                                          -CaCV-(N)CaCV                                      pol.19


                   a               b                     c                                      d
 -m                                    lulamalama (Bot.Culcasia
                                                               angolensis)
                                         lamalama (Bot.Desmodium sp.)
                                       kindami(ki)ndami (close proximi-
                                                          ty)(: kindami (c))
                                       (lu)nsamansama (Bot.a fungus)
 -b     nkabinkabi                   kizabukizabu (high speed)
                  (munificence)             (: kizabu (c))
 -f                                                                              safusafu (Bot.Dacryodes
                                                                                              sp.)(: nsafu (d))
 -n                                    kimwanamwana (baby,little child)
                                           (: mwaana (c))
                                       kingyanangyana (baby,little
                                                                     child)
-l/d     padipadi (a grass-           (ki)malu(ki)malu (high rapidity)
                       hopper)                  (: kimalu (c))

       lundalandala (palm-             nlalunlalu (Bot.Crassocephalum
           swallow)(:ndala(a))                    sarcobasis)(: nlalu (c))    ntadintadi (Bot.Memecylon
       nswalunswalu (high
                                                                                        gilletii)(: ntadi (d))
                      quickness)
                                                                                 nzadinzadi (Bot.Glyphaea
           (: nswaalu (a))
                                                                                                   grewioides)
       kinkalankala (soon)
                                                                                kinkalankala (scorpion)
                                                                                kinkalankala (Bot.Uapaca?)
        kiyadiyadi
               (cheerfulness)
 -t                                    lubatabata (Bot.Costus
                                                              spectabilis)
                                       lubatabata (flathead)
                                                                                  nkatunkatu (nothing at
                                         katikati (in the very middle)
                                                                                            all)(: nkatu (d))
                                           (: kati (c))
 -s                                     maasimaasi (Bot.Landolphiea,a
        kibasibasi (chip,                       latex-liana)(: maasi (c))
              splinter)
              (: kibaasi (a))                                                     kasakasa (Bot.Albizzia
                                        kwasukwasu (filth)
                                                                                                    gummifera)
 -k    kimyakamyaka (Bot.              makamaka (archness)
              Phyllanthus sp.)
              (: myaaka (a))
        nnakannaka
                 (continually)
                                       nsakunsaku (well-beaten road)         kisakasaka (Bot.a tree)
       lusakusaku (Bot.Cype-
             rus articulatus                           (: nsaku (c))
                                                                                lunkakankaka (pangolin-
                                                                                         tongue)(: nkaka (d))
 -w     bawubawu (Bot.Cassia
           alata)(:baawu (a))
                                       biyawuyawu (talk in delirium)
                                              -CaCV-(N)CaCV                                       pol.20


                    a                     b                        c                                 d
-y     kipayapaya (munificent)
       lupayapaya (munificence)
        npayinpayi (munificence)
                                                                                       lukayakaya (Bot.Gilbertio-
                                                   kiyayakiyaya (telltale)                   dendron dewevrei)
                                                              (: kiyaaya (c))
                                                          nom.prefix x stem                t r i s y ll a b l e
-s                                                 masamasa (Bot.Spathodea          katulakatula (rain/girl
                                                                    campanulata)                       sweeping off)
                                                   -CeCV-(N)CeCV
                     a                         b                         c                           d
 -b                                                          ntebanteba (sludge,
                                                                  mire (:nteba(c))
 -n                                                                                      ménémene (early in the
                                                                                             morning)(: méne (d))
                                                                                       mpwenampwena (very lovely)
                                                                                                   (: mpwéena (d))
-l/d                                  nbyedinbyedi
                                          (a swallow)                                  mvwélémvwele (Bot.an aqua-
       muntelentéle (Bot.Ficus                                                               tic)(= mvwélele (d))
            mucuso)(=muntele(a))

        nselenséle (Bot.a bush)
       kisyelesyéle (Bot.Maprou-
                   nea africana)                                                         kelakela (Bot.a plant)
                                                                                         kélékele (a caterpillar)
                                                                                         kélékele (Bot.widened
                                                                                                   palmrachis-base)
       welewéle (Bot.Scleria sp.)                                                                  (= kikéle (d))
                                                                                       kikélékele (Bot.Olax sp.?)
       kiyeleyéle (Bot.a plant)
 -t                                   ntetanteta (Bot.                              lumbetambeta (subjecting)
                                            Phyllanthus
                                            niruri)
 -s    mumpesempése (Bot.New-                                                          lumwesamwesa (transparent)
                 bouldia laevis)
       mfwesemfwése (fine                                     nkesinkesi (star-
             powder)(: fwese (a))                                  twinkling,sun-
                                                                    dazzling)
                                                             bikesukesu (scrap)
                                                                   (: kinkeso (b))
 -k                                                                                     nzekenzeke (Bot.Claoxylon
                                                                                                          africanum?)
         nsekinseki (ruddle)                                                           nsékénseke (Bot.savanna-
         nsekunseku (verge)                                   nsekunseku                   fungus)(: nséke (d))
           (= nseku (a))                                             (fickleness)
                                                                                       biyekiyeki (shrill cries
                                                                                            made by women with
                                                                                            palms before mouth)
         t r i s y ll a b l e s
 -m    kindemukandemuka(fugitive)
 -y    kinseyilanseyila (smile)
                                               -CiCV-(N)CiCV                                    pol.21


                  a                        b                          c                               d
 -n                                                     kimfinikimfini (close
                                  ntinuntinu (high               nearness
                                      speed)                        (: kimfini (c))
                                      (: ntiinu(b))
-l/d   kibidibidi (a small
                        bird)
       kibidibidi
                                                                                           t r i s y ll a b l e
               ((body)trunk)
                                                        kividikividi (oblivion)
        mbidimbidi (ample
                                                                                        ndidilandidila (striped)
               quantity,great
               crowd)                                   lunzilanzila (Bot.Desmo-           (: ndidila (d))
         (: mbidi (a))                                         dium mauritianum)
                                                                (: nzila (c))
 -t    nkitinkiti (a moorhen)
 -k                                                     nnikunniku (hurlyburly)
        ndikindiki                                                                    ndikindiki (ridgepole)
                    (steepness)
                                                         zikuziku (total relia-       nzikinziki (tickling)
                                                             bility)(: ziku (c))

                                                        nsikunsiku (hiccup)          kisikisiki (Bot.Durante
                                                                                                         repens?)
                                                         nominal prefix x stem
-l/d                                                     diladila (Bot.a liana,
                                                                   Manotes pruinosa)

                                                  -CoCV-(N)CoCV

                     a                     b                      c                                     d
 -m    lumbomamboma (small python)                                                    muntomantoma (Bot.Crateri-
            (:mboma (a))                                                                           spermum laurinum/
                                                                                                    congolanum)
       mungomangoma (Bot.Vernonia                                                       ntomontomo (Bot.a plant)
                                                    komokomo (Bot.Canna biden-
                          conferta)
                                                             tata)(= kombokombo)
 -f    lumpofompofo (gadfly)                       lofolofo (fontanel)
                                                  bikofokofo (spittle,sputum)
 -n                                                ngonongono (scapulated           matonamatona (variegated)
                                                               crow)(: gono (c))                   (: matona (d))
-l/d    kibolobolo (a small snake)                                                    lumpolompolo (white-
                                                                                                       throat- ed
                                                  luntolontolo (Bot.a wood-                         bee-eater)
       dingolangola (Bot.spinach)                                   fungus)           kinzolanzola (appetite,in-
       lungolangola (otter-shrew)                                                                     satiability,
                                                     nominal prefix       x   stem                     craving)
           (= ngola masa)
       kikodikodi (Adam's apple)                 kyodikyodi (Bot.crabgrass,   munkodinkodi (Bot.Voacanga
       kinkodinkodi (thirst)                               Digitaria diagonalis)           africana,Tabernae-
        kiyodiyodi (ravings)                                                               montana crassa)
 -t     kikotokoto (tailbone)
 -s     bosoboso (Bot.Costus afer)
                                            -CoCV-(N)CoCV                                          pol.22


                       a                               b                      c                   d
 -k      pokopoko (Bot.Physalis                                                    mpokampoka (stop)
                      peruviana,Cape
                      gooseberry)
        npokonpoko (alleged death)
                                                                                   kinyokanyoka (small snake)
                                        kidyokodyoko (Bot.Hugonia
                                                                                                 (: nyoka (d))
                                                        platysepala)
                                                                                   lunyokanyoka (Bot.Sansevi-
                                                        (: dyooko (b))
                                                                                                 eria bracteata)
                                        ludyokodyoko (Bot. cassava-
                                                                                                 (: nyoka (d))
        nzokonzoko (garrulity)              fungus)(: dyooko (b))
       kizokozoko (a frog)
       kisokosoko (Bot.Psorosper-                                                  nsokonsoko (a long banana)
                      mum febrifugum)

         kokokoko (Goliath-beetle)
         kokokoko (death-sleep)
 -y    lungoyingoyi (music-bow)
       lungoyingoyi (rum)

                                               -CuCV-(N)CuCV

                     a                  b                  c                                      d
 -m                                                                                   yumayuma (Bot.a liana)
                                                                                  dingyumangyuma (Bot.Recto-
                                                                                                phyllum congense)
 -f                                            nbufunbufu (mould,loose
                                                                      earth)
 -b                                          dingubanguba (Bot.Cassia
                                                                      absus)
                                             kingubanguba (Bot.small
                                                    peanut)(: nguba (c))
 -n    nfuninfuni (Bot.Parinari
            capensis)(: nfuni (a))          kisunusuni (splinter)
-l/d   kimbudimbudi (wart)                                                        bibulabula (ravings)
                                                                                    mbulumbulu (black soldier)
         mvudimvudi (raised mane-            nvulunvulu (small gully)
                                                                                  kimbulumbulu (a small black
               hair)(: mvudi (a))                                                                        fly)
                                                                                     fulufulu (froth,foam,
                                              nlulanlula (Bot.Vernonia                     scum)(: fulu (d))
         nsudinsudi (Bot.Parinari
                                                                 amygdalina)
            capensis)(:nsudi (a))
       munsudinsudi (Bot.a liana)

       mungulungulu (Bot.Boehme-
                  ria platophylla)
         nkulankula (Bot.bitter
                          cassava)
 -t      nkutinkuti (goose-flesh)           kikutikuti
        kikutukutu (an owl)                      (group,cluster)
                                             bukutukutu (Bot.fungus)
-s                                                                                 nkusunkusu (Bot.Blighia
                                                                                                    welwitschii)
                                            -CuCV-(N)CuCV                                       pol.23


                      a                 b                   c                                   d
-k    npukunpuku (Bot.Anthocleis-
                 ta schweinfurthii)                                             fukufuku (early morning)
                                            lukuluku (Bot.Landolphiea :                 (: fuku (d))
      ntukuntuku (Bot.aftergrass)                           a latex-liana)
                                            nsukinsuki (pilosity)
                                                              (: nsuki (c))
                                            nsyukansyuka (very early
                                                  morning)(: nsyuuka (c))
                                                                               nkukankuka (a bird)
                                                                                           (: nkuka (d))
                                            luyukiyuki (Bot.'plant of
                                                                               nkukunkuku (coucal)
                                                     life')(= luyuki (c))
-y                                                                             nkuyankuya (hornbill)
                                                t r i s y ll a b l e
-m                                          makumitimakumiti (knaggy)

                                              -CaNCV-(N)CaNCV

                    a                         b                      c                           d
-mb                                                                                mpambampamba (totally in
      kindyambundyambu (little                                                         vain)(: mpaamba (d))
                   affair)
                   (: dyaambu (a))
       bisambasamba (presents to
                   marry a widow)
      lunsambinsambi (Bot.Poly-
               gala acicularis)
       kinsambinsambi (Bot.Cas-
                         sia sp.)
-nd   (ki)bandabanda (Bot.Glori                          bandibandi (lashing
           osa simplex/ superba)                                          rain)
       vwandavwanda (Bot.Grewio-
                    sis dewevrei?)

       nkandankanda (water-
                          surface)                       kiwanduwandu (Bot.
                                                                small bean,
                                                                Cajanus cajan)
                                                                (: waandu (c))
-ng                                                                                nbangunbangu (temple of
                                                                                                        head)
                                                                                   nbangunbangu (Bot.Cro
      kinyanginyangi (spleen of                         kinyangukinyangu                     ton mubango)
                       an animal)      langalanga         (high speed)
                                          (slender           (: kinyangu (c))
                                          tree/person)                             lusangusangu (Bot.Cymbo-
      lungangulungangu (utmost                                                         pogon densiflorus)
             caution)(: ngaangu)

      mawangawanga (small shower)
                                        -CeNCV-(N)CeNCV                                   pol.24


                   a                b                   c                                 d
-mb   lumbembambémba (butterfly)

        ndembandémba (Bot.Bauhi-             lembalemba (Bot.Bril-       lembelembe (stork)
                  nia tomentosa)                  lantaisia patula)                        (: léembe (d))
                                                                          malembemalembe (very qui-
                                                                                  etly)(: maleembe (d))
                                                                           nlembonlembo (Bot.Euphor-
                                            ntembontembo (air-bell)
                                                                                          bia tirucalli)
                                                      (= nteembo (c))
                                                                                          (: nleembo (d))
                                          kinzembanzemba (nursing-
                                                band)(= nzeemba (c))

                                          lungembungembu (fox-bat)
                                                      (= ngéembu (c))
-nd                                                                       munséndénsende (Bot.Fagara
      makendakénda (close by)                                                      sp.)(: nséende (d)

-ng     mengaménga (Bot.Diosco-
          rea sp.)(: meénga (a))

      kilengelénge (very pretty)
                 (: kilenge (a))
      lulengiléngi (harmless
                 green snake)
                 (: luléngi (b))
-nk     fwenkifwénki (pretty)

                                                                              t r i s y ll a b l e

-ng                                                                       nzéngélénzengele (wheel)
                                                                               (: nzéngele (d))

                                           -CiNCV-(N)CiNCV

-mb   kidimbudimbu (Bot.Sapium
             sp.)(: diimbu (a))

-ng   kininginingi (fruit-fly)

         dingidingi (midnight)           kidingudingu (sorrow,
      mundingindingi (Bot.Mam-                       perplexity)
               mea africana?)                         (= kidiingu (c))
               (: ndiingi (a))
                                                                           singasinga (Bot.Piptadeni-
        nsinginsingi (long-
                                                                                      astrum africanum)
               horned beetle)
                                     -CoNCV-(N)CoNCV                                     pol.25


                 a                      b                         c                        d
-mb                                                  kombokombo (Bot.Canna kinkombonkombo (young
                                                                  bidentata)    goat)(: nkoombo (d))
-nd londilondi (Bot.Lan
       dolphia parvifolia)
-ns                         nyonsinyonsi (Bot.
                                        Oncinotis
                                        tenuiloba)
-ng lumpongompongo (cal-
          ming charm)
          (= mpoongo (a))
    mumpongompongo (Bot.
          Parquetina ni-
          grescens,Cissus
          rubiginosa)                                                           ndongondongo (Bot.a
     kilongalonga (Bot.                                                                         balsam)
           Nymphaea lotus,                                                      ntongontongo (Bot.Di-
           waterlily)
                                                                                             chaetanthera
           (: loonga (a))                                                                   africana)
      kilongalonga
                 (skullcap)                                                        songisongi (halcyon)
-nk                                                 nkonkinkonki (Bot.
                                                          Nux vomica)
                                                          (= kikoonki (c))
                                                                                 t r i s y ll a b l e
-ng                                                                             nkongolonkongolo
                                                                                      (rainbow)
                                                                                      (= nkoongolo (d))

                                            -CuNCV-(N)CuNCV

                     a                      b                      c                           d
-mb                                                  lumvumbimvumbi (Bot.
                                                              Steganotaenia
                                                              araliacea)
                                                              (: mvuumbi (c))
-nd  bundabunda (Bot.Palisota
              ambigua/hirsuta)
     bundubundu (swarm)
    mangundungundu (drizzle)
          (: guundu (c))
-ng mbungumbungu (Bot.Landol-                                                      lumpungumpungu
              phia camptoloba)    mfungumfungu                                        (dragonfly)(=
                                    (Bot.Aniso-       lungilungi (a period            lumpungulu (d))
      kisungasunga(concern,care)   phyllea di-                completed)           kinzyunganzyunga
      munsungunsungu (Bot.plant)   chostyla)                  (: nluungi (c))        (dizzy-drunk,
                                    (=mfungu(b))                                       flushed)
                                                                                        (: nzyuunga (d))
      kingungangunga (small                         yungayunga (wanderer)
              bell)(=nguunga(a))                           (: kiyunga (a))
                                                                                        pol.26



              2. Minimal sets of polysyllabic nouns in opposition of tone only



                        t o n e – g r o u p   (a)                t o n e – g r o u p    (d)

 -CuCVCVCV     bulukutu        Bot.Dioscorea sp.       bulukutu        Bot.Lippia multiflora

 -CiiNCVCV    mpiimbidi        unwieldy thing         mpiimbidi        a 'two-headed' snake
                                                       mpiimbidi        Bot.end of the
                                                                            plantain-flower
-NCaCVNCVCV kinkalankala       soon                  kinkalankala     scorpion

                                                      kinkalankala     Bot.Uapaca?
-CiCi-CiCi    ndikindiki     steepness              ndikindiki    ridgepole
-CeCVNCVCV    nsekinseki       ruddle                 nsekenseke      savanna-fungus
                        t o n e – g r o u p   (a)                t o n e – g r o u p    (b)

-CaCVNCVCV   luyalungusu       newsspread            luyalungusu     spreading
 -CuuNCVVa    nkuunkuta        knock                  nkuunkuta      a turkey
                        t o n e – g r o u p   (a)                t o n e – g r o u p    (c)

-CeCVNCVCV    nsekunseku       verge                  nsekunseku     fickleness
                        t o n e – g r o u p   (b)                t o n e – g r o u p    (c)

-CaNCVCVCV   kisambululu     blessing-brush        kisambululu     prayerbook
             kisambululu     prayerplace

 -CaaNCVCV   kisaambulu      prayerplace           kisaambulu      prayerbook

              mwaangala      millipede              mwaangala      stabbing pain
  -CoCVCV     mposuka         interspace             mposuka         axil
 -CeeCVCV     nleekolo      sleeping on the way    nleekolo      sleepingplace
                        t o n e – g r o u p   (b)                t o n e – g r o u p    (d)

 -CaCVNCV     nkalanga       a caterpillar          nkalanga        store-basket

								
To top